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11/16/08


1 The Roman Empire Senatus Populus que Romanus 2 Roman Republic – 509 B.C.  
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The Roman Empire
Senatus Populus que Romanus
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Roman Republic – 509 B.C.
Roman Citizenship
  Men entitled to vote in elections
  Could not be flogged as punishment
  Gave right to a trial as well as an appeal
  Originally citizenship required both parents be citizens, later
policy is changed to just having a father as citizen
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Patricians
Aristocracy of Rome
Wealth primarily based on real estate ownership
Originally had a monopoly over the Senate
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Plebeians
  Free men who did not have Patrician ancestry
  Etruscans protected citizen rights
  With Etruscan overthrow lost political protection
  Did not have adequate representation in the government
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Rule of Law
Nobody is above the law, not the king, not the senate, not the
people, not the police.
Laws are written down and respected
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Twelve Tables
451 B.C. Roman laws written down on twelve tablets and
hung in the Forum.
Established that all citizens had a right to the protection of law
Solved the class dispute between Patricians and Plebeians
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Government
  Consul
  Two consuls, 1 year term in ten year period, veto
  Senate
  Membership for life, originally 100 members, but grew
  Assembly
  All citizen-soldiers, little power in comparison to senate
  Dictator
  For times of need or war, 6 month term, elected by senate

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  8 Rome gains control of Italy   Sack of Rome   Gauls invade in
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Rome gains control of Italy
  Sack of Rome
  Gauls invade in 390 B.C.
  Paid bribe to leave
  War with the Greeks
  In 282 B.C. Rome fought off the remaining Greeks in Italy
  From 275 B.C. on continual growth of Roman territory
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First Punic War – 264 B.C.
  Primarily a naval war
  Trireme naval tactics
  Carthage has most advanced navy of the time
  Rome changes the battle, by boarding enemy ships and
engaging in land battle tactics.
  Used hooks
  Rome wins the first war – 23 years long
Second Punic War – 218 B.C.
  Carthaginian General Hannibal leads army through Spain and
across the Alps to attack Rome by land
  Won many battles, but could not attack Rome itself
  Too heavily fortified
  Roman army chose to attack Carthage instead of focus on
Hannibal
  Hannibal heads back to Carthage
  Rome defeats Carthage in the second war
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Hannibal
Third Punic War – 149 B.C.
  Carthage weak after second war
  Hannibal commits suicide
  Economy is shattered
  Lost all territory to Rome
  Rome feared another Carthaginian rise in power and
challenge
  Told Carthage to move city or else
  Rome attacks Carthage and finally defeats them
 Entire population sold into slavery, all valuables brought

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  14 back to Rome  City burned and salted so nothing would grow Significance  
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back to Rome
 City burned and salted so nothing would grow
Significance
Rome is unmatched in the Mediterranean Sea
Rome obtains all of Carthaginian possessions in the region
Carthage is no more
Evidence that the Roman Republic became too powerful
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Result of Punic Wars
Hannibal’s army had destroyed much of the Italian countryside
and farms
New class of homeless, urban poor
  Proletariat
  Unemployed farmers, Punic War soldiers
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Roman dominance in the Mediterranean
Spread of Slavery
  Wealthy landowners, buy slaves to work the land
  Wealth from spoils of war
  Even had educated Greek slaves
  Slave rebellions
  3 times between 138-70 B.C.
  Spartacus – 71 -73 B.C.
 Gladiator , raised army of 70,000 slaves
 Destroyed countryside for 2 years
  Gladiators used to entertain the proletariat
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Tiberius Gracchus
  Greek tutors
  133 B.C. elected Tribune
  Representative of the Plebeians in the Senate
  Wanted to give proletariat land
  Some reforms passed
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Tried to be reelected, never happened before
Gaius Gracchus
Idealistic, energetic, passionate
Excellent orator

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    Senators and followers opposed to his reforms marched to his home and killed
Senators and followers opposed to his reforms marched to his
home and killed Gaius
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3,000 supporters were jailed, tried, and executed
Idealists in Society
Gandhi
Steven Biko
Nelsen Mandela, FW de Klerk
Gorbachev
Dr. King
Oscar Schindler
George Washington
Abraham Lincoln
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Army leaders become powerful
  Marius and Sulla
  Both generals
  Marius extended service in the army to the urban poor
  Marius and Sulla ended up fighting each other
  In 82 B.C. Sulla became dictator and extended his tenure
indefinitely
Both died peacefully in their bed, at the expense of massive
bloodshed in Rome
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Gaius Julius Caesar
20 year old Patrician
Wanted to govern a Roman province
Excellent politician
Funded by “Crassus the Rich”
Appointed governor of Spain
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First Triumvirate
  Caesar, Pompey, Crassus united
  59 B.C. Caesar was elected Consul
  After Consul Caesar became governor of Gaul
  Fought relentlessly in Gaul and even in Britannica
  50 B.C. the triumvirate falls apart
  Crassus dies in battle
  Pompey becomes Caesar’s rival

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  24 Crossing the Rubicon   Pompey and Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome
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Crossing the Rubicon
  Pompey and Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome
  Caesar leads his army across the Rubicon
  Rubicon was the extent of military jurisdiction
  (making a decision from which there is no return)
  Caesar and army occupy Rome
  Defeat Pompey’s army in Greece
  Pompey dies in Alexandria Egypt
  44 B.C. Julius Caesar appointed dictator for 10 years
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Absolute Ruler
Expanded Senate to 900 men
  Patricians angry that Caesar controlled Senate
Made wealthy farmers have at least a third of their workers be
paid, free men
  New Calendar – 365 days, July and August
  March 15, 44 B.C. – Caesar brutally murdered
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  Senators had knives and daggers under their togas
  “Et tu, Brute!” (“and you, also Brutus?”)
Octavian Augustus
  Nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar
  Second Triumvirate
  Marcus Antony, Octavian, Lepidus
  Found and killed conspirators
 Cicero – most famous orator and 100 other senators
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Triumvirate falls apart
Lepidus retires after defeat
Marcus Antony falls in love with Cleopatra, divorces
Octavian’s sister
Defeated in naval battle
Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide
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Absolute Rule
Took title of “first citizen”

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  29   Did not want to risk the fate of Julius   27 B.C.
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  Did not want to risk the fate of Julius
  27 B.C. Octavian becomes Augustus
  Now Rome is ruled by one man as an empire
  Octavian Augustus was the first emperor of Rome
  Ruled for 41 years
  Marked the beginning of the longest time of peace and
prosperity in Rome’s history – Pax Romana
Identify…
  Octavian Augustus
  Nero
  Marcus Aurelius
  Veni Vidi Vici
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Philosophy of Rome
  Philosophy of Rome was an evolution from the ancient Greek
philosophies
  Epicureanism – Athens, by Epicurus 330s B.C.
  Free body from pain and fear
  Avoid all excesses, even pleasure
  Death is the end of existence, accept it
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Stoicism
  Founded in Athens, by Zeno 300 B.C.
  Universe controlled by a superhuman power
  Universal Law, Divine Reason, or Supreme Power
  Stoics taught the virtues of duty, reason, and courage
  Pain and pleasure unimportant
  Marcus Aurelius
  “…a man’s worth is no greater than the worth of his
ambitions.”
Latin Literature
  Virgil
  Wrote the Aeneid
  Epic poem, which traced Rome’s origins to Romulus and
Remus. Even the Trojan War

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34 Standards of Law   Judges developed legal standards over time 35   No person
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Standards of Law
  Judges developed legal standards over time
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  No person could be judged guilty of a crime until after the
facts of the case were examined.
  All persons accused of crimes had the right to face their
accusers and defend themselves before a judge.
  If there was doubt about a person’s guilt, he or she should
be judged to be innocent.
  Any law that seemed unreasonable or unfair could be set
aside
Contrasts in Roman Society
  By 250 B.C. – over 150 holidays
  The Government often provided games
  Large gap between rich and poor
  Rich ate luxuries like parrot tongue pie…
mmmmm!
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  Poor could barely afford three squares a day
  Rich began developing self-sufficient villas in the
countryside
Rise of Christianity
  Jews had been under Roman influence since 65 B.C.
  Formal establishment of Judea in 6 A.D.
  Jesus crucified by Pontius Pilot in 33 A.D.
  Saul/Paul
  Originally opposed to Christians
  Had a vision of Jesus, decided to spend the rest of his life
preaching the teachings of Jesus
  Established churches throughout the empire
Struggles with Religion
  Jewish revolt in 66 A.D. – after the defeat the Romans burnt
down the temple.
  Nero ordered the persecution of the Christians
  Peter and Paul were killed in Rome the same day
  Accept Roman Gods or torture in the arena
 Considered martyrs
  Not until 313 B.C. under Constantine will the persecution of
Christians end

Fall of Rome

Reform Attempts Diocletian 284 C.E., tried to hold empire together by limiting personal freedoms he doubled the size of the army-using POWs and German mercenaries fixed prices of goods, and forced farmers to stay on their farms viewed Christianity as evil-persecution divided into halves, east and west, easier to control.-east better economics overall slowed down the inevitable Retired and then civil war broke out-Constantine Constantine fought his way to restoring the single ruler in 324 C.E. 330 C.E. changed the capital to Byzantium ended persecution of Christians and eventually became a Christian 324 C.E. Constantine gains control of both east and west - last hope After Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west

Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions
Constantine, empire divided in half, the demise of west Factors of the Fall Military   legions

Factors of the Fall Military legions overwhelmed by guarding frontiers from Germanic tribes Soldiers gave loyalty not to Rome, but to their military commander. Employed cheaper mercenaries-no loyalty to Rome Invaded by Huns, Ostragoths, Vandals, Franks, Saxons, Visigoths, Burgundians. Economic Decline- post-Pax Romana hostile tribes raided Roman trade routes, adding to the cost of protection Wealthy spent money on luxury goods from the east- draining Rome of its gold and silver

protection   Wealthy spent money on luxury goods from the east- draining Rome of its gold
protection   Wealthy spent money on luxury goods from the east- draining Rome of its gold
protection   Wealthy spent money on luxury goods from the east- draining Rome of its gold
protection   Wealthy spent money on luxury goods from the east- draining Rome of its gold
protection   Wealthy spent money on luxury goods from the east- draining Rome of its gold
protection   Wealthy spent money on luxury goods from the east- draining Rome of its gold

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No new expansion meant- no new gold and war plunder No new expansion meant- no new gold and war plunder

in order to counter Rome’s never ending expenses they raised taxes   tried to accomplish in order to counter Rome’s never ending expenses they raised taxes tried to accomplish this by adding less silver to coins, meaning the government continued to make currency even though it had nothing to back it up, INFLATION.

overworked farms lost nutrients in soil, lead to shortage of production overworked farms lost nutrients in soil, lead to shortage of production

finally disease spread, with migration of poor to cities. finally disease spread, with migration of poor to cities.

finally disease spread, with migration of poor to cities. Political 11/16/08
   lack of patriotism  

Political

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lack of patriotism lack of patriotism

officials began to lose money officials began to lose money

235-284 C.E. civil war, military chose who would rule, 20 emperors Social Destruction 235-284 C.E. civil war, military chose who would rule, 20 emperors Social Destruction

low confidence in empire low confidence in empire

contrast between rich and poor contrast between rich and poor

disloyalty and corruption disloyalty and corruption