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A New Relativistic Hydrodynamic Code

Dongsu Ryu, Indranil Chattopadhyay Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr, indra@canopus.cnu.ac.kr and Eunwoo Choi Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106, USA: echoi@chara.gsu.edu ABSTRACT Relativistic temperature of gas raises the issue of equation of state (EoS) in relativistic hydrodynamics. We present a code for relativistic hydrodynamics with an EoS that is simple but approximates very closely the EoS of singlecomponent perfect gas in the relativistic regime. Tests with a code based on the TVD scheme are presented to highlight dierences induced by dierent EoS.

2 1. Introduction

Many high-energy astrophysical phenomena involve relativistic ows that are highly nonlinear and intrinsically complex. Understanding such relativistic ows is important for correctly interpreting the phenomena, but often studying them is possible only through numerical simulations. Gas in relativistic hydrodynamics (RHDs) is characterized by relativistic uid speed (v c) and/or relativistic temperature (internal energy much greater than rest energy), and the latter brings us to the issue of equation of state (hereafter EoS) of the gas. The EoS most commonly used in numerical RHDs, which is originally designed for the non-relativistic gas with constant ratio of specic heats, however, is essentially valid only for the gas of either subrelativistic or ultrarelativistic temperature. In other words, that is not derived from relativistic kinetic theory. On the other hand, the EoS of single-component perfect gas in relativistic regime was presented (see Synge 1957). But its form is too complicated to be implemented in numerical schemes. In this poster, we present a new code for RHDs. For it, we propose a new EoS which is an algebraic function of temperature. Our new EoS is simple to be implemented to numerical codes with minimum eorts and minimum computational cost, but at the same time approximates very closely the EoS of single-component perfect gas in relativistic regime. We also present the Lorentz transformation (hereafter LT) from the conserved quantities to the local quantities for the EoS. Then we present the entire eigenstructure of RHDs for general EoS. Such that one has to dene the chosen equation of state in the code, the code does the rest. Finally we present shock tube tests and compare our EoS to those previous used in numerical codes.

3 2. Relativistic Hydrodynamics 2.1. Basic Equations

The special RHD equations for an ideal uid can be written in the laboratory frame of reference as a hyperbolic system of conservation equations D + (Dvj ) = 0, t xj Mi + (Mi vj + pij ) = 0, t xj E + [(E + p) vj ] = 0, t xj (1a) (1b) (1c)

where D, Mi , and E are the mass density, momentum density, and total energy density in the reference frame, respectively (see, e.g., Landau & Lifshitz 1959; Wilson & Mathews 2003). The quantities in the reference frame are related to those in the local frame via LT D = , Mi = 2 hvi , E = 2 h p, (2a) (2b) (2c)

where , vi , p, and h are the proper mass density, uid three-velocity, isotropic gas pressure and specic enthalpy, respectively, and the Lorentz factor is given by = 1 1 v2 with
2 2 2 v 2 = vx + vy + vz .

(3)

In above, the Latin indices (e.g., i) represents spatial coordinates and conventional Einstein summation is used. The speed of light is set to unity (c 1) throughout this poster.

4 2.2. Equation of State

The above system of equations is closed with an EoS. Here we rst present the EoS that have been used previously, and then propsed a new EoS. Without loss of generality the EoS is given as hh(p, ). (4)

Then the general form of polytropic index, n, and the general form of sound speed, cs , respectively can be written as n= h 1, p c2 = s h . nh (5)

In addition we introduce a variable h , with which the EoS property will be conveniently presented, h() 1 h = . (6) The most commonly used EoS, which is called the ideal EoS (hereafter ID), is given as h=1+ 1 (7)

with a constant . Here = p/ is eectively temperature and = cp /cv is the ratio of specic heats. For it, h = / 1 does not depend on . ID may be correctly applied to the gas of either subrelativistic temperature with = 5/3 or ultrarelativistic temperature with = 4/3. But ID is rented from non-relativistic hydrodynamics, and hence is not consistent with relativistic kinetic theory. For example, we have n= 1 , 1 c2 = s ( 1) . + 1 (8)

In the high temperature limit, i.e., , and for > 2, cs > 1 i.e., superluminal sound speed (see Taub 1948). More importantly, Taub (1948) showed in his work that the choice of EoS is not arbitrary and has to satisfy the inequality, (h )(h 4) 1. This rules out ID for > 4/3. The correct EoS for the single-component perfect gas in relativistic regime (hereafter RP) was given by Synge (1957), K3 (1/) h= , (10) K2 (1/) (9)

5 where K2 and K3 are the modied Bessel functions of the second kind of order two and three, respectively. In the extreme non-relativistic limit ( 0), h 5/2, and in the extreme ultrarelativistic limit ( ), h 4. However, using the above EoS comes with a price of extra computational cost, since the thermodynamics of the uid is expressed in terms of the modied Bessel functions and no analytic expression can be written for LT. In a recent paper, Mignone et al. (2005) proposed an EoS which ts RP well. The EoS, which is abbreviated as TM following Mignone et al. (2005), is given by 3 5 h= + 2 2 With TM the expressions of n and cs become n= 3 3 + 2 2 2 + 4/9 , c2 = s 5 2 + 4/9 + 32 12 2 + 4/9 + 122 + 2 . (12) 4 2 + . 9 (11)

TM was derived from the lower bound of the Taubs inequality, (h )(h 4) = 1. It produces right asymptotic values for h . In this poster we propose a new EoS, which is a simpler algebraic function of and is also a better t of RP compared to TM. We abbreviate our proposed EoS as RC and give it by 62 + 4 + 1 h=2 . (13) 3 + 2 With RC the expressions of n and cs become n=3 92 + 12 + 2 , (3 + 2)2 c2 = s (3 + 2)(182 + 24 + 5) . 3(62 + 4 + 1)(92 + 12 + 2) (14)

RC satises the Taubs inequality, (h )(h 4) 1, for all . It also produces right asymptotic values for h . For both TM and RC, correctly c2 5/3 in the extreme nons relativistic limit, and c2 1/3 in the extreme ultrarelativistic limit, respectively. s In Figure 1, h , n, and cs are plotted with to compare TM and RC to RP as well as ID. One can see the RC is a much better t of RP than TM with |hTM hRP | hRP 2%, |hRC hRP | hRP 0.8%. (15)

It is to be remembered that both h and n are independent of , if ID is used.

6 3. Lorentz Transformation for RC

The RHD equations evolve the conserved quantities, D, Mi and E, but we need to know the local quantities, , vi , p, to calculate the equations numerically. So the LT equations (2a2c) need to be solved. Combining the LT equations with the EoS of RC in (12), we get M 2 1 3E(82 1) + 2D(1 42 ) Further simplication reduces it into an equation of 8th power in . = 32 4(M 2 + E 2 )2 (M 2 + 4E 2 ) 2D(4E D)(2 1). (16)

and the lower limit, l , that is derived inserting D = 0 into equation (16):

Although the equation has to be solved numerically, it behaves very well. The physically meaningful solution should be between the upper limit, u , 1 M u = , (17) with vu = 2 E 1 vu 16(M 2 E 2 )2 6 8(M 2 E 2 )(M 2 4E 2 )4 + (M 4 9M 2 E 2 + 16E 4 )2 + M 2 E 2 = 0 (18) l l l

(a cubic equation of 2 ). Out of the eight roots of equation (16), four are complex and four l are real. Out of the four real roots, two are negative and two are positive. And out of the two real and positive roots, one is always larger than u , and the other is between l and u and so is the physical solution. In codes equation (16) can be easily solved by the Newton-Raphson method. With an initial guess = l or any value smaller than it including 1, iteration can be proceeded upwards. Since the equation is extremely well-behaved, the iteration converges within a few steps. Once is known, the uid speed is computed by 2 1 , (19) v= and the quantities , vi , p, are computed by D = . (20a) Mx My Mz vx = v, vy = v, vz = v (20b) M M M (E Mi vi ) 2 + [(E Mi vi )2 + 4(E Mi vi ) 42 ] 2 p= , 6 where Mi v i = M x v x + M y v y + M z v z . (21)
1

(20c)

7 4. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

In building an upwind code to solve a hyperbolic system of conservation equations, eigenstructure (eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix) is required. Here we present our complete set of eigenvalues and eigenvectors without assuming any particular form of EoS. Equations (1a)(1c) can be written as q Fj =0 + t xj with the state and ux vectors D q = Mi , E or as q q = 0, + Aj t xj Aj = Fj . q (24) Dvj Fj = Mi vj + pij , (E + p) vj (23) (22)

Here Aj is the 5 5 Jacobian matrix composed with the state and ux vectors. The eigenvalues of Ax , the x-component of the Jacobian matrix, are (1 c2 ) vx cs / Q s , a1 = 1 c2 v 2 s (1 c2 ) vx + cs / Q s a5 = , 1 c2 v 2 s a2 = a 3 = a 4 = v x ,

(25a) (25b) (25c)

2 2 2 where Q = 1 vx c2 (vy + vz ). The eigenvalues represent the ve characteristic speeds s associated with two sound wave modes (a1 and a5 ) and three entropy modes (a2 , a3 , and a4 ).

The complete set of the right eigenvectors (Ax R = aR) is given by R1 = 1 a 1 vx 2 2 , a1 h(1 vx ), h(1 a1 vx )vy , h(1 a1 vx )vz , h(1 vx ) R2 = X [X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 ]T , R3 = vy 1 2 2 , 2vx vy , 1 vx + vy , vy vz , 2vy 2 h 1 vx
T T

(26a) (26b)

(26c)

8 R4 = vz 1 2 2 , 2vx vz , vy vz , 1 vx + vz , 2vz 2 h 1 vx
T

,
T

(26d) , (26e)

1 a 5 vx 2 2 , a5 h(1 vx ), h(1 a5 vx )vy , h(1 a5 vx )vz , h(1 vx ) R5 = where 2 2 2 nc2 (vy + vz ) + (1 vx ) s , X1 = h 2 2 2 X2 = 2nc2 (vy + vz ) + (1 nc2 )(1 vx ) vx , s s
2 2 2 X3 = nc2 (vy + vz ) + (1 vx ) vy , s 2 2 2 X4 = nc2 (vy + vz ) + (1 vx ) vz , s

(27a) (27b) (27c) (27d) (27e) (27f )

2 2 2 X5 = 2nc2 (vy + vz ) + (1 nc2 )(1 vx ). s s

X=

The complete set of the left eigenvectors (LAx = aL), which are orthonormal to the right eigenvectors, is 1 [Y11 , Y12 , Y13 , Y13 , Y15 ] , (28a) L1 = Y1 h L2 = , vx , vy , vz , 1 , (28b) L3 = [hvy , 0, 1, 0, 0] , L4 = [hvz , 0, 0, 1, 0] , 1 [Y51 , Y52 , Y53 , Y53 , Y55 ] , L5 = Y5 where h Yi1 = (1 ai vx )(1 nc2 ), s 2 2 2 2 Yi2 = nai (1 cs v ) + ai (1 + ncs )vx (1 + n)vx , Yi3 = (1 + nc2 v 2 ) s nc2 )(1 s Yi4 = (1 + nc2 )(1 s ai vx )vy , ai vx )vz , (28c) (28d) (28e) (29a) (29b) (29c) (29d) (29e) (29f )

2 , 2 nc2 (1 vx ) s

Yi5 = (1 +

ai (1 + n)vx , c2 Yi = hn (ai vx )2 Q + s , 2

+ (1

2 c2 )nvx s

and index i = 1, 5. With three degenerate modes that have same eigenvalues, a2 = a3 = a4 , we have a freedom to write down the right and left eigenvectors in a variety of dierent forms. We chose to present the ones that produce the best results with the TVD code.

9 5. Numerical Tests

The dierences induced by dierent EoS are illustrated through a series of shock tube tests, which were performed using the TVD code built with the EoS in 2 and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in 3. Two sets are considered. For the rst set with parallel velocity component only, two tests are presented: P1: L = 10, R = 1, pL = 13.3, pR = 106 , and vp,L = vp,R = 0 initially, and tend = 0.45, P2: L = R = 1, pL = 103 , pR = 102 , and vp,L = vp,R = 0 initially, and tend = 0.4. For the second set with transverse velocity component, two tests, where dierent transverse velocities were added to the test P2, are presented: T1: initially vt,R = 0.99 to the right state, tend = 0.45, T2: initially vt,L = 0.9 and vt,R = 0.99 to the left and right states, tend = 0.75. The box covers the region of 0 x 1 in all the tests. Figures 2, 3, 4, and 5 show the numerical solutions for RC and TM, but the analytic solutions for ID with = 5/3 and 4/3. For ID numerical solutions are almost indistinguishable from analytic solutions, once they are calculated. The ID solutions are clearly dierent from the RC and TM solutions. The ID solution with = 4/3 looks to match the RC and TM solutions in P2, especially in the left region of contact discontinuity (hereafter CD) where the ow is overall highly relativistic with 1. But the dierence is obvious in the region between CD and shock, because 1 there. On the other hand, the solutions of RC and TM look very much alike. It reects the similarity in the distributions of specic enthalpy in equations (11) and (13). But yet there is a noticeable dierence, especially in the density in the region between CD and shock, and the dierence reaches up to 5%. The most commonly used, ideal EoS, ID, can us used for entirely non-relativistic gas ( 1) with = 5/3 or for entirely ultrarelativistic gas ( 1) with = 4/3. However, if the transition from non-relativistic to relativistic with 1 is involved, ID produces incorrect results and using it should be avoid. The EoS proposed by Mignone et al. (2005), TM, produces reasonably correct results with error of a few percent at most. The newly suggested EoS, RC, which approximates the EoS of relativistic perfect gas, RP, most accurately, produces thermodynamically the most accurate results. At the same time it is simple enough to be implemented to numerical codes with minimum eorts and minimum computational cost. The correctness and simplicity make RC suitable for astrophysical applications.

10 REFERENCES Landau, L. D. & Lifshitz, E. M. 1959, Fluid Mechanics (New York: Pergamon Press) Mignone, A., Plewa, T. & Bodo, G. 2005, ApJS, 160, 199 Synge, J. L. 1957, The Relativistic Gas (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company) Taub, A. H. 1948, Phys. Rev., 74, 328 Wilson, J. R. & Mathews, G. J. 2003, Relativistic Numerical Hydrodynamics (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press)

A This preprint was prepared with the AAS L TEX macros v5.0.

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Fig. 1. Comparion between dierent EoS. h , n, and cs , vs for RC (red-long dashed), TM (blue-short dashed), ID (green and cyan-dotted), and RP (black-solid).

12

Fig. 2. Relativistic shock tube with parallel component of velocity only (P1) for RC (red), TM (blue), and ID (green and cyan).

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Fig. 3. Relativistic shock tube with parallel component of velocity only (P2) for RC (red), TM (blue), and ID (green and cyan).

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Fig. 4. Relativistic shock tube with transverse component of velocity (T1) for RC (red), TM (blue), and ID (green and cyan).

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Fig. 5. Relativistic shock tube with transverse component of velocity (T2) for RC (red), TM (blue), and ID (green and cyan).