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Dental casting alloys Introduction In dentistry metals represent one of the four major classes of materials used for

the constructions of decayed, damaged for missing teeth. Although metals are easy to distinguish from ceramics, polymers, they are not easy to define. The metal hand book in 1992 defined a metal as An opaque lustrous chemical substance that is a good conductor of heat and electrically and when polished in a good reflector of light. Compared with ceramics, polymers and composites, metals have a high fracture toughness, which is the ability to absorb every under increasing tensile stress before fracture occur. e.g. the fracture toughness of most metal varies between 25 and 60 Mpa compared with a range of 0.75 to 2.5Mpa for dental ceramics. Most metals Alloys: The use of pure metal elements is quite limited pure metals are apt to be soft and like iron, many of there tend o corrode rapidly. Thus, to optimize properties, most of the metals commonly used are mixtures of two or more metallic elements or in some instances, a metal and a non metal. Thus, the alloy can be defined as A solid mixture of a metal with one or more other metals is called an alloy. e.g. a small amount of carbon is added to iron to form steel. A certain amount of chromium is added to iron and carbon to form stainless steel. History Evaluation of the present alloy is appropriate to under stand the rationale for development of the current alloy formulations. The history of dental casting alloys has been influenced by three major factors. 1. The technologic changes of dental prosthesis. 2. Metallurgic advancements. 3. Price changes of the noble metals since 1968. Taggarts presentations to the new york odontological group in 1907 on the fabrication of cast inlay restorations often has been acknowledged as the first reported application of the lost lost wax technique in dentistry. The inlay technique described by Taggart was an instant success.

It soon led to the casting of complex inlays such as onlays, crown, FPD and RPD frameworks. Because pure gold id not have the physical properties required of there dental restorations, existing jewellery alloys were quickly adopted. There gold alloys were further strengthened with copper, silver or platinum. In 1932, the dental materials group at the national bureau of standards sur--- the alloy is being used and roughly classified them as type I (soft VHN) between 5690) In the late 1950s a break through occurred in dental technology that was to influence significantly the fabrication of dental restorations. This was successful veneering of a metal substructure with dental porcelain. The base metal removable partial denture alloys were introduced in the 1930s since that time, both Ni-Cr and Co-Cr formulations have become increasingly popular compared with conventional type IV gold alloys. The success of the base metal alloys for constructing a removable partial denture framework led to some early interest in applying there same alloys to fabricate other type of restorations. In 1978 the price of gold was climbing so rapidly that attention focused on the noble metal alloys to reduce the precious metal content yet retain the advantages of the noble metals for dental use. The result was new alloys, as discussed subsequently. Desirable properties of dental casting alloy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The alloy most exhibit bio compatibility. Should have ease of melting, casting, brazing (soldering) and polishing. Should have little solidification shrinkage. Should have minimal reactivity with the mold material. Should have good wear resistance. Should have high strength and sag resistance 9metal ceramic alloys). Should have excellent tarnish and corrosion resistance.

Classification of dental casting alloys In 1927, bureau of standards classified gold casting alloys based on yield strength and percent elongation from type I to type IV. Type I restorations (soft) subjected to mild stresses such as small inlays, class III and class V cavities. They are easily burnishable.

Type II (medium) for restoration subject to moderate stress such as onlays. Type III (hard) for high stress situations including onlays, crowns, thick veneer crowns. Type IV (Extra hard) for extremely high stress states such as endodontic post and cores, thin veneer crowns. Later in 1960 metal ceramic alloys and removable partial denture alloys are added to the classifications. Composition of dental casting gold alloy Type of alloys Type I Type II Type III Type IV Gold 80.2 1 95.8% 73 1 83.0 71.0 1 79.8 62.4 1 71.9 Ag 2.4 1 12.0 6.9 1 14.5 5.2 1 13.4 8.0 17.4 Cu 1.6 1 6.2 5.8 1 10.5 7.1 1 12.6 8.6 1 15.4 Pd 0-3.6 0-5.6 0 1 6.5 0-10.1 Pt 0 1 1.0 0 4.2 0 1 7.5 0.2 1 8.2 Zn 0 1 1.2 0 1 1.4 0 1 2.0 0 1 2.7

Each metal included in an alloy contributes certain qualities to the final alloy. Gold The major contribution of gold in the alloy is to increase the tarnish and corrosion resistance. The gold content should be approximately 75% by weight to be effective against tarnish in the oral cavity. Gold influence the color of the alloy and also its ductility. Platinum Like gold, platinum increases the resistance to tarnish and corrosion platinum is the best hardener in the alloy, superior to copper. However, even in small amounts platinum raises the melting temperature severely and is therefore rarely used in amounts greater than 3% to 4% of the total composition.

Palladium Palladium has a profound effect on the color of the alloy. It is similar to platinum in its effect. It hardness as well as whiters the alloys. It is similar to platinum in it its effect. It also raises the fusion temperature and provides tarnish resistance. It is less expensive than platinum, then reducing cost at alloy. Copper: Copper is one of the important metals in the dental gold alloys increasing the strength and hardness of alloy. In an alloy of 6% copper and 94% gold, the hardness is more than double that of pure gold. Copper also alloys the gold alloy to be successfully heat treated. Copper does reduce the resistance to tarnish and corrosion of the alloys and is therefore used in amounts up to 20%. Excessive amounts of copper with the alloy copper reduces the melting range of the alloy and when combined with gold increase the ductility of the alloy in the presence of other metals. Silver: Silver modifies the color of the alloy. It hentrdizes the reduce from copper and tends to enrich the gold appearance of the alloy. Silver has little effect on the strength of dental alloy, although it increases somewhat the ductility when used with palladium. Zinc: Zinc is added to the molten alloy as an scavenger for oxides. Its only beneficial property to the alloy is its ability to reduces oxidations during the casting procedures. Indium: Indium is added in small amounts to reduce grain size and increase the fluidity during the casting procedure. Classification according to MER 204/C Class I There are gold and platinum group based alloys in accordance with ADA sp-no-5 they are type I, II, III and Iv gold alloys. Class II There are low gold alloys with gold content less than 50%. Some may contain as little as 5% gold. Class III -There are non-gold palladium based alloys. Class IV nickel chromium based alloys Class V Castable, moldable ceramics In 1984, the ADA proposed a simple classification of dental casting alloys.

Alloy type High noble metal metal Noble metal Predominately base metal

Total noble metal content Contains 40 wt% An and 60 wt% of the noble elements (Au+Ir+O3+Pt+Rh+Ru) Contains 25 wt% of the noble metal elements. Contains < 25 wt% of the noble metal elements

The principal cast metals and alloys used for all metal restorations, metal ceramic restorations and removable partial denture are listed in table. Noble metals The periodic table of the elements: gold, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, indium, osmium and silver. However in the oral cavity, silver is more reactive and therefore is not considered as a hole metal. Noble metals have tradiuly been used for the inlay, crown and bridge and metal ceramic alloys, by virtue of their tarnish and corrosion resistance. Only, gold, palladium and platinum are currently of major importance in dental casting alloys. Predominately base metal alloys There alloys are based on 75 wt% or more of base metal elements or less than 25 wt % of noble components of dental castings alloys because of their low cost and their influence on weight strength, stiffness and oxide formation (which is required for bonding to porcelain). Compared with noble metals, base metals are more reactive with their environment. Certain base metals can be used to protect an alloy from corrosion by passivation. KARAT and fineness Traditionally, the gold content of a dental alloy has been specified on the basis or fineness. Karat refers to the parts of pure gold in 24 parts of an alloy e.g. 24 Karat gold is pure gold whereas 22 karat gold is an alloy containing 22 part pure gold and 2 parts of other metals. Fineness describes gold alloys by the number of parts per 1000 of gold e.g. pure gold has a fineness of 1000, and 650 fine alloy has gold content of 65%. Thus the fineness ratings is 10 times the gold % in an alloy.

Alloys for all metal and resin veneer restorations In 1927, the bureau of standards (now the national institute of standards and technology) established gold casting alloys types I through IV according to dental functions, with hardness increasing from type I to Type IV. Composition range (weight %) of traditional type I to Iv alloys and four metalceramic alloys, is given in table. Heat treatment of high noble metal alloys Gold alloys can be significantly hardened if the alloy contains a sufficient amount of copper. Type I and II alloys usually do not harden or they harden to a lesser degree than do the type III and Iv alloy. The actual mechanism of hardening is probably the result of several different solid state transformations. The criteria for successful hardening are time and temperature. Alloys that can be hardened, can also be softened. In metallurgic technology the softening heat treatment is referred to as solution heat treatment. The hardening heat treatment is termed age hardening. Softening heat treatment The casting is placed in an electric furnace for 10 minutes at a temperature of 700OC, and then it is quenched in water. During this period, all intermediate phases are presumably changed to a disordered solid solution, and the rapid quenching prevents ordering from occurring during cooling. The tensile strength, proportional limit, and hardness are reduced by such a treatment but the ductility is increased. The softening heat treatment is indicted for structures that are to be ground, shaped, or otherwise cold worked, either in or out of the mouth. Although 700OC is an adequate average softening temperature, each alloy has its optimum temperature. Hardening heat treatment The age hardening or hardening heat treatment of dental alloys can be accomplished in several ways. One of the practical hardening is by Soaking or aging the casting at a specific temperature for a definite time, usually 15 to 30 minutes, before it is water quenched.

The aging temperature depends on the alloy composition but it is generally between 260OC and 450OC. The proper time and temperature are specified by the manufacturer. Ideally, before the alloy is given an age hardening treatment, it should be subjected to a softening heat treatment to reliance all strain hardening, if it is present, and to start the hardening treatment with the alloy as a disordered solid solution. Other wise, there would not be a proper control of the hardening process, because the increase in strength, proportional limit and hardness and the reduction in ductility are controlled by the amount of solid state transformation allowed. Because the proportional limit is increased during age hardening, a considerable increase in the modulus of resilience can be expected. The hardening heat treatment is indicated for metallic partial dentures, saddles, bridges and other similar structures. For small structures, such as inlays, a hardening treatment is not usually employed. The yield strength, the proportional limit, and the elastic limit are all measures of essentially the same property. This property reflects the capacity of an alloy to with stand mechanical stresses without permanent deformations. In general, the yield strengths increases, when progressing from type I to type IV alloys. Age hardening substantially increases the yield strength. The hardness values for noble metals alloys correlate quite well with the yield strengths. Traditionally, hardness has been used for indicating the suitability of an alloy for a given type of clinical application. The elongation is a measure of ductility or the degree of plastic deformation an alloy can undergo before fracture. A reasonable amount of elongation is essential if the clinical application requires deformation such as is needed for clasp and margin adjustment and burnishing. Alloys with low elongation are brittle materials and fracture readily if deformed. Compatibility to porcelain The elastic modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, and heat conductivity are properties that contribute to porcelain compatibility, but in rather complex manner. The metal most form surface oxides to allow bonding to occur. However, components of the alloy most not discolor the porcelain. Tarnish resistance

It is a fundamental requirement of an dental alloys. The metal must not dissolve in the mouth fluids or librate toxic corrosion products allowing for some passivating effect, the metal must arrive at an inert state and maintain that condition. Fatigue resistance Is the ability of metal to with stand repeated deformation in the elastic region. It can be measured only by clinical stress test. Testing should be done in mouth fluid conditions because fatigue failures differs for different corrosive environments. SAG resistance It is the ability of a dental alloy to resist plastic and creep flow under its own weight during porcelain fining and soldering. Fit: Is the ability of a casting to reproduce the pattern from which it is constructed. Both the metal and the casting conditions are involved one of the biggest alloy related factors which influence fit is casting shrinkage. Casting shrinkage Most metals and alloys including gold and the noble metal alloys, shrink when they change from the liquid to solid state. Such a consideration is important in the dental casting procedures. The shrinkage occurs in three stages 1. The thermal contraction of the liquid metal between the temperature to which it is heated and the liquid temperatures. 2. The contraction of the metal inherent in its change from the liquid to the solid state and 3. The thermal contraction of the solid metal which occurs down to room temperature. The first mentioned contraction is probably of no consequence, because as the liquid metal contracts in the mold, more molten metal can flow into the mold to compensate for such a shrinkage. The casting technique, alloys for such a flow of molten metal. Linear solidification shrinkage of casting alloy Alloy Gold (100 %) casting shrinkage (%) 1.67

Type I gold base Type II gold base Type III gold base Ni-Cr-Mo-Be Co-Cr-Mo

1.50 1.37 1.42 2.3 2.3

The values for the casting shrinkage differ for the various alloys presumably because of differences in their compositions e.g. platinum, palladium and copper all are effective in reducing the casting shrinkage of an alloy. In general, it is apparent that the values obtained for the casting shrinkage are less than the linear thermal shrinkage, even though the casting shrinkage as obtained including both the solidification shrinkage and the thermal shrinkage. This condition can be accounted for by two logical assumption. 1. When the mold becomes filled with molten metal, the metal starts to solidify at the walls of the mold because the temperatures of the mold is less than that of the molten metal. 2. During initial cooling, the first layer of metal to solidify against the walls of the mold is weak and it tends to adhere to the mold until it gains sufficient strength as it cools to pull away. When it is sufficiently strong to contract independently of the mold, it shrinks thermally until itreacres room temperature. The important consideration is that the thermal shrinkage at the first weak solidified layer is initially prevented by its mechanical adhesion to the walls of the mold. During this period, it is actually structured because of its interlocking with the investment material. Thus, any contraction occurring during solidifications can be eliminated. Because the thermal contraction of the alloy cools to room temperature dominates the casting shrinkage, the higher melting alloys tend to exhibit greater shrinkage. This must be compensated for in the casting technique if good fit is to be obtained. Silver palladium alloys There alloys are white and predominately silver in composition but now substantial amount of palladium (at least 25%) that provide nobility and promote the silver tarnish resistance. They may or may not contain copper and a small amount of gold. Casting temperatures are in the range of the yellow gold alloys.

The copper free Ag-Pd alloys may contain 70% to 72% silver and 25% palladium and may have physical properties of a type III gold alloys. Other silver based alloys might contain roughly 60% Ag, 25% palladium and as much as 15% or more of copper and may have properties more like a type IV gold alloy. Despite early reports of poor castability, the Ag-Pd alloys can produce acceptable castings. The major limitation of Ag-Pd-Cn in particular, is their greater potential for tarnish and corrosion. They should not be confused with Pd-Ag alloy that are designed for metalceramic restorations. High noble alloys for metal ceramic restoration The chief objection to the use of dental porcelain as a restoration material is its low tensile and shear strength. Although porcelain can resist compressive stresses with reasonable success, substructure design does not permit shapes in which compressive stress is the principal force. A method by which this disadvantage can be minimized is to bond the porcelain directly to a cast alloy substructure made to fit the prepared tooth. If a strong bond is attained between the porcelain veneer and the metal, the porcelain veneer is reinforce. Thus the risk of brittle fracture can be avoided, or at least minimized. To fabricate this restorations, a metal substructure is waxed, cast finished and heat treated (oxidized). A thin layer at opaque porcelain is fused to the metal substitute to initiate the porcelain metal bond and mask the color of the substructure. Then dentin and enamel porcelain, sometimes referred to as body and incisal porcelain are fused onto the casting, shaped, stained to improve the aesthetic appearance and glazed. The original metal ceramic alloy contained 88% gold and were much too soft for stress bearing restorations, such as fixed partial dentures. Because there was no evidence of a chemical bond between there alloys and dental porcelain, mechanical retention and undercuts were used to prevent detachment of the ceramic veneer. A stress band test was developed in which the stress was concentrated at the porcelain metal interface. Using this test, it was found that the bond strength of the porcelain to this type of alloy was less than the cohesive strength of porcelain itself.

This meant that if a failure occurred in the metal ceramic restoration it would most probably arise at the porcelain metal interface. By adding less than 1% of oxide-forming elements such as iron, indium and tin to this high gold content alloy, the porcelain metal bond strength was improved by a factor of three. Iron also increases the proportional limit and strength of the alloy. This 1% addition of base metals to the gold, palladium and platinum alloy was all that was necessary to produce a slight oxide film on the surface of the substructure to achieve a porcelain metal bond strength level that surpassed the cohesive strength of the porcelain itself. This new, type of alloy, with small amounts of base metals added, become the standard for the metal-ceramic restorations. In response to economic pressures, other gold and palladium based metalceramic alloy emerged. In time, base metals were also developed for this purpose. Despite the large number of alloys possessing the technical capability to bond to dental porcelain, they can e arranged in a classification based on alloy composition. Metal ceramic alloys fall into one of the three general categories; high noble, noble or base metal. In spite of vastly different chemical compositions, all the alloys in the following categories share, at least three common features. 1. They have the potential to bond to dental porcelain. 2. They possess coefficient thermal contraction compatible with those of dental porcelain and 3. Their solidus temperature is sufficiently high to permit the application of low fusing porcelain. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) tends to have a reciprocal relationship with the melting point of alloys and the melting range of alloys that is the higher the melting temperature of a metal, the lower is CTE. Gold base metal-ceramic alloys Porcelain fused to metal alloys (PFM) containing more than 40 wt % of noble metals (gold plus Pt and Pd and / or the other noble metals) are generally classified as high noble to satisfy the compositional rule. Gold platinum-palladium alloys (An-Pt-Pd)

These alloys have a gold content ranging upto 88% with varying amounts of Pd, Pt and small amounts of base metals. Some of there alloys are yellow in color. Alloys of this type are susceptible to Sag deformation and FPDS should be restricted to three-unit spans or crowns. Gold-palladium-silver alloys (Au-Pd-Ag) There gold-based alloys contain between 39% and 77% gold, upto 35% Pd and silver levels as high as 22%. The silver increases the thermal contraction coefficient but it also has a tendency to discolor some porcelains. Gold palladium alloys A gold content ranging from 49% to 55% and a palladium level of 35 to 45% is present in there metal ceramic alloys, which have remained popular despite their relatively high cost. The lack of silver results in a decreased thermal contraction coefficient and the freedom for silver discoloration of porcelain. Noble alloys for metal-ceramic restorations Palladium based alloys According to the ADA classification of 1984, noble alloys must contain at least 25 wt % of the noble metals but do not necessarily contain and gold. The noble classifications generally refers to all palladium based alloys that contain between 54 and 88 wt % Pd., Noble Pd based alloys offer a compromise between the high noble gold alloys and the predominantly base metal alloys. The price per ounce of Pd alloy is generally one-half to one-third that of a gold alloy. The density of a Pd-based alloy is midway between that of base metal and high noble alloys. Palladium silver alloys (Pd-Ag) Pd-Ag alloys were introduced widely in the last 1970s. Pd-Ag alloys enjoyed wide spread popularity for a few years after they were introduced, but their popularity has declined some what in recent years because of their tendency to discolor porcelain during firing. One theory that has been proposed for this greenish-yellow discoloration popularly termed greening is that the silver vapor escapes from the surface of there alloys during firing of the porcelain, diffuses as ionic silver into the porcelain.

Other Pd alloys contain 75% to 90% Pd and no silver were developed to eliminate greening problem. The composition of Pd-Ag alloys fall within a narrow range 53% to 61% Pd and 28%-40% Ag. Tin or indium or both are usually added to increase alloy hardness and to promote oxide formation for adequate bonding of porcelain. In some of these alloys, the formation of an internal oxide rather than an external oxide has been reported. A proper balance between Pd-Ag content is needed to maintain a reasonably low casting temperature and a compatible coefficient of thermal contraction. The replacement of gold by palladium raises the melting range but lowers the contractions coefficient of an alloy. Increasing the silver content tends to lower the melting range and raises the contraction coefficient. Because of their high silver contents compared with the gold-based alloys, the silver discoloration effect is most severe for there alloys. Gold metal conditioners or ceramic coating agents may minimize this effect. The use of porcelains that are advertised as non greening is another option. The low specific gravity of there alloys (10.7 to 11.1) combined with their low intrinsic cost makes there alloys attractive as economical alternative to the gold based alloys. Palladium-copper alloys This alloy type is comparable in cost to the Pd-Ag alloys because alloys of this type are recent introductions to the dental market, little clinical information is available on their long-term clinical success. Because of their low melting range of approximately 1170 OC and 1190OC, there alloys are expected to be susceptible to creep deformation (sag) at eliminated firing temperatures. There alloys contain between 74% and 80% Pd and 9% to 15% copper. Porcelain discoloration due to copper is possible but does not appear to be a major problem. One should be aware of the potential effect on esthetics of the dark brown or black oxide formed during oxidations and subsequent porcelain firing cycles. Case should be taken to mask this oxide completely with opaque porcelain and to eliminate the unaesthetic dark band that develops at metal porcelain junction. It is also important that the technician ensures that a brown rather than a black oxide is formed on the metal surface during the oxidation treatment. Otherwise, poor adherence to porcelain may result. The Pd-Cu alloys have yield strengths of upto 1145 Mpa, elongation value of 5% to 11% and hardness values as high as some base metal alloys.

Thus, there alloys would appear to have a poor potential for burnishing except when the marginal areas are relatively thin. Palladium cobalt alloys This alloys group is comparable in cost to the Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu alloys. They are often advertised as gold free, nickel free, beryllium free and silver free alloys. The reference to nickel and beryllium indicates that there alloys as in true with the other noble metals, are generally considered biocompatible. This Pd-Co group is the most sag resistant of all noble metal alloys. The noble metal content (based on palladium) ranges from 78% to 88%. The cobalt content ranges between 4 and 10 wt % one commercial alloy contains 8% gallium. An example of typical properties of a Pd-Co alloy is as follows. Hardness 250 DPH, Yield strength 580 Mpa Elongation 20% Modulus of elasticity 85.2 Gpa There alloys have a good handling property. Although there alloys are silver free, discoloration of porcelain can still result because of the presence of cobalt. This is not considered a significant problem. Palladium-gallium-silver and Pd-Ga-Au alloys There are the most recent of the noble metals. This group of alloys was introduced because they tend to have a slightly lighter colored oxide than the Pd-Cu or Pd-Co alloys and they are thermally compatible with lower expansion porcelains. The oxide that is required for bonding to porcelain is relatively dark, but it is some what lighter than those of the Pd-Cu and Pd-Co alloys. The silver content is relatively low (5 to 8 wt %) and is usually inadequate to cause porcelain greening. Little information is available on metal ceramic bond strength or thermal compatibility. Base metal alloys for cast metal and metal ceramic restoration (ADA SP NO 14) The base metals used for dental castings are nickel based, cobalt based, pure titanium and titanium alloys. Advantages of using there alloys for dental castings are that they are

1. 2. 3. 4.

Lighter in weight. Better mechanical properties. Corrosion resistant because of the passivating effect of the chromium. Less expensive than the gold alloys.

Disadvantage of this type at alloy is 1. Complexity in the production of dental appliance. 2. The high fusing temperature precludes the use of the usual gas air flame for casting. 3. Its extreme hardness requires the use of special equipment for cleaning and smoothing the work after casting. Since the development of cobalt chromium alloys for cast dental appliances in 1928 and the subsequent introduction of Ni-Cr and Ni-Co-Cr alloys in later years, base metal alloys have demonstrated widespread acceptance. Compared with ADA certified type IV gold alloys, cobalt-based alloys, nickel based alloys and pure titanium feature 1. Lower cost, 2. Lower density 3. Greater stiffness (modules of elasticity) 4. Higher hardness. 5. Comparable clinical resistance to tarnish and corrosion. Base metal alloys are also known as stellites because they maintain their shing, star like appearance under different conditions. Composition Nickel chromium alloy Nickel (Ni) 61.81 wt % Chromium (Cr) 11.27 wt % Molybdenum 2-5 wt % There alloys may also contain one or more of the following elements. Aluminum, beryllium, boron, carbon, cobalt, copper, cerium, gallium, iron, manganere, niobium, silicon, tin, titanium, and zirconium. Composition of cobalt chromium alloys Cobalt (Co)- 53-67% Chromium 25-32% Molybdenum 2-6% Some of there alloys also contain 3-6% of ruthenium, which is a noble metal. Ruthenium increases the castability. The principal difference between the cobalt based alloys formulated for partial denture work and metal ceramics is that, carbon is added for the former. This strengthened the alloy by carbide formation.

Crown and bridge alloys are strengthened by solid solution hardening mechanism. Functions of alloying elements Cobalt: Important hardness, strength and rigidity to the alloy. it has a high melting point. Chromium: Its passivating effects ensures corrosion resistance. The chromium content is directly proportional to tarnish and corrosion resistance. It reduces the melting point. Along with other elements, it also acts in solid solution hardening. 3% chromium is considered the upper limit for attaining maximum mechanical properties. Nickel: cobalt and nickel are interchangeable. It decreases strength, hardness and fusion temperature. It increases ductility. Molybdenum or tungsten They are effective hardness. Molybdenum is preferred to ---- as it reduces ductility to a lesser extent than tungsten. Molybdenum refines grain structure. Iron, copper, beryllium They are hardness in addition, beryllium reduce fusion temperature and refines grain structure. Manganese and silicon Primarily oxide --- to prevent oxidation of other elements during melting. They are also hardness. Boron Deoxidizer and hardener but reduces ductility Carbon Carbon content is most critical. Small amounts may have a pronounced effect on strength, hardness and ductility. Carbon forms carbides with the metallic constituents which is an important factor in strengthening the alloy. however, excess carbon increases brittleness. Thus, control of carbon content in the alloy is important. Manipulation of base metal casting alloys

The fusion temperature of the Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys vary with composition but are generally in the rage1200OC 1500OC. This is considerably higher than for the casting gold alloys which rarely have fusion temperatures above 950OC. melting of gold alloys can readily be achieved using a gas air mixture. For base metal alloys electrical sources of melting such as carbon ---, argon ---, high frequency induction, or silicon-carbide resistance furnace may also be used. However either an acetyle-organ flame or an electrical induction furnace is required. When using oxyacetyle flames the ratio of oxygen to acetylene most be carefully controlled. Too much oxygen may cause oxidation of the alloy, while an excess of acetylene produces an increase in the metal carbide content leading to embrittlement. Investments moulds for base metal alloys most be capable of maintaining their integrity at the high casting temperatures used. Silica bonded and phosphate bonded investment materials should investment materials should be used. Gypsum bonded investment ---- above 1200OC to form sulpher dioxide which may be absorbed by the casting causing embrittlement. This effect can be reduced by the incorporation of oxalate in the investment however the problem is generally avoided by choosing an investment which is more stable at elevated temperatures. The density value of base metal alloys are approximately half those of the casting gold alloys. For this reason the thrust developing during casting may be some what lower with the possibility that the casting may not be adequately fill the mould. Casting machines used for base metal alloys most therefore extra thrust which over comes this deficiency. The problem may be aggravated if the investment is not sufficiently porous to allow escape of trapped air and other gases. Careful use of vents and sprues of adequate size is normally sufficient to overcome such problems. The greatest expense involved in producing Co/Cr dental casting is the time required for trimming and polishing. In there state the alloy surface is normally quite rough. Partially due to the coarse nature of some investment powders.

Finer investment can be used to give a ---- surface requiring less finishing. One common technique involves painting the wax pattern with fine investment. This forms the inner surface of the mould. The bulk of the mould is then formed from the coarser grade materials. Base metal alloys are difficult to polish. After casting it is usual to sand blast the metal to remove any surface roughness or adherent investment material as well as the green layer of oxide which coats the surface after casting. Electrolyte polishing may then be carried out. This procedure is essentially the opposite to electroplasting. If a rough metal surface is connected as the anode in bath of strongly acid electrolytic current passing between it and the cashede will cause the anode to ionise and lose a surface film of metal. Handling hazards and precautions Laboratory technicians may be exposed occasionally routinely to excessively high concentration of beryllium and nickel dust and beryllium vapor. Although the berllium concentrations in dental alloys rarely exceeds 2 wt %, the amount of beryllium vapor released into the breathing space during the melting of Ni-Cr may be significant over an extended period. Actually the potential hazards of beryllium should be based on the atomic concentration rather than its weight concentrations in an alloy. The vapor pressure of pure beryllium is approximately 0.1 --- of H3 at an assumed casting temperatures of 1370OC. Comparable vapor pressures of chromium, nickel and molybdenum are 5 X 10 -3 Ton (mm of H3), 8 X 10-4 Ton (mm of H3) and 3 X 10-11 Ton (mm of H3) respectively. If one assumes that the vapor pressures of beryllium in an alloy is proportional to its atomic concentration beryllium would have a vapor pressure approximately 8 times greater than that of either chromium or nickel. The risk of beryllium vapor exposure is greatest for dental technicians during alloy melting, especially in the absence of an adequate exh---- and filtration system. The national institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) currently recommends a limit of 0.5 g/m3. Exposure to beryllium may result in a acute and chronic form of baryllium disease (Berylliosis). Workers exposed to moderately high concentrations of beryllium dust over a short period or prolonged exposure to low concentration may experience signs and symptoms representing acute disease state. Physiologic responses vary from contact derme---- to several chemical pheumonitis which can be fatal. Symptoms range from coughing, chest pain, and general weakness to pulmonary dysfunction.

Research has shown that air bur levels of beryllium can be controlled with a exhaust system. Potential patient hazards Of greater concern to dental patients is the intra oral exposure to nickel, especially for patients with a known allergy to this element. Nickel allergy was determined by patch testing using 5% nickel sulphate. Numerous cases of respiratory organ cancer have been documented in studies of workers involved in the plating, stripping, refining, sintering, grinding, chipping and polishing of nickel and nickel alloys. The effects of nickel exposure to --- have included derm--- cancer of lungs, cancer of the nasal sinus and larynx, irritation and perforation of the nasal septum, loss of small, asthma like lung disease, phenoconiosis, a decrease in lung function and death. Because of the concerns over the carcinogenic potential of nickel, NIOSIF has recommended that standard to limit exposure to inorganic nickel in the laboratory or office to 15 g/m3 (air) determined as a time weighed average (TWA) concentrations for upto as 10 hr work shift. It appears that the potential carcinogenic risks of nickel are far less likely to by incurred by dental patients and dentist as compared with dental technicians because of a far greater time weigheded exposure to nickel and beryllium dust and vapor, dental technicians should be provided with adequate protection facilities so that such risks are minimized. To minimize exposure of metallic dust to patients and dentists during metal grinding operations a high speed grinding operations a high speed evacuation system should be employed when such procedures are performed intraorally. Patients should be informed of the potential allergic effects of nickel exposure, and a through medical history should be taken to determine if the patient is at risk of exhibiting an allergic reaction to nickel. As a conservation approach, one should adopt the policy that evidence of a previous allergic response to any alloy should be sufficient ground to contraindicate the use of nickel based alloys. Properties Density The density is half that of gold alloys so they are lighter in weight ( 8 to 9 g--/Cm3) Fusion temperature

The casting temperature of there alloys is considerably higher than that of gold alloys (1250OC to 1480OC) ADA sp No 14 divides it into two types based on fusion temperature, which is defined as the liquids temperature. Type I (high fusing) liquidous temperature greater than 1300OC. Type II (low fusing) liquidous temperature not greater than 1300OC. Yield strength It is higher than that of gold alloys (710Mpa) Elongation This ductility is lower than of gold alloys. It depends on composition, rate of cooling and the fusion and mold temperature employed. The elongation value is 1 to 12%. Modulus of elasticity They are twice as stiff as gold alloys (225X103Mpa). Thus casting can be made thinner, thus decreasing the weight. Hardness: There alloys are 50% harder than gold alloys (432 UHN-kg/mm 2). Thus cuttings grinding and finishing are diff---Tarnish and corrosion resistance (passivation) formation of a layer of chromium oxide on the surface of there alloys prevents tarnish and corrosion in the oral cavity. this is called passivating effect. Caution: hypochlorite and other chlorine containing components that are present in some denture cleaning solution will cause corrosion in base metal alloys. Casting shrinkage: The casting shrinkage is much greater (2.3% than that of gold alloys so limited --- in crown and bridge The high shrinkage is due to their high fusion temperature. Porosity As in gold alloys, porosity is due to shrinkage of the alloy and release of dissolved gases. Porosity is affected by the composition of the alloys and its manipulation.

Burn out: A slow burn out is done at a temperature of 732 to 982OC. It is done two --- after investing. Etching base metal alloys Etching of the base metal alloys is done to improve the retention of resin bonded retainers (mar---- bridges). Etching is done electrolytically. Titanium and titanium alloys Titanium was discovered by william gregor of england in 1791 and was named by Martin H. Kloprath Germany in 1975. The first good process for metallic titanium was developed by the united states Burew of miners. It used the Krolls process invented by a refugee from Luxembourg William Kroll. Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earths crust. The most common ally for dental and medical purpose is the Ti-6Al-4V composition. The main benefits of alloying are significant strengthening and stabilization of the alloy against the formation of either the phase (through aluminium addition) or the phase (trough addition of copper, palladium or ----). The phase alloys are more resistance to high temperature creep a most important property for metal ceramic applications. Because there alloys are insensitive to heat treatment. They are more amenable to brazing or soldering. phase alloys are less resistant to creep deformation at elevated temperatures but they can be hardened and strengthened significantly. Commercially pure titanium The element titanium is a light weight metal with a density of 9.51 gm/Cm3 compared with density of 7.6 g/Cm3 for Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys. It has a low elastic modulus of 110GPa which is half that of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys. It has a relatively high melting point of 166 8C and a low thermal expansion. Coefficient of thermal expansin of 8.9 X 10-6/OC. This coefficient is far below the values for the porcelains that are typically used for metal ceramic restorations. For general dental application titanium has the --- to passivate that is to change its surface from a chemically active state to much less reactive state by the formation of an extremely thin titanium oxide layer. Even when the surface is scratched or abraded it can reform this protective oxide layer instantaneously.

This passivation potential provides a high degree of resistance to attack by most mineral acids and chlorides. Its most important attribute is that it is non toxic and bio-compatible with soft and hard tissue. Because of its excellent corrosion resistance titanium is used for artificial heart value components and load bearing hip joints, bone splints and dental implants. Recently commercially pure titanium has been used for crown and removable partial dentures. For treatment of patients with a known hypersens------ to nickel pure titanium represents an excellent alternative to base metal alloys that contains nickel. Aluminium bronze alloy The aluminium bronze family of alloys include the one that approved by the aDA may contain between 81 and 88 wt % --- 7 to 11 wt% aluminium 2-4 wt % nickel and 1-4 wt % iron. Conclusion Cast restoration inspite of the tedious work involved have proved to be the most enforcing of all the restoration. Since they are made of metal and thin cavity preparation include encircling of weakened tooth structure. --- of nickel titanium Titanium 44% Nickel 54% Cobalt 2% or less Stainless steel Iron 70-80% Carbon 1.2% wt Chromium 12.30%