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PRELIMINARY VERSION 1

Exercises on plane waves


2.6 Exercise 1
Consider a plane wave in a dielectric with
r
= 4,
r
= 1, at the frequency f = 1GHz. The electric
eld in the origin is
E(0) = 2 x j y +z V/m
1. Compute the phase velocity v
ph
, the wavelength , the wave impedance Z, the wavenumber
k in deg/cm, the power density dP/d.
2. Find the polarization of the electric eld E
0
. Find the direction of propagation s knowing
that the phase of the wave decreases in the z direction.
3. Compute the magnetic eld in the point P : (2,2,2)
T

5 at the time t = T/4


Use the approximate values c = 3 10
8
m/s and Z
0
= 377.
Solution
Phase velocity:
v
ph
=
1

=
c

r
=
c
2
= 1.5 10
8
m/s
Wavelength
=
v
ph
f
=
1.5 10
8
1.0 10
10
= 1.5 10
2
m
Wave impedance:
Z =
_

= Z
0
_

r
=
Z
0
2
= 188.5
Wavenumber:
k =
2

=
6.2832
1.5 10
2
= 4.1888 rad/cm
=
360

= 240.0 deg/cm
Power density
dP
d
=
1
2
|E
0
|
2
Z
=
1
2
|E
0x
|
2
+ |E
0y
|
2
+ |E
0z
|
2
188.5
=
1
2
(4 + 1 + 1)
188.5
= 0.01591 W/m
2
Polarization:
The real and imaginary part of E(0) are
E

0
= 2 x +z E

0
= y
They are not parallel, hence the polarization is not linear. Moreover
E

0
E

0
= 0 but |E

0
| = |E

0
|
PRELIMINARY VERSION 2
hence the polarization is not circular. In conclusion, it is elliptical.
Direction of propagation:
Since the electric eld is perpendicular to s, we have
s =
E

0
E

0
|E

0
E

0
|
=
(2 x +z) ( y)
|(2 x +z) ( y)|
=
2z + x

5
The phase factor is
exp[j(k
x
x + k
y
y + k
z
z)]
If the phase is decreasing in the z direction, then k
z
= ks
z
> 0, hence
s =
2z x

5
Phasor of magnetic eld in the origin
H
0
= Ys E
0
= Y
_
2z x

5
_
(2 x j y +z) = Y
_
j
2

5
x +
5

5
y + j
1

5
z
_
Phasor of magnetic eld in P:
H(P) = H
0
exp
_
j
2

s r
P
_
= H
0
exp
_
j
2

_
2z x

5
_
(2 x + 2 y + 2z)

5
_
=
= H
0
exp
_
j
2

5
(2 2 2)

5
_
= H
0
exp
_
j
4

_
= H
0
exp [j 120

]
Magnetic eld in P at t = T/4
H(r
P
,t) = R
_
H(r
P
)e
j
0
t
_
t=T/4
= R
_
H
0
e
j(90

120

)
_
= H

0
cos(30

) +H

0
sin(30

) = Y
_
5

3
2

5
y
2
2

5
x
1
2

5
z
_
=
=
1
188.5
_

5
x +

15
2
y
1
2

5
z
_
2.7 Exercise 2
Consider a plane wave propagating in the z direction in a dielectric with
r
= 4 and = 0.01 S/m
at the frequency f = 1.0 GHz and E
0
= x.
1. Compute the wavenumber k, the phase velocity v
ph
, the wavelength
2. Compute the wave impedance Z, the active power density in the origin dP/d, the attenu-
ation
dB
in dB/m
Use c = 2.99792458 10
8
m/s,
0
= 8.854 10
12
F/m.
PRELIMINARY VERSION 3
Solution
Wavenumber:
k =
_
_

r
j

0
=

0
_

r
j

0
= k
0
_

r
j

0
The free space wavelength and wavenumber are

0
=
c
f
= 0.29979 m k
0
=
2

= 20.9585 rad/m
Then
k = 20.9585
_
4 j 0.1798 = 20.9585(2.0005 j 0.0449) = 41.9275 j 0.9416 m
1
The real and imaginary part are
= 41.9275 rad/m = 0.9416 Np/m
Phase velocity:
v
ph
=

= 1.4986 10
8
m/s
Wavelength
=
v
ph
f
= 0.1499 m
Wave impedance:
Z =
_

r
j/
=
_

0
_

r

r
j/(
0
)
= Z
0
(0.4996 + j 0.0112) = 188.2227 + j 4.2270
Wave admittance
Y =
1
Z
=
1
188.2227 + j 4.2270
= (5.3102 j 0.1192) 10
3
S
Notice that
R{Y } =
1
R{Z}
=
1
188.2227
= 5.3129 10
3
S
In this case the dierence is small because the phase of Z is small but becomes enormous when
this phase approaches /2.
Active power density in the origin
dP
d
=
1
2
R{Y }|E
0
|
2
=
1
2
5.3102 10
3
(|E
0x
|
2
+ |E
0y
|
2
+ |E
0z
|
2
) = 2.6551 10
3
W/m
2
Attenuation:
= Im{k} = 0.9416 Np/m

dB
= 20 log
10
e = 8.68589 = 8.1785 dB/m
PRELIMINARY VERSION 4
2.8 Exercise 3
Consider a plane wave propagating in free space at the frequency f = 5 GHz. The electric eld in
the points of the plane z = 0 has the value
E(x,y,z)|
z=0
= E
0
exp[j(x + y)] x, y
with = k
0
/5 and = k
0
/2 and it is known that this wave is a TE eld, i.e. E
0
has no z-
component and that it carries the power density dP/d > 0.
Compute the direction of propagations and the spherical angles that dene this direction. Compute
also the elds in the origin E
0
, H
0
.
Solution
The propagation factor of a plane wave is
exp[jk r] = exp[j(k
x
x + k
y
y + k
z
z)]
hence, by inspection, we nd k
x
= and k
y
= . From the dispersion relation
k
2
x
+ k
2
y
+ k
2
z
=
2

0
= k
2
0
it follows that
k
z
=
_
k
2
0
k
2
x
k
2
y
=
_
k
2
0

2

2
= k
0
_
1
1
25

1
4
= k
0

71
10
The sign of the square root is taken to be positive because power is owing toward the region
z > 0. From this
s =
k
k
0
=
1
5
x +
1
2
y +

71
10
z
The spherical angles that identify the direction s are found by recalling (A.2) and noting that
|s| = 1
s
x
= sin cos
s
y
= sin sin
s
z
= cos
From this we nd
= arccos s
z
= arccos

71
10
= 32.5827 deg
= arccos
_
s
x
sin
_
= arcsin
_
s
y
sin
_
= 68.1986 deg
The electric eld in the origin, with magnitude
E
0
=
_
2Z
0
dP
d
PRELIMINARY VERSION 5
must be perpendicular to s because it is a plane wave and perpendicular to z because required in
the text. Then
E
0
= E
0
s z
|s z|
= E
0
k z
|k z|
= E
0
( x + y + k
z
z) z
|k z|
= E
0
( x y)
_

2
+
2
Thanks to the denominator, the vector multiplying E
0
has unit magnitude.
The magnetic eld is computed by the impedance relation
H
0
= Y
0
s E
0
=
Y
0
k
0
k E
0
=
Y
0
E
0
k
0
( x + y + k
z
z)
( x y)
_

2
+
2
=
Y
0
E
0
k
0
_

2
+
2
_
k
z
( x + y) (
2
+
2
)z
_