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BOOK 1: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES BOOK1 I.FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES A.DEFINITIONOFCRIMINALLAW Q:Whatiscriminal choflaw,whichdefines crimes,treatsoftheirnature,andprovidesfortheir punishmen sincriminallaw? A: 1.

: 1. Classical theory the basis of criminal liability is urposeofthepenaltyisretribution.Itis endeavoredtoestablishamechanicaland dire en crime and penalty, and there is scant regard to the humanelement. Note: RPC is generally governed by this theory.

Q:Howarepenallawsconstrued? A: Liberally construed in favor of offender and te. Note: In cases of conflict with official translation, originalSpanishtextiscont

2. Positivist theory the basis of criminal liability is the sum of the soc mic phenomena to which the actorisexposed.Thepurposesofpenalty are prevention is theory is exemplified in the provisions regarding impossible crimes and habit ncy. Eclectic or Mixed theory It is a combination of positivist and classica rimes that are economic and social in nature should be dealtinapositivemanner assionate.Ideally,theclassical theory is applied to heinous crimes, whereas,the etoworkon economicandsocialcrimes. Utilitarian or Protective theory the prima entunder criminal law is the protection of society from actual and potential w urts, therefore, in exacting retribution for the wronged society, shoulddirectth otential or actual wrongdoers, since criminal law is directed against acts or o the society does not approve. Consistent with this theory is the mala prohibita h punishes an offense regardless of malice or criminal intent. 3. 4.

Q:Whatarethebasicmaximsincriminallaw? A: 1. Nullum crimen, nulla poena s hen there is no law punishing the same) No matter how wrongful,evilorbadt ng the act, the same is not consideredacrime. 2. Actus non facit reum, nisi nnot be criminal where the mind is not criminal) This is true to a felony t not a felonyresultingfromculpa.Thismaximis not an absolute one because it elonies,orthosethat resultfromnegligence. 3. Doctrine of Pro Reo Whenever dorappliedandthe law admits of two interpretations, one lenient to the offe heoffender,thatinterpretationwhichis lenient or favorable to the offender will tusmeinvitofactusnonestmeusactus (Anactdonebymeagainstmywillisnot my act ulsion of irresistible force or uncontrollable fear to do an act against his w act produces a crime or offense, such person is exempted in any criminal liabi hesaidact. Q:Whatisthedefinitionofacrime? A: A crime is the generic te unished either under the RPC or underthespeciallaw. Q:Whatarethevariouscla 1. Astothecommission a. Dolo or felonies committed with deliberateintent b. Culp ttedby means offault


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 2. Astothestageofexecution a. Attempted b. Frustrated c. Consummated Astogra nies b. Lessgravefelonies c. Lightfelonies Astocount a. Compositeorspecialcom nderArt.48 c. Continuing Classificationoffeloniesasto a. Formal felonies th consummated. (e.g. physical injuries) b. Materialfeloniesthosewhichhave various on. c. Those which do not admit of the frustratedstage.(e.g.rapeandtheft) A Malaprohibita A: 1. 2. Note:Likewise,whenthespeciallawsrequirethatthe punished act be committed knowi y, criminalintentisrequiredtobeprovedbeforecriminal liabilitymayarise. PiracyinPhilippinewaters Brigandageinthehighways (bothunderPD532) 3. 4. 5. 6.

Q: If a special law uses the nomenclature of penalties in the RPC, what i fthecrimecoveredbythespeciallaw? A: Even if a special law uses the nomenc he RPC, that alone will not make theactoromissionacrimemalainse.Thespecial to apply as a supplementary. (People v. Simon, G.R. No. 93028, July29,1994) ctions between crimes punished under the RPC and crimes punished underspecialla CRIMESUNDERTHERPC Involvecrimesmalainse. CRIMESUNDER SPECIALLAW Usuallycrimes

Q:Whatisthedifferencebetweencrimesmalain seandcrimesmalaprohibita? A: Malainse Acts or omissions which areinherentlyevil. PunishedundertheRPC Mala adeevil because there is a law prohibitingit. Violationsofspeciallaws Note:Notallviolationsof special laws are mala prohibita. Even if the crime cial law, if the act punished is one which is inherently wrong,thesameismalu d faith and the lack of criminal intent is a valid defense; unless it is the gligenceorculpa.

Astomoraltraitoftheoffender Itisconsidered.Thisiswhy liabilitywouldonlyaris ecommissionofthe punishableact Itisnotconsidered.It isenoughthatthe prohibit

Astouseofgoodfaithasdefense Itisavaliddefense unless thecrimeistheresulto

Astothedegreeofaccomplishmentofthecrime Thereareno attemptedor frustratedsta w expresslypenalizesthe mereattemptor frustrationofthe crime Mayadmitattempted and/orfrustratedstages Q: What are violations of special laws which are consideredmalainse?

Astomitigatingandaggravatingcircumstances Takenintoaccountin imposingthepenalty itofthe offenderisconsidered Not takenintoaccount inimposingthe penalty.Asan ciallawusesthe 2


BOOK 1: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES nomenclatureofthe penaltiesunderthe RPC,thecircumstances canbeconsidered. Ast tion ofoffender Whenthereismorethan oneoffender,thedegreeof participationofeac hecrimeis takenintoaccountin imposingthepenalty;thus, offendersareclassifieda iceand accessory. Itisnotconsidered.All whoperpetratedthe prohibitedactare pe nt.Thereisno principal,accomplice oraccessoryto consider.

Q:Whatisthelegalbasisforpunishment? A: The power to punish violators of olicepowerofthestate.Itisthe injuryinflictedtothepublicwhichacriminalaction the injury to the individual. B.SCOPEOFAPPLICATIONANDCHARACTERISTICS OFTHE What are the two scopes of application of the RPC? A: 1. Intraterritorial ion oftheRPCwithinthePhilippineterritory 2. Extraterritorialreferstotheappl ide the Philippine territory. Q: In what cases does the RPC have an extrater n? A:Againstthosewho: 1. Should commit an offense while on a Philippineship rge or counterfeit any coin or currencynoteofthePhilippineIslandsor obligation ssued by the GovernmentofthePhilippineIslands 3. Should be liable for acts con troduction into these islands of the obligations and securities mentioned in the er 4. Whilebeingpublicofficersoremployees, shouldcommitanoffenseintheexercise 5. Should commit any of the crimes against national security and the law of na

Q:WhatisaPhilippineship? A: One that is registered in accordance with Phi hehighseas,itis considered as an extension of the Philippine territory and th has jurisdiction. But if the vessel is within the territory of another country, s generally with the foreign Statebecausepenallawsareprimarilyterritorialin ap t are the requirements of an offense committedwhileonaPhilippineshiporairshi hip must be registered withthePhilippineBureauofCustoms. 2. The ship must be e airshipmustbeininternationalspace. Note: Under International Law rule, a vessel which is not registered in accorda s of any country is considered a private vessel and piracy is a crimeagainst hatwherever piratesmaygo,theycanbeprosecuted.

Q: What are the two recognized rules on jurisdictionovermerchantvessels? A: ishrule.Theserules refer to the jurisdiction of one country over its merchant n another country. These do not apply to war vessels over which a countryalwa :WhatistheFrenchrule? A:TheFrenchrulerecognizesthejurisdictionofthe flag ted on board the vessel except if the crime disturbs the peace and orderands . Q:WhatistheEnglishrule? A:TheEnglishrulerecognizesthatthehostcountry committed on board the vessel unless they involve the internal managementofthe Note:Theeffectonjurisdictionofbothrulesisalmost the same because the general ptionoftheother.

Q:Whatistheruleonforeignmerchantvesselsin possessionofdangerousdrugs?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. Intransitpossessionofdangerousdrugs isnotpunishable,buttheuseofthesa sit mere possession of dangerousdrugsispunishable. 7. Malversation of Public (Art.217) 8. FailuretoRenderAccounts(Art.218) 9. Failure to Render Accounts Bef untry(Art.219) 10. Illegal Use of Public Funds or Property (Art.220) 11. Failur ry of Public Funds orProperty(Art.221) 12. Falsification(Art.171) 2.

Q:Whenisforgerycommitted? A: Forgery is committed by giving to a treasury ument payable to bearer or to order the appearance of a true genuine document ting,counterfeiting oraltering,byanymeans,thefigures,letters,words orsignconta Note: If forgery was committed abroad, it must refer only to Philippine coin, obligations andsecurities. Obligations and securities of the GSIS, SSS, and f the government because they haveseparatecharters. Those who introduced the are criminally liable even if they were not the ones who counterfeited the obl rities. On the other hand, those who counterfeited the items are criminally lia did not introduce the counterfeititems.

Q:Whatarethecharacteristicsofcriminallaw? A: 1. Generality means that th try governs all persons within the country regardless of their race, belief,sex Note:Thetermgeneralityhasnoreference toterritory.Itreferstopersonsthatmaybe

2. Territorialitymeansthatthepenallaws ofthecountryhaveforceandeffectonly Note: The territorial application of criminal laws is again subject to certain ught about by treaties or international agreements.

Q:Whendoesapublicofficeroremployeecommit anoffenseintheexerciseoftheirfun Cgovernsonlywhenthe crime committed pertains to the exercise of the public of hose having to do with the discharge of their duties in a foreign country. Th lated are those, which are, underthelaw,tobeperformedbythepublicofficer int ppinegovernment inaforeigncountry. Note:Thisruleisnotabsolute.TheRPCgovernsifthe crimewascommittedwithinthePhi eembassygroundsinaforeigncountry.This is because embassy grounds are considere ereignty. Certain exceptions to the territorial applicationofcriminallawsarealsooutlined . 3.

Prospectivity means that acts or omissions will only be subject to a penal ed after a penal lawhadalreadytakeneffect. Note:Thisisalsocalledirretrospectivity.

Q:Whatarethecrimesincluded? A: 1. DirectBribery(Art.210) 2. IndirectBriber dBribery(Art.211A) 4. Corruption(Art.212) 5. FraudAgainstPublicTreasuryandSimi 13) 6. Possession of Prohibited Interest (Art. 216)

Q: What are the exceptions to the rule on generalityofpenallaws? A:Except eaty stipulations and international agreements. E.g. RPUS Visiting Forces Accord. eferentialApplication Note: RA 75 penalizes acts which would impair the proper observance by the Rep bitants of the immunities, rights, and privileges of duly 4



BOOK 1: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES accredited foreign diplomatic representativesinthePhilippines. Note: An ex post facto law is one wherein if given a retroactive application to the accused. 3.

Theprinciplesofpublicinternationallaw a. Sovereignsandotherchiefsofstates sters, plenipotentiary, ministers resident, andchargesdaffaires. Note: Consuls, viceconsuls, and other commercial representatives of foreign natio plomatic officers. Consuls aresubjecttothepenallawsofthecountry wheretheyare

A bill of attainder is a legislative act which inflicts punishments without tri is the substitution of a legislative act for a judicial determinationofguilt.

Q: What is the exception to the prospective applicationofpenallaws? A: Whe ling with crime establishesconditionsmorelenientorfavorableto theaccused. Note: The retroactive effect shall benefit the accused evenifatthetimeofthep l judgment has been pronounced and the convict is servingsentence.

Q:Whatistheexceptiontotheexception? A:Thenewlawcannotbegivenretroactive s expressly made inapplicabletopendingactionsorexisting causesofactions. 2. Whe bitualcriminal. C.CONSTITUTIONALLIMITATIONSONTHEPOWER OFCONGRESSTOENACTPENAL Q:Whohasthepowertoenactpenallaws? A: Only the legislative branch of the g . Note: While the President may define and punish an actasacrime,suchexerciseo egislativeashederivessuchpowerfromthelaw makingbody.Itisinessence,anexercis iefExecutive.

No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process , Art. III, 1987 Constitution) 3. No person shall be deprived of life, libert hout due process oflaw,norshallanypersonbedeniedthe equalprotectionofthelaw itution) 4. Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhu inflicted.(Sec. 19 [1], Art. III, 1987 Constitution) ActProhibitingtheImpositi n thePhilippines(R.A.9346) Q:Isthedeathpenaltyalreadyabolished? A: No. Wh A. 9346 is only theimpositionofdeathpenalty. Note:However,thecorrespondingcivilliabilityshould bethecivilliabilitycorrespondi plev. Salome,G.R.No.169077,Aug.31,2006) 2.

Q: What are the constitutional limitations on the rightoftheLegislaturetoena ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. (Sec. 22, Art. llI,

Q: What penalty would be imposed in lieu of the deathpenalty? A: In lieu ollowing shall beimposed: 1. Reclusion perpetua when the law violated makes u ture ofthepenaltiesoftheRPC;or 2. Lifeimprisonmentwhenthelawviolated does ature of the penalties of the RPC. (Sec.2)


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 II.FELONIES Q:Whatarefelonies? A:Feloniesareactsoromissionspunishablebyth Note:Omissionmeansinaction,thefailuretoperform apositivedutywhichoneisboundt equiring a certain act to be performedandthepersonrequiredtodotheactfails t

purely a mental process is presumed. Such presumption arises from the proof of unlawful act. A mental state, hence, its existence is shownbyovertacts. Note: If there isNO criminalintent,the act is justified. Offender incurs NO c E.g. The existence of a lawful or insuperable cause, commission by mere acciden 2.

Punishable under the RPC means this element of a felonyisbaseduponthemaxim,n asinelege,thatis,thereisnocrimewherethere isnolawpunishingit.

Freedomofactionvoluntarinessonthe part of the person to commit the act or Note: If there is lack of freedom, the offenderisexemptfromliability.Examplei esistible force or uncontrollablefear.

Q:Howarefeloniescommitted? A: Felonies are committed not only by means of soffault(culpa). Q:Whatarethekindsoffelonies? A: 1. Intentionalfelonies( Culpa) Q: What are the distinctions between intentional felonyandculpablefelon DOLO Actis malicious With deliberate intent Hasintention tocauseinjury CULPA N ycausedisunintentionalbeing incidentofanotheractperformed withoutmalice Wrongfu mprudence,negligence,lackof foresightorlackofskill Note:Thewordvoluntarinessincriminallaw doesnotmeanactinginone sownvolition. tariness comprehends the concurrence of freedom of action, intelligence and the act was intentional. 3.

Intelligencemeansthecapacitytoknow and understand the consequences of one s Note: If there is lack of intelligence, the offender is exempt from liability. enderisanimbecile,insane,or under15yearsofage.

Note: If any of these requisites is absent, there is no dolo.Ifthereisnodol l felony.

Q: What is an act in contemplation of criminal law? A:Anactreferstoanyk hangeintheoutsideworld.Theactmust be an external act which has a direct con ndedtobecommitted. Q:Whataretherequisitesofdolo? A: 1. Criminal intent ar means to effect such result. Intenttocommitanactwithmalicebeing

Q:Whataretherequisitesofculpa? A: 1. Criminal negligence on the part of astheresult of negligence, reckless imprudence, lack offoresightorlackofskill. Note: Negligence indicates deficiency of perceptionorfailuretopayattentionandto n foreseeing the injury or damage impending to be caused. It usually involvesl

Imprudenceindicatesdeficiencyofactionor failure to take the necessary precaution ry to person or damage to property.Itusuallyinvolveslackofskill. 6


BOOK 1: Felonies 2. Freedom of action on the part of the offender,thatis,hewasnotactingunder hepartoftheoffenderin performingthenegligentact. Note: In some particular felonies, proof of specific intent is required to prod ch as in frustrated and attempted homicide. 2. 3.

SpecificcriminalintentIsnotpresumed becauseitisaningredientorelementofa cr he crimes of attempted or frustrated homicide/parricide/murder. The prosecutionhas fprovingthe same. Note:Ifanyoftheserequisitesisabsent,therecanbe noculpa.

Q: What crimes cannot be committed through culpa(negligenceorimprudence)? A: ason 3. Robbery 4. Maliciousmischief Q:Whatismensrea? A: Mens rea is refer f the offense. Mens rea of the crime depends upon the elementsofthecrime.It ingtheparticularcrimecommitted. Note: 1. 2. In theft, the mens rea is the taking of the propertyofanotherwith ication,themensreaistheeffecting of the forgery with intent to pervert the t eaisthetakingofthe property of another coupled with the employment of intimid onpersonsorthings.

Q: What is the distinction between intent and discernment? A: INTENT Thedeterminationtodo acertainthing,anaimor purposeofthemind.Itis the ationbywhicha personacts. DISCERNMENT Thementalcapacityto tellrightfromwrong. ignificancethataperson ascribestohisactand relatestotheintelligence asanelem 3.

Q:Whatisintent? A:Intentreferstotheuseofaparticularmeansto effect the ate, the existence of which is demonstrated by the overt actsofaperson. Q: of intent in criminal law? A: 1. General criminal intent Is presumed fromt s does not require proof. The burden is upon the wrongdoer to prove that he alintent. Note: In felonies by means of deceit, the third element of voluntariness is a

Q:Whatismotive? A: It is the moving power or force which impels a person erminantofcriminalliability? A: No. Motive alone will not bring about crimina se the RPC requires that there must be an overt act or an omission. When the ission of a crime, it always comesbeforetheintent. Note: Inamurdercase,theintenttokillisdemonstratedby theuseoflethalweapon;w nce.

Motiveismaterialwhen: 1. Theactsbringaboutvariantcrimes 2. There is doubt whet mmittedthecrime,ortheidentityofthe accusedisdoubtful 3. The evidence on the eispurelycircumstantial 4. Thereisaneedtodeterminewhetherdirect assaultispres erson inauthoritycommittedwhenheisnotinthe performanceofhisofficialduties 5. ruth between two antagonistic theories or versions of the killing


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 6. Where there are no eyewitnesses to the crime and where suspicion is likely fpersons.

A: 1. Grave those to which the law attaches thecapitalpunishmentorpenalties riods are afflictive, in accordance with Art. 25 of the RPC. (Art. 9,par.1,R awpunishes with penalties which in their maximum period are correctional, in ac rt. 25 of the RPC. (Art. 9, par. 2, RPC)

Q:Whatarethedistinctionsbetweenmotiveand intent? A: MOTIVE Itisthemovingpower whichimpelsapersonto actforadefiniteresult Acrim ive.Itisnotelement ofthecrime Isessentialonlywhenthe identityofperpetratori heuseofa particularmeansto achievethedesiredresult Itisaningredientofdolo o fdeliberate felonies Isessentialinintentional felonies 2.

Light those infractions of law for the commission of which the penalty of eding200 pesos,orboth,isprovided.(Art.9,par.3, RPC) Q:Whoareliableforgra incipals, accomplices and even accessories, because the degree of the penalty to ndson3factors: 1. Stagesofexecution 2. Thedegreeofparticipation 3. Thepresence stances Q:Whenarelightfeloniespunishable? A: GR: Light felonies are punisha onsummated. Note: It involves insignificant moral and material injuries,ifnotconsummated,the ightthatapenaltyisunnecessary. 3.

Q:Whatarethefactorsthataffectintent? A: 1. Mistake of fact that which ha foftheoffender,his actcanbejustified.Itissuchmistakethat will negate crimin heabsenceoftheelementofintent. Note: Mistake refers to the situation itself, not the identityofthepersonsinvo sonly a defense in intentional felony but never in culpable felony. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Aberratioictusmistakeintheblow Errorinpersonaemistakeintheidentity Praete uenceexceededtheintention Proximatecausethecauseofthecause isthecauseofthe

XPN: Light felonies are punishable in all stages whencommittedagainstpers Note:Itpresupposesmoraldepravity.

A.CLASSIFICATIONOFFELONIES(ART.9) Q: What is the importance of classifying t verity? A:Todetermine: 1. Whetherthesefeloniescanbecomplexed ornot 2. The ime and the prescriptionofthepenalty. Q: What are the classifications of fel irgravity?

Q:Whoareliableinlightfelonies? A:Onlytheprincipalsandtheaccomplicesareli ssories are not liable for light felonies. Q: What are the crimes considered A: 1. Slightphysicalinjuries 2. Theft(whenthevalueofthingstolenis lessthan5 nderthecircumstancesenumerated underArt.308par.3) 3. Alterationofboundarymarks 8


BOOK 1: Felonies 4. Maliciousmischief(whenthevalueofthe damage does not exceed 200 or cannot b ingagainsthonor A: ABERRATIOICTUS Apersondirectedthe blowatanintended victim,butbecauseof poorai ebody else. Theoffender,the intendedvictimaswellas theactualvictimareallat allygivesrisetoa complexcrime. Itgenerallygivesriseto thecomplexcrime.This reseriouscrimeis imposedinthemaximum period. ERRORINPERSONAE Thevictimactually the wasmistakenforanother whowasnotatthescene ofthecrime. Thereareonlytwo aetheactual butintendedvictimand theoffender. TheprovisionsofArt.49 applies e penaltyforthelesser crimewillbetheone imposed. 5.

B.ELEMENTSOFCRIMINALLIABILITY(Art.4) Q:Howiscriminalliabilityincurred? A: redbyanyperson: 1. Committing a felony although the wrongful act done be dif chheintended. 2. Performing an act which would be an offenseagainstpersonsor or the inherent possibility of its accomplishment or on account of the employme e or ineffectual means.(Art.4) Note: Article 4 does not mean to exclude offenders whoareliableeveniftheydo ionsspokenofinthesaidarticle.Thus,aperson whocommittedacrimewhichhereallyi toffenselike,ifA,intendingtokill his father, shot him, he is liable for the ningsentenceofArticle4shouldhave been:"Criminalliabilityshallalsobeincurredby

Q:Whatispraeterintentionem? A: In praeter intentionem, the injury is on t ultingconsequenceisso graveawrongthanwhatwasintended. Note:Theremustbeanotabledisparitybetweenthe meansemployedandtheresultingfelon nem is a mitigating circumstance particularlycoveredbyparagraph3ofArticle13.

Q: What situations are contemplated under the first paragraph of Art. 4, "wro ifferentfromwhatwasintended"? A: 1. Aberratioictusormistakeintheblow 2. Erro dentity 3. Praeter intentionem or where the consequenceexceededtheintention Note:Thethreeenumeratedsituationsarealwaysthe result of an intended felony, an se situationsdonotariseoutofcriminalnegligence.

Q:Whatisaberratioictusormistakeintheblow? A:Inaberratioictus,theoffender ttheharmfellonanother.There are three persons present when the felony is com the intended victim, and theactualvictim. Q: What are the distinctions betwee nderrorinpersonae?

Q: A and B went on a drinking spree. While they were drinking, they had so veraltimes.Asdefenseisthathehad no intention of killing his friend and that t so grave a wrong as that committed. Is praeter intentionem properly invoked? aeter intentionem is mitigating only if there is a notable disparity between th ndtheresultingfelony.Thefact that several wounds were inflicted on B is hardl eathathedidnotintendto commitsograveawrongasthatcommitted. Q: What does l liability shall be incurred by any person committing a felony although the w e different from that which he intended" presuppose? A:Itpresupposesthatthea auseoftheresultingfelony.Itmustbethedirect,


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 natural, and logical consequence of the felonious act. Q:Whatisaproximatecau se is that cause which sets into motion other causes and which, unbroken by a ening cause, produces a felony withoutwhichsuchfelonycouldnothaveresulted. (He eisthecauseofthe evilofthecause.) Asarule,theoffenderiscriminallyliable onious act, although not intended,ifthefeloniousactistheproximatecause ofthe isitesofproximatecause? A: 1. Thedirect,natural,andlogicalcause 2. Producest nbroken by any sufficient intervening cause 4. Withoutwhichtheresultwouldnothav proximate cause the same as immediate cause? A: A proximate cause is not nec atecause.Immediatecausemaybeacause which is far and remote from the conseque thercauseswhichresulted inthefelony. Aslongastheactoftheaccusedcontributed ven if the victim is about to die, he will still be liable for the felonious tvictim. Proximatecausedoesnotrequirethattheoffender needs to actually touch ded party. It is enough that the offender generated in themindoftheoffendedp mriskhimself. Illustration: XandYarecrewmembersofcargovessel.Theyhada heated argument. X reatenedtokillY.ThevictimY,believinghimselfto beinimmediateperil,threwhimsel ning.Inthiscase,Yisliableforhomicide forthedeathofY. Evenifothercausesc ultaslongasthewoundinflictedisdangerous,that is, calculated to destroy or en is liable. It is important that there be no efficient intervening cause.

Q:Howisproximatecausenegated? A: 1. Active force, distinct act, or fact a he felonious act of the accused, which serves as a sufficientinterveningcause ury or damage is due to the intentionalactofthevictim. Q: What circumstanc ficientinterveningcauses? A: 1. Theweakphysicalconditionofthevictim 2. The ne erament of the victim 3. Causes which are inherent in the victim, suchasthevi m 4. Refusal of the injured party of medical attendance 5. Erroneousorunskillful ent Note: Although the following may have intervened in thecommissionofthecrime,th ble fortheresultingcrimebecausetheproximatecauseis causedbyhim.

Q:Whatcircumstancesareconsideredfordeathto bepresumedtobethenaturalconseque esinflicted? A: 1. Thatthevictimwasinnormalconditionat the time the physica ted 2. Thatthedeathmaybeexpectedfromthe physicalinjuriesinflicted. 3. That dea reasonable time. Note: Even if other causes cooperated in producing the fatal result as long as ed is dangerous,thatis,calculatedtodestroyorendanger life, the actor is liabl hough the immediatecauseofdeathwaserroneousorunskillful medicaltreatment,refusa itto surgicaloperation,orthatthedeceasedwassuffering from tuberculosis, heart nternal malady. 10


BOOK 1: Felonies C.IMPOSSIBLECRIME[Art.4(2)] Q:Whataretherequisitesofanimpossiblecrime? A an offense againstpersonsorproperty. Note:Kidnappingisacrimeagainstpersonal securityandnotagainstpersonorproperty minallawthattheoffender will only be penalized for an impossible crime if he omeotherprovisionofthe RPC.Animpossiblecrimeisacrimeoflastresort. 2. 3. 4.

Actwasdonewithevilintent Accomplishment is inherently impossible or means emp adequate orineffectual Act performed should not constitute a violationofanother

Note: The offender must believe that he can consummate the intended crime. A m er who he knew was already dead cannot be liableforanimpossiblecrime

Q:Whatistheessenceofanimpossiblecrime? A: The essence of an impossible cri bilityofaccomplishingthecrimeor the inherent impossibility of the means employe rime. Q:Whatisinherentimpossibility? A:Inherentimpossibilitymeansthatundera ces, the crime could not have materialized. Q: What are the two kinds of in ? A: 1. Legal impossibility which occurs where the intended acts, even if nttoacrime.E.g.killinga deadperson. 2. Physicalimpossibilitywhereextraneous n to the accused prevent the consummation of the intended crime. E.g. pick poc let. Q: What is the reason for penalizing impossible crime? A: To teach th ause of his criminal perversity. Although objectively, no crime iscommitted,but eisacriminal.

Q:Whatareexamplesofimpossiblecrimes? A: 1. In employment of inadequate mean ison which is inadequatetokillaperson. 2. In employment of inefficient means owingthatitis empty. Q:Buddyalwaysresentedhisclassmate,Jun.One day,Buddypl nin his lunch. Not knowing where he can get poison, he approached another cla he disclosed his evil plan. Because he himself harbored resentment towards Jun, dyapoison,whichBuddyplacedonJun sfood. However, Jun did not die because, unk erry, the poison was actually powdered milk. What crime or crimes, if any, did t? A: Jerry and Buddy are liable for the socalled impossible crime because, hey tried to poison Jun and thus perpetrate murder, a crime against persons. J d only because the wouldbe killers were unaware that what they mixed with the red milk, not poison. Criminal liability is incurred by them although no crime setheiractoftryingtopoisonJuniscriminal. (1998BarQuestion) Q:Isimpossible its very nature, an impossible crime is a formal crime. It is either consummat ted at all. There is therefore no attemptedorfrustratedimpossiblecrime.

Q: Distinguish impossible crime from unconsummatedfelonies(attemptedorfrustrated UNCONSUMMATED FELONIES Intentisnotaccomplished Intentoftheoffenderhas possibilit hment IMPOSSIBLECRIMES Intentisnot accomplished Intentoftheoffender, cannotbea


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Intentcannotbe accomplishedbecause itisinherently impossibleto accomplishorbeca oyedby theoffenderis inadequateor ineffectual

Accomplishmentis preventedbythe interventionofcertain causeoraccidentinwhich t

D.STAGESOFEXECUTION(Art.6) Q: What are the classifications of felonies acc ion? A:Consummated,frustratedandattempted Q:Whatisthepurposeofclassificat oportionate penalty and equitablepunishment. Note: The penalties are graduated according to their degree of severity. The st ly to all kinds of felonies. There are felonies which do not admitofdivision.

Q: What are the crimes that do not admit of division? A: Formal crimes wh e instance, do not admit of division. e.g. physical injuriesandoraldefamation. ffelony? A: 1. Subjective phase that portion of execution of the crime sta ere the offender begins up to thatpointwherehestillhascontrolofhis acts. Note:Ifitreachesthepointwherehehasno more control over his acts, the subjec subjectivephaseisnot yetpassed, the felonywouldbeamereattempt. If it alrea is not produced,asarule,itisfrustrated.

Q:Whenisafelonyconsummated? A: A felony is consummated when all the acts n mentandexecutionare present. Q:Whataretheelementsoffrustratedfelony? A: 1 all the acts of execution. 2. Alltheactsperformedwouldproducethe felonyasaco lonyisnotproduced. 4. By the reason of causes independent of thewilloftheper onotadmitoffrustratedstage? A: 1. Rape the gravamen of the offense is ca slightest penetration to the female organ consummatesthefelony. 2. Arsonthem rty occurs, even if slight, the offense is consummated. 3. Corruption of publi cceptanceoftheofferconsummatesthe crime. 4. Physical injury consummated at iesareinflicted. 5. Adultery the essence of the crime is sexualcongress. e crime is the possession of the thing, once the thing hasbeentakenorinthe imeisconsummated. Q:Whataretheelementsofattemptedfelony? A: 1. Theoffende fthefelonydirectlybyovertacts Note: Overt acts are external acts which if continuedwilllogicallyresultinafe criminal liability because the offenderhascommencedthecommissionof anoffensewit

2. Objective phase results of the acts of execution,thatis,theaccomplishmen

Note: If the subjective and objective phases are present,thereisconsummatedfelo

He does not perform all the acts of execution which should produce the felon 12


BOOK 1: Felonies The nonperformance of all acts of executionwasduetoacauseoraccident other ontaneousdesistance A:Thedifferencebetweentheattemptedstageand the frustrated ther the offender has performed all the acts of execution for the accomplishmen lly, under the article, if the offender has performed all the acts of executio ducethefelonyasaconsequencebutthefelony was not realized, then the crime is edstage. Iftheoffenderhasnotyetperformedalltheactsof execution(thereisyet was not able to perform all the acts of executionduetosomecauseoraccidentot esistance,thenyouhavean attemptedfelony. Q: What are the distinctions between ratedandconsummatedfelony? A: ATTEMPTED criminalpurpose wasnot accomplished Offendermerely commencesthe commissi imedirectlyby overtacts. FRUSTRATED criminalpurpose wasnot accomplished Offender llthe actsofexecution whichwould producethe felonyasa consequence. Theinterve oraccidentwhich theoffenderhad nopart preventedthe accomplishment Offenderhas ivestage CONSUMMATED Criminalpurpose was accomplished. Offenderhas performedall t cutionwhich wouldproduce thefelonyasthe consequence. Thefelonywas producedasa fthe offender Subjectiveand objectivephase arepresent 3.

Note: The moment the execution of the crime has already gone to that point wh d followasaconsequence,itiseitheralreadyfrustrated or consummated. If the fel s a consequence, it is already frustrated. If the felony followsasaconsequence

The word directly emphasizes the requirement that theattemptedfelonyisthatwhich o theovertactperformedbytheoffendernotthefelony hehasinhismind.

Q: A person enters the dwelling of another. However, at the very moment of could do anything, he is already apprehended by the household members, can he ptedrobbery? A: No. He can only be held liable for attempted robbery when h d all acts performed by him directly leading to robbery. The actofenteringalo obbery althoughthatmaybewhathemayhaveplannedto commit. However, he may be h ng. Q: The accused brought gasoline into a building, with the intent to burn s apprehendedbythesecurityguard,didthecrime ofarsoncommence? A: Yes. The a ble for attempted arson because the bringing of the gasoline was already an ov pprehension was the reason other than his own spontaneousdesistance. Q: What nvolved in determining the stage (whether it be in the attempted, frustrated or age) of the commissionofafelony? A: 1. Themannerofcommittingthecrime 2. T atureofthecrimeitself Q:Whatisthedistinctionbetweenattemptedand frustratedf

Theinterventionof certaincauseor accidentwhichthe offenderhadno partprevented Offenderhasnot passedthe subjectivephase

Q:Whataretheinstanceswhereinthestagesofa crimewillnotapply? A: 1. Offen ws,unlessotherwiseprovidedfor. 2. Formalcrimes(e.g.,slanderadultery,etc.) 3. Imp s 4. Crimesconsummatedbymereattempt (e.g.,attempttofleetoanenemycountry, trea rs) 5. Feloniesbyomission


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 6. Crimescommittedbymereagreement (e.g.,bettinginsports,corruptionof publicoffi ACYANDPROPOSAL(Art.8) Note: GR: When conspiracy exists, the degree of participationofeachconspiratori ecausetheactofoneistheactofall,theyhave equalcriminalresponsibility. XPN: piracy, if a co conspirator merely cooperated in the commission of the crime w t or minimal acts, suchthatevenwithouthiscooperation,thecrime could be carrie onspirator shouldbepunishedasanaccompliceonly.(People v.Niem,G.R.No.521,Dec. heactconstitutesasingle indivisibleoffense.

Q:Whatisconspiracy? A: Conspiracy exists when two or more persons cometoa mmission ofafelonyanddecidetocommitit. Q:Whataretherequisitesofconspiracy? . The participants acted in concert or simultaneously which is indicative of a stowardsacommon criminalgoalorcriminalobjective Q:Whendoesproposalexist? he person who has decided to commit a felony proposes its execution tosomeoth Is proposal and conspiracy to commit felony punishable? A: GR:Conspiracyandpr ny arenotpunishable. Ratio:Becausetheyaremerepreparatoryacts. Q: What are the distinctions between conspiracy andproposaltocommitafelony? CONSPIRACY PROPOSAL

Thereisproposalwhen Itexistswhentwoormore thepersonwhohas personscometoan cerningthe felonyproposesits commissionofafelonyand executiontosomeother deci ersons. Proposalistrueonlyupto thepointwheretheparty towhomtheproposalwas osal. Oncetheproposalis accepted,aconspiracy arises.

XPN:Theyarepunishableonlyincasesinwhich thelawspecificallyprovidesapenalty Note: It is fundamental that there exists a unity of purposeandtheunityinthe bjectiveamongthecoconspirators. Mere knowledge, acquiescence to, or approval o ut cooperation or at least, agreement to cooperate,isnotenoughtoconstituteaco cyispossibleevenwhenparticipantsdonot knoweachother.

Proposalisunilateral,one Conspiracyisbilateral,it partymakesaproposition requir heother.

Q:Isitrequiredthatthereisanagreementamong theparticipantstoconstituteconspi h that the offenders acted simultaneously or in a synchronized manner to bring tention.

Q:Whatarethetwokindsofconspiracy? A: 1. Conspiracy as a crime The mere f. This is only truewhenthelawexpresslypunishesthe mere conspiracy, otherwise, es not bring about the commission of the crime because conspiracyisnotanovert yact. Note:Treason,rebellion,sedition,andcoup d etat are the only crimes where the c posal to commit them arepunishable. 2.

Conspiracyasabasisofincurringcriminal liability When the conspiracy is onl 14



BOOK 1: Felonies basis of incurring criminal liability, there mustbeanovertactdonebeforetheco iminallyliable. Q:Whatisimpliedconspiracy? A: When the conspiracy is just iminal liability, it may be deduced or inferred from the acts of several offen ut the commission of the crime, i.e. when such acts discloseorshowacommonpur tive. Q: What are the legal effects of implied conspiracy? A: 1. Not all t the scene of the crime will be considered conspirators 2. Only those who part nal acts in the commission of the crime will beconsideredascoconspirators Note: In order to hold someone criminally liable, in additiontomerepresence,th s that are closelyrelated and coordinated to establish the presence of common nd communityofpurposeinthecommissionofthecrime.

place where the crime was committed. (1998 Bar Question) F.MULTIPLEOFFENDERS sandEffects) Seealsopage42regardingthedifferentformsof repetitionorhabitualit idivism the offender at thetime of his trial for one crime shall have been aljudgmentof anotherembracedinthesametitleofthe RPC. Note: It is important that conviction which came earlier must refer to the cri ier than the subsequent conviction.

Arecidivistisentitledtothebenefitsofthe Indeterminate Sentence Law but is dis ling credit of his preventiveimprisonment. 2.

Q:JuanandArturodevisedaplantomurderJoel. InanarrowalleynearJoel shouse,J tandshootJoelwhenthe latter passes through on his way to work. Arturo will the alley and simultaneously shoot Joel from behind. On the appointed day, Artu ded by the authorities before reaching the alley. When Juan shotJoelasplanned, ro was arrested earlier. Discuss the criminal liability ofArturo,ifany. A: A e two who devised the plan to murder Joel, thereby becomes coprincipal by dir t is needed only is an overt act and both will incur criminal liability. Artu onspirator arose from his participation in jointly devising the criminal plan wi ll Jose. And it was pursuant to that conspiracythatJuankilledJoel.Theconspira by inference only. The overt act was donepursuanttothatconspiracywhereofArturo erebeingaconspiracy,theactof one is the act of all. Arturo, therefore, shoul rator but the penalty on him maybethatofanaccompliceonlybecausehewas not a e in the shooting of Joel,havingbeenapprehendedbeforereachingthe 3. 4.

Reiteracion the offender has been previously punished for an offense which qual or greater penalty or for two or more crimes to whichitattachesalighter nquency the offender within the period of 10 years from the date of his re of the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery, theft,esta tion, is found guilty of any of the saidcrimesathirdtimeoroftener. Quasir mit a felony after having been convicted by final judgment before beginningtos hile serving such sentence shall be punished bythemaximumperiodprescribedbylaw

G.COMPLEXCRIMESvisSPECIALCOMPLEX CRIMES COMPLEXCRIMES (Art.48) Q:Wh hentwoormorecrimes arecommittedbuttheyconstituteonlyonecrime in the eyes of ly one criminalintenthence,onlyonepenaltyisimposed


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q:Whataretheconceptsofcomplexcrimes? A: 1. A single criminal act constitutin avefelonies. 2. Offender has only one criminal intent, hence, there is only o d. Q:Whatarethekindsofcomplexcrimes? A: 1. Compound crime when a singl rave or less gravefelonies. Requisites: a. Only a single act is performed b ingleactproduces: i. Twoormoregravefelonies ii. One or more grave and one o iii. Two or more less grave felonies. 2. Complexcrimeproperwhenanoffense i committing theother. Requisites: a. At least two offenses are committed b. One ffenses must benecessarytocommittheother c. Both or all the offenses must be atute Note:Thefirstcrimemustbeanecessarymeans tocommittheother. Thereshouldonly plexcrime. Onlyonepenaltyisimposedforcomplexcrimes becausethereisonlyonecr

A: 1. 2. When one offense is committed to concealtheother When one crime is , for in that case, the former shall be absorbed by the latter. E.g. trespass nt of the robberywithforceuponthings Whenthecrimehasthesameelements astheo a and falsification of private documents havethesameelementofdamage.Thus there e of estafa throughfalsificationofprivatedocument Whenoneoftheoffensesispen 3.

4. 5. Incontinuedcrimes Q:Whatisthepenaltyforcomplexcrimesunder Article4 me is committed, the penalty for the most serious crime in its maximumperiods hen the law imposes a single penalty forspecialcomplexcrimes. Q:Whatisacon ime,consistingofaseriesofacts but arising from one criminal resolution (e.g. atisacontinuedcrime? A: Here, the offender is impelled by a single criminal esofactsat aboutthesametimeinaboutthesameplaceand all the overt acts viol law. e.g. theft of 13 cows belonging to differentownerscommittedbytheaccuseda metime. Q: What are the distinctions between special complex crimes and compl t. 48? A: SPECIALCOMPLEX CRIME Combinationof COMPLEXCRIMEUNDER ART.48 Thecombinationisno

3. Special complex crime known as composite crime, the component crimes con ivisible offense andarethuspenalizedasonecrime Q:Whenistherenocomplexcrime 16


BOOK 1: Felonies offensesarefixedor specifiedbylaw E.g.robberywith homicide,robberywith rape iedcombinationis alsospecific specified,thatis,grave and/orlessgrave;orone o eanstocommittheother Thepenaltyimposedisthe penaltyforthemost seriousoffense

Q:Whatispluralityofcrimes? A: It is the successive execution by the same riminal acts upon any of whichnoconvictionhasyetbeendeclared Q:Whatarethe 1. Formal or ideal only one criminal liability a. ComplexcrimedefinedinAr ically fixes a single penalty for 2 or more offensescommitted c. Continuedcrime erial there are different crimes in law and in the conscience of theoffende r shall be punished for each and every offensethathecommitted Q: Can there p dtat withrebellion? A: Yes. If there was conspiracy between the offender/ the rebellion. By conspiracy,thecrimeofonewouldbethecrimeof the other and v le because the offender in coup dtat may be any person or persons belonging tional police or a public officer, whereas rebellion does not so require. Moreo oup detat may be committed singly, whereas rebellion requires a public uprising ms to overthrow the duly constituted government. Since the two crimes are essen nt and punished with distinct penalties, there is no legal impediment to the a . 48 of the RevisedPenalCode.(2003BarQuestion) Q: Can there be a complex on? A:Yes,coupd tatcanbecomplexedwithsedition because the two crimes are

and distinctly punished under the Revised Penal Code. Sedition may not be direc government or nonpolitical in objective, whereas coup d tat is always political it is directedagainstthegovernmentandledbypersons orpublicofficerholdingpubl e military or national police. Art. 48 of the Code may apply under the condit ed. (2003BarQuestion)


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 III.CIRCUMSTANCESWHICHAFFECTCRIMINAL LIABILITY Q: What are the circumstances a nal liability? A:JEMAA 1. Justifyingcircumstances 2. Exemptingcircumstances 3. Mi gcircumstances 4. Aggravatingcircumstances 5. Alternativecircumstances Q:Whatare ircumstancesfoundin theRPCaffectingcriminalliability? A: 1. Absolutory cause n exempting circumstance and it is predicated on lack of voluntariness such as xtenuatingcircumstancestheeffectof extenuating circumstances is to mitigate the tyoftheoffender Q:Whatareexamplesofabsolutorycauses? A: 1. Accessory is a l. (Art.20) 2. Discovering secrets through seizure of correspondenceofwardbythe enalized.(Art.219) 3. When only slight or less serious physical injuries are in erson who surprised his/her spouse or daughter in theactofsexualintercoursewit rt.247) 4. Crime of theft, swindling or malicious mischief is committed a 32) 5. Marriage of the offender with the offended party when the crime committe tion, seduction, oractsoflasciviousness.(Art.344) 6. Instigation 7. Trespass n the purpose of entering anothers dwelling againstthelatterswillistopr ,theoccupantsof the dwelling or a third person, or for the purposes of rende umanity or justice, or when entering cafes, taverns, inns and other public hous me are open. (Art. 280par.2) Adulteryandconcubinageiftheoffended party shall doned theoffenders.(Art.344) Q:Ismistakeoffactanabsolutorycause? A: Yes. hout criminal intent.Soinmistakeoffact,itisnecessarythathad thefactsbeentru be, the act is justified. If not, there is criminal liability, because there i f fact anymore. The offender must believe he is performingalawfulact. Q: Do e the offender from criminalliability? A:Yes.Ininstigation,theoffendersimply rcersand,therefore,heisacting without criminal intent because without the insti thavedonethecriminalact whichhediduponinstigationofthelawenforcers. Note:Thisisbasedontherulethatapersoncannotbe acriminalifhismindisnotcrim 8.

Q: What if the person instigated does not know thatthepersoninstigatinghimi erson instigated does not know that the personinstigatinghimisalawenforceror w enforcer, this is not a case of instigation. This is a case of inducement, yliable. Q:Isentrapmentanabsolutorycause? A: No. Entrapment is not an s not exempt the offender or mitigatehiscriminalliability. Q:Whatistheeffe that the person trying to entrap him is a law enforcer? A:Inentrapment,the knowthatthepersontryingtoentraphimisalaw enforcer. The idea is incompatible in entrapment, the person entrapped is actually committing a crime. The officer him only lays down ways and means to haveevidenceofthecommissionofthecrime, ys and means, the person entrappedisactuallyengagedinaviolationoflaw. Q: eactisan entrapmentorinstigation? 18


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability A: InthecaseofPeoplev.DoriatheSCheldthat the conduct of the apprehending officers and the predisposition of the accused ime mustbeexamined: Inbuybustoperationsdemandsthatthedetailsof the purporte learly and adequately shown. This must start from the initial contactbetweenthe usher, the offer to purchase, the promise or payment of the consideration until on of the salebythedeliveryoftheillegaldrugsubjectofthe sale. Themanner hether or not through an informant, the offer to purchase the drug, the paymen oney,andthedeliveryoftheillegaldrug,whether to the informant alone or the po esubjectofstrictscrutinybycourtstoinsure thatlawabidingcitizensarenotunlawfu ense. Criminalsmustbecaughtbutnotatallcost.Atthe sametime,however,examini ld not disable courts into ignoring the accused s predisposition to commit the is overwhelming evidence of habitual delinquency, recidivism or plain criminal pr then this must also be considered. Courts should look at all factors to determ ition ofanaccusedtocommitanoffenseinsofarasthey are relevant to determine finducement. Q: What are the distinctions between instigation andentrapment? INSTIGATION Alawenforcementagent inducesaninnocent persontocommita crimeandwo erthe commissionofthecrime. Thelawenforcement agentconceivesthe commissionoft othe accused. Anabsolutorycause. ENTRAPMENT Apersonhasplanned,or isabouttocom sortedtobyapublic officertotrapandcatch thecriminal.

A:Incasesofinfanticideandabortion,concealment of dishonor is an extenuating ci ar as the unwed mother and the maternal grandparentsareconcerned JUSTIFYING :Whatarejustifyingcircumstances? A: They are those acts of a person said to ,suchthatapersonisdeemed not to have transgressed the law and is free from ity. Theyare: 1. Selfdefense 2. Defenseofrelatives 3. Defenseofstranger 4. Avo vilorinjury 5. Fulfillment of duty or exercise of right or office 6. Obedience Note: Justifying circumstances are in the nature of defensive acts, hence, unlaw on must alwaysexist. Q: Who has the burden of evidence in criminal case?

A: In criminal cases, the burden of proving guilt is alwaystheplaintiff/prosecut used sets up an affirmative defense, the burden is on himtoprovesuchbyclear dence The foregoing rests on the maxim: EL INCOMBIT PROBOTION QUI DECIT NON Q rts,nothewhodenies,mustprove) 1.SELFDEFENSE. Q:Whatrightsareincludedi otonlythedefenseofthe personorbodyoftheoneassaultedbutalsothatof his righ rotected by law. Thusitincludes: 1. Defenseoftheperson 2. Defenseofrights ttohonor. Ideatocommitthecrime comesfromtheoffender. Notanabsolutorycause. Q: What are circumstances? examples of extenuating


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Note: Hence, a slap on the face is consideredasunlawfulaggressionsincethe fac isdignity.Itis a serious, personal attack (Rugas v. People, G.R.No.147789,Jan

circumstance provided there is unlawful aggression. Q:Whatisunlawfulaggression ck or a threatened attack which produces an imminent danger to the life and l oselfdefense. Q:Whatarethetypesofunlawfulaggression? A: 1. Actualthedan lyinexistence. 2. Imminentthedangerisonthepointof happening. It is not r ready begun, for it may be toolate. Note:Whatjustifiesthekillingofasupposedunlawful aggressor is that if the offe aggressor,itwillbehisownlifethatwillbelost. Nounlawfulaggressionwhenthere allengetofighthasbeenaccepted. Butaggressionwhichisaheadofastipulatedtimeand 4.

The defense of property rights can be invoked if there is an attack upon the is not coupled with an attack upon the person of the owner of the premises. stification must however be present. (Peoplev.Narvaez,G.R.Nos.L3346667, Apr.2 n libel. Physical assault may bejustifiedwhenthelibelisaimedatthe personsgo rogress,onelibeldeservesanother. 5.

Note:Whatisimportantisnotthedualityoftheattack but whether the means employe enttheattack.

Q:Whataretherequisitesofselfdefense? A: 1. Unlawfulaggression 2. Reasonable ns employedtopreventorrepelit 3. Lackofsufficientprovocationonthepart ofthe : What is the reason for lawfulness of self defense? A: It is impossible fo ll its citizens.Also,apersoncannotjustgiveuphisrights withoutresistancebeing meaning of stand ground when right? A: The law does not require a person nt is rapidly advancing upon him withadeadlyweapon. Ratio:Herunstheriskofbeingattackedinthebackby theaggressor.

Q:Whataretheeffectsofselfdefense? A: 1. When all the elements are present elf is free from criminalliabilityandcivilliability. 2. Whenonlyamajorityof rivileged mitigating

Q: To give rise to selfdefense, should the aggressionbelegalorillegal? A: ,liketheattackof thehusbandagainstparamourofhiswifewhomhe surprisedinanunc ef ofpolicewhothrewstonesattheaccusedwhowas runningawaytoeludearrestofacr ggressionmustbelawful. Q:Whatistheeffectifthereisamistakeoffacton thepa istake of fact, the belief of the accused may be considered in determining the wful aggression. E.g. there is self defense even if the aggressor used a toy accused believed it to be a real gun. Q:Whatisthetestinordertoknowifse metheaccusedkilledthe supposedunlawfulaggressor,washisorher lifein danger? n into consideration in determining whether or not the means employed bytheper lfarereasonable? 20


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability A: 1. 2. Natureandqualityoftheweaponusedby theaggression. Physical condition, d othercircumstancesofboththeoffender anddefender. Placeandoccasionoftheassau SELFDEFENSE Inselfdefense,the unlawfulaggressionwas stillexistingwhenthe aggres isabledbytheperson makingthedefense. RETALIATION Inretaliation,the inceptualunla ionhadalready ceasedwhentheaccused attackedhim. 3.

Note: Perfect equality between the weapons used by theonedefendinghimselfandth ot required or material commensurability between themeansofattackanddefense. assaulted does not have sufficient tranquility of mind to think and to calculat he weapon used. What the law requires is rationalequivalence.

Q:Whataretherequisiteswhichmustbepresent to satisfy the reasonable necessit opreventorrepelit? A: 1. Meanswereusedtopreventorrepel 2. Meansmustbene ntorrepelit 3. Means must be reasonabledepending on the circumstances, but gen nate to the force of the aggressor Q:Inwhatinstancescantherebelackofsuffi ndefendinghimself? A: 1. No provocation at all was given to aggressorbyperso . Evenifprovocationwasgiven,itwasnot sufficient. 3. Even if provocation was su ot given by the person defending himself. 4. Even if provocation was given by himself, it was not the proximate and immediate to the act of aggression. 5. S roportionate to the damagecausedbytheact,andadequate tostironetoitscommissio gressorretreats? A: The aggression ceases except when retreat is made to take us position to insure the success of the attack begun, unlawful aggressionconti edistinctionsbetweenselfdefense andretaliation?

Q: One night, Lina, a young married woman, was soundasleepinherbedroomwhen inking it was her husband Tito, whocamehomeadayearlyfromhisbusinesstrip, Li r. After the act, the mansaid,"IhopeyouenjoyeditasmuchasIdid." Not recogn n Lina that the man was not Tito, her husband. Furious, LinatookoutTito sgun h homicide, Lina denies culpability on the groundofdefenseofhonor.Isherclaim claim that she acted in defense of honor is not tenable because the unlawful nor had already ceased. Defenseofhonorasincludedinselfdefense,must have been el an unlawful aggression. There is no defense to speak of where theunlawfula sts.(1998Bar Question) 2.DEFENSEOFRELATIVES. Q:Whataretherequisitesof laggression. 2. Reasonable necessity of the means employedtopreventorrepelit. defended gave no provocation. Note: The law gives a leeway on the third requisite, even if the relative bei provocation,iftherelativemakingthedefensehadno parttherein,hecansuccessfullyi ative.

Q:Whoaretherelativescovered? A: 1. Spouse 2. Ascendants 3. Descendants 4. Leg ed brothers and sisters, or relatives by affinity in the same degrees. 5. Relat uinity within the 4th civildegree.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q:Whatifthepersonbeingdefendedisalreadya secondcousin? A:Itwillbeconsider tal because if the person making the defense acted out of revenge, resentment einkillingtheaggressor,hecannotinvokethe justifying circumstance if the relati eady a stranger in the eyes of the law. On the other hand, it the relative thecoverageofdefenseofrelative,eventhoughhe actedoutofsomeevilmotive,itwoul at there was unlawful aggression against the relative defended, and that the pe did not contribute to the unlawful aggression. 3.DEFENSEOFSTRANGERS. Q: fense of strangers? A: 1. Unlawfulaggression 2. Reasonablenecessityofthe . Person defending be not induced by revenge,resentmentorotherevilmotive Q:W sonnotincludedintheenumerationof relativesmentionedabove. Q: What is the di ense of relativesanddefenseofstrangers? A: DEFENSEOFRELATIVES Indefenseofrelatives, eventhoughtheperson makingthedefense ive, hecanstillinvokethe justifyingcircumstance, aslongashedidnot contribute on DEFENSEOFSTRANGERS Indefenseofstrangers,if thepersonmakingthe defenseacted entor someevilmotiveinkilling theaggressor,hecannot invokethejustifying circu

battering relationships as a result of cumulative abuse. Thebatteredwomansyndrome izedby thesocalledcycleofviolence,whichhas3phases. Q.Whatarethecyclesof gphase 2. Acutebatteringincident 3. Tranquil, loving (or at least nonviolent Note: One must undergo 3 phases to establish the patternofviolence.Onemustpas es.

Q.Whoisabatteredwoman? A:Sheiswomanwhoisrepeatedlysubjectedtoany forcef viorbyaman in order to coerce her to do something he wants hertodowithout women includes wives or women in any formofintimaterelationshipwithmen. Furt ssifiedasabattered woman, the couple must go through the battering cycleatlea dherselfin anabusiverelationshipwithamanonce.Ifitoccurs asecondtime,andshe finedasabatteredwoman.(Peoplev.Genosa, G.R.No.135981,Jan.15,2004) Q.CanBW imsurvivors who are found by the courts to be suffering from battered woman s minalorcivilliability notwithstanding the absence of any of the elements for j stances of self defenseundertheRPC. In laymans terms, if an abused woman kills or inflict physical injuries on he livein partner, once the trial court determines that she is suffering from the drome, the courtwilldeclarehernotguilty(Peoplev.Genosa)

A.AntiViolenceagainstWomenandtheir ChildrenActof2004(R.A.9262) Q:Whatis Battered Woman Syndrome" refers to a scientifically defined pattern of psychologi avioral symptoms found in women living in

Thelawnowallowsthebatteredwomansyndrome as a valid defense in the crime if f self defense under the RPC. (Sec. 26) 22


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability Note: Inthedeterminationofthestateofmindofthe woman who was suffering from b eatthetimeofthecommissionofthecrime, the courts shall be assisted by expert ogists.

A: 1. Accusedactedintheperformanceofa dutyorinthelawfulexerciseofarightor ense committed be the necessary consequence of the due performance of duty or seofsuchrightoroffice. 2.

4.AVOIDANCEOFGREATEREVIL. ORSTATEOFNECESSITY. Q:Whataretherequisites dactuallyexists. 2. Injuryfearedbegreaterthanthatdoneto avoidit. 3. There be less harmfulmeansofpreventingit,and 4. There must be no contribution on the p at caused the evil toarise. Note: The state of necessity must not have been broughtaboutbythenegligenceor okingthejustifyingcircumstances.

Note: If the police officer acted with negligence or imprudence in apprehending he law, the justifyingcircumstanceoffulfillmentofdutycannotbe invoked. Thesh ingprisonersisalways justified.(Peoplev.Delima,G.R.No.138692,June16, 2003)

Q:Whatdoesdamagetoanothercover? A:Damagetoanothercoversinjurytopersonsan sthetermevilmean? A: The term evil means harmful, injurious, disastrous, lated, it must actually exist. If it is merely expected or anticipated,theone tin astateofnecessity. Q:Whomustbeliablecivilly? A: The persons for who evented shall be civilly liable in proportion tothebenefitwhichtheyreceived. Note: Generally, there is no civil liability in justifying circumstances. However in par. 4 of this Article where there is civil liability. The civil liability is based not on the act committed butonthebenefitderivedfromthestateofneces not be civilly liable if he did not receive any benefit out of the state of nd,personswhodidnotparticipateinthe damageorinjurywouldbecivillyliableifthe teofnecessity. 5.FULFILLMENTOFDUTY. Q:Whataretherequisitesoffulfillmentofduty?

Q: Lucresia, a store owner, was robbed of her braceletinherhome.Thefollowing fternoon,aneighbor,22yearold JunJun,whohadanunsavoryreputation,cameto her s r. Lucresia noticed her bracelet wound around the right arm of Jun Jun. As so , Lucresia went to a nearby police station and sought the help of a policeman Reyes. He went with Lucresia to the house of JunJun to confront the latter. imself as a policeman and tried to get hold of JunJun who resisted and ran and fired two warning shots in the air JunJun continuedtorunandwhenhewasab mintherightleg.JunJun washitandhefelldownbuthecrawledtowardsa fence, int g underneath.WhenPat.Reyeswasabout5meters away,hefiredanothershotatJunJunh hip. Pat Reyes brought JunJun to the hospital, but because of profuse bleeding ed. Pat Reyes was subsequently chargedwithhomicide.Duringthetrial,PatReyes rai fexoneration,thathe acted in the fulfillment of a duty. Is the defense tenabl enseofhavingactedinthefulfillment ofadutyrequiresasacondition,interalia,tha tedbetheunavoidableor necessary consequence of the due performance of theduty .L47722,July27, 1943). It is not enough that the accused acted in fulfillmen was shot in the right leg and was already crawling, there was no need for Pa rther. Clearly, Pat. Reyes acted beyond the call of duty which brought about t f the victim. (2000BarQuestion)



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 6.OBEDIENCETOANORDERISSUED. FORSOMELAWFULPURPOSE. Q: What are the re orsomelawfulpurpose? A: 1. Anorderhasbeenissuedbyasuperior 2. Such order m pose 3. Means used by the subordinate to carry outsaidorderislawful Note: Both the person who gives the order, and the person who executes it, mu he limitationsprescribedbylaw. 5. 6.

Any person who acts under the compulsionofanirresistibleforce. Anypersonwhoac uncontrollable fear of an equal or greaterinjury. Any person who fails to perf dbylaw,whenpreventedbysome lawfulorinsuperablecause. 7.

Q: Is good faith on the part of the subordinate material? A: Yes. If he h, not being aware of its illegality, he is not liable. However, the order mu legal. If the order is patently illegal, this circumstance cannotbevalidlyinvok Note: Even if the order is patently illegal, the subordinatemaystillbeableto cumstancesofhavingacteduponthecompulsionof an irresistible force, or under the ntrollablefear.

EXEMPTINGCIRCUMSTANCES. (Art.12). Q:Whoareexemptedfromcriminalliability person, unless the latter has acted during a lucid interval. 2. A child fifte nder is exempt from criminal liability under R.A. 9344 3. A person over fifte undereighteen,unlesshehasactedwith discernment, in which case, such child shal ropriate proceedings in accordance with R.A. 9344. 4. Any person who, while pe ulactwithduecare,causesaninjury by mere accident without the fault or intent

Q: What is the basis for the exemption from criminalliability? A: The reas es on the involuntariness of the act, that is, one or some of the ingredients ch as criminal intent, intelligence, or freedom of action on the partoftheoff case of exempting circumstances, is there a crimecommitted? A:Yes.Thereisac nal liability arises from it because of the complete absence of any of the co titute freewillorvoluntarinessoftheact. Q:Whohastheburdenofproof? A:Any nse and must be proved by the defendant to the satisfactionofthecourt. 1. rethedistinctionsbetweenimbecility andinsanity? A: IMBECILITY Animbecileisonewho, whileadvancedinage, hasamental developmentcompa ren betweentwotoseven yearsofage. Nolucidinterval Exemptincriminalliability i sanityexistswhen thereisacomplete deprivationof intelligencein committingtheac rval Notexemptfrom criminalliabilityifitcan beshownthatheacted duringlucidi Q: What are the two tests for exemption on groundsofinsanity? 24


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability A: 1. Test of cognition whether the accused acted with complete deprivation o mmittingsaidcrime. Test of volition whether the accused acted in total depri will. A: a. Dementia praecox (Schizoprenia) is covered by the term insanity tackiscommoninsuchform of psychosis. It is characterized by delusionsthathei xually, or that his property is being taken, thus the person has no control o nia or presence of abnormal, persistentimpulseortendencytosteal,to beconsidere lhaveto beinvestigatedbycompetentpsychiatrist todetermineiftheunlawfulactisd lse produced by his mental defect, thus loss of willpower. If such mental defe s the exercise of his willpower and did not deprive him of the consciousness igating. Epilepsywhichischronicnervousdisease characterized by compulsive motio les and loss of consciousness maybecoveredbytheterninsanity. 2.

Note: In the Philippines, both cognition and volition testsareapplied.Theremust ation oftheintellectorwillorfreedom.

Q:Isthepresumptioninfavorofsanity? A: Yes. The defense must prove that t time of the commission of the crime. Note: Mere abnormalities of the mental facilities are notenough. b.

Q: What are the effects of the insanity of the accused? A: 1. Atthetimeo . During trial proceedings suspended, accusediscommittedtoahospital 3. Afte ngsentence execution of judgment is suspended, the accused is committed to a of confinement in the hospital is counted for the purpose of the prescriptiono houldinsanitybepresent? A: Insanity at the time of the commission of the crim f the trial will exempt onefromcriminalliability. Q:Whatistheeffectofinsani seofinsanityatthetimeofthetrial,there will be suspension of the trial until e accused is restored to afford him fairtrial. Q:Whataretheotherinstanceso c.

Note:Feeblemindednessisnotimbecilitybecausethe offendercandistinguishrightfromw and an insane to be exempted must not be able to distinguishrightfromwrong.

2.MINORITY. B.JuvenileJusticeandWelfareActof2006 (R.A.9344) Q:Whati ferstoachildwhoisallegedas,accusedof, oradjudgedas,havingcommittedanoffense Note:Thechildinconflictwiththelawshallenjoythe presumption of minority. He/sh rightsofachildinconflictwiththelawuntilhe/sheis proventobe18yearsoldorol Q: What is the minimum age of criminal responsibility?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: AGEBRACKET 15yearsoldor below Above15but below18,who actedwithout discernmen ctedwith discernment CRIMINAL LIABILITY Exempt TREATMENT Thechildshallbe subjec tion program Thechildshallbe subjectedtoan intervention program Suchchildshall propriate proceedingsin accordancewith R.A.9344

Uponsuspensionofsentenceandafterconsidering the various circumstances of the ch hall impose the appropriate disposition measures asprovidedintheSupremeCourtRul nflictwiththeLaw.(Sec.38) Note: The suspension of sentence under sec.38 R.A.9344 applies regardless of the sed. The provision therefore modifies the ruling in Declaradorv.Gubatan SEC.38. sionofSentence.Oncethe child who is under eighteen (18) years of age at th he offense is found guilty oftheoffensecharged,thecourtshalldetermineand asce ility which may have resulted from the offense committed. However, instead of p judgment of conviction, the court shall place the child in conflict with the l d sentence, without need of application:Provided,however, That suspension of sen till be applied even if the juvenile is alreadyeighteenyears(18)ofageormore ntofhis/herguilt. Uponsuspensionofsentenceandafterconsideringthe various circu ild, the court shall impose the appropriate disposition measures as provided in urt Rule on Juveniles in ConflictwiththeLaw.(A.M.No.02118SC,November 24,20 Exempt Not exempt

Note: The exemption from criminal liability herein established does not include om civil liability, which shall be enforced in accordance with existinglaws

Q:Howcantheagebedetermined? A:Theageofachildmaybedeterminedfromthe child Baptismalcertificate Anyotherpertinentdocuments Note: In the absence of these documents, age may be based on information from herself, testimonies of other persons, the physical appearance of the childando dence.Incaseof doubt as to the age of the child, it shall be resolvedinhis

Q: What is automatic suspension of sentence as providedforinSec.38ofR.A.9344 s under 18 years of age at thetimeofthecommissionoftheoffenseisfound guilt e court shall determineandascertainanycivilliabilitywhichmay have resulted fro itted. However, instead of pronouncing the judgment of conviction,thecourtshall nflict with the law under suspended sentence, without need of application: Provi , That suspensionofsentenceshallstillbeappliedevenif the juvenile is already at thetimeofthepronouncementofhis/herguilt.

Q: What are the exempting provisions under this act? A: 1. Statusoffenses(Se ered an offense or not penalized if committed by an adult shall not be consid hall not be punishedifcommittedbyachild. 2. Offenses not applicable to child loweighteen(18)yearsof ageshallbeexemptfromprosecutionfor thecrimeof: a. V n under Section202ofRPC b. Sniffing of rugby under Presidential DecreeNo.1619 Ratio: Such prosecution being inconsistent with the United Nations Convention on f the Child: Provided, That said persons shall undergo appropriate counselingand ram. 26



BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability 3. Under Sec 59 with regard to exemption fromtheapplicationofdeathpenalty. TIONOF CAUSINGIT.(DAMNUMABSQUEINJURIA). Q: What are the requisites of damnu Apersonisperformingalawfulact 2. Withduecare 3. He causes injury to another Note: It is something that happens outside theswayofourwill,andalthoughitcom ct of our will, lies beyondtheboundsofhumanlyforeseeable consequences.

QuasioffensesunderArticle365arecommittedby means ofculpa. Crimes against Secur ymeansofdolo. Article 365, failure to lend help to one s victim is neither a an element of the offense therein penalized. Its presence merely increases the egree. The last paragraphoftheArticlespecificallyprovides: Thepenaltynexthigher vided for in this article shall be imposed upon the offenderwhofailstolendon essuchhelpasmaybeinhandtogive. Such being the case, it must be specificall n. The information against petitionerinthiscasedoesnotsoallege. Upon the othe lp or render assistance to another whom one has accidentally wounded or injured der paragraph 2ofArticle275ofthesamecodewhichreads:The penalty ofarresto ma xxx Anyone who shall fail to help or render assistance to another whom he dorinjured. 4.COMPULSIONOFIRRESISTIBLEFORCE Q: What is the basis for th ebasisisthecompleteabsenceoffreedom. Q:Whatisirresistibleforce? A: It i ernal or physicalforcewhichreducesthepersontoamere instrumentandtheactsprodu landagainsthiswill. Q: What are the requisites of compulsion of irresistible ionisbymeansofphysicalforce 2. Physicalforcemustbeirresistible 3. Physical for third person Note: It presupposes that a person is compelled by means of extraneous force o it a crime.

Withoutfaultorintentionofcausingit Q: Is the offender exempt from criminal :Yes.Theinflictionoftheinjurybymereaccident doesnotgiverisetoacriminalorc ausedtheinjuryisdutyboundto attendtothepersonwhowasinjured. 4. Illustration: A chauffeur, while driving his automobile on the propersideofth dandwith due diligence, suddenly and unexpectedly saw a man in front of his e sidewalk and crossingthestreetwithoutanywarningthathewould do so. Becausei sible to avoid hittinghim,thesaidchauffeurranoverthemanwith hiscar.Itwashe e,it being a mere accident. (U.S. v. Tayongtong, 21 Phil. 476)

Q:WhatistheeffectofaccidentinrelationtoArt. 275,par.2(failuretohelporre has accidentally wounded or injured)andArt.365(imprudenceandnegligence). A:Int .No.93475two informationsarefiledagainstthepetitioner,firstis for reckless im 65), falls under the sole chapter (Criminal Negligence) of Title Fourteen (Quasi Book Two of the RevisedPenalCode.ThecrimeforAbandonmentof one s victim (par. er Chapter Two(CrimesAgainstSecurity)ofTitleNine(Crimes AgainstPersonalLiberty wo ofthesameCode.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Theforcemustbesoirresistibleastoreducetheactor toamereinstrumentwhoactedno swill. violenceorphysical force. orthreat. Passion or obfuscation cannot amount to irresistible force.

Q: Baculi, who was not a member of the band which murdered some American sc plantation gathering bananas. Upon hearingtheshooting,heran.However,Baculiwas s rs of the band who called him, andstrikinghimwiththebuttsoftheirguns,they dies. Is he liable as anaccessorytothecrimeofcrime? A:ItwasheldthatBacul sory for concealing the body of the crime of murder committed by the band bec he compulsion of an irresistible force. (U.S. v.Caballeros,4Phil.350) 5.UN is the basis of this exempting circumstance? A:Thebasisiscompleteabsenceoff isitesofuncontrollablefear? A: 1. Threat,whichcausesthefear,isofanevil grea al to that whichheisrequiredtocommit. 2. It promises an evil of such gravi ordinary man would havesuccumbedtoit. Q:Whataretheelements? A: 1. Existenc 2. Fearmustberealandimminent 3. Fear of an injury is greater than or equal s the difference between irresistible forceanduncontrollablefear? A: IRRESISTIBLE FORCE Apersoniscompelled byanothertocommita crimebymeansof UNCO scompelledby anothertocommitacrime bymeansofintimidation

Q:Theevidenceonrecordshowsthatatthetime theransommoneywastobedelivered,a rnando Morales, unaccompanied by any of the other accused, entered the van wher an was. At that time, Narciso Saldaa, Elmer Esguerra and Romeo Bautista were ellants fromadistanceofaboutone(1)kilometer.Istheir defenseofuncontrollablefe vailing of this chance to escape, appellants allegation of fear or duress beco It was held that in order that the circumstanceofuncontrollablefearmayapply,i e compulsion be of such a character as to leave no opportunity to escape or t.Moreover,thereason for their entry to the van, where the father of the vic irwayofkeeping Feliciano Tan under further surveillance at a most critical tim ana, G.R. No. 148518, Apr.15,2004) 6.PREVENTEDBYSOMELAWFUL. ORINSUPERAB s exempting circumstance? A:Thebasisisabsenceofintent. Q:Whatisinsuperable ich has lawfully, morally, or physically prevented a person to do what the law Note: Under the law, the person arrested must be delivered to the nearest judi most within 36 hoursunder Art 125 of RPC, otherwise, the publicofficerwillbe ntion.

Q: What are the requisites under this exempting circumstance? A: 1. Anactis . Apersonfailstoperformsuchact. 3. Failure to perform such act was due to use. Q: What are the distinctions between justifying circumstancesandexempting ? 28


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability A: JUSTIFYING CIRCUMSTANCE The circumstance affect theact,nottheactor. The act com nsidered to have been done within the bounds of law; hence, it is considered rime, and because thereisnocrime,thereis nocriminal. EXEMPTING CIRCUMSTANCE Th fect theactor. Since the act complained of is actually wrongful, there is a c e actor acted without voluntariness there is absence of dolo or culpa. There i e there is a crime committed but there is no criminal, there is civil liabili . However in paragraphs 4 and 7 of Article 12, there is neither criminal nor 3. 4. 5.

Sincethereisnocrimeor criminal, there is no criminalliabilityaswellas civil

Such information and testimony can be corroboratedonitsmaterialpoints The inf has not been previously convicted of a crime involving moralturpitude,exceptwhe irect evidence available for the State other than the information and testimony rwitness Theinformantorwitnessshallstrictlyand faithfully comply without dela r undertaking, reduced into writing, lawfully imposed by the State as further c or the grant of immunity from prosecution and punishment.

Note: Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 17, Rule 119 of the Revised Rul rocedure and the provisions of Republic Act No. 6981 or the WitnessProtection, tActof1991

C.TheComprehensiveDangerousDrugsActof 2002(R.A.9165) 1.Immunityfromprosecu o shall be exempt from prosecution and punishmentunderRA9165? A:Anypersonwh tions 7, 11, 12, 14, 15, and19,ArticleIIofRA9165 2. Voluntarilygivesinformat on of Sections 4,5,6,8,10,13,and16,Article IIofthisAct b. About any viol if committedbyadrugsyndicate, or c. Leading to the whereabouts, identities and nyofthemembersthereof 3. Willinglytestifiesagainstsuchpersonsas describedabove he following conditions concur: 1. The information and testimony are necessary fo ction of the personsdescribedabove 2. Such information and testimony are not ftheState

Note: Provided, further, That this immunity may be enjoyed by such informant or s not appeartobemostguiltyfortheoffensewithreference to which his/her inform e given: Provided, finally, That there is no direct evidence available for the r the information and testimony of the said informant or witness

MITIGATINGCIRCUMSTANCES. (Art.13). Q:Whataremitigatingcircumstances? A re those which if present in the commission of the crime, do not entirely fre inal liability but serveonlytoreducethepenalty. Note: One single fact cannot be made the basis of more than one mitigating ci a mitigating circumstance arising from a single fact absorbs all the other miti tances arising fromthesamefact.

Q:Whatisthebasisofmitigatingcircumstances? A: The basis is diminution of , intelligence, or intent or on the lesser perversityoftheoffender. Q: What ces which can mitigatecriminalliability?



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: Incomplete justifying or exempting circumstance 2. Theoffenderisunder18orov ointentiontocommitsograveawrong (praeterinentionem) 4. Sufficientthreatorprovo ationofagraveoffense 6. Passionorobfuscation 7. Voluntarysurrender 8. Physicalde essoftheoffender 10. Similarandanalogouscircumstances Q: What are the classes cumstances? A: 1. Ordinarymitigating 2. Privilegedmitigating Q: What are the etween ordinary mitigatingandprivilegedmitigating? A: ORDINARYMITIGATING Canbeoffsetby aggravating circumstances Ordinarymitigating cir s,ifnot offset,willoperateto reducethepenaltytothe minimumperiod, providedth . PRIVILEGEDMITIGATING Canneverbeoffsetby anyaggravating circumstance. Privileged circumstancesoperateto reducethepenaltyby onetotwodegrees, dependinguponwhatt 1.

1.INCOMPLETEJUSTIFYINGOR.EXEMPTING CIRCUMSTANCE. Q:Whatistheconceptofincom ptingcircumstance? A: Incomplete justifying/exempting circumstance means that not equisites to justify the act arepresentornotalltherequisitestoexemptfrom cri nt. Q:Whatconditionisnecessarybeforeincomplete selfdefense, defense of relati trangermaybeinvoked? A: The offended party must be guilty of unlawful aggres ggression,therecan benoincompleteselfdefense,defenseofrelative, ordefenseofst

Q: How may incomplete selfdefense, defense of relative,ordefenseofstrangeraffe ilityoftheoffender? A: If only the element of unlawful aggression is presen s being absent, the offender shall be given only the benefit of an ordinarymi ce. However, if aside from the element of unlawful aggressionanotherrequisite, t, the offender shall be given the benefit of a privileged mitigating circumsta se, the imposable penalty shall be reduced by one or twodegreesdependinguponh mportanceoftherequisitespresentorabsent. Q: How may incomplete justifying cir espect justifying circumstances other than thosementionedabove)orincompleteexempt stance affect criminal liability of the offender? A:Iflessthanamajorityofth o justify the act or exempt from criminal liability are present, the offender tled to anordinarymitigatingcircumstance. Ifamajorityoftherequisitesneededto pt from criminal liability are present, the offender shall be given the benefit mitigating circumstance. The penalty shall be lowered by one or two degrees. Wh oconditionstojustifytheactorto exemptfromcriminalliability,thepresenceofone ity. 2.UNDER18OROVER70YEARSOLD. Q: Who are covered under this mitigat e: 1. Over15butunder18yearsoldwhoacted withdiscernment 2. Over70yearsold Note: It is the age of the accused at the time of the commissionofthecrime sageatthetimeofthetrialisimmaterial.

Q: What are the legal effects of the various age brackets of the offender w inalliability? 30


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability A: AGE BRACKET 15and under Over15 under18, 18orover Over70 EFFECTONCRIMINALLI ance Exemptingcircumstance,providedhe actedwithoutdiscernment.Mitigating circumsta idedheactedwith discernment Fullcriminalresponsibility Mitigatingcircumstance;noi ofdeathpenalty;executionofdeath sentenceifalreadyimposedis suspendedandcommute

A: Yes. If the resulting felony could be expected from the means employed, thi es notavail. Note: This circumstance is not applicable when offenderemployedbruteforce.

Note: The modifications/changes introduced by RA 9344havebeenincorporatedinthet

C.TheComprehensiveDangerousDrugsActof 2002(R.A.9165) 2.MinorOffenders 3.A nofRPCprovisions (Sec.98,R.A.9165)cf.Art.10,RPC Q: Is a minor offender e ting circumstance of minority under R.A. 9165? A: GR: No, because the law it pplicationofRPCtoR.A.9165. XPN:Iftheoffenderisaminorandthepenalty is lif the penalty shall be reclusion perpetua to death, adopting therefore the nomencl enalties under the RPC. By adopting the nomenclature of the penalties under the ll apply, and a minor would now be entitled to a privilege mitigating circumst (Peoplev.Simon,G.R.No.93026,July29,1994) 3.NOINTENTIONTOCOMMITSOGRAVEA s the basis of this mitigating circumstance? A:Thebasisisdiminutionofintent. otable and evident disproportion between the means employed by the offender comp f the resulting felony?

Q:Doesitapplytofeloniesbynegligence? A:No,itisnotapplicablebecausetheof e intent in intentional felonies is replacedbynegligenceorimprudence. There rt of the offender, whichmaybeconsideredasdiminished. Q: What are the facto n the intention? A: 1. Theweaponused 2. Thepartofthebodyinjured 3. Theinjur ritisinflicted Note: This provision addresses the intention of the offenderattheparticularmome r executes or commits the criminal act and not during planningstage.

Q:Isthismitigatingcircumstanceapplicablewhen theoffenderemployedbruteforce? pist choked the victim, the choking contradicts the claim that he had no inten : In crimes against persons, what if the victim doesnotdie? A: The absence uces the felonytomerephysicalinjuries.Itisnotconsidered as mitigating. It is the victim dies. 4.SUFFICIENTTHREATORPROVOCATION. Q: What is the basis ce? A: The basis is loss of reasoning and selfcontrol, therebydiminishingthe . Q:Whatisprovocation? A:Provocationisanyunjustorimproperconductor act o le of exciting, incitingorirritatinganyone.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q: What are the requisites of sufficient threat or provocationasamitigatingcir Provocationmustbesufficient. 2. Itmustoriginatefromtheoffendedparty. 3. Itmust . Q: How is sufficient threat or provocation as a mitigating circumstance dis hreat orprovocationasanelementofselfdefense? A: As an element of self def nce on the part of the person defending himself while as a mitigating circumst oitspresenceonthepartoftheoffended party.(Peoplev.CA,G.RNo.103613,Feb.23, Note:Sufficiencydependson: 1. Theactconstitutingtheprovocation 2. Thesocialstand rovoked 3. Timeandplaceprovocationtookplace thatatthetimetheoffendercommitted l suffering from outrage of thethreatorprovocationdonetohim,then, hewillstil ating circumstance.

Q:TomasmotherinsultedPetra.PetrakillsTomas because of the insults. Can Petr ngcircumstance? A:No.Thereisnomitigatingcircumstancebecause itwasthemotherw . Q: Why does the law require that provocation must be immediate to the ac of the crime by the person who is provoked? A:Iftherewasanintervaloftime y could not have excited the accusedtothecommissionofthecrime,hehaving had and to exercise self control.Moreover,thelawpresupposesthatduring that interval r or diminished self control may have emerged from the offender had alreadyvan . Note: As long as the offender at the time he committed the felony was still illundertheinfluenceoftheoutragecausedbythe provocationorthreat,heisactingu ol. This is the reason why it is mitigating. However,youhavetolookattwocrit ent of time, there is a materiallapseoftimestatedintheproblem and there is lem that theeffect of the threat orprovocation hadprolongedandaffectedtheoffe tedthecrime,then,you usethecriterionbasedontimeelement. 2. However, if there nd at the same time, facts are given indicating

Q: Should threat be offensive and positively strong? A:No.Threatshouldnotb y strong because if it was, the threat to inflict real injuryisanunlawfulagg to selfdefense and thus, no longer a mitigating circumstance. 5.VINDICATIO he basis of this mitigating circumstance? A: The basis is loss of reasoning reby,diminishingtheexerciseofhiswillpower. Note: This has reference to the honor of a person. It concerns the good names e individual(Peoplev.Anpar,37Phil.201)

Q: What are the requisites of vindication of a graveoffenseasamitigatingcir e offense has been done to the one committing the felony, his spouse, ascendan legitimate, naturaloradoptedbrothersorsisters,or relatives by affinity within t 2. Felonyiscommittedinvindicationofsuch graveoffense. Q:Whatisthemeaningof cularmitigatingcircumstance? A: The word offense should not be construed as e e. It is enough that what was donewaswrong. Note:Thevindicationneednotbedonebytheperson uponwhomthegraveoffensewascommi he wrong done by the offended party.

Q: What factors should be considered in determiningwhetherthewrongisgraveor 32


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability 2.Education 3.Socialstatus Q: Is lapse of time allowed between the vindicat fense? A:Yes.Itisenoughthat: 1. Theoffendercommittedthecrime; 2. The grave his spouse,hisascendantordescendantorto his brother or sister, whether natural ate 3. Thegraveoffenseistheproximatecause ofthecommissionofthecrime. Note: A mitigating circumstance only when the same arosefromlawfulsentiments.

Q: What are the elements of passion or obfuscationasamitigatingcircumstance? ponanimpulse 2. Impulse must be so powerful that it naturallyproducedpassionor Note: The passion or obfuscation should arise from lawfulsentimentsinordertobe

Q:Comparethecircumstancesofsufficientthreat orprovocationandvindicationofagr SUFFICIENTTHREATOR PROVOCATION Itismadedirectlyonlyto thepersoncommitting the rought abouttheprovocation neednotbeagrave offense. Itisnecessarythatthe pro iatelypreceded theact.Theremustbeno intervaloftimebetween theprovocationandt . VINDICATIONOFGRAVE OFFENSE Thegraveoffensemaybe committedalsoagainst theoff ionedinthelaw. Theoffendedpartymust havedoneagrave offenseagainstthe offende edinthelaw. Thevindicationofthe graveoffensemaybe proximatewhichadmits ofin ve offensecommittedbythe offendedpartyandthe commissionofthecrime oftheaccus

Q: What are the requisites of passion or obfuscation? A: 1. That there is nd sufficient to produce such a condition of mind. 2. That the said act which cation was not far removed from the commission of the crime by a considerable ich theperpetratormightrecoverhisnatural equanimity. Note:Thisparticularmitigatingcircumstancestandson the premise that the offender rom a diminished selfcontrol because of the passion or obfuscation.

6.PASSIONOROBFUSCATION Q: What is the basis of this mitigating circumstan reasoning and selfcontrol, therebydiminishingtheexerciseofhiswillpower. Q:Wh ion? A: Passion and obfuscation refer to emotional feeling which produces exci ful as toovercomereasonandselfcontrol.Itmustcome frompriorunjustorimpropera tion must emanate from legitimate sentiments.

Q: What is the rule when the three mitigating circumstances of sufficient thr n (par.4),vindicationofagravewrong(par.5)and passionorobfuscation(par.6)are der is given the benefit of paragraph 4, he cannot be given the benefit of p nlyoneofthe three mitigating circumstances should be given infavoroftheoffend ating circumstances under paragraphs 4, 5 and 6 arise from different sets of f ppreciated together, although they may have arisen from one and thesamecase. Note: The passion must be legitimate. As a rule, it cannotbebasedoncommonlaw mmonlawrelationshipsareillicit.

Q:Whenispassionorobfuscationnotamitigating circumstance? A:Iftheactiscom essness


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 2. Revenge Q: What are the distinctions passion/obfuscationandprovocation? A: PASSION/OBFUSCATION Itisproducedbyanimpulse whichmaycause provocation Theoffens ate.Itisonly requiredthattheinfluence thereoflastsuntilthe momentthecrimeis between

The criterion is whether or not the offender had gone into hiding or had the o hiding and the law enforcers do not know of his whereabouts. Note: If after committing the crime, the offender did notfleeandinsteadhewent nforcers meekly, voluntary surrender is not applicable. Ifaftercommittingthecr idnotflee andinsteadwaitedforthelawenforcerstoarrive,and thenhesurrenderedt ictim,voluntarysurrenderismitigating. If the offender comes out from hiding b uslyillandhewantstogetmedicaltreatment,the surrenderisnotconsideredasindicat ce.Thesurrenderisnotmitigating.

PROVOCATION Theprovocation comesfromthe injuredparty Itmustimmediately precedeth fthe crime.

Q: What are the distinctions between passion/obfuscationandirresistibleforce? PASSIONOBFUSCATION Mitigatingcircumstance Itcannotgiveriseto irresistibleforcebe norobfuscation hasnophysicalforce. Thepassionor obfuscationisinthe offenderh wful sentiments. IRRESISTIBLEFORCE Exemptingcircumstance Itrequiresphysicalforce.

Q:Whatdoesspontaneousmean? A: It emphasizes the idea of inner impulse ac ulus. The conduct of the accused, not his intention alone, after the commission determines the spontaneityofthesurrender. E.g. If the accused surrendered after 5 years, not spontaneousanymore. If ed after talking to town councilor,nolongeravoluntarysurrendersincethere isex Itmustcomefromathird person. Itisunlawful.

7.VOLUNTARYSURRENDERANDCONFESSIONOF GUILT Q: What is the basis of this ebasisisthelesserperversityoftheoffender. Q:Whataretherequisitesofvoluntar rcumstance? A: 1. Offenderhadnotbeenactuallyarrested. 2. Surrender was made to orityorthelatter sagent. 3. Surrenderwasvoluntary. Q:Whenissurrenderconsidere tisspontaneous,demonstratingintentto submit himself unconditionally to the perso yorhisagent. Whetherornotawarrantofarresthadbeenissued againsttheoffender

Q: Does the law require that the accused surrenderpriortotheorderofarrest? e that the accused surrenderpriortotheorderofarrestwhatmatters is the spont ccused upon learning that a warrant of arrest had been issued against him and render is obediencetotheorderofarrestissuedagainsthim (Peoplev.Cahilig,68Phi enderismitigating? A: If he would give up, his act of surrendering unders atheiswilling to accept the consequences of the wrong he has done which ther nt the effort, time and expenses to be incurred in searchingforhim. Q:Whoi s one directly vested with jurisdiction, whether as an individual or as a memb overnment/corporation/board/commission. 34


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability Note:Barriocaptain/chairmanincluded.

Q:Whoisanagentofpersoninauthority? A:Heisapersonwhobydirectprovisiono nt by competent authorityischargedwiththemaintenanceofpublic order and the pr ty of life and property and any person who comes to the aid of personsinaut escapes from the scene of the crime in order to seek advice from a lawyer, a urrendervoluntarilyto the authorities, which the accused followed by surrendering the municipal mayor, will hissurrenderbeconsideredmitigating? A:Yes,becausehe ot toescapebuttoseeklegaladvice. Q: Supposing that after the accused met a ing multiple homicide because of reckless imprudence, he surrenders to the autho iately thereafter, will his surrendermitigatehisliabilitybecauseofArt.13? A: ing felonies committed by means of culpa, the court is authorized under Art. 3 lty upon offender without regard to the rules on mitigating and aggravating cir ataretherequisitesofconfessionofguiltas amitigatingcircumstance? A: 1. Offen ssedhisguilt. 2. Itwasmadeinopencourt(thatisbefore the competent court that t was made prior to the presentation of evidencefortheprosecution. Note:Pleaofguiltyisnotapplicabletospeciallaw. If both plea of guilt and v sent, they are considered as two independent mitigatingcircumstances.

Q: Will a conditional plea of guilty be considered asamitigatingcircumstance? g, the plea of guilty must be without conditions. But conditional plea of guil tingiftheconditionsimposedby theaccusedarefoundtobemeritorious.

Q: Upon learning that the police wanted him for the killing of Polistico, Jepr t the police station to make inquiries. On his way, he met a policeman who i n himthewarrantforhisarrest.Duringthetrial,in thecourseofthepresentationof eprox withdrew his plea of not guilty. Can he invoke the mitigating circumstanc urrenderandpleaofguilty?Explain. A: Jeprox is not entitled to the mitigating tarysurrenderashisgoingto the police station was only for the purpose of ver hat he is wanted by the authorities. In order to be mitigating, surrender must theacknowledgeshis guilt. Neither is plea of guilty a mitigating circumstance iedplea.Besides,Art.13(7) provides that confession of guilt must be done befo ad started to present evidence.(1992BarQuestion) 8.PHYSICALDEFECT Q: What ating circumstance? A: The basis is the diminution of the element of voluntar icaldefect? A:Aperson sphysicalcondition,suchasbeingdeaf and dumb, blind, a utterer, whereby his means of action, defense or communication with others are imited.Thephysicaldefectthatapersonmayhave must have a relation to the commi uppose X is deaf and dumb and he has been slandered, he cannot talk so what of wood and struck the fellow on the head. X was charged with physical injuri igatingcircumstancebyreasonof hisphysicaldefect? A: Yes, the Supreme Court h and dumb is mitigating because the only way is to usehisforcebecausehecannot Note:Thelawsaysthattheoffenderisdeafanddumb, meaning not only deaf but also eaninginbotheyes,butevenifheisonlydeaf andnotdumb,ordumbbutnotdeaf,orbl o a mitigating circumstance under this article as long as his physical defects


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 restricts his means of communication, defense, communicationwithhisfellowmen. ake a distinction between educatedanduneducateddeafmuteorblindpersons. Thep nmayhavemusthave a relation to the commission of the crime. Not any physical .Itwillonlydosoif it has some relation to the crime committed. This circums ring on the crime committed and must depend on how the crime was committed. 3. 4. 5. 6.

9.ILLNESSOFTHEOFFENDER Q: What is the basis of this mitigating circumst telligenceandintent. Q: What are the requisites of illness of the offenderas nce? A: 1. Illness of the offender must diminish the exerciseofwillpower. d not deprive the offendertheconsciousnessofhisacts. Note: Illness of the mind, not amounting to insanity, maybemitigating. If th minishes the exercise of the offenders will power but deprives him of the con ts, it becomes an exempting circumstancetobeclassifiedasinsanityorimbecility. 7.

Defendantwhois60yearsoldwithfailing eyesight is similar to a case of a pers eople v. Reantillo andRuiz,C.A.G.R.No.301,July27,1938) Impulse of jealous ionandobfuscation. Voluntary restitution of property, similar tovoluntarysurren d feeling of the owner of animal taken for ransom is analogous to vindication t de corps is similar to passion and obfuscation

10.SIMILARANDANALOGOUSCIRCUMSTANCES Q: What are the examples of analogous eactoftheoffenderofleadingthelaw enforcers to the place where he buried the as been considered as equivalent to voluntary surrender. 2. Stealing by a pers to do so out of extreme poverty is considered as analogous to incomplete state plev.Macbul,74Phil.436) Unless he became impoverished because ofhisownwayof nyvices.

Q: What are the circumstances which are neither exemptingnormitigating? A: erratioictus 2. Mistakeintheidentity 3. Entrapment 4. Accusedisover18yearsofag frighteousaction Q: Give circumstances which are considered as specificmitigat es? A: 1. Illegaldetention(voluntaryreleasewithin 3days;withoutattainingpurpo laction) 2. Adultery(abandonmentofspouse) 3. Infanticide/abortion (intent to conce norofmother) AGGRAVATINGCIRCUMSTANCES(Art.14) Q:Whatareaggravatingcircums f attendant in the commission of thecrime: 1. Serve to have the penalty impose iodprovidedbylawforthe offense;or 2. Changethenatureofthecrime. Q:Whati ances? A: The basis is the greater perversity of the offender manifested in e felonyasshownby: 1. Motivatingpoweritself 36


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability 2. 3. 4. 5. Placeofcommission Meansandwaysemployed Time Personalcircumstan ty 18. Unlawfulentry 19. Breakingwall 20. Aidofminororbymeansofmotorvehicle o . Cruelty Note:Nos.16,910,14,18,19aregenericaggravating circumstances Nos. 3, 7, 8, ific aggravatingcircumstances No.16isacaseofqualifiedaggravatingcircumstance re inherent aggravating circumstances

Q: What are the kinds of aggravating circumstances? A: 1. Genericorthosetha llcrime 2. Specific or those that apply only to a particularcrime 3. Qualif ange the natureofthecrime 4. Inherent or those that must of necessity accomp rime 5. Specialorthosewhichariseunderspecial conditions to increase the penal nd cannot be offset by mitigatingcircumstances Note: The aggravating circumstances must be establishedwithmoralcertainty,withth roofrequiredtoestablishthecrimeitself.

Q: What are the distinctions between generic aggravatingandqualifyingcircumstan GENERICAGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCES Canbeoffsetbyan ordinarymitigating circumstance dientofa crime.Itonlyaffectsthe penaltytobeimposed butthecrimeremainsthe s NG CIRCUMSTANCES Cannotbeoffsetbyany mitigatingcircumstances. Thecircumstanceis edientof thecrime.The circumstanceaffectsthe natureofthecrimeitself suchthat leforamore seriouscrime. Tobeappreciatedassuch mustbespecifically allegedin n. Ifnotallegedbutproven duringthetrial,itwillbe consideredonlyas generic fthis happens,theyare susceptibleofbeing offsetbyanordinary mitigatingcircumst

Q:Whatarethosecircumstanceswhichaggravate criminalliability? A: 1. Advantage ion 2. Contemptorinsulttopublicauthorities 3. Disregard of age, sex, or dwellin dparty 4. Abuse of confidence and obvious ungratefulness 5. Palace and places of f offense 6. Nighttime,uninhabitedplaceorband 7. Onoccasionofcalamityormisfortu en,etc. 9. Recidivist 10. Reiteracionorhabituality 11. Price,reward,orpromise 12. undation,fire,etc. 13. Evidentpremeditation 14. Craft,fraudordisguise 15. Superior h or means to weaken thedefense 16. Treachery 17. Ignominy

Noneedtoallegethis circumstanceinthe information,aslongasit isprovenduringt l, thesameisconsideredin imposingthepenalty.

Note: When there is more than one qualifying aggravatingcircumstancepresent,one eciatedasqualifyingaggravatingwhiletheothers willbeconsideredasgenericaggravati

Q: Is generic aggravating circumstance necessary tobeallegedintheinformation? e110oftheROC,even generic aggravating circumstances should be allegedintheinf


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Section 8. Designation of the offense. The complaintorinformationshallstatet fensegivenbythestatute,avertheactsor omissions constituting the offense, and ingandaggravatingcircumstances.Ifthereis no designation of the offense, referen to the section or subsection of the statute punishingit. Section 9. Cause of cts or omissionscomplainedofasconstitutingtheoffense and the qualifying and ag stances must be stated in ordinary and concise language and not necessarily in d in the statutebutintermssufficienttoenableapersonof common understanding t eing charged as well as its qualifying and aggravating circumstances and for th uncejudgment. Q:Theaccusedwaschargedwithmurder.Threeof these circumstances: t remeditation and the act was done in considerationofaprice,rewardorpromise,we ating. May the three circumstancesbeappreciatedasqualifying? A:No,onlyoneof neof the three circumstances was proven, the crime already constitutes murder. are also proven, even if they are alleged in the informationorcomplaint,theya ic.Ifthereisanymitigatingcircumstancein favoroftheoffender,thetwoothercircum rwise qualifying could be offset by theordinarymitigatingcircumstances. Q: Su murder, the qualifying circumstance alleged in the information was treachery. Dur al, what was proven was theprice,rewardorpromiseasaconsiderationfor killing. dofmurder? A: No, the accused cannot be convicted of murder because the cir ot the one allegedintheinformation,hence,itisnotqualifying butmerelygeneric. ying circumstances is not allegedintheinformation,itcannotbeconsidered qualifyi lifying circumstance is an ingredient of the crime and it cannot be taken as been alleged in the information. This is because it will violate the right formed of the nature of the accusationagainsthim. Q: If the crime charged i o dwelling,isdwellingaggravating? A: No. This is because aggravating circumsta emselves constitute a crime specially punishable by law or which in themselves windefiningacrimeandprescribing a penalty therefor shall not be taken into a of increasing the penalty (Art. 62, par.1).Sincedwellingisanelementofthecrim to dwelling, it should not be takenintoaccountinincreasingthepenalty. Q:Wh ircumstances? A: Aggravating circumstances, which are personal, suchasthosewhic Themoralattributesoftheoffender 2. His private relations with the offended par alcause Q: How are personal aggravating circumstances appreciated? A: It sha gravate the liability of those persons as to whom such circumstances are attend ) Q: What is the rule regarding the appreciation of an aggravating circumstan eral accused? A: GR:Thecircumstanceswhichconsistinthe: 1. Materialexecutionof ployedtoaccomplishit, willonlyaggravatethecriminalliabilityofthose persons wh knowledge ofthematthetimeoftheexecutionoftheact ortheircooperationtherein. f conspiracy, in which case the act of one is deemed to be the actofall,re e facts constituting the circumstance. (Art. 62, par.4) 1.TAKINGADVANTAGEOF licable? A: Only when the offender is a public officer. The offendermusthave onorat least,useofthesamefacilitatedthecommissionof theoffense. 38


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability Note: Public officer must have used the influence, prestige or ascendancy of hi eans by whichherealizeshispurpose. Note: Teachers, professors, supervisors of p ecognized private schools, colleges and universities,aswellaslawyersarepersonsi for purposes of direct assault and simple resistance, but not for purposes of umstancesinpar.2,Art.14.

Q: What is the basis for this aggravating circumstance? A: Greater perversit s shown by themeans: 1. Ofpersonalcircumstanceoftheoffender 2. Used to secure he crime Note:Tobeapplicable,thepublicofficermustusehis: a. influence b. prestige c. asc

Q:Whoareagentsofapersoninauthority? A: Agents of a person in authority provision of law or any election or appointment by competent authority, are cha intenance of public order and the protectionandsecurityoflifeandpropertysucha , barrio policeman and barangay leader, and any person who comes to the aid o .(Art.152,RPC) Note:Par.2ofArt.14doesnotapplywhenthecrime iscommittedinthepresenceofana

Q:Whenisitnotapplicable? A: It is not applicable in offenses where takin ition is made by law an integral element of the crime. e.g. malversation or f cument committed by public officers. Note: Taking advantage of a public position is also inherentinthecaseofaccess (harboring,concealing,orassistingintheescapeofthe principal of the crime), and ed by publicofficers(Arts.204245).

Q:Isitnecessarythattheoffenderhasknowledge thatapublicauthorityispresent? c authority is present is essential. Lack of such knowledge indicates lack of hepublicauthority. Note: If crime committed is against the public authority while in the performan he offender commits direct assault without this aggravatingcircumstance.

2.CONTEMPTORINSULTTOPUBLIC AUTHORITIES Q:Whataretherequisitesofcontempt ggravatingcircumstance? A: 1. Publicauthorityisengagedintheexercise ofhisfunc blic authority is not the person againstwhomthecrimeiscommitted. 3. Offender lic authority. 4. His presence has not prevented the offenderfromcommittingthe icauthority? A: A public authority, also called a person in authority, is a s the power to governandexecutethelaws.e.g.municipalmayor, barangaycaptain,ch

3.DISREGARDOFRANK,AGE,SEXORDWELLING OFOFFENDEDPARTY Q: What are the r ge, sex or dwelling" as an aggravating circumstance? A:Theactbecommitted: sregard of the respect due to the offended party on account of his: a. Rank b t it be committed in the dwelling of the offended party, if the latter has n ocation. Note:Appliesonlytocrimesagainstpersonsorhonor, andnotagainstpropertylikeRobbe our circumstances enumerated should be consideredasoneaggravatingcircumstanceonly


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q:Whatdoeswithinsultorindisregardmean? A:Itmeansthatinthecommissionoft intended to offend or insult therank,sexorageoftheoffendedparty. Q:Towhat official, civil or social position or standing.Thedesignationortitleofdistincti ativepositionoftheoffendedpartyin referencetoothers. Theremustbeadifference eoffenderandtheoffendedparty. Q: When is age considered as an aggravating c iesincaseswherethevictimisoftender ageorisofoldage. Q:Whatdoessexrefer . Q:Whatisdwelling? A: Dwelling is a building or structure exclusively us includes temporary dwelling, dependencies, foot of the staircase, and enclosureof houldthedwellingbeownedbytheoffended party? A: No. It is enough that he u ind,rest,comfortandprivacy. Note: Dwelling does not mean the permanent residenceordomicileoftheoffendedpar e owner thereof. He must, however, be actuallylivingordwellingthereinevenfora urpose. It is not necessary that the accused should have actuallyenteredthe m to commit theoffense.Itisenoughthatthevictimwasattacked insidehisownhouse ve devised means to perpetrate the assault. i.e. triggerman firedthe shot from , his victimwasinside. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

When the offender and the offended partyareoccupantsofthesamehouse. In f force uponthings. Inthecrimeoftrespasstodwelling. Thevictimisnotadwel erandtheoffended party are occupants of the same house exceptincaseofadulter , the same is aggravating, however, if the paramour also dwells in the conjuga plicable aggravating circumstance is abuse of confidence.

Q:Whatifonehalfofthehouseisusedasastore andtheotherhalfisusedfordwell llingportionisattacked,dwellingisnot aggravating because whenever a store is o it is a public place and as such, is not capableofbeingthesubjectoftrespass Note:Wherethedwellingportionisattackedandeven ifthestoreisopen,thereisanoth portion used for dwelling, the circumstance is aggravating.

If the wife commits the crime of adultery the aggravating circumstance of dwell appreciated. Ifthewifekilledherhusbandintheconjugalhousethe aggravating circ g cannot be appreciated. If the employer raped their maid the aggravating cir ngcannotbeappreciated.

Q:Whenisdwellingnotaggravating? A: 1. When owner of the dwelling gave suff ocation.

Q: What is the meaning of provocation in the aggravatingcircumstanceofdwellin nmustbe: 1. Givenbytheownerofthedwelling 2. Sufficient 3. Immediate to the e Note:Ifalltheseconditionsarepresent,theoffended party is deemed to have given d thefactthatthecrimeiscommittedinthedwellingof theoffendedpartyisnotanag 40


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability Q: When is the aggravating circumstance of disregard of rank, age, sex notco poseofincreasingthepenalty? A: 1. Whentheoffenderactedwithpassionor obfuscat tances) 2. Whenthereexistsarelationshipbetween the offended party and the off ance of sex only), e.g. parricide, rape,abductionandseduction. 3. When the c oman is indispensable in the commission of the crime. 4.ABUSEOFCONFIDENCEOR S Q:Whataretherequisitesofabuseofconfidence asanaggravatingcircumstance? stedtheoffender. 2. Offenderabusedsuchtrustbycommitting acrimeagainstoffended confidence facilitated the commissionofthecrime. Note:Thisisaggravatingonlywhentheveryoffended partyistheonewhoreposedthecon

A: 1. 2. The offended party had trusted the offender. The offender abused such ting a crime against the offended party. The act be committed with obvious ung 3.

Note: The ungratefulness must be such clear and manifestingratitudeonthepartof f confidence and obvious ungratefulness are treatedasseparateaggravatingcircumsta

5.PALACEANDPLACESOF.COMMISSION OFFENSE Q:Whataretherequisitesofpalacean e as an aggravating circumstance? A:Thecrimebecommitted: 1. Inthepalaceofth nhispresence;or 3. Where public authorities are engaged in thedischargeoftheir ededicatedtoreligiousworship. Q: If the crime is in the Malacaang palace o ting? A:Yes.Regardlessofwhetherornotofficialduties or religious functions ar hief Executive s presence alone in any place where the crime is committed is e te the aggravatingcircumstance. Note:ThePresidentorChiefExecutiveneednotbein thePalacetoaggravatetheliabilit s other places where public authorities are engagedinthedischargeoftheirduties formanceofpublicfunctions.

Q: Must the confidence between the parties be immediateandpersonal? A:Yes, dvantageor make it easier for him to commit the crime. The confidence must be ing the commissionofacrime. Q:Inwhatcrimesisabuseofconfidenceinherent? A ifiedtheft 3. Estafabyconversionormisappropriation 4. Qualifiedseduction Note: Abuse of confidence is not considered for the purposeofincreasingthepena

Q: What are the requisites of obvious ungratefulnessasanaggravatingcircumstanc

Q: Supposing, a crime was committed in the presidential mansion. Can the aggr ance of palace of the Chief Executive be appreciated? A:No.Themansionisnot es considered as places dedicated toworshipofGod? A: No. Cemeteries, however ay be, are not considered as place dedicated to the worshipofGod.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Note:Theplacemustbededicatedtopublicreligious worship.Privatechapelsnotinclude st have the intention to commit a crimewhenheenteredtheplace. Note: Took adv used availed himself thereof for the successfulconsummationofhisplans.

Q:Isapollingprecinctapublicplace? A:Apollingprecinctisapublicplacedurin ctionsbetweenparagraph5 andparagraph2? A: WHEREPUBLIC CONTEMPTOR AUTHORITIESAREENGAGED INSULTTOPUBLIC INTHEDISCHARGEOFT R.2) DUTIES(PAR.5) Placewherepublicdutyisperformed Intheiroffice. Outsideof arty Publicauthority Mayormaynotbethepublic shouldnotbethe authority offende

Q:Whatisnighttime? A: Nighttime or nocturnity is the period of time after awn. It is necessary that the commission of the crime wascommencedandcomplet akesthiscircumstanceaggravating? A:Darknessofthenight.Hencewhentheplaceof t d by light, nighttime is not aggravating. Note:Itmustbeshownthattheoffenderdeliberately sought the cover of darkness an selytookadvantageofnighttimetofacilitatethe commissionoftheoffense. Note: In both, public authorities are in the performanceoftheirduties.

6.NIGHTTIME,UNINHABITEDPLACEORBAND Q:Whataretherequisites? A:Thecrime . Inanuninhabitedplace;or 3. Byaband. Q:Whenisitaggravating? A:When: 1. hecrime 2. Itespeciallysoughtforbytheoffenderto ensurethecommissionofthecr ty Note: Especially sought means that the offender sought it in order to realize mpunity means to prevent his (accused) being recognized or to secure himself a dpunishment. 3. The offender took advantage thereof for thepurposeofimpunity

Q: Supposing, the crime was committed inside a dark movie house at around 4 ing circumstance of nighttime be appreciated? A:No,becausewhatshouldbeespecia darkness of night, not the darkness of the moviehousewhenthelightswereonlyof ernoon. Q: Supposing, the crime was committed inside a movie house when the n and the time then was 9 p.m. Can the aggravating circumstanceofnighttimebe useevenifitwasnighttime,theplaceof the commission was welllighted when the t is the rule in the appreciation of nighttime and treachery if present in th A: GR:Nighttimeisabsorbedintreachery. XPN: Where both the treacherous mode edeliberatelydecided upon,theycanbeconsideredseparatelyifsuch circumstanceshave lbases. Q:Whatisanuninhabitedplace(despoblado)? A:Itiswheretherearenoho distance from town, or where the 42


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability housesarescatteredatagreatdistancefromeach other. Note: It is determined not by the distance of the nearest house to the scene er or not in the place of the commission of the offense, there was a reasona victim receivingsomehelp. Note:Offendermusttakeadvantageofthecalamity.

Q:Whenisuninhabitedplaceaggravating? A: To be aggravating, it is necessary dvantageoftheplaceandpurposely availed of it as to make it easier to commit :Itmeansthatthereareatleastfourmalefactors actingtogetherinthecommissionoft Note: Band is absorbed in the circumstance of abuse ofsuperiorstrength.

Under Article 306, the mere forming of a band even without the commission of rime sothatbandisnotaggravatinginbrigandagebecause the band itself is the wa . However, where brigandage is actually committed, bandbecomesaggravating. This circumstance is not applicable in crimesagainstchastity.

Q: To what does other calamity or misfortune referto? A:Itreferstootherc o theprecedingenumeration. 8.AIDOFARMEDMEN Q:Whataretheelements? A: edmen,or 2. Personswhoinsureoraffordimpunity Q:Whataretherequisitesofa umstance? A: 1. Armed men or persons took part in the commission of the crim ectly. 2. Accused availed himself of their aid or relied upon them when the cr . Note:Armsisnotlimitedtofirearms,sticksandstones included Aid of armed men eople v. Licop,G.R.No.L6061,Apr.29,1954)

Q: If one of the four armed malefactors was a principal by inducement, would ingcircumstanceofaband? A: None. But the aggravating circumstance of having armed men may be considered against the inducer if the other two actedashisa ALAMITYORMISFORTUNE Q:Whatisthereasonfortheaggravation? A:Thedebasedform idstofagreatcalamity,insteadoflending aidtotheafflicted,addstotheirsuffering rmisfortunetodespoilthem. Q: Under what circumstances is the crime committed A: The crime is committed on the occasion of a conflagration, shipwreck, earthq or othercalamityormisfortune.

Q:Whenisthecircumstanceofaidofarmedmen notconsideredaggravating? A: 1. Both d the party attackedwereequallyarmed. 2. Accusedaswellasthosewhocooperated ion of the crime acted under the same plan and for the samepurpose. 3. When ually present and the offender did not avail himselfofanyoftheiraidorwhenh irassistance inthecommissionofthecrime. Q: What aggravating circumstance will rearefourarmedmen? A:Iftherearefourarmedmen,aidofarmedmenis absorbedi


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Iftherearethreearmedmenorless,aidofarmed menmaybetheaggravatingcircumstance ions between a crime committed by a band under paragraph 6 and a crimecommitt der paragraph8? A: BYABAND Requiresmorethan three. Requiresthatmorethan threearmedmalefactors sh inthecommissionofthe offense Bandmembersareall principals WITHTHEAIDOFARMED stanceis presentevenifoneofthe offendersmerelyrelied ontheiraidisnot necess plices.

the same title, the implication is that he is specializing on such kind of cr opreventanyspecialization. Note: It is necessary to allege recidivism in the information,butifthedefense sentationofevidenceduringthetrialandthesame wasproven,thecourtshallconsiders stancebecauseitisonlygeneric.

FORMSOFREPETITIONORHABITUALITYOFTHE OFFENDER Q: What are the different f ualityoftheoffender? A: 1. Recidivism 2. Reiteracion 3. Habitualdelinquency 4 m 9.RECIDIVISM Q:Whataretherequisitesofrecidivism? A: 1. Offenderiso ly convicted by final judgmentofanothercrime 3. Both the first and second offe nthesametitleoftheRPC 4. Offenderisconvictedofthenewoffense Q:Whatisthe me? A:Itisemployedinitsgenericsense,includingthe rendering of the judgment erything that is done in the course of the trial, fromarraignmentuntilafterse hejudgeinopencourt. Q:Whatisthereasonforconsideringrecidivismas anaggrava nsidersthisaggravatingbecausewhen apersonhasbeencommittingfeloniesembracedin

Q.Isrecidivismsubjecttoprescription? A: No. No matter how long ago the of ssubsequentlyconvictedofacrime embraced in the same title of the Revised Pena to account as aggravating in imposing the penalty (People v. Colocar, 60 Phil. neraserecidivism? A: No, because pardon only excuses the service of the pena iction. (U.S. v. Sotelo, 28Phil.147) Q: Is it necessary that the conviction htheywerecommitted? A: Yes. Hence, there is no recidivism if the subsequent nsecommitted beforetheoffenseinvolvedinthepriorconviction. Note: If both offenses were committed on the same date,theyshallbeconsidereda nnot be separately counted in order to constitute recidivism.Also,judgmentsofco own on the same day shall be considered as only one conviction.

Q: In 1980, X committed robbery. While the case was being tried, he committe s subsequently found guilty and was convicted oftheftalsoin1983.Thetrialforh s robbery ended in 1984 where he was alsoconvicted.Istheaccusedarecidivist? ecidivist. The subsequent convictionmustrefertoafelonycommittedlaterin order t divism. The reason for this is,atthetimethefirstcrimewascommitted,there was ictedsohe cannotberegardedasarepeater. Q: Supposing, the first offense was n1980,thenthesecondoffensein 2006 was attempted rape. Can the aggravating cir smbeappreciated? 44


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability A: No. Acts of lasciviousness and attempted rape arenotembracedinthesametitle iousness is under crimes against chastity while attempted rape is under crimes s. Q: Supposing, the first offense in 1980 was attemptedrape,then,thesecond f lasciviousness. Can the aggravating circumstanceofrecidivismbeappreciated? A ttempted rape then in 1980 was embraced under crimes against chastity, hence, b mbraced in the same title of the RPC. Note: If recidivism and reiteracion are both present, only recidivism should be recidivism beingeasiertoprove. If the same set of facts constitutes recidivism , the liability of the accused should be aggravatedbyrecidivism,whichcaneasily Previousandsubsequent offensemustnotbe embracedinthesame titleofRPC Notalway tance offense. Previousandsubsequent offensemustbeincluded inthesametitleofRPC nsiderationinfixingthe penaltytobeimposed upontheaccused

HABITUALDELIQUENCY Q:Whatishabitualdelinquency? A:Aspecialaggravatingcir ct of increasing the penalty and imposing an additionalpenaltywhichescalateswit enumberofconvictions. Q: What are the requisites of habitual delinquency? A nquentif: 1. Withinaperiodof10yearsfromthedate ofhisreleaseorlastconviction ification, robbery, estafa, theft, serious or less serious physicalinjuries; 3. H uilty of said crimes a third timeoroftener. Note: To bea habitual delinquent, thelaw requires a 3rd conviction. The 2nd c mmitted within10yearsfromthe1stconvictionorreleasefrom prison, from the 2nd the period must not be more than 10 years from the second convictionandsoon. , being a special aggravating circumstance cannot be appreciated unless alleged tion.

10.REITERACION Q:Whataretherequisitesofreiteracion? A: 1. Accusedisontr yservedsentencefor a. Another offense to which the law attachesanequalorgreat or more crimes to which it attaches a lighter penalty than that forthenewoff fthenewoffense. Q: If the penalty attached to the felony subsequently commit gher than the penalty already served, is there reiteracion? A:No.Hence,reiter ravating. However, when there is a third conviction, even if the penalty for t mes committed be lighter than the ones already served, the offenderisalreadya e the distinctions between reiteracion andrecidivism? A: REITERACION Itisnecessarythat offenderhasservedout hissentenceforthe1st RECID hefinal judgmenthasbeen renderedforthe1st

Q: Can an offender be a recidivist and a habitual delinquentatthesametime? Illustration: If the 1st conviction is for serious physical injuries or less injuries and the 2nd conviction is for robbery, theft or estafa and the 3rd i ,thenthemomentthehabitualdelinquent isonhisfourthconviction,heisahabitualde cidivistbecauseatleast,the fourth time will have to fall under any of the th

Note: When the offender is a recidivist and at the same time a habitual delin or the


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 crimeforwhichhewillbeconvictedwillbeincreased to the maximum period, unless circumstance. After determining the correct penalty forthelastcrimecommitted,an lbe imposedinaccordancewithArticle62. 2.

He committed a new felony before beginningtoservesuchsentenceorwhile servingt

Note:Theoffendermustbeservingsentencebyvirtue offinaljudgmenttotriggertheapp

Q: What are the distinctions between habitual delinquencyandrecidivism? A: HABITUALDELINQUENCY Atleastthreeconvictions arerequired Thecrimesarespecified a rious physicalinjuries(b)less seriousphysicalinjuries (c)robbery(d)theft,(e) es nd(f) falsification Thereisatimelimitof notmorethan10years betweeneveryconv victionsare enough Thecrimesarenot specified.Itisenough thattheymaybe embrac PC Thereisnotimelimit betweenthe1st convictionandthe subsequentconviction. Re iptible Itisagenericaggravating circumstancewhichcan beoffsetbyanordinary mit e. Ifnotoffset,itwouldonly increasethepenalty prescribedbylawforthe crimeco d. Thecircumstanceneed notbeallegedinthe information.

Q:WhenisArt.160applicable? A: Art. 160 applies although the next offense r from the former offense for which the defendant is serving sentence. It make ether the crime for which an accused is serving sentence at the time of the harged,fallsunderthe RPCorunderaspeciallaw. Note: First crime for which the offender is serving sentence need not be a cr the secondcrimemustbeoneundertheRPC.Sothatifa prisonerisservingsentencefor ty of violation of the AntiDangerous Drugs Law or Illegal Possession of Firear n is notviolated.Thereversehowever,thatiswhereheis servingsentence for Illeg rms (or any crime for that matter) and then committed homicide which is a vio kes this articleapplicable.

Habitualdelinquencyisa specialaggravating circumstance,henceit cannotbeoffsetby rcumstance.

Thecircumstancemust beallegedinthe information,otherwise thecourtcannotacquire posethe penalty.

Q: What is the justification for imposing a severe penaltyforquasirecidivists alty is justified because of his perversityandincorrigibility. Q: What is the en quasi recidivism and recidivism proper, insofar as offsettingofmitigatingcirc cerned? A: QUASIRECIDIVISM Doesnotrequirethatthe offenseforwhichthe convictisservingandt d areembracedinthesame titleoftheCode. Theaggravating circumstancesof recidiv rdinary mitigatingcircumstance presentinthe commissionofthecrime. RECIDIVISMPROP hatboththe firstandthesecond offensesmustembraced inthesametitleofthe Code. ancesof recidivismmaybeoffset byanyordinary mitigatingcircumstance presentinth ime.

QUASIRECIDIVISM Q:Whatisquasirecidivism? A: Quasirecidivism is a specia e where a person, after having been convicted by final judgment, shall commit eginningtoservesuchsentence,or whileservingthesame. Note: To be appreciated, quasirecidivism must be specificallyallegedintheinform

Q:Whataretheelementsofquasirecidivism? A: 1. Offender was already convicted eoffense

Note: It does not require that the two offenses are embracedinthesametitlein Q:Whencanaquasirecidivistbepardoned? 46


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability A: GR: 1. When he has reached the age of 70 and has already served out his en he shall complete it after reaching saidage XPN: Unless by reason of his mstances, he shall not be worthy of such clemency. Note: Quasirecidivism may be offset by special privileged mitigating circumstance inary mitigatingcircumstances. If both recidivism and quasirecidivism are prese divismshouldbeappreciatedinasmuchasit indicates greater penalty on the part ialaggravatingcircumstance. the principal by direct participation before the comm ffense. To consider this circumstance, the price, reward, or promisemustbethe imordial motive for the commission of the crime. Thus, if A approachedBandtol tofX, andBansweredheisabadmantowhichAretorted, youseeIamgoingtokill ,000.00and afterkillingX,AagainapproachedB,toldhimhehad alreadykilledX,and elivered the P5,000.00. In this case, the aggravating circumstanceisnotpresent.

12.BYMEANSOFINUNDATION,FIRE,ETC. Q: What are the aggravating circumstance fthecrimeiscommittedbymeansof: 1. Inundation 2. Fire 3. Explosion 4. Stranding intentional damagethereto 5. Derailmentoflocomotive;or 6. Byuseofanyotherartifi t wasteandruin. Note: Any of these circumstances cannot be considered to increase the penalty o ature of the offense, unless used by the offender as meanstoaccomplishacrimin eanstokillaperson,itqualifiesthe crimetomurder. Not aggravating when the l ncludesthem.E.g.Fireisnotaggravatinginthecrime ofarson.

11.INCONSIDERATIONOFAPRICE REWARDORPROMISE Q:Whataretherequisitesunder oprincipals a. Principalbyinducement b. Principalbydirectparticipation 2. The p , or promise should be previous to and in consideration of the commissionofth Note: If without previous promise, it was given voluntarily after the crime had , it shouldnotbetakenintoconsiderationforthepurpose ofincreasingthepenalty.

Q: Does this aggravating circumstance affect the criminalliabilityoftheonegiv . This aggravating circumstance affects or aggravates not only the criminal liab eceiver of the price, reward or promise but also thecriminalliabilityoftheone Ratio: When there is a promise, reward or price offeredorgivenasaconsideratio ecrime,thepersonmakingtheofferisaninducer, aprincipalbyinducement;whilethep , reward or promise who would execute the crime is a principal by direct part bothprincipalshence,theirpenaltiesarethesame. Note:Theprice,rewardorpromise r to material things or that the same were actually delivered, it being suffic r made by the principal by inducement be accepted by

Q:Whataretherulesastotheuseoffire? A: 1. Intent was only to burn but specific penalty. 2. If fire was used as a means to kill murder. 3. If fir illing separate crimes of arson and murder/homicide. 13.EVIDENTPREMEDITATIO isites of evident premeditation?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. 2. 3. Time when offender determined to committhecrime; Actmanifestlyindica ung toitsdetermination; Sufficient lapse of time between the determination and llow him to reflect upon the consequences of his act and to allow his conscie olutionofhiswill. Note: According to Justice Regalado, the fine distinctions between craft and fra eally be called for as these terms in Art 14 are variants of means employed nd if all are present in the same case, they shall be applied as a singleag

Note: Premeditation must be clear. It must be based uponexternalactsandnotpre ime.Itmustappearthattheoffenderclungtohis determinationtocommitthecrime. I elapseofonehour and fortyfive minutes (4:15 p.m. to 6 p.m.) was considered fficient. In Peoplev.Cabodoc,263SCRA187,whereat1:00p.m., theaccusedopenedhis l him, and at 4:30 p.m. of the said date, the accused stabbedthevictim,itw lfhours(3hours)fromtheinceptionofthe plan to the execution of the crime s videntpremeditation.

Q:Whatiscraft? A: Craft involves intellectual trickery and cunning on the rder not to arouse thesuspicionofthevictim. E.g.: 1. 2. A personwho pretendedtobe acustomer, then,robbedtheplace A person Meralco official,thencommittedacrime

Q:Whatistheessenceofpremeditation? A: The execution of the criminal act ought and reflection upon the resolution to carry out the criminal intent durin me sufficient to arrive at a calm judgment. Q: Can there be evident premedit ngisaccidental? A: No. In evident premeditation, there must be a clear refle he offender. If the killing was accidental, there was no evident premeditation. ictim is different from that intended? A:Whenthevictimisdifferentfromthatin n is not aggravating although it is not necessary that there is a plan to ki orpremeditationtoexist. 14.CRAFT,FRAUDORDISGUISE Q: What must be attenda tancetobeappreciated? A: To be appreciated, these circumstances must have f en advantage of by the offenderinthecommissionofacrime.

Q:Whatisfraud? A: Fraud are deceitful words or machinations used to induce nner which enablestheoffendertocarryouthisdesign. Q: What is the distinctio ft? A: FRAUD Wherethereisadirect inducementbyinsidious wordsormachinations, fraudispr toftheaccused doneinordernotto arousesuspicionofthe victimconstitutecraft.

Note:Craftandfraudmaybeabsorbedintreacheryif they have been deliberately adop sorformsforthetreacherousstrategy,orthey may coexist independently where they rentpurposeinthecommissionofthecrime.

Q:Whatisdisguise? A: Disguise means resorting to any device to concealiden Note: 1. Thetestofdisguiseiswhetherthedeviceor contrivanceresortedtobytheof e identification more difficult The use of an assumed name in the publicationo isguise 2.

Q:Isitnecessarythattheaccusedbeabletohide his identity all throughout the 48



BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability A:No.Theaccusedmustbeabletohidehisidentity during the initial stage if not sionofthecrimeandhisidentitymusthave been discovered only later on to consid cumstance. Q: What is the test in order to determine if disguiseexist? A: trivance resorted to by the offender was intended to or did make identification , such as the use of a mask or false hair or beard. If in spite of the di gnized, disguise cannotbeaggravating. Q:WhatisthedistinctionamongCraft,Fraud, CRAFT Involvestheuse ofintellectual trickeryand cunningnotto arousethe suspici D Involvestheuse ofdirect inducementby insidiouswords ormachinations DISGUISE I evise toconceal identity

15.ABUSEOFSUPERIORSTRENGTHORMEANS TOWEAKENDEFENSE Q:Whatisabuseofsuper excessive force out of proportion with the means of defense available to thepe re must be evidence of notorious inequality of forces between the offender and ty in their age, size and strength, and that the offender took advantage of s th incommittingthecrime. Note: Abuse of superior strength is inherent in the crimeofparricidewheretheh is generally accepted that the husband is physically strongerthanthewife.

A:Itmeanstodeliberatelyuseexcessiveforcethat is out of proportion to the mea lable to the person attacked. (People v. Lobrigas) Q: When does means employe eexist? A: It exists when the offended party s resisting powerismateriallyweak he requisites of means to weaken defense? A: 1. Meanswerepurposelysoughttow e victim to resist the assault 2. The means used must not totally eliminate po the victim, otherwise,itwillfallundertreachery. Q:Inwhatcasesisitapplicabl y to crimes against persons, andsometimestocrimesagainstproperty,suchas robber Note: Means to weaken the defense is absorbed in treachery.

16.TREACHERY Q:Whatistreachery? A:Treachery(aleviosa)referstotheemploym in the commission of the crimewhichtenddirectlyandspeciallytoinsureits execut imself arising from the defensewhichtheoffendedpartymightmake. Note: Rulesregardingtreachery: 1. Applicableonlytocrimesagainstpersons. 2. M forms need not insure accomplishmentofcrime 3. Mode of attack must be thought , and must not spring from the unexpectedturnofevents. Treacherycannotcoexi ion (Peoplev.Pansensoy,G.R.No.140634,Sept.12,2002)

Q: Is the mere fact that there were two persons who attacked the victim enoug eofsuperiorstrength? A: No. It must be shown that the offenders have taken ective strength to overpowertheirrelativelyweakervictimorvictims. Q:Whatisth ken?

Q:Whatisthetestoftreachery? A: The test of treachery is not only the re s but more specifically whether or not the victim was forewarned or


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 afforded the opportunity to make a defense or to wardofftheattack. Q:What ? A: 1. At the time of the attack, victim was not inthepositiontodefendhi usly adopted the particular means, method or form of attackemployedbyhim. Note:Thelocationofthewoundsdoesnotgiveriseto thepresumptionofthepresenceof ouldbeconsideredevenif: 1. Thevictimwasnotpredeterminedbutthere was generic sly kill any firsttwopersonsbelongingtoaclass. 2. Therewasaberratioictusandt rentfromthatintended. 3. There was error in personae, hence, the victim was no by the accused.

Q:Whatistheessenceoftreachery? A:Theessenceoftreacheryisthatbyvirtueofth eoffender, the offended party was not able to put up any defense. Q:Whenis hery is out when the attack was merely incidentaloraccidentalbecauseinthedefi the implication is that the offender had consciously and deliberately adopted th nsandformusedoremployedbyhim. Note: Suddenness of the attack does not by itself constitute treachery in the ce that themanneroftheattackwasconsciouslyadoptedby theoffendertorendertheo exceptifthevictimsarechildrenoftenderyears.

Q:Supposing,thevictimhidbehindadrumwhere he could not be seen by the offe g that the victim was hiding behind the drum shot at the drum. The bullet pe it the victim which caused his death. Can the aggravating circumstanceoftreache ? A: Yes. The victim was not in a position to defend himself. Q:Whatis use ofSuperiorStrength,MeansEmployedtoWeaken Defense TREACHERY Means,methods orformsare employedbythe offendertomake itimpossibleo artyto putanysortof resistance ABUSEOF SUPERIOR STRENGTH Offenderdoes notempl rmsof attack,heonly takesadvantage ofhissuperior strength MEANS EMPLOYED TOWE e employedbut itmaterially weakensthe resisting powerofthe offended party

Q:Whatarethoseinstancesthatmaybeabsorbed bytreachery? A: 1. Abuseofsuperi n 3. Byaband 4. Meanstoweakenthedefense 5. Craft 6. Nighttime Q: Must treac eginning of theassault? A:Itdepends. 1. When the aggression is continu sent at the beginningoftheassault. 2. Whentheassaultwasnotcontinuousitis su was present whenthefatalblowwasgiven.

17.IGNOMINY Q:Towhatdoesignominypertainto? A: It pertains to the mora aterialinjurycausedbythecrime. Ignominyaddsinsulttoinjuryoraddsshametothe n me. Ignominy shocks the moralconscienceofman. E.g. 1. Amarriedwomanbeingrape band. 2. Rapingawomanfrombehind 3. After having been killed, the body was thro . 4. Accused embraced and kissed the offended party not out of lust but out o ple 5. Victimwasrapedsuccessivelybyfivemen. 50


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability Q:Whataretherequisitesforignominy? A: 1. Crimemustbeagainst a. Chastity b. ies c. lightorgravecoercion d. murder 2. The circumstance made the crime mor tim. Note: Ignominy is not present where the victim was already dead when such acts insthisbodyorperson

Q:Towhatcrimesisignominyinherent? A: 1. Libel 2. Actsoflasciviousness Q: etween ignominy and cruelty? A: IGNOMINY Ignominyreferstothe moraleffectofacrime anditpertainstothe moralor sdeador alive. CRUELTY Crueltypertainsto physicalsufferingofthe victimsothevi

Note:Ignominyandcrueltyarecircumstancesbrought about which are not necessary in of thecrime.

18.UNLAWFULENTRY Q:Whenisanentryconsideredunlawful? A:Whenanentryis e. The use of unauthorized entrance must not be for thepurposeofescape. Note: This circumstance is inherent in the crimes of trespass to dwelling and e upon things. But it is aggravating in the crime of robbery withviolenceagai rsons.

greater audacity and hence the law punishes him withmoreseverity. Q:Supposi monly use the window as their ordinary means to enter thehouse,thentheaccused ggravatingcircumstanceofunlawfulentrybe appreciated? A: Yes. The aggravating nlawful entrymaystillbeappreciated. 19.BREAKINGWALL Q:Whataretherequisit ,roof,window,ordoorwasbroken 2. Theywerebrokentoeffectentrance Q:Giveinsta . A: 1. Anofficerinordertomakeanarrestmay break open door or window of to be arrestedisorisreasonablybelievedtobe (Sec.11,Rule133ofRulesofCourt); mittance may break open any door or window to execute the search warrant or l c. 7, Rule 126 of Rules of Court); 3. Replevin(Sec.4,Rule60ofRulesofCourt) between breaking wall andunlawfulentry? A: BREAKINGWALL Itinvolvesthebreakingof theenumeratedpartsof thehouse. UNLAWFULEN hatthereis nosuchbreakingasby entrythroughthe window.

Q:Whyisunlawfulentryaggravating? A: One who acts, not respecting the walls their property and provided for their personal safety, shows greater perversity,

20.AIDOFMINORSORUSEOFMOTORVEHICLES ORTHERSIMILARMEANS AIDOFMINORS circumstance? A: To repress professional criminals to avail themselves of minor antage of their irresponsibilityandtocounteractthegreatfacilities found by mode commit the crime andabscondoncethesameiscommitted.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Theuseofaminorinthecommissionofthecrime shows the greater perversity of t ucating the innocent minor in committingacrime. USEOFMOTORVEHICLES Q: Wh gravating circumstance? A:Theuseofmotorvehiclesinthecommissionofa crime po uthorities in apprehendingtheoffenders. Thiscircumstanceisaggravatingonlywhenu ethecommissionoftheoffense. Note:Ifmotorvehicleisusedonlyintheescapeofthe offender, motor vehicle is no . Espejo,L27708,Dec.19,1970)

A:No.Inorderforittobeappreciated,theremust be positive proof that the wound ctim were inflicted while he wasstill alivetounnecessarilyprolongphysicalsuffer Note:Ifthevictimwasalreadydeadwhentheactsof mutilation were being performed, fy the killing to murder due to outraging of his corpse. E.g.Crueltyisaggra nder tied the victim to a bed and burnt her face with a lightedcigarettewhil ay.

Q: What does the phrase other similar means mean? A: It means should be otorized vehicles or other efficient means of transportationsimilartoautomobileo Supposing, the accused robbed a house then foundacarinfrontofthehousewhichh e aggravating circumstance of useofmotorvehicleneappreciated? A:No.Thecrime shed. Note:Evenifthemotorvehicleusedisapublicvehicle, thecircumstancemaystillbeap

Q:Whataretheotheraggravatingcircumstances? A: 1. Organizedorsyndicatedcrimegr enceofdangerousdrugs 3. Useofunlicensedfirearm C.TheComprehensiveDangerousDru 5) 4.Asaqualifyingaggravatingcircumstance Note:Notwithstandingtheprovisionsofanylawtothe contrary, a positive finding ous drugsshallbeaqualifyingaggravatingcircumstancein the commission of a crime d the application ofthe penalty provided forin the Revised PenalCodeshallbea

D.DecreeCodifyingtheLawsonIllegal/Unlawful Possession,Manufacture,Dealingin,Acqu position,ofFirearms,Ammunitionor Explosives(P.D.1866,asamendedbyR.A.8294) Q: boutbyR.A.8294 onP.D.1866? A: 1. The use of an unlicensed firearm to commit aggravating circumstance. Hence, illegal possessionoruseofunlicensedfirearmis no dasaseparateoffense. If the illegal possession or use of unlicensed firearm o rtherance of, or incident to, or in connection with the crimes of rebellion, i ubversion shall be absorbedasanelementofsuchcrimes. Penalty for mere possess firearm is based on whether

21.CRUELTY Q:Whendoescrueltyexist? A: When the culprit enjoys and deli er slowly and gradually, causing him unnecessary and prolonged physical pain in ionofthecrime. Q: What are the requisites of cruelty as an aggravatingcircu ury caused be deliberately increasedbycausingotherwrong. 2. The other wrong be the executionofthepurposeoftheoffender. Q:Iscrueltyinherentincrimesagainst 2. 3. 52


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability the firearm is lowpowered or high powered. 4. Unlicensedfirearmshallinclude:f edlicense;orunauthorizeduse of licensed firearm in the commission of thecrime. f unlicensed firearm consideredabsorbedasanelementofthecrimeof rebellion, or tion or attempted coupdetat? A:Iftheunlicensedfirearmisusedinfurtherance tion with the crime of rebellion, or insurrection, sedition, or attempted coupd en is the use of unlicensed firearm consideredanaggravatingcircumstance? A:Int ndmurder(Sec.1) Q: When is the use of explosives considered an aggravatingcirc a person commits any of the crimes defined in the Revised Penal Code or speci f the aforementioned explosives, detonation agents or incendiary devices, which r he death of any person or persons, the use of such explosives, detonation agen evices shall be considered as an aggravatingcircumstance.(Sec.2,RA8294) E.An 45) Note: The provisions of the RPC insofar as they are applicableshallbesuppletor ,if the commission of any crime punishable under Title Eight (Crimes Against P Nine (Crimes Against Personal Liberty and Security) of the Revised PenalCodeis tsconstituting torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punis ned herein, the penalty to be imposed shall be in its maximum period.(Sec.22,

ALTERNATIVECIRCUMSTANCES (Art.15) Q:Whatisthebasisofalternativecircumstan re and effects of the crime andtheotherconditionsattendingitscommission. Q: umstances? A:Thosewhichmustbetakenintoconsiderationas aggravating or mitigati e nature and effects of the crime and the other conditions attendingitscommiss ralternativecircumstances? A: 1. Relationship 2. Intoxication 3. Degreeofinstruct ducationoftheoffender 1. RELATIONSHIP Q:Whenisrelationshiptakenintoconsid dpartyisthe: 1. Spouse 2. Ascendant 3. Descendant 4. Legitimate,natural,oradopted ster; 5. Relativebyaffinityinthesamedegreeof theoffender 6. Other relatives in to ascendants and descendants. e.g. Stepparents It is their duty to bestow u namother/fathers affection,careandprotection. Note: The relationship of uncle and niece is not coveredbyanyoftherelatio

F.AntiViolenceAgainstWomenandTheir ChildrenActof2004(RA9262) Note: Being under the influence of alcohol, any illicit drug,oranyothermindal lnotbe adefenseunderthisAct.(Sec.27,RA9262)

Q:Whenisrelationshipexempting? A: 1. Inthecaseofanaccessorywhoisrelated relationship prescribedinArticle20. 2. In Art. 247, a spouse will not incur racrimeoflessserious physical injuries or serious physical injuries if this aving surprised the offended spouse or paramour or mistress committing actual se rse.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 3. Under Art. 332, in the crime of theft, malicious mischief and swindling or o criminal liability if the offender is related to the offended party asspouse ndantorif the offender is a brother or sister or brotherinlaw or sisterinl they are living together. d. When the crime committed is homicide or murder, re ggravatingevenifthevictimofthe crimeisarelativeofalowerdegree; e. In rape ing where a stepfather raped his stepdaughter (People v. De Leon, 50 Phil.539) aped his own daughter (People v. Porras,58Phil.578). Incrimesagainstchastity

Q:Whenisrelationshipmitigating? A: 1. In crimes against property, by analogy ns exempt from criminal liability). Thus, Relationship is mitigating in the cr (Arts. 294302), usurpation (Art. 312), fraudulent insolvency(Art.314)andarson(A ) 2. In crimes against persons when it comes to physical injuries, it is mit ense committed is less serious physicalinjuriesorslightphysicalinjuries, if the is a relative of a lowerdegree.(Reyes,p.473) Q:Whenisrelationshipaggravating stpersonsincases: a. Whentheoffendedpartyisarelative ofahigherdegreethan randtheoffended partyarerelativesofthesamelevel, askillingabrother;(Peoplev erethecrimeisphysicalinjuries: i. Seriousphysicalinjuriesevenif the offended ftheoffender; Theseriousphysicalinjuriesmust notbeinflictedbyaparentupon tisement ii. Less serious physical injuries or slight physical injuries if t is a relative of a higherdegreeoftheoffender;

2. Q: When is relationship neither aggravating nor mitigating? A:Relationship atingnormitigating whenrelationshipisanelementoftheoffense.e.g. parricide,adul e. Note:Inthecrimeofqualifiedseduction,relationship is a qualifying aggravating ci ere the offenderisabrotheroranascendantoftheoffended woman,whetherornotthe e.

2.INTOXICATION Q:Whenisintoxicationmitigating? A:Ifintoxicationis: 1. ent to the plan to commit a felony,or 3. At the time of the commission of taken such quantity of alcoholic drinks as to blur his reasonanddeprivehimof l. Note:Tobemitigating,thestateofintoxicationofthe accused must be proved. Once lishedbysatisfactoryevidence,intheabsenceof proof to the contrary, it is pres alorunintentional.

Q:Whenisintoxicationaggravating? A:Ifintoxicationis 1. Habitual;or 2. In t to the plan to commitafelony). 54


BOOK 1: Circumstances Which Affect Criminal Liability Note:Themomentintoxicationisshowntobehabitual or intentional to the commission ame will immediately aggravate, regardless of the crimecommitted. Note: It is n lone but the lack of intelligenceoftheoffenderthatisconsidered. Low degree ggravating in the mannerthathighdegreeisnevermitigating.

Q:Whoisahabitualdrunkard? A: He is one given to intoxication by excessi : What determines whether intoxication is mitigatingornot? A: The basis is t hol upon the offender,notthequantityofthealcoholicdrinkhe hadtakenin. F THEOFFENDER Q:Isdegreeofinstructionoreducationmitigating? A: GR: Lack o on is mitigatinginallcrimes. XPN:Notmitigatingin: 1. Crimes against propert a,threat) 2. Crimesagainstchastity 3. Murderorhomicide 4. Rape 5. Treason uld be a natural feeling of every citizen, howeverunletteredorunculturedhemay s,82Phil.193) Illustration: If the offender is a lawyer who committed rape, the fact that he law will not aggravatehisliability. But if a lawyer committed falsificatio vate his criminal liability because he used his special knowledge as a lawyer. e of hislearningincommittingthecrime.

Q:Supposing,thecrimewasdonenotinacivilized society, can the alternative cir e of instruction be a mitigating circumstance? A: Yes. It is still considered rcumstance.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 IV.PERSONSCRIMINALLYLIABLE Q:Whoarecriminallyliable? A: The following are grave and lessgravefelonies: 1. Principals 2. Accomplices 3. Accessories Note:ThisclassificationistrueonlyundertheRPCand is not used under special la es under special laws are not graduated. However, if a speciallawprovidesfort ties as those provided under the RPC, the classification undertheRPCmaybeadop

Thisarticleappliesonlywhentheoffendersaretobe judgedbytheirindividual,andnot

Q:Whocanbethepartiesinthecommissionofa crime? A: 1. Activesubject(thecr einjuredparty) Q:Whocanbeactivesubjectsofacrime? A:Onlynaturalpersoncan eofthehighlypersonalnatureofthe criminalresponsibility. Note: Under the RPC, natural persons act with personalmaliceornegligence,artifi ot actwithmaliceornegligence.

Q:Whocanbepassivesubjectsofacrime? A: A corporation and partnership can Note: A juridical person like a corporation cannot commit a crime that requires e or maliciousintent.

PRINCIPALS (Art.17) Q:Whatarethedifferentclassificationsofcriminal respons al criminal responsibility When there is no conspiracy, each of the offenders the act performedbyhim. 2. Quasi collective criminal responsibility Some are principalsandtheothersareaccomplices. 3. Collective criminal responsibility s conspiracy, the act of one is the actofall.Allconspiratorsareliableasco he extent and characteroftheirparticipation. Q:Whatarethekindsofprincipals? tparticipation 2. Principalbyinduction/inducement 3. Principalbyindispensablecooper RINCIPALBYDIRECTPARTICIPATION Q:Whataretherequisitesforprincipalsbydirect pa hey participated in the criminal resolution. 2. They carried out the plan and p part in its execution by acts, which directlytendedtothesameend. Note: Principalsby directparticipation arethosewho materiallyexecutethecrime.Th e scene and perform acts necessary in the commission ofthecrime.

Q:Maycorpsesoranimalsbepassivesubjectsofa crime? A: GR: Corpses and animal cts because they have no rights that may beimpaired. XPN: Under Art. 253, t may be committed if the imputation tends to blackenthememoryofonewhoisdead.

Q: What is the effect if the second element is missing? A:Ifthesecondele t participate in the commission of the acts of execution cannot be held crimin se there is no conspiracy, unless the crime agreed upontobecommittedistreason bellion. Thisisbecausetheconspiracycontemplatedhereis a manner of committing unishable as a rule unless it is a conspiracy to 56


BOOK 1: Persons Criminally Liable commit treason, sedition, coup d etat or rebellion whichisexpresslypunishablea at does personally took part in the commissionofthecrimemean? A:Itmeanstha articipationmust beatthesceneofthecommissionofthe crime, personally taking pa 2. Under conspiracy, although he was not present in the scene of the crime, he as a principal by direct participation. E.g.Oneservingasguardpursuanttotheconspiracyis aprincipalbydirectparticipatio

A: The inducement contemplated is one strong enoughthatthepersoninducedcould ement is tantamount to an irresistible force compelling the person induced to c cutionofthecrime. Q:Whoisaprincipalbyinducement? A: To be a principal b erances must be such nature and made in such mannerastobecomethedeterminingc Note:Principalsbyinducementareliableevenifthey donotappearatthesceneofthec

Q:Whatistheruleindeterminingcriminalliability incaseofconspiracy? A: GR: nalliabilityof all the participants will be the same, because theactofoneis ticipation of one is so insignificant, such that even without his cooperation, be committed justaswell,thennotwithstandingtheexistence of a conspiracy, such egarded onlyasanaccomplice. Ratio:Thelawfavorsmilderformofcriminalliabilityif theactoftheparticipantdoes versity.

Q: What are the two ways of directly inducing anothertocommitacrime? A: her to commit a crimeby: a. Using irresistible force such physical force a ct upon the individual that in spiteofallresistance,itreduceshim toamereins ntrollable fear compulsionbymeansofintimidation orthreatthatpromiseanevilof ce that the ordinary man would have succumbedtoit. Note: In these cases, there is no conspiracy. Only the one using force or cau lly liable. The material executor isnot criminally liable because of exempting of irresistible forceanduncontrollablefear.

Q: What is the effect of conspiracy if not all the elementsofthecrimeispr tor? A: GR:Whenthereisconspiracy,thefactthatthe elementoftheoffenseisnot ratorsisimmaterial. XPN: 1. Inparricidetheelementofrelationship mustbepres 2. In murder where treachery is an element of the crime, all offenders must employment of thetreacheryatthetimeoftheexecution oftheact. 2.PRINCIPALS antbyinducement?

2. a. Giving price, or offering reward or promise Requisites: i. Inducement ectly with the intention of procuring the commission of the crime; ii. Such ind etermining cause of the commission of the crime by the materialexecutor. By di nother to commit a crimeby:


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Note: The one giving the price or offering the reward or promise is a princip le the one committing the crimeinconsiderationthereofisaprincipal by direct p e is collective criminalresponsibility. 2.

One cannot be held guilty of having instigated the commission of a crime witho wn that the crime hasbeenactuallycommittedbyanother.

Note: If the one charged as principal by direct participation is acquitted beca hout criminalintentormalice,hisacquittalisnotaground fortheacquittalofthepr b.

Usingwordorcommand. Requisites: i. The one uttering the words of command must n of procuring the commissionofthecrime; ii. He must have an ascendancy or in son who acted; iii. Wordsusedmustbesodirect,so efficacious, and powerful as t or moral coercion; iv. Words of command must be uttered prior to the commission aterial executor of the crime has no personal reason to committhecrime.

Q: What are the distinctions between a principal by inducement and an offende altocommitafelony? A: PRINCIPALBY INDUCEMENT OFFENDERWHOMADE PROPOSALTOCOMMIT AFELONY

Note: The one who used the words of commandisaprincipalbyinducementwhile the me because of the words of command is a principal by direct participation. The riminalresponsibility. Words uttered in the heat of anger and in the nature o be obeyeddonotmakeoneaninductor. Mereimprudentadviceisnotinducement. I mmitted the crime had his own reason to commit it, it cannot be said that th entialinproducingthecriminalact.

Inboth,thereisinducementtocommitacrime Themereproposalto commitafelonyis p ceptin proposaltocommit Becomesliableonlywhen treasonorrebellion. thecrimeis ersonto bytheprincipalbydirect whomtheproposalis participation madeshouldnot ise,the proponentbecomesa principalbyinducement. Theproposaltobe punishablemus onorrebellion Involvesanycrime

Q: When will the criminal liability of theprincipal byinducementarise? A: ent becomes liable only when the crime is committed by the principal by direct What is the effect of the acquittal of the principal by direct participation o theprincipalbyinducement? A: 1. Conspiracy is negated by the acquittal of co

Q: A asked B to kill C because of grave injustice done to A by C. A prom illC,notsomuchbecauseofthereward promisedtohimbutbecausehealsohadhisown ronged himinthepast.IfCiskilledbyB,wouldAbeliable asaprincipalbyinduceme principal by inducement because the reward he promised B is not the sole impel made B to kill C. To bring about criminal liability of a coprincipal, the ducer must be the sole consideration which caused the person inducedtocommitth chthe crimewouldnothavebeencommitted.Thefactsof the case indicate that B, t ucedbyA,hadhisownreasontokillCoutofa longstandinggrudge.(2002BarQuestion) 58



BOOK 1: Persons Criminally Liable 3.PRINCIPALSBYINDISPENSABLECOOPERATION Q: Who is a principal by indispensabl ewho: 1. Participated directly in the criminal resolution;or 2. Cooperat of the crime by performing an act, without which it would not have been accom s cooperation in the commission of theoffensemean? A: To desire or wish a mmonwillorpurposedoesnotnecessarilymean previous understanding, for it can be redfromthecircumstancesofeachcase. Note:Aprincipalbyindispensablecooperationmaybe a coconspirator under the doctr spiracy. He becomes a coconspirator by indispensable cooperation, although the c rpurposewasnotpreviouslyagreedupon. Ifthecooperationisnotindispensable,theo ice.

A:Hebecomesaprincipalbydirectparticipation. Q: Distinguish an accomplice fro spensablecooperation? A: PRINCIPALBY INDISPENSABLE COOPERATION Ifthecrimecouldhardly becommittedwithout n,then suchcooperationwould bringaboutaprincipal. ACCOMPLICE Ifthecooperation dorhastened theconsummationofthe crime,thiswouldmake thecooperatormerelyan a

Note: In determining whether the offender is a principaloraccomplice,thebas ecooperationtotheconsummationofthecrime.

Q: What are the distinctions between accomplice andconspirator? A: ACCOMPLICE CONSPIRATOR Inboth,theyagreewiththecriminaldesign Theycometoknow They outitafterthe criminalintention principalshavereached becausetheythemselves the havedecideduponsuch thendotheyagreeto courseofaction. cooperateinits executi umentswhoperform Theyaretheauthorsof actsnotessentialtothe thecrime. perpetr

ACCOMPLICES (Art.18) Q:Whoisanaccomplice? A:Anaccompliceisonewho: 1. f the principalsbydirectparticipation; 2. Cooperates in the execution of th ultaneousacts, with the intention of supplying material ormoralaidintheexecuti caciousway; Note:Cooperationofanaccompliceisonlynecessary, notindispensable. Before there ce, there must be a principalbydirectparticipation. Incaseofdoubt,thepartic l be considered that of an accomplice rather than that ofaprincipal.

ACCESSORIES (Art.19) Q:Whoareaccessories? A: Those who do not parti cooperate in the commission of the felony, but with knowledge of the commission sequentlytakespartinthreeways by: 1. Profitingorassistingtheoffendertoprofit ; 2. Concealing or destroying the body of the crimetopreventitsdiscovery; Note: Where the accused misleads the authoritiesbygivingthemfalseinformation, s alent to concealment and heshouldbeheldasanaccessory.

Q: What is the effect if he the person charged as anaccompliceinflictsamor


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 3. Note: One cannot be an accessory unless he knew of thecommissionofthecrime. ave participated in the commissionofthecrime. Theaccessorycomesintothepictur dy consummated, not before the consummationofthecrime. Harboring, concealing or assisting in the escapeoftheprincipalofthecrime.

Q: What if the offender has already involved himselfasaprincipaloraccomplice cessory any further even thoughheperformsactspertainingtoanaccessory. Q:Inw oriesnotcriminally liable? A: 1. When the felony committed is a light felony. sory is related to the principalasspouse,orasanascendant,or descendant or as herlegitimate,naturaloradoptedor where the accessory is a relative by affinity gree, unless the accessory himself profited from the effects or proceeds of the edtheoffendertoprofittherefrom. 1.PROFITINGORASSISTINGTHEOFFENDERTO PROFIT Illustration: If a person having participated as principal or accomplice in ro ut knowing that the property being offered to him is the proceeds or subjectm ughtorpurchased or dealt in any manner with which such property, obtainingbene tionorhelpingthe thieforrobbertoprofittherefrom.

A:Thecorpus delictiis thebodyofthecrime,not necessarilythecorpse. Itisa he proof of the occurrence of certain events 2. Somepersonscriminalrespon orpseisnotrecovered,aslongas thatkillingisestablishedbeyondreasonabledoubt, c ill arise and if there is someone who destroys the corpus delicti to prevent es an accessory. (Inovero v. Coronel,CA,65O.G.3160) 3.HARBORINGORCONCEALI lty as an accessory by harboring,concealingorassistingintheescapeof theprinci ublicofficers Requisites: a. Accessoryisapublicofficer b. He harbors, conceal theescapeoftheprincipal c. He acts with abuse of his public functio he principal is any crime, provided it is notalightfelony. Note: In the case of a public officer, the crime committed by the principal i fficer becomes an accessory by the mere fact thathehelpedtheprincipalescapeby ng,makinguseofhispublicfunctionand thusabusingthesame.

Note: The accessory must receive the property from the principal. He should not the consent of the principal. If he took it without the consent of the princi ssory but a principalinthecrimeoftheft. 2.DESTROYINGTHECORPUSDELICTI Q:Whatisacorpusdelicti?

2. Privateperson Requisites: a. Accessoryisaprivateperson b. Heharbors,concea scapeoftheauthorofthecrime c. The crime committed by the principaliseither: cide iii. Murder 60


BOOK 1: Persons Criminally Liable iv. v. Attemptagainstthelifeofthe President Thattheprincipalisknowntobe crime. Public officer contemplated under par.3 of Art. 19 is exemptbyreasonofrelation ,even if such public officer acted with abuse of his public functions. Theb rt.20donotapplyto P.D.1829(ObstructionofJustice).

Q: Can an accessory be held criminally liable withouttheprincipalbeingfoundg essory cannot be held criminally liablewithouttheprincipalbeingfoundguiltyof a hen the principal was not held liable because of an exempting circumstance unde Ratio: A persondoesnotbecome criminally liable by merely harboring or assisting aninnocentman. Note: Correlate this Article with the provisions of the AntiF 2) and Obstruction of Justice (P.D. 1829). Both laws will be discussed under S

ACCESSORIESEXEMPTFROMCRIMINALLIABILITY (Art.20) Q:Whatisthecriminalliabil cessory is exempt from criminal liability,whentheprincipalishis: 1. Spouse 2. A scendant 4. Legitimate, natural, or adopted brother, sister or rela egree. XPN: Not so exempt even if the principal is relatedtohim,ifsuchacce fectsofthecrime;or 2. Assisted the offender to profit from the effectsofthec Ratio: Such acts are prompted not by affection butbygreed.

Note: The exemption provided for in this article is based on the ties of bloo on of ones name, which compels on to conceal the crimes committedbyrelatives thisarticle. Nephewandniecearenotincluded.

A.DecreePenalizingObstructionofApprehension andProsecutionofCriminalOffenders shableacts Q:WhataretheactspunishedunderP.D.1829? A:Anyperson,whoknowing edes, frustrates or delays the apprehension of suspects and the investigation an n of criminal cases by committing any of the following acts: 1. Preventing w fying in anycriminalproceedingorfromreporting the commission of any offense or y offender/s by means of bribery, misrepresentation, deceit, intimidation,forceor Altering, destroying, suppressing or concealing any paper, record, document, or o h intent to impair its verity, authenticity, legibility, availability, or admissi vidence in any investigationoforofficialproceedingsin, criminal cases, or to b tigationof,orofficialproceedingsin, criminalcases 3. Harboringorconcealing,or scape of, any person he knows, or has reasonable ground to believe or suspect, enseunderexisting penal laws in order to preventhis arrest, prosecutionandconv ly using a fictitious name for the purpose of concealing a crime, evading pros cution of a judgment, or concealing his true name andotherpersonalcircumstances eorpurposes 5. Delayingtheprosecutionofcriminalcases by obstructing the servi urt orders or disturbing proceedings in the fiscal s offices, in Tanodbayan, or


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 6. Making, presenting or using any record, document, paper or object with knowle yandwithintentto affect the course or outcome of the investigationof,oroffic inalcases Soliciting,accepting,oragreeingtoaccept anybenefitinconsiderationofa iscounting, or impeding the prosecutionofacriminaloffender Threatening directly y another with the infliction of any wrong upon his person, honor or property iate member or members of his family in order to prevent such person fromappe ionof,or official proceedings in, criminal cases, or imposing a condition, whet lawful, in order to prevent a person from appearing in the investigation of or ingsin,criminalcases Giving of false or fabricated information to mislead or p orcementagenciesfromapprehending theoffenderorfromprotectingthelifeor property fabricating information from the data gathered in confidencebyinvestigatingauthor rposes of background information and not for publication and publishing or disse same to mislead the investigatororthecourt.(Sec.1) 7. 8. 9.

2.ComparewithArticle20,RPC(accessories exemptfromcriminalliability) Note: Article 20, RPC is applicable with PD 1829 because it is beneficial to be interpreted in favor of the accused because in an absolutory cause, the off nally liable byreasonofpublicpolicy.Becausethereasonispublic policy, it shoul C and special laws. 62



Ratio: A law cannot be rationally obeyed unless it is firstshownandamancanno hathasnotbeengiven.

Q:Whatarepenalties? Q: What are the measures of prevention that are A:P osedbylawful notconsideredaspenalty? authorityuponapersonwhocommitsadelibera gainstthelaw. A: 1. The arrest and temporary detention of Q:Whatarethejudic ? accused persons (preventive imprisonment) as well as their detention A: b or imbecility or 1. Productive of suffering, without illness requiring their everaffectingtheintegrityofhuman hospital. personality. 2. Commensuratewiththe e commitment of a minor to a 3. Personal no one should be re egalitisaconsequenceofajudgment 3. Suspension from the employment or accordi ingthetrialorinorderto 5. Certainnoonemayescapeitseffects. instituteprocee rrectional. 4. Fines and other corrective measures which, in the exercise of t enaltiesthatmaybeimposed? administrative disciplinary powers, superior officials upon their A:Afelonyshallbepunishableonlybythepenalty subordinates. prescribed ission. 5. Deprivation of rights and reparations Itisaguarantytothecitizen hthecivillawmayestablishinpenal act of his will be considered criminal until . Parents who are governmenthasmadeitsobylawandhasprovided deprived of thei enalty foundguiltyofthecrimeofcorruptionof their minor children, in accordan ilCode. Q: Why are the measures abovementioned not consideredaspenalties? d as a result of judicial proceedings. Those mentioned in par. 1, 3 and 4 ar asuresbeforeconvictionofoffenders. 2. Theoffenderisnotsubjectedtoormade to in expiation of oraspunishmentforacrime. Note: 1. Par. 1 refers to accused persons who are detained by reason of insan t does not refer to the confinement of an insane or imbecile who hasnotbeen Offendedpartycannot pardontheoffenderso astorelievehimofthe penalty. Itcanbewaivedbythe offendedparty.

Q: What are the classes of injuries caused by a crime? A: SOCIALINJURY Producedbythe disturbanceandalarm whicharetheoutcomeof theoffens impositionofthe correspondingpenalty. TheStatehasaninterest inthisclassorinju Causedtothevictimof thecrimewhosuffered damageeithertohis person,property,ho edthrough indemnity. TheStatehasnoreason toinsistinitspayment.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 2. Pars. 3 and 4 refer to administrative suspensionandadministrativefinesandnot r fine as penalties for violationsoftheRPC.Finesinpar.4donot constituteasp posedbythecourt. Whereaminoroffenderwascommittedtoa reformatory pursuant to ndwhilethusdetainedhecommitsa crime therein, he cannot be considered a quasi ntionwasonly a preventive measure, whereas a quasi recidivismpresupposesthecomm ringtheserviceofthepenaltyfora previouscrime. Commitment of a minor is not t imposed by the court in a judgment.Theimpositionofthesentencein suchacase 2. Divisiblepenaltiesthosethathavefixed duration and are divisible into three on temporal down to arrestomenor. 3. 4.

B.PURPOSES Q: What are the purposes for the imposition of penaltyunderthe iation penalty is commensurate with the gravity of the offense. 2. Correct uleswhichregulatetheexecution of the penalties consisting in deprivation oflibe defense shown by its inflexible severity to recidivists and habitual delinquen IONOFPENALTIES (ARTS.2526) Q: What are the general classifications of pena enalties those expressly imposed by the court in the judgment of conviction. lties those that are deemedincludedintheimpositionofthe principalpenalties. pal penalties, according to theirdivisibility? A: 1. Indivisible penalties th ofixedduration,e.g.deathandreclusion perpetua

Q: What are the penalties, according to their gravity? A: 1. Capital 2. Affl tional 4. Light. Q:Howarefinesimposed? A:Finesmaybeimposedasanalternativ nesaccordingtotheirgravity? A: 1. AfflictiveoverP6,000 2. CorrectionalP200 0 Q: E and M are convicted of a penal law that imposesapenaltyoffineori nment.Thejudgesentencedthem to pay the fine, jointly and severally, with subsi tincaseofinsolvency. 1. Isthepenaltyproper?Explain. 2. May the judge impose ty of fine or imprisonment? Explain. A: 1. Imposing the penalty of fine joint hetwoconvictedaccusedis not proper. The penalty should be imposed individually ccused of the crime. Any of the convicted accused who is insolvent and unable ll serve the subsidiaryimprisonment. 2. The judge may not validly impose y.Althoughthelawmay prescribe an alternative penalty for a crime, It does not ay impose the alternative penalties at the same time. The sentence must be def , the judgment cannot attainfinality(2005BarQuestion). 64


BOOK 1: Penalties D.DURATIONANDEFFECTOFPENALTIES (Arts.2745) Q:Whatisthedurationofpenal PENALTY Reclusionperpetua Reclusiontemporal Prisionmayorand Temporary disqualifi oncorrecional Suspensionand Destierro Arrestomayor Arrestomenor Bondtokeepthep earsand1dayto40 years 12yearsand1dayto20 years 6yearsand1dayto12 y nth Discretionaryonthe Court

Q: What are the rules on computation of penalties? A: 1. Offender is in p orary penalties is from the day on which the judgment of conviction becomesfin t in prison duration of penalty consisting in the deprivation of libertyis is placed at the enforcement of the penalty 3. Other penalties duration is e offender commences toservehissentence Q:Whatarethedistinctionsbetweenthep etuaandlifeimprisonment? A: RECLUSIONPERPETUA Pertainstothepenalty imposedforviolation oftheRPC Ithasfixe thit accessorypenalties LIFEIMPRISONMENT Pertainstothepenalty imposedforviolatio s Ithasnofixedduration Itdoesnotcarrywithit accessorypenalty

A: Death penalty is imposed in the following crimes: 1. Treason 2. Piracy 3. Qua 4. QualifiedBribery 5. Parricide 6. Murder 7. Infanticide 8. Kidnapping 9. Robberywi micide 10. DestructiveArson 11. RapewithHomicide 12. Plunder 13. Certain violations Dangerous DrugsAct 14. Carnapping Q:Isdeathpenaltyalreadyabolished? A: No. penalty. What is prohibitedunderR.A.9346isonlytheimpositionof thepenaltyofde Note:However,thecorrespondingcivilliabilityshould bethecivilliabilitycorrespondi plevs. Salome,G.R.No.169077,Aug.31,2006)

In lieu of the death penalty, the following shall be imposed: 1. Thepenaltyof henthe lawviolatedmakesuseofthenomenclature ofthepenaltiesoftheRPC;or 2. Th t,whenthe law violated does not make use of the nomenclature of the penalties A.9346)

Note: Although reclusion perpetua has been given a fixed duration, it has remai visible penalty.Indivisiblepenaltieshavenodurations.

Q:Whenisdeathpenaltynotimposable? A: 1. Under age offender is below 18 onof thecrime 2. Over age offender is more than 70 yearsold 3. No court m utomatic review of the case by the Supreme Court, the vote of eight members i e impositionofdeathpenalty Note: Automatic review is available only in cases wheredeathpenaltyisimposed.( Q:Whenisdeathpenaltyimposed?

Q:Whatisthenatureofdestierro? A: Destierro is a principal penalty. It is vict is banished to a


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 certain place and is prohibited from entering or coming near that place designa nce, not less than 25 kilometers but not to extendbeyond250kilometers Note: If the convict should enter the prohibited places,hecommitsthecrimeofev enceunderArticle157. 3. 4.

Therighttomanagehisproperty;and Therighttodisposeofsuchpropertyby anyacto

Q: In what crimes is the penalty of destierro imposed? A: 1. In the crime hreat,whentheoffenderisrequiredto put up a bond for good behavior but failed r Article 284, such convict shall be sentenced to destierrosothathewouldnotb 2. Inthecrimeofconcubinage,thepenalty prescribedfortheconcubineisdestierro und ere the penalty prescribed is arresto Mayor, but the offender is entitled to p ting circumstance and lowering the prescribed penalty by one degree,thepenaltyo estierro. Thus, it shall be the one imposed Q: What penalties are considered ccessorypenalties? A: 1. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification 2. P emporary special Disqualification 3. Accessorypenalties Note: Accessory penalties need not be stated in the sentence.Theaccessorypenalt cipal penaltyimposedforthecrimeasamatterofcourse; theyareautomaticallyimposed atedinthejudgment

Q:Whatprincipalpenaltiesiscivilinterdictionan accessorypenalty? A:Itisana ath penalty if it is commuted to life imprisonment; 2. Reclusionperpetua; 3. Rec al. Q:Whataretheeffectsofpenalties? A: 1. Perpetual or temporary absolute blicoffice: a. Deprivation of public offices and employment,evenifbyelection; of the right to vote or tobeelected; Note:Aplebisciteisnotmentionedor contemplated in Art. 30, par 2 (deprivation , hence, the offender may voteinthat exercise, subject to the provisions of p satthetime c. d.

Disqualification for the offices or public employments and for the exerciseofan d; Loss of right to retirement pay or pension for any office formerly held.

Note: Perpetual absolute disqualification lasts duringthelifetimeoftheconvict utedisqualificationlastsduring thetermofthesentence,andisremovedafter theserv 2.

Q:Whatiscivilinterdiction? A: Civil interdiction is an accessory penalty. Civ hall deprive the offender during the timeofhissentence: 1. The rights of paren guardianship either as to the person or propertyofanyward; 2. Maritalauthority; 3.

Perpetual or temporary special disqualification from public office, professionorc Deprivation of the office, employment, profession or calling affected; b. Disqua n for holding similar officesoremploymentsperpetually duringthetermofthesenten emporary special disqualificationfortherightofsuffrage: 66



BOOK 1: Penalties a. b. Note:Thepurposeofwhichistopreserve the purity of elections; one rendered infa f felony or other baseoffensesindicativeofmoralturpitude isunfittoexercisesuc

Deprivation of the right to vote or tobeelectedtoanypublicoffice; Cannothold eperiodofthedisqualification. person will not commit the violence sought to be prevented.

Q: What are the distinctions between bond to keeppeaceandbondforgoodbehavio BONDTOKEEPTHE PEACE Failuretopostabondto keepthepeaceresultsto imprisonment pendingonwhetherthe felonycommittedisgrave orlessgraveononehand, oritislig helegaleffectof failuretopostabond forgoodbehavioris notimprisonmentbut des

4. Suspensionfrompublicoffice,profession orcallingortherightofsuffrage: a. Di rom holding such office or exercising such profession orcallingorrightofsuffra esentence; b. If suspended from public office, he cannot hold another office ha nctions during the period ofsuspension. Civilinterdiction a. Deprivationofther authority or guardianship of any ward b. Deprivationofmaritalauthority c. Depriva right to manage his property and of the right to disposeofsuchpropertybyany vos Bondtokeeppeace a. Offender must present two sufficient sureties who shal he offender will not commit the offense sought to be prevented and in case s ,theywillpay the amount determined by the court;or b. Offendermustdepositsuch urttoguarantee saidundertaking;or c. Offender may be detained if he cannotgiv Not to exceed 6 months for graveorlessgravefelony;or ii. Not to exceed 5. 6.

Note:Bondtokeeppeaceisdifferentfrombailbond which is posted for the provisio rrestedfororaccusedofacrime. Under Sec. 23, RA 9262, the Court may order tionorderisissuedto give a bond to keep the peace, to present two sufficient ertake that such

PENALTIESINWHICHOTHERACCESSORY PENALTIESAREINHERENT (Arts.4044) Q: Wh lties of principalpenalties? A: 1. Death, when not executed by reason of comm Perpetual absolute disqualification, and b. Civil interdiction during 30 years, i ressly remitted in the pardon 2. Reclusion perpetua and reclusion temporal a. C ction for life or during thesentence b. Perpetual absolute disqualification unles y remitted in the pardonoftheprincipalpenalty 3. Prisionmayor a. Temporaryabs ation b. Perpetual special disqualification from suffrage, unless expressly remitte e pardon of the principalpenalty 4. Prisioncorrecional a. Suspension from publi fessionorcalling,and b. Perpetual special disqualification from suffrage, if the imprisonment exceeds 18 months, unless expressly remitted in the pardonofthepri


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 5. Arresto mayor suspension of the right to hold office and the right of su esentence Q: What are the limitations of the pardoning powerofthePresident? on can only be exercised afterconvictionbyfinaljudgment 2. Executive pardon doe asesofimpeachment Q: What is the effect of the grant of pardon on theprinc simposed? A: GR: Pardon granted in general terms extinguishes only the princi esnotincludetheaccessorypenalty XPN: 1. When absolute pardon is granted aft nthasexpired,itremoves all that is left of the consequences of the conviction ly provides, accessory penaltyisextinguished. Q: What are the distinctions b pardonandpardonbytheoffendedparty? A: EXECUTIVEPARDON Coversanycrime, unlessotherwise providedbythe Constitutionorthe hescriminal liability Executivepardondoes notincludecivilliability Grantedonlya nbyfinal judgment PARDONBYTHE OFFENDEDPARTY Note: The RPC does not provide for any accessory penaltyfordestierro.

PREVENTIVEIMPRISONMENT (Art.39) Q:Whatispreventiveimprisonment? A: Per an accused wherethecrimewithwhichheischargedisnon bailable or, even if bail therequisitebail Q:Whenwillpreventiveimprisonmentapply? A: It will apply t less of the durationthereof,includingthesocalledperpetual penalties as long as ivation of liberty.Itwillalsoapplytodestierro. Q:Whenisthedetentionprisone ispreventiveimprisonment? A: If the detention prisoner agrees voluntarily in w by the same disciplinary rules imposeduponconvictedprisoners. In the case of who has been proceeded against under the Child and Youth WelfareCode,heshallb f his sentence with the full time of his actual detention, whether or not he amedisciplinaryrulesoftheinstitution. Q:Whenwillhebecreditedonlywithfourfi h he has undergone preventiveimprisonment? A: If the detention prisoner does ythesamedisciplinaryrulesimposedupon convictedprisoners EFFECTSOFPARDON nbythePresident onthepoliticalrightsoftheaccused? A: GR: Executive pardon t to hold public office or the right to suffrage XPN:Whensuchrightsareexpr

Crimesagainstchastity undertheRPC Doesnotextinguish criminalliability Civilliab d Shouldbegivenbefore theinstitutionofthe criminalaction

COSTS (Art.37) Q:Whatiscostorcostofsuit? A: It is the expenses e assessed against or to be recoveredbyapartyinlitigation. Q:Whatdocostsi 68


BOOK 1: Penalties A: 1. 2. Fees Indemnities, in the course of judicial proceedings A: 1. 2. When d is higher than prisioncorrectional. Whenthepenaltyimposedisfineanda penalty confinement in a penal institution and whichhasnofixedperiod. For failure to f the damagedcaused,indemnificationofthe consequentialdamages,andcostsofthe pr

Q:Towhomarecostschargeable? A: 1. Incaseofconvictionchargeabletothe acc eofficio, eachpartybearinghisownexpenses Note:Paymentofcostsisdiscretionarytothecourts 3.

CONFISCATIONANDFORFEITURESOF THEPROCEEDSORINSTRUMENTSOF THECRIME(Art. on and forfeitureoftheproceedsofthecrime? A: 1. Everypenaltyimposedcarriesw he proceeds of the crime andtheinstrumentsortoolsusedinthe commissionofthec nd forfeiture are in favor ofthegovernment rd 3. Propertyofa3 personnotliable ecttoconfiscationand forfeiture 4. Propertynotsubjectoflawfulcommerce rd (whethe ccusedor3 person)shallbedestroyed Note: Confiscation and forfeiture are additional penalties. Hence, once the sen ome final,thecourtcannolongermodify,alter,orchange itbyorderingconfiscationa

PECUNIARYLIABILITIES (Art.38) Q:Whatdopecuniaryliabilitiesinclude? A:In tionofthedamagecaused 2. Indemnification of the consequential damages 3. Fine 4. edings Note: 1. The order of payment applies in case the property of the offender is hepaymentofhispecuniaryliabilities. Theorderofpaymentismandatory. 2.

SUBSIDIARYPENALTY Q:Whenissubsidiarypenaltyimposed? A: 1. When there i sonment or any other principal penaltyanditcarrieswithitafine;or 2. Whenpena sidiary penalty is not an accessory penalty. It must be expressly stated in vict must have been insolvent to pay the fine andnotmererefusaltopayit. T vide that in case of nonpayment of the fine, the convict shall be requiredto here shall be no subsidiary penalty for the non paymentofdamagestotheoffended diary imprisonment not imposed?

Q: What are the cases when confiscation and forfeiturecannotbeeffected? A: elong to an innocent thirdparty. 2. Such properties have not been placed under hecourt. 3. When it is legally or physically impossible. E.APPLICATIONOFPENA naltiesapplied? A: GR:Penaltyprescribedbylawingeneralterms shall be imposed or the consummatedfelony


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 XPN: When the law fixes the penalty for frustratedorattemptedfelony Q:Wheni wed? A: The graduated scale is followed when the law prescribesapenaltylower eesthananothergivenpenalty. Scale1 1. Death 2. ReclusionPerpetua 3. ReclusionT sionmayor 5. PrisionCorreccional 6. ArrestoMayor 7. Destierro 8. ArrestoMenor 9. P sure 10. Fine Scale2 1. Perpetual or Temporary Absolute Disqualification 2. Perp mporary Special Disqualification 3. Suspensionfrompublicoffice,therightto vote a for, the profession orcalling 4. PublicCensure 5. Fine Q:Howisgraduationofpe ationofpenaltiesmaybeby: 1. ByDegrees: a. Stagesofexecution(consummated, frus d);and b. Degree of criminal participation of the offender (principal, accomplice y). 2. By Periods (maximum, medium, and minimum) Q: What is the computation incipals,accomplicesandaccessories? A: CONSUMMATED 0 1 2 FRUSTRATED Principal 1 Accomplice 2 Accessory 3 ATTEMPTED 2 3

Interpretation: 0representsthepenaltyprescribedbylaw, which is to be impose summatedoffense. 1representsthatpenaltyprescribedbylaw mustbeloweredbyone ituations and so on with numbers2,3,4 Note: The rules in the diagram shall not apply to cases were the law prescr rustrated or attempted felony, or to be imposed uponaccomplicesoraccessories.

Q: What factors are considered in determining the extent of the penalty to b A: 1. Stagereached. 2. Participationsofthepersonsliable. 3. Aggravating or mitig stancesattendant. Q:Whataretherulesinapplicationofindivisible penalties? A: le it shall be applied regardless of any mitigating or aggravatingcircumstanc oindivisiblepenalties a. Only one aggravating circumstance greaterpenaltyshallb itigating and no aggravating circumstanceslesserpenaltyshall beimposed c. Mitig ance and no aggravating lesser penalty shall beimposed d. Both mitigating and umstances are present court shalloffseteachother Note:Moralvalue,notnumericalweight,should prevail GR: When penalty is compose lepenalties,thepenaltycannotbe lowered by one degree, no matter how manymitig represent XPN:Privilegedmitigatingcircumstancesof Arts.68(personunder18years e justifying or exempting circumstance) 70


BOOK 1: Penalties Q: What are the rules in the application of divisiblepenalties? A:Applieso eperiods 1. No aggravating and no mitigating mediumperiod 2. Onlyamitigatin vatingmaximum 4. When there are aggravating and mitigating court shall off insttheotheraccordingto theirrelativeweight 5. Two or more mitigating and no tlower,inthe period applicable, according to the number and nature of such ci or more aggravating Limitation: No penalty greater than the maximum period of ribed by law shallshallbeimposed 7. Court can determine the extent of the p achperiod, according to the number and nature of the aggravating and mitigating and the greater or lesser the extent of the evil produced by the crime Note: In applying the rules for graduating penalties, mitigating and aggravating ces are disregarded. Mitigating and/or aggravating circumstances should be conside after the penaltynextlowerindegreeisalreadydetermined.

A: Divide time included in the penalty into three equalportionsandoneportion riod. Note: Penalties consisting in deprivation of liberty cannotbeservedsimultaneously

Q:Whatisthethreefoldrule? A: The threefold rule provides that the maximu nce shall not be more than 3 times the length of the most severe of the pen ut in no case to exceed40years. The threefold rule applies only when the encessuccessively. Subsidiarypenaltyformspartofthepenalty. Subsidiary impriso ll be excluded in computingforthemaximumduration. It applies although penalti r different crimes at different times and under separateinformation. Note: The threefold rule must be addressed to the wardenandnottothejudge.

Q: What are the cases where mitigating and aggravating circumstances are not mpositionofthepenalty? A: 1. Whenpenaltyissingleandindivisible 2. Onfelonies ThepenaltytobeimposeduponaMoro orothernonChristianinhabitants.Itlies inthe enpenaltyisonlyfineimposedbyan ordinance 5. Whenpenaltiesareprescribedbyspeci rule when the penalty is not composedofthreeperiods?

Q: What are the penalties that may be served simultaneously? A: 1. Perpetual ication 2. Perpetualspecialdisqualification 3. Temporaryabsolutedisqualification 4. poraryspecialdisqualification 5. Suspension 6. Destierro 7. Fineandbondtokeepthe ilinterdiction 9. Confiscationandpaymentofcost Note:Theabovepenalties,exceptd rvedsimultaneouslywithimprisonment. ADDITIONALPENALTIESTOBEIMPOSEDUPON CERTAIN t.58) Q: What are the additional penalties that could beimposedtocertainacc cerswhohelptheauthorofthecrime bymisusingtheirofficeanddutiesshallsufferthe


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Absolute perpetual disqualification if theprincipaloffenderisguiltyofagrave fe e temporary disqualification if the principal offender is guilty of less grave erulesunderArt.49? A: 1. Ifpenaltyforfelonycommittedishigher thanthatinten eriodshallbeimposed 2. If penalty for felony committed is lower thanthatinte ximumperiodshallbeimposed 3. If the act committed also constitutes an attempt another crime and the law prescribes a higher penalty for whether of the latte tempted or frustrated crime in its maximumperiodshallbeimposed. Note:Art.49 eorwhen thereismistakeintheidentityofthevictimofthe crime. Thepenaltyfro me committed are compared and the lower penaltyisimposedinthemaximumperiod. ME (Art.59) Q: What is the penalty to be imposed in case of failure to employedortheaimssoughtareimpossible? A: The penalty for impossible crime is ngingfromP200P500. Q:Whatisthebasisfortheimpositionofpenalty forimpossible eritcouldcause 2. Degree of criminality shown by the offender. 1.Indetermina 03,asamended) Q:Whatisanindeterminatesentence? 1. A: It is a sentence wit mum term which the court is mandated to imposeforthebenefitofaguiltypersonw efore, when the maximum imprisonmentexceeds1year. Q: What is the purpose of ntencelaw? A: The purpose of the indeterminate sentence law is to avoid prol because it is proventobemoredestructivethanconstructiveto offenders. Q:When enceapply? A: Indeterminate sentence applies mandatorily to violations of both cial laws where imprisonment would exceed one year, and where thepenaltyisdivi wistheindeterminatesentenceimposed? A: In imposing a prison sentence for an he RPC or special penal laws, the court shall sentence the accused to an inde hichhasamaximumand a minimum term based on the penalty actually imposed. SPL Maximum That which could be Anywhere within the properly imposed under the y RPC, considering the prescribed by the aggravating and mitigating special law, ill not exceed the circumstances limitofthepenalty. Minimum Within the range of re within the one degree lower than that range of penalty prescribed by the R the the felony committed, special law, as long as without considering the itwi gravating and mitigating the minimum limit of thepenaltyundersaid circumstances.

Note: The minimum and the maximum referred to in theindeterminatesentencelawar rm minimum refers to the duration of the sentence which the convict shall serv igibleforparole. Thetermmaximumreferstothemaximumlimitofthe durationthatth special laws, it is anything within the inclusive range of prescribed penalty. n 72


BOOK 1: Penalties discretion in the imposition of the indeterminate penalty. b.

Q:Whoaredisqualifiedfromavailingthebenefits oftheindeterminatesentencelaw? A sentence law shall not apply topersons: 1. Convictedof: a. An offense punishable nalty, reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment b. Treason, conspiracy or proposal reason c. Misprision of treason, rebellion, sedition,espionage d. Piracy 2. Whoare elinquents 3. Who shall have escaped from confinementorevadedsentence 4. Granted l pardon by the Chief Executiveandshallhaveviolatedtheterm (condition)thereto erm of imprisonment doesnotexceedoneyear 6. Sentenced to the penalty of destie nly;Anypersonconvictedof a crime but the penalty imposed upon himdoesnotinvo o are already serving final judgment upon the approval of the Indeterminate Sen c.

Reasonable probability that such prisoner will live and remain at libertywithout w; Release will not be incompatible withthewelfareofsociety.

Note: Recidivists are entitled to an indeterminate sentence. Although the penal d for the felony committed is death or reclusion perpetua, if after considering ircumstances, the imposable penalty is reclusion temporal or less, the Indetermin eLawapplies. Anoffenderisnotdisqualifiedtoavailofthebenefits oftheindeterm imeis committedwhileheisonparole.

Q: When is a prisoner qualified for release on parole? A:Wheneveranyprison d the minimum penalty imposeduponhim 2. Appear to the board of indeterminate reports of the prisoners work and conduct, and from the study and investigatio tselfthat: a. Fittedbyhistrainingforrelease;

Q: When is a prisoner on parole entitled to final releaseanddischarge? A: lancesuchparoled prisonershall: 1. Show himself to be a law abiding citizen an ylaw, TheBoardmayissueafinalcertificationinhisfavor, forhisfinalreleasea anctionsfortheviolationofthe conditionsofparole? A: When the paroled prisone f theconditionsofhisparole,hemaybe: 1. Rearrested;and 2. Thereafter, he shall g unexpired portion of the maximum sentence for which he was originally committ e penalty provided by law is 6 months to 3 years.Decideifthefollowingpenalti . 1year; 3. 10months; 4. 6monthsto10months; 5. 6monthsto2years. A: 1. I nnot be imposedundertheISLAW. 2. Correct, because if the range of the penalty you can impose a straight penalty of one year. HereISLAWisnotapplicable. 3. C Incorrect, if the maximum penalty is one year or less, then it is not covered snoneedtoprovide for maximum and minimum periods in imposingapenalty. 5. Corr eriod of the penalty imposed is more than one year, theISLAWapplies. F.EX S (Arts.7888) Q:Whataretherulesincaseofinsanity?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. When a convict becomes insane or imbecile after final sentence has bee ecution of such sentenceissuspendedonlyasregardsthe personalpenalty. If he is sentence shall be executed unless the penalty has prescribed. Even if whil ence, the convict becomes insane or imbecile, the aboveprovisionsshallbeobserve nt of his civil or pecuniary liabilitiesshallnotbesuspended. A: 1. When the c is pregnant or within 1 year after delivery. (Art.83) Whenaconvictshallbeco ter final sentence has been pronounced.(Art.79) 2. 2. 3. 4.

Q:Whenisdeathpenaltynotimposed? A: 1. When the convict is below 18 yrs ecrime. 2. Whentheconvictisover70yrsoldatthe timeofthecommissionofthecr matic review of the case by the Supreme Court, the requiredmajorityvoteisnot fthedeathpenalty,inwhich cases the penalty shall be reclusion perpetua.(Art.4 lreadybeenabolished? A: No. What is prohibited under R.A. 9346 is only the eath. In lieu of the death penalty, the following shall be imposed: 1. The p perpetua, when the law violated makes use of the nomenclatureofthepenaltiesof alty of life imprisonment, when thelawviolateddoesnotmakeuseofthe nomenclatur . (Sec.2,R.A.9346) Note:However,thecorrespondingcivilliabilityshould bethecivilliabilitycorrespondi plevs. Salome,G.R.No.169077,Aug.31,2006)

Q:Whenisdeathpenaltyimposedbutnotcarried out? A: 1. Incaseofcommutation nstheageof70yrs.Oldin which case the penalty will be automatically lowered Note: Only a penalty by final judgment can be executed. A judgment is final i appealedwithin15daysorhehasexpresslywaivedin writingthathewillnotappeal. Q: When is the execution of death penalty suspended?

Q:Inwhatcasesisdestierroimposed? A: 1. Death or serious physical injurie ed under exceptional circumstances.(Art.247) 2. Failuretogivebondforgoodbehav hreats.(Art.284) 3. Penaltyfortheconcubineinconcubinage (Art.334) 4. When, enalty by one or more degrees, destierro is the proper penalty. Q:Howisdest onvict shall not be permitted to enter the place designated in the sentence no s specified, which shall not be more than 250 and not less than 25kmfromthe e convict enters the prohibited area, hecommitsevasionofsentence. Q:Whereis tomenor? A: 1. Inthemunicipaljail; 74


BOOK 1: Penalties 2. In the house of the offender, but under the surveillance of an officer o rt provides in the decision due to the health of the offender. But the reason ustbecausetheoffenderisa respectable member of the community. (Art.88) 1.Pr nded) XPN: The court may, after it shall have convicted and sentenceda child law, and upon application at any time, place the child on probation in lieu o sentence taking into account the best interest of the child. For this purpose, 8, otherwise known as the "Probation Law of 1976", is hereby amendedaccordingly What is the effect of the filing for application forprobation? A: A judgment es final when theaccusedfilesapetitionforprobation.However, thejudgmentisnot ionfor probation is resolved. The filing of the petition for probationisawaiv tto appealthejudgmentofconviction. Ratio:Whenoneappliesforprobation,headmitsthe correctnessofthecourtsdecision. eals, he is not satisfied with the courts decision,thushewantstheappellateco ecisionofthelowercourt.

Q:Whatisprobation? A:Itisadispositionunderwhichadefendant,after convictio ed subject to conditions imposed by the court and to the supervisionofaprobat Note: Probation is only a privilege and its grant rests solelyuponthediscretio

Q:Whatarethepurposesofprobation? A: 1. To promote the correction and rehabi oviding himwithindividualizedtreatment 2. To provide an opportunity for the re tentoffenderwhich mightbelessprobableifheweretoserve aprisonsentence 3. To nses 4. Todecongestourjails 5. To save the government much needed financeforma sinjail. Q:Whenmayprobationbeavailedof? A: Probation may be availed of ingsentencebyfinaljudgmentprovided that he/she did not appeal his/her convictio Note: The application for probation must be done within15daysfromthepromulga

Q:Ifapersonalreadyperfectedanappeal,canhe stillavailofprobation? A: GR: ible for probation,themomentheperfectsanappealfrom the judgment of conviction, probation anymore. The benefit of probation must be invoked at the earliest ins viction.(Franciscov.CA,G.R.No.108747April6, 1995)

Q: What is the effect of probation on the civil liabilityoftheoffender? A des only for the suspensionofthesentenceimposedontheaccused by virtue of his solutely no bearing on civil liability. Although the execution of sentence is s grant of suspension, it does not follow that the civil liability of the offend shed. Q: Where should the offender file his application forprobation? A:An onisexclusivelywithin thejurisdictionofthetrialcourtthatrenderedthe judgment. ys required to conduct a hearing whether a convict who is otherwise disqualifie may be given thebenefitofprobationornot. Q:Whocanapplyforprobation? A: s not exceed six years of imprisonment are qualified for probation, withoutrega rime.Hence,if thepenaltyissixyearsandoneday,heisnolonger qualifiedforproba endersunderRa9165 2.Violationoftheomnibuselectioncode


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 1. Sentenced to serve a maximum term of Q:Supposetheoffenderwasconvictedofs orethansixyears; offenseswhichweretriedjointlyandonedecision 2. Convicted of me was rendered where multiple sentences imposed againstthenationalsecurityorth prison terms as penalty, each prison term order, such as alarms and scandals, rsalthoughthetotalityof regardlessofthepenaltyimposed; theprisontermsexceeded d 3. Who have previously been convicted by toapplyforprobation? finaljudgmento y imprisonmentofnotlessthanonemonth A: Yes, the offender is still qualified yand/orafineofnotlessthan The basis of determining whether the penalty twoh es the offender from probation or not is 4. Whohavebeenonceonprobationunder ual imprisonment and not theprovisionsofPD968;and the totality of all the pr he 5. Who are already serving sentence at the decision. timethesubstantiveprovi meapplicablepursuanttoSection33 Hence, even if the prison term would sum up an six years, if none of the individual penalty exceeds six years, the offen termining whether a convict is entitled to probation,considernotonlytheprobatio qualifiedfromapplyingforprobation. but also the probationable penalty. If it we onable crime, then regardless of the penalty, Q: May a recidivist be given the ictcannotavailofprobation. probation? Q: When will the application for prob ds: thepenaltyofwhichdoesnotexceed30daysof imprisonment or a fine of not ffender is in need of such convict is not disqualified from the benefit correc that can be of probation. Hence, even if he would be provided most effectively ubsequently of a crime embraced in commitmenttoaninstitution; the same title o the earlier 2. Thatthereisanundueriskthatduringthe conviction,heisnotdisqual iod of probation the offender will probation provided that the penalty of the e;or currentcrimecommitteddoesnotgobeyondsix 3. Probation will depreciate the ndthenatureofthecrimecommittedby ofthecrime. himisnotagainstpublicorder, n on. Q: What are the kinds of conditions imposed undertheprobationlaw? Q:Wha ganoffenderon probation? A: 1. Mandatoryconditions A: In determining whethe . Discretionaryconditions placedonprobation,thecourtshallconsider: Q:Whatare ions? 1. All information relative, to the character, antecedents, environment, m :Theyare: physicalconditionoftheoffender;and 1. TheconvictmustreporttothePro nstitutional and community Officer(PO)designatedinthecourtorder resources. appro ication for probation within 72 hours from receipt of notice of Q:Whoaredis hebenefits suchorderapprovinghisapplication;and oftheprobationlaw? 2. Theconvi ustreport to the PO at least once a month during A: The benefits of the p eperiodofprobationunlesssooner. extendedtothose: 76


BOOK 1: Penalties Note: These conditions are mandatory, hence, the moment any of these is violate n is terminated. thanoneyear Thesentenceimposes onlyafineandthe offenderisma risonment shallnotexceed6years Theperiodofprobation shallbetwicethetotal numb mprisonment

Q:Whatarethediscretionaryconditions? A: The trial court which approved the a tionmayimposeanyconditionwhichmay be constructive to the correction of the of e same would not violate the constitutionalrightsoftheoffenderandsubjectto th 1. The conditions imposed should not be undulyrestrictiveoftheprobationer;and 2 on should not be incompatible with the freedom of conscienceoftheprobationer. egrantofprobation? A: 1. After having convicted and sentenced a defendant, t spend the execution of the sentence, and place the defendant on probation, upon the defendant within the periodforperfectinganappeal. 2. The filing of applic on operates as a waiver of the right to appeal. 3. Probation may be granted imposed a term of imprisonmentorfineonly. 4. Theapplicationshallbefiledwith order granting or denying probationshallnotbeappealable. 5. Accessory penalties spendedonceprobationisgranted. Q:Whatistheremedyofanoffenderifhisorher a d? A: An order denying probation is not appealable, hence,theremedyiscertior fprobation? A: PENALTY IMPOSED Imprisonmentfornot morethanoneyear Imprisonmentofmore PERIODOF odofprobation shallnotexceedtwo years Theperiodofprobation

Q: What are the sanctions imposed if the probationer commits any serious viol tionsofprobation? A: 1. The court may issue a warrant for the arrestofapr sestablished,thecourtmay: a. Revokehisprobation;or b. Continue his probation an ditions thereof. This order is notappealable. 3. If probation is revoked, the ll serve the sentence originally imposed. Q:Whenmayprobationbeterminated? A the final discharge of the probationer upon finding that, he has fulfilled the nsofprobation. Q: What are the effects of the termination of probation? A: ted. 2. Restoration of all civil rights lost or suspended. 3. Fully discharges l any fine imposed.

Note: Any person convicted for drug trafficking or pushing under RA 9165, regar alty imposed by the Court, cannot avail of the privilege granted by the Probat ntial Decree No.968,asamended.(Sec.24,RA9165)

Note: Probation is not coterminous with its period. The mereexpiration of the iondoes not, ipso facto, terminate the probation. There must be an order issue harging the probationer. If the accused violates the condition of the probation uance of said order or court,theprobationmayberevokedbytheCourt.

Q: Efren, a bus driver, was charged with reckless imprudenceresultinginhomicide . The trial court convicted Efren of the crime charged. Efren applied for prob ven due course by the trial court. Thereafter,


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Efren filed an appeal regarding the award of damages.Thetrialcourtdeniedtogiv ce of appeal because it has already granted probation and that such is deemed ftheaccusedtoappeal.May theaccusedfileanappealregardingtheawardof damagesno obation? A: Yes, although the appeal in this case involved onlythecivilaspec nt.It is significant to note that the civil liability of the accused is not the crime committed. It is personal to the victim. The probation law provides nsion of the sentence imposed on the accused by virtue of his application for solutely no bearing on civil liability.Although the execution of sentenceissusp robation,it does not follow that the civil liability of the offender, if any, Salvan v. People, G.R.No.153845,Sept.11,2003) 2.JuvenileJusticeandWelfareAc sthemeaningofachildinconflictwith thelaw? A:Itreferstoachildwhoisall ittedanoffenseunder Philippinelaws. Note:Thechildinconflictwiththelawshallenjoythe presumption of minority. He/sh rightsofachildinconflictwiththelawuntilhe/sheis proventobe18yearsoldorol iminal liability herein established does not include exemption from civil liabili hall be enforced in accordance with existinglaws

Q: What is the minimum age of criminal responsibility? A: AGEBRACKET 15yearsoldor below Above15but below18,who actedwithout discernmen ctedwith discernment CRIMINAL LIABILITY Exempt TREATMENT Thechildshallbe subj tion program Thechildshallbe subjectedtoan intervention program Suchchildshall propriate proceedingsin accordancewith R.A.9344 Exempt Not exempt

Q:Whatisjuvenilejusticeandwelfaresystem? A:JuvenileJusticeandWelfareSyste thchildrenatriskandchildrenin conflict with the law, which provides child app gs, including programs and servicesforprevention,diversion,rehabilitation,re inte d aftercare to ensure their normal growthanddevelopment.(Sec.4,RA9344) IMINAL EATTENDINGMITIGATING AND/ORAGGRAVATINGCIRCUMSTANCESAND OFHABITUALDELINQUENCY (Art all be considered as a habitual delinquent? A:Forthepurposeofthisarticle,a habitual delinquent, if with in a periodoftenyearsfromthedateofhisreleaseor imes of serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery, theft, estafa or fa sfoundguiltyofanysaidcrimesa thirdtimeoroftener. Q: What are the effects e, mitigating circumstance and habitualdelinquency? A: 1. Aggravating circumstan ic and specific)increasesthepenalty,without however, exceeding the maximum p gating circumstances diminishes thepenalty 3. Habitual delinquency increases ause of multiple convictions in certain specific crimes or recidivism, which is lied in habitual delinquency and imposes an additional penalty Q: What are th ting and mitigatingcircumstances? A: 1. Aggravating circumstances that are not ount to increase the penaltyarethosewhich: 78


BOOK 1: Penalties In themselves constitute a crime speciallypunishedbylaw;or b. Are included by acrimeandprescribingthepenalty therefore;or c. Areinherentinthecrime. 2. Agg ing circumstances that serve to aggravate or mitigate the liability of the offe ch circumstances are attendant are which arisefrom: a. The moral attributes of b. From his private relations with the offendedparty;or c. Fromanyotherpersonal mstancesthatservetoaggravateor mitigate the liability of those persons onlywho he timeoftheexecutionoftheactortheir cooperation therein are those which con xecutionoftheact; or b. In the means employed to accomplishit. Q: What are ual delinquency? A: 1. Offender had been convicted of any of thecrimesof: a ous physical injuries b. Robbery c. Theft d. Estafa e. Falsification 2. Afterthat onorafterservinghis sentence, he again committed, and, st within 10 years from onviction, he was again convicted of any of the said crimes for the second ti tion of, or after serving nd sentence for, the 2 offense, he again committed, ars from hislastreleaseorlastconviction,hewas again convicted of any of said roftener. Q:Whataretheadditionalpenaltiesforhabitual delinquency? a. A: 1.

Upon3rdconvictionPrisioncorrecional initsmediumandmaximumperiods th Upon4 co mediumandminimumperiods th Upon 5 or additional conviction Prision mayor in to Reclusion temporal in its minimum period

Note:Totalpenaltiesnottoexceed30years. Totalpenaltiesrefertothepenalties: 1 which he is found guilty; 2. Additionalpenalty. Q:Whatarethedistinctionsbetweenhabitual delinquencyandrecidivism? A: HABITUALDELIQUENCY RECIDIVISM

Astothecrimescommitted Sufficientthataccusedon Offenderhadbeen convictedofany lhave beenpreviouslyconvicted crimesof:serious byfinaljudgmentof physicalinju ,estafa,or anothercrimeembraced inthesametitleofRPC. falsification. Astoperi tted Offenderfoundguiltyof anyofthecrimeswithin 10yearsfromhislast releaseor odoftime betweentheformer convictionandthelast conviction.

Astonumberofcrimescommitted 3rdconvictionoroftener. 2ndconvictionissufficient. setbymitigating Anadditionalpenaltyis circumstances,servesto increasethepenalty emaximum

Q:JuandeCastroalreadyhadthree(3)previous convictions by final judgment for uilty of Robbery with Homicide. In the last case, the trial judge considered a d both recidivism and habitual delinquency. The accused appealed and contended t st conviction, the trial court cannot consider against him a finding of


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 recidivismand,again,ofhabitualdelinquency.Is theappealmeritorious?Explain. A: not meritorious. Recidivism andhabitualdelinquencyarecorrectlyconsidered in this e the basis of recidivism is differentfromhabitualdelinquency. Juanisarecidi eviously convicted by final judgment for theft and again foundguiltyforrobbery hare bothcrimesagainstproperty,embracedunderthe same Title (Title Ten, Book T nal Code. The implication is that he is specializing in the commission of crim ty, hence aggravating in the conviction for robberywithhomicide. Habitual deli brings about an additionalpenaltywhenanoffenderisconvicteda thirdtimeormoref rectly considered because Juan had already three (3) previous convictions by fin or theft and again convicted for robbery with homicide. And the crimes specifie bitual delinquencyincludes,interalia,theftandrobbery. (2001BarQuestion) Q:Aw e.Duringthetrial, uncontradicted evidence consisting of medical certificates were showing that the accused had sustained injuries in ten (10) previous occasions n fisticuffs with different persons. He was also confined at the National Menta ental ailment diagnosed as homicidal and suicidal instincts. During his second reat, he escaped. Upon conviction, the prosecutor objected to the applicationof nate Sentence Law contending that the accused is a habitual delinquent and an ational Mental Hospital. If you are the Judge, ruleontheobjection. A:Theobj d.Acouldnot be legally considered a habitual delinquent. Habitual delinquency c y invoked without being alleged in the information and proven during trial. Bes indication that A was convicted within ten (10) years from last conviction or mes, or oftener of the crimes of robbery, theft, estafa, physical injuries, or Being an escapee from a mental hospital will not disqualify him from the appli s Section 2 thereof contemplates having escaped from confinement or evaded sente ment presupposes imprisonment by virtue of final judgment. (1991 BarQuestion) 80


BOOK 1: Modification And Extinction of Criminal Liability VI.MODIFICATIONANDEXTINCTIONOFCRIMINAL LIABILITY Q:Howiscriminalliabilityext nal liability may be extinguished either, totallyorpartially. Q: What are cir totally extinguishcriminalliability? A: 1. Death of the convict as to personal as to pecuniary penalties, liabilitytheretoisextinguishedonlywhen death of the before final judgment Note:Extinguishmentofcriminalliabilityisa groundformotiontoquash. The death however does not extinguish criminal liability of the accused because it is a State.

of civil liability exists as provided under Art.1157CivilCode. Note:However,civilliabilityarisingfromsourcesother than the crime committed sur pursued in a separate civil action. (People v. Bayotas, G.R.no.152007,Sept.2,

A.PRESCRIPTIONOFCRIMESUNDERTHERPC (Art.90) Q.Whatisprescriptionofcri tureorlossof the right of the State to prosecute the offender afterthelapse ptionofthecrimebeginsontheday thecrimewascommitted. XPN: When the crime w n would only commence from the time the offended party or the government learn CRIMES Crimespunishableby death,Reclusion perpetua,Reclusion temporal Crimespunish herafflictivepenalties Crimespunishableby othercorrectional penalties Libeloroth enses Oraldefamationand slanderbydeed Lightoffenses PRESCRIPTION 20years

Serviceofsentence Amnesty which completely extinguished thepenaltyandallitsef epardon 5. Prescriptionofthecrime 6. Prescriptionofthepenalty 7. Marriage of th n as in the crimes of rape, abduction, seduction andactsoflasciviousness Q: es which totally extinguishcriminalliability? A: 1. Conditionalpardon 2. Commuta nce 3. For good conduct allowances which the culprit may earn while he is serv role 5. Probation Q:Whatistheeffectofoffendersdeath? A: 1. If before fin uishes both his criminal and civil liabilities. 2. If while the case is on a ill be dismissed. Offended party may file a separate civil action under the Ci er basis for recovery 2. 3.

15years 10years,exceptthose punishablebyarresto mayorwhereinthe prescriptivepe 6months 2months

Note: In computing the period, the first day is excludedandthelastdayincluded pyears. Prescriptiondoesnottakeawaythecourtsjurisdiction butonlyabsolvesthe When fine is imposed as an alternative penalty to imprisonment, and the fine c er penaltythanthepenaltyofimprisonment,thebasisof theprescriptiveperiodisthe

Q: What is the rule where the last day of prescriptive period falls on a S


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A:Wherethelastdayoftheprescriptiveperiodfor filing an information falls on a y,theinformationcouldnolongerbefiledon thenextdayasthecrimehasalreadypresc sis of computation if the penaltyisacompoundone? A:Thehighestpenaltyisthe lescontainedherein. Q:Suppose,in1980,Acommitsacrime,thengoes into hiding, ter, and the government finds a witness, can they institute a case? A: No. d left for the United States,yes,hecanbeprosecutedstill. The mere filing o ef of Police; 2. office of the NBI; or 3. Office of the Provincial Director pt the prescriptiveperiod. Ratio: They do not constitute the court. They are neither part of the judiciar urts of justice. onemonthorboth Violationsofmunicipalordinances 2months

Q: What are the rules in computation of prescriptionofoffenses? A: 1. Period mences to run from the day the crime is discovered by the offended party, the ragents. It is interrupted by the filing of the complaintorinformation. It oceedings terminate without the accused being convictedoracquittedorareunjustifi oranyreasonnotimmutableto him. It shall not run when offender is absent fr 2. 3. 4.

Q:Whatistheeffectiftheaccusedfailstomove toquashbeforepleading? A: The all objections,exceptifthegroundsare: 1. Facts charged do not constitute an ojurisdiction 3. Criminal action or liability has been extinguished 4. Theave uldconstitutea legal excuse or justification (Sec.9, Rule 117,RulesofCourt) SPUNISHABLEUNDER SPECIALLAWSANDMUNICIPALORDINANCES IMPOSABLEPENALTY Imprisonmentofsix(6)yearsor more Imprisonmentoftwoyearsbutl esundertheNIRC Imprisonmentofoveronemonth butlessthantwoyears Fineorimpriso ON 12years 8years 5years 4years 1year

Note: If dismissal is final, accused can no longer be prosecutedeven ifstillw ve period, onthegroundofdoublejeopardy. Thefilingofthecomplaintorinformatio nvestigationinterruptstherunningofthe prescriptiveperiod. The term "proceeding understood either executive or judicial in character: executive when it involves gation phase and judicial when it refers to the trial and judgment stage. With on, any kind of investigative proceeding instituted against the guilty person wh atelyleadtohisprosecutionshouldbesufficient totollprescription.(Panaguiton,Jr. .25,2008)

B.PRESCRIPTIONOFPENALTIES Q:Whatisprescriptionofpenalties? A:Prescrip iture oftherightofthegovernmenttoexecutethefinal sentenceafterthelapseofcer criptiveperiodcommenceto run? A: Prescriptive period of penalties will only c m the moment the convict evadestheserviceofsentence.(Art.91) Q.Whenwillsuc 82


BOOK 1: Modification And Extinction of Criminal Liability A:Itisinterruptedwhentheconvict; 1. Giveshimselfup 2. Iscaptured 3. Goestoa he Philippineshasnoextraditiontreaty;or 4. Commits any crime before theexpirati escription Q: What are the situations which do not follow Art.91? A: 1. C ptive period willstarttorunonlyattheterminationof theintendedresult). 2. In estimony prescriptive period is reckoned from the day afinal judgment is ren ewhenthefalsetestimonywas made). 3. Electionoffense a. If discovery of the judicial proceedings, prescription begins when such proceedingterminates;or b. Fro e of commission of the offense. Q: What is the effect of filing an amended on upon period of prescription? A:Iftheamendmentchargesadifferentcrime,the int or information should be considered. If it is merely a correction of a de original complaint or informationshouldbeconsidered. IMPOSABLEPENALTY Death, reclusionperpetua, reclusiontemporal Otherafflictivepena tionalpenalties exceptarrestomayor Lightpenalties PRESCRIPTION 20years 15years 1 tartscountingupon discoveryofthe commissionofthecrime Mereabsencefromthe Phil e runningofthe prescription Commissionofanother crimebeforethe expirationofthe rupt prescription. Startscountinguponthe escapeorevasionof serviceofsentence A ippinesinterruptsthe periodonlywhenhegoes toaforeigncountry withoutextradition issionofanother crimebeforeexpiration oftheperiodinterrupts theprescription.

Q:Whatarethedistinctionsbetweenprescription ofcrimesandprescriptionofpenaltie PRESCRIPTIONOF CRIMES Lossorforfeitureofthe Statetoprosecute. PRESCRIPTIONOF P feitureofthe Statetoenforce judgment

Q:OnefatefulnightinJanuary1990,while5year oldAlbertwasurinatingattheback secomingfromthekitchen of their neighbor and playmate, Ara. When he peeped in as stepmother, very angry and strangling the 5year old Ara to death. Albert body of Ara, place it inside the trunk of the car and drive away. The dead d. Mina spread the news in the neighborhood that Ara went to live with her g ity.Forfearofhislife,Albertdidnottellanyone, even his parents and relatives, d.Twentyandahalf(20&)yearsafter the incident, and right after his graduati eported the crime to NBI authorities.Thecrimeofhomicideprescribesin20 years. rosecute Mina for the deathofAradespitethelapseof20and1/2years? Explain. rosecute Mina for the death of Ara despite the lapse of 20 and years. Unde iod of prescription commencestorunfromthedayonwhichthecrime isdiscoveredbyt ities ortheiragents.Inthiscaseatbar,thecommission ofthecrimewasknownonlyto rtynoranauthorityoranagentof an authority. It was discovered by the NBI aut t revealed to them the commission of the crime. Hence, the period of prescript homicide commenced torunonlyfromthetimeAlbertrevealedthesame totheNBIauthori LOWANCEFORGOODCONDUCT (Art.97) IMPRISONMENT First2years 35years DEDUCTION 5daysforeachmonthof goodbehavior 8


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 610years 11andsoonyears goodbehavior 10daysforeachmonthof goodbehavior 15 84


BOOK 2: Crimes Against National Security BOOKII I.CRIMESAGAINSTNATIONALSECURITY(114123) Q:Whatarethecrimesagainst n(Art.114) 2.Conspiracyandproposaltocommittreason (Art.115) 3.MisprisionofTrea ionage(Art.117) 5.Incitingtowarandgivingmotivesfor reprisal(Art.118) 6.Violati .119) 7.Correspondencewithhostilecountry (Art.120) 8.Flighttoenemycountry(Art.1 imesagainstthelawofnations? A: 1.Piracyandmutiny(Art.122) 2.QualifiedPirac crimes against the law of nationsbetried? A: It may be punished anywhere be redcrimesagainstthefamilyofnations. Q:Whencanthecrimeagainstnationalsecurit sagainstnationalsecuritycanonly becommittedintimesofwar. XPN: 1.Espionage esfor reprisal 3.Violationofneutrality 4.Mutinyandpiracy.(Boado2008p.366) ionalSecurity (Art.114123) TREASON(Art.114) Q:Whatisthecrimeoftreason government, committedbyapersonwhoowesallegiancetoit. Q:Whatisallegiance? fidelity and obedience, whichoneowestothegovernmentunderwhichhe lives,inretur eives. Q:Whataretheelementsoftreason? A: 1. Offender is a Filipino citizen hilippines. 2. There is a war in which the Philippines is involved. Note:Formaldeclarationoftheexistenceofastateof warisnotnecessary. 3.

Offendereither a. Levies war against the government, or b. Adheres to the en idandcomfort.

Note:Treasonisawarcrime.Itcanonlybecommitted intimesofwar.Theremustbeactu

Q: What are the two modes of committing treason? A: 1. Levyingwaragainstt ingtotheenemies,givingthemaid andcomfort. Note: Emotional or intellectual sympathy to the enemy,withoutgivingtheenemyaid ason.

Givinginformationto(Peoplev.Paar,86Phil.864)or commandeering foodstuffs (People Phil.118)forenemyisevidenceofbothadherenceand aidorcomfort.

Q:Whoarethepersonsthatmaybeliableforthe crimeoftreason? A:Filipinocitiz for treason. A citizen owes permanent allegiance whilearesidentalienowestempora hegovernment. Q: Can treason be committed outside the Philippines? A:Itdepe risaFilipinocitizen,hecan commit this crime even if he is outside thePhilip nmustbecommittedin the Philippines (EO 44) except in case of conspiracy.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q:Isthereacrimeoftreasonthrunegligence? A: There is no treason thru neglig ing aid or comfort to the enemy must be intentional. Note: Mere acceptance of publicoffice and discharge of official duties under th nstitute persethefelonyoftreason,exceptwhentheposition ispolicydetermining.

the government to resist or to attack the enemies ofthegovernment. Q:Whatis :Itmustbeadeedorphysicalactivityanditmust beintentional. Note: A mere expression of opinion does not constituteanactoftreason.

Q:Whataretheelementsoflevyingofwar? Q:Whatarethewaysofprovingtreason? sembling of 1. Twowitness rule The testimony of two men witnesses is require For the purpose of executing a overtactofgivingaidorcomfort. treasonabledesi Note:Levyingofwarmustbeincollaborationwitha foreignenemy.

Q: What is the meaning of adherence to the enemy? A:Adherencetotheenemym tuallyoremotionallyfavorstheenemiesand harbors sympathies or convictions disloya rys policy or interest. It means that there is intenttobetray. Note:Adherencealonewithoutaidandcomfortdoes not constitute treason, although it fromtheactscommitted.

sameact,placeandmomentoftime. If the overt act is separable, two witnesses h part of the overt act.

Q: X sold alum crystals and water pipes to the enemy.Istreasoncommitted? es does not per se constitute treason, because the said materials are notexclu esandtheirsaledoes notnecessarilycarryanintentiononthepartofthe vendortoad illo 80Phil.33) Q:Howmayadherencebeproved? A:Adherencemaybeproved: 1. By ftheactitself,or 3. From the circumstances surrounding the act. Q:Whatisthe : It means any act which strengthens or tends to strengthen the enemy of the duct of war against the government or an act which weakens or tends to weaken

Q:AtestifiedthathesawXgoingtothehouseofC in search of the latters rev the garrison, X required C to produce his revolver. Is the twowitness rule co though both acts may logically be presumed to have answered the same purpose, ing Cs revolver, the singleness of the purpose is NOT enough to make one of eheardagunreport,andsaw asmokingguninthehandoftheaccusedandsaw thevictim d hesawtheaccusedraiseandpointthegunandsaw a puff of smoke from it. Is t A:Yes.Althoughthetestimoniesarenotidentical, thetestimoniesofbothwouldcertainl .(Hauftv.UnitedStates) 2. Confessionoftheaccusedinopencourt. Note: The confession means pleading guilty in open court that is before the ju y hearing the case. Extrajudicial confession or confession made before the inves ot sufficient to convict a personoftreason. Q:Issuspendedallegianceadefenseintreason? 86


BOOK 2: Crimes Against National Security A: No, because sovereignty is not suspended in times of war. What is suspended se thereof. Hence, the allegiance of a citizen isnotabrogatedbytheenemyoccupa Note:Duressorcontrollablefearandobediencetothe defactogovernmentaredefensesfo

A: No, mere attempt consummates the crime of treason. Q:Howistreasondistingu : TREASON Violationbyasubjectof hisallegiancetohis sovereignorcountry. Requiresa ercountry. SEDITION Raisingofcommotionsor disturbancesinastate Conflictismerely

Q:Xfurnishedwomentotheenemy.Doestheact constitutetreason? A:Commandeering eenemiesortoenliventheentertainmentheldin their honor was NOT treason even t ertainmentshelpedtomakelife morepleasantfortheenemies.(Peoplev.Perez,83 Phil. eenemy.CanX beheldliablefortreason? A:Yes,becausesuchactsstrengthentheene ommon crimes (e.g. murder, robbery, arson) are committed in the furtherance of ason, can they be considered crimes separatefromtreason? A: No, because there e of treason with murder. The common crimes committed in furtherance of treason ts of aid and comfort and are therefore inseparable from treason itself. Neithe deredseparateoffenses. Q:Istreasonacontinuingoffense? A: Yes. It can be c r by seriesofacts.Itcanbecommittedinonesingleor differenttime.Intreason,th A person who commits treason is not criminallyresponsibleforasmanycrimesoftre asintentionallycommitted togiveaidtotheenemy. Note: The offender can still beprosecuted even after war.

Q:Howistreasondistinguishedfromrebellion? A: TREASON Thepurposeof levyingwaristo helptheenemy. REBELLION Thepurposeismerely ernmentwith therebelsownformof government

CONSPIRACYANDPROPOSALTOCOMMIT TREASON(Art.115) Q:Whataretheelementsofc Intimeofwar 2. Two or more persons come to an agreementto: a. Levywaragains retoenemiesandtogivethem aidorcomfort 3. Theydecidetocommitit imeofwar 2. A pers sons. Note: As a general rule, conspiracy and proposal to commitafelonyisnotpunisha is an exception, as it specifically penalizes conspiracy andproposaltocommittre

Q: What are the circumstances inherent in the crimeoftreason? A: Treachery, rength and evidentpremeditationareinherentinthecrimeof treason,therefore,notag hecrimeoftreasonadmitstages?

Q: Why are conspiracy and proposal to commit treasonpunishable? A: In treas ce of the State is in jeopardy.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Note:Twowitnessruledoesnotapplybecausethisis aseparateanddistinctoffensefrom

Q:Ifactualactsoftreasonarecommittedafterthe conspiracyoraftertheproposalis tted? A: The crime of treason is already consummated the moment the proposal mmit treason is accepted. The conspiracy or proposal is then considered merely ommissionthereof. MISPRISIONOFTREASON(Art.116) Q: What are the elements : 1. Offendermustbeowingallegiancetothe governmentofthePhilippines 2. Offender He has knowledge of any conspiracy to commit treason against the said governmen o citizen, has knowledge of treason committed by someone and does not report i he proper authorities. Can he be heldliableforMisprisionofTreason? A: No. A hen the crime of treason is already committed. This is so because Art. 116 sp ny conspiracy against the Government of the Philippines, not knowledge of treas mitted by another. 4. Heconcealsorfailstodiscloseandmake known the same as a. Governor b. Fiscaloftheprovince c. Mayor or fiscal of the city in which he Note: Art. 116 is an exception to the rule that mere silencedoesnotmakeaper rimeofomission.

A: The phrase does not mean that the offender is legally speaking, an accessor eason, because he is already a principal in the crimeofmisprisionoftreason.It nalty imposed is that of an accessory to the crimeoftreason. Note: Relatives, who as accessories are exempt from criminal liability under Art shable under this article assuming that Art. 20 is applicable, because: 1. Thi alapplication,whereas Art.20ofgeneralapplication 2. Security of State is more rerelationshipand 3. The offender commits the distinct crime of misprisionoftre ateand distinctfromtreason.

Q: When the crime of treason is already committed and the accused does not to the proper authorities, is he liable formisprisionoftreason? A: No, becau y committed. Misprisionoftreasoncontemplatesthefailureofa citizen to report an to commit treason. ESPIONAGE(Art.117) Q:Whatisthecrimeofespionage? A: ering, transmitting, or losing information respecting the national defense with i here is reason to believethatinformationistobeusedtotheinjury of the Republ o the advantageofanyforeignnation. Note: Espionage is not conditioned on citizenship of theoffender.

Q:Howistheoffenderpunished? A: Offender is punished as a principal in the on. Q:Whatdoesthephraseshallbepunishedasan accessorytothecrimeoftreason

Q: What are the two modes of committing espionage? A: 1. First mode: By en rity, a warship, fort or military or naval establishments or reservation to obt tion, plans or other dataofconfidentialnaturerelativetothe defenseofthePhilip de: By disclosing to the representative of a foreign nation the contents of th information referred to in par. No. 1 of 88


BOOK 2: Crimes Against National Security 117 which he had in his possession by reasonofthepublicofficeheholds. Note: Being a public officer is a requirement in the secondmode,whileitisonl

Q: What are the elements of the first mode of committingespionage? A: 1. raresident agent) enters any of the places mentionedtherein Note: Under the first mode the offender is any person,whetheracitizenorafore ualorapublicofficer. 2. 3.

Thathehasnoauthoritytherefore Thathispurposeistoobtaininformation, plans, p ta relative tothedefenseofthePhilippines.

EspionageandOtherOffensesagainsttheNational Security)? A: 1. Unlawfulobtaining lative tothedefenseofthePhilippinesortothe advantageofanyforeignnation 2. Un nformation relativetothedefenseofthePhilippines 3. Disloyalactsintimeofpeace ar 5. Conspiracytoviolateanyofthesaidacts; 6. Harboring or concealing violators otographing from aircraft of vital militaryinformation Q: What are the distinc spionage andtreason? A: ESPIONAGE Maybecommittedboth intimeofpeaceandin timeofwar. TREASON Committedo

Q: What are the elements of the second mode of committingespionage? A: 1. ficer; 2. That he has in possession the articles, dataorinformationreferredinp 117, by reason of the public officeheholds; 3. That he discloses their content iveofaforeignnation. Q:Underthefirstmodeofcommittingespionage, is it neces cceeds in obtainingtheinformation? A: No. It suffices that the offender enter onedwithoutauthorityforthepurpose of obtaining information relevant to national iretappingaformofespionage? A: It depends on the purpose of the information asnothingtodowiththe countrys defense or national security, wiretapping isnot sarythatthecountryisatwarforthe crimeofespionagetobecommitted? A: No, es mes of peaceorwar. Q:Whataretheactsofespionagepunishedunder Commonwealth A

Islimitedintwowaysof committingthecrime: Maybecommittedin levyingwarandadhe vinghim aidandcomfort. Botharecrimesnotconditionedbythecitizenshipof theoffe

INCITINGTOWARORGIVINGMOTIVESFOR REPRISAL(Art.118) Q:Whataretheelements or 1. Offender unauthorizedacts 2. Such acts provoke or give occasion for a war able to involve the Philippines or expose the Filipino citizens toreprisalsont erty Q:Whatisreprisal? A: It is any kind of forcible or coercive measure exercise a deterrent effect or to obtain redress or satisfaction, directly orin sequencesoftheillegalactsof another State which has refused to make amends fo Note:Reprisalisresortedtoforthepurposeofsettling a dispute or redressing a g g to war.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Intentionoftheoffenderisimmaterial. Itiscommittedintimeofpeace. In inciti any person. If the offenderisapublicofficer,thepenaltyishigher.

A: 1. There is war in which the Philippines is involved Offendermakescorrespo y country or territory occupied by enemytroops Correspondenceiseither a. Pro nt b. Carriedoninciphersorconventional signs c. Containing notice or information sefultotheenemy or intended by the offender to aid theenemy 2.

Q:Whatistheextentofreprisals? A: Reprisals are not limited to military ac prisalsor denialofentryinto their country. E.g. X burns a Singaporean flag. I entry of Filipinos, that is reprisal. VIOLATIONOFNEUTRALITY (Art.119) . There is a war in which the Philippines is notinvolved 2. A regulation is uthoritytoenforceneutrality 3. Offenderviolatessuchregulation. Note:Committedonlyintimesofwarandneutralityof thePhilippinesisviolated 3.

Q:Whatiscorrespondence? A:Itiscommunicationbymeansoflettersoritmay refer osewho havefriendlyorbusinessrelations. Q: What does correspondence to hostil late? A: It contemplates correspondence to officials of the enemy country, not e with privateindividualsintheenemycountry. Note: Even if the correspondence contains innocent matters, if the correspondence ted by the government,itispunishablebecauseofthepossibility that the informati emy might be revealedunwittingly.

Q:Whatisneutrality? A:Neutralityisaconditionofanationthat,intimes of wa but continues peacefuldealingswiththebelligerents. Note:Itisastatuscreatedunderinternationallaw,by meansofastandonthepartofa twar.

Q:Whatareciphers? A:Secretmessageorcode. Note: If ciphers were used, there is no need for prohibition by the Government crime. If ciphers were not used, there is need for prohibition.

Q:Whohastheauthoritytoissuearegulationfor theenforcementofneutrality? A: T ued by competent authoritylikethePresidentofthePhilippinesorthe Chief of Staf of the Philippines, during a war between different countries in which the Phili king sides. CORRESPONDENCEWITHHOSTILECOUNTRY (Art.120) Q:Whataretheel

Q: What are the circumstances qualifying the crime of correspondence to hostil tthe: 1. Notice or information might be useful to theenemy 2. Offenderintended Note:Bothmustconcur.

Q: X, with intent to aid the enemy, gave the latter noticeandinformation.Is 90


BOOK 2: Crimes Against National Security A: If the offender intended to aid the enemy by giving such notice or informa ntstotreason.(Reyes2008p.31) FLIGHTTOENEMYSCOUNTRY (Art.121) Q:What of war in which the Philippines isinvolved 2. Offender owes allegiance to the fender attempts to flee or go to the enemycountry 4. Going to enemy country i etentauthority Q:WhocanbeheldliableunderArt.121? A:TheoffendermaybeFili because Art. 121 contemplates both permanent and temporary allegiance. An alien be held guilty for this crime because heowesallegiancetothePhilippines. Note: Mere attempt to flee to enemy country when prohibitedbycompetentconsummat re must be prohibition by competent authority. If thereisnone,evenifonewentt ocrime.

belongings of its complements or passengers. Q:Whataretheelementsofpiracy? h seas or in Philippine waters 2. Offenders are not members of its complemento sel, 3. Offenders a. Attackthatvessel,or b. Seizethewholeorpartofthe cargo ment or personal belongings of its complementorpassengers. Q:Whatisthemeanin as mean any waters on the sea coast whicharewithouttheboundariesofthelowwat ers may be in the jurisdictional limits of a foreign government, parts of the luded in the exclusive zone,intheterritorialseas,orintheinternalwaters of a lagic waters of an archipelagicstate.(UNCLOS) Q: Under the law, what does P A:Philippineseasshallrefertoallbodiesofwater, such as but not limited to se tweenandconnectingeachoftheislandsofthe Philippine archipelago irrespective of th, length or dimension and all waters belongingtothePhilippinesbyhistoricorl g territorial sea, the seabed, insular shelves,andothersubmarineareasoverwhich overeigntyandjurisdiction.(Sec.2, P.D.532) Q:WhatarethekindsofpiracyunderA ? A: Piracy in high seas and piracy in Philippine waters. Q: Which court racy committedinthehighseas? A: Jurisdiction is with any court where offen ted. The jurisdiction of piracy, unlikeallothercrimes,hasnoterritoriallimit. urisdiction over piracy committedinPhilippinewaters?

PIRACYINGENERALANDMUTINYONTHEHIGH SEAS(Art.122) Q:Whatispiracy? A: without lawful authority and done with animo furandi (with intent to steal) and d intentionofuniversalhostility. Q: In general, what is the nature of the c yisacrimeagainstallmankind.Piratesare inlaw,hostishumanigeneris. Q:Whatar A: 1. Firstmode:Byattackingorseizingavessel on the high seas or in Philippin ode:Byseizingthewholeorpart of the cargo or equipment of the vessel while o onal


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A:JurisdictionisvestedwithPhilippinecourts. Q: If piracy was committed outsid aters, will the Philippine courts have jurisdiction overtheoffense? A: Yes, f der Title I Book 2 of the Revised Penal Code. As such, it is an exception t ity in criminal law. The same principle applies even if the offenders were cha olation of qualified piracy under the Code but under a special law, P.D. 532 yinPhilippinewaters.(People v.Catantan,278SCRA761[1997]) Q:Howispiracydist highseas? A: PIRACY Theoffenderis anoutsider. ROBBERYONTHEHIGHSEAS Theoffenderisamemberof erofthe vessel. 2. 3.

Abandonment of the victims without any meansofsavingthemselves When the crime murder, homicide, physical injuries or rape. Note: Qualified piracy has been categorized as a heinouscrime.

Q:Isthereacrimeofqualifiedmutiny? A:Yes,althoughArt.123merelyreferstoqual a crime of qualified mutiny. Mutiny is qualified under the following circumstanc he offenders abandoned the victims without means of saving themselves; 2. When m mpanied by rape, murder,homicideorphysicalinjuries. Note: The first circumstance which qualifies piracy does not applyto mutiny tha e vessel byboardingorfiringuponthesame.

Q:Whatismutiny? A:Itistheunlawfulresistancetoasuperiorofficer or the ra rbances on board a ship against the authority of its commander. Q:Distinguish : PIRACY Offendersarestrangers tothevessel.Hence, offendersareneither passengersn MUTINY Offendersaremembersof thecomplementorthe passengersofthevessel. Intent Theoffendersmayonly intendtoignoretheships officerortheymaybe promptedbya kfromtheinside.

Q:Whenpiracyiscommittedandaccompaniedby murder, homicide, physical injuries a rimesbecomplexedwithpiracy? A: When any of these crimes accompany piracy, th me. Instead, there is only one crime committed qualified piracy. Murder, rape cal injuries are mere circumstances qualifying piracy and cannot be punished as es, nor can they be complexedwithpiracy. Note:Qualifiedpiracyisconsideredaspecialcomplex crime. It is punishable by rec o death regardlessofthenumberofvictims. Intenttogainisan elementofpiracy.

Offenders are not liable for the separate crimes of murder,homicide,physicalinj

A.AntiPiracyandAntiHighwayRobbery (P.D.532) 1.Definitionofterms Q:What ? A: Philippine Waters shall refer to all bodies of water, such as but no bays around, between and connecting each of the IslandsofthePhilippineArchipela eof its depth, breadth, length or dimension, and all otherwatersbelongingtoth ic Attackfromthe outside.

QUALIFIEDPIRACY (Art.123) Q: What are the special qualifying circumstan eofthevesselbyboardingorfiring uponthesame 92


BOOK 2: Crimes Against National Security or legal title, including territorial sea, seabed, the insular shelves, and oth eas over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction. Q:Whatisaves r watercraft used for transport of passengers and cargo from one place to anot ppine waters. It shall include all kinds andtypesofvesselsorboatsusedinfishi ilippinehighway? A:PhilippineHighwayshallrefertoanyroad,street, passage,highwa rpartsthereof orrailwayorrailroadwithinthePhilippinesusedby personsorvehicles orthe movement or circulation of persons or transportation of goods, articles o th. Q:Whatispiracy? A:Piracyisanyattackuponorseizureofanyvessel or the hereof or its cargo, equipment or the personal belongings of its complement or espective of the value thereof, by means of violence against or intimidation of e upon things committed by any person including a passenger or member of the essel, in Philippinewaters,shallbeconsideredaspiracy.The offenders shall be co es and punishedashereinafterprovided. Q:Whatishighwayrobberyorbrigandage? igandage is the seizure of anypersonforransom,extortionorotherunlawful purpose y of the property of another by means of violence against or intimidation of n things or otherunlawfulmeans,committedbyanypersonon anyPhilippineHighway. tisthepunishableactunderP.D.532? A:Itpunishestheactofaidingorabettingpir Note:Underthepresentlaw(Article122asamended byR.A.7659andP.D.532)piracymay atersorinthehighseasbyanyperson (outsider,passenger,ormemberofthecomplement Roger Tulin, G. R. No. 111709, Aug.30,2001). Mutiny may be committed in Phi ehighseasbymembersofthecreworpassenger.

Q:Whataretheelements? A: 1. A person knowingly aids or protects pirates, 2 s property taken by suchpirates,orinanymannerderivesany benefittherefrom, 3. ctly abets the commissionofthepiracy. Q: What is the distinction between Art th respect to piracy committed in Philippinewaters? A: ART.122 Art.122limitsthe offenderstonon passengersornon membersofthecrew. P. stothe criminal,hence,offender maybeacrew,a passengerorastranger.

B.AntiHijackingLaw(PD6235) Q:WhatarethepunishableactsunderPD6235? A: f an aircraft of Philippine registry while it is in flight, compelling the pil nge thecourseordestinationoftheaircraft; 2. Usurping or seizing control of a egistrywhilewithin Philippine territory,compellingthepilotsthereofto landinany eterritory; 3. Carrying or loading on board an aircraft operating as a public r aircraftinthePhilippines,anyflammable, corrosive, explosive, or poisonous subs oading, shipping or transporting on board a cargo aircraft operating as a publi Philippines, any flammable, corrosive, explosive, or poisonous substance if this accordancewiththerulesandregulations set and promulgated by the Air Transportat tter; Note:Aggravatingcircumstancestonos.1and2: a. When the offenderhas firedupon t he crew, or passengeroftheaircraft;


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 b. When the offender has exploded or attempted to explode any bomb or explosive aft; Wheneverthecrimeisaccompaniedby murder, homicide, serious physical injuries c.

Q: What distinguishes crimes against the law of nationsfromcrimesagainstnationa CRIMESAGAINSTTHE LAWOFNATIONS Can be prosecuted anywhere in the world because nsidered crimes againsthumanity. CRIMESAGAINST NATIONALSECURITY Can be tried onl ppines. The acts against national security may be committed abroad and still be er our law, butitcannotbetriedunder foreignlaw.

Q: What are the necessary requisites before the AntiHijackingLaworR.A.6235may stbeofPhilippineregistryandit mustbeinflight. Q:Whenisanaircraftconsidere onsidered in flight from the momentallexteriordoorsareclosedfollowingthe embar time when the same doors areagainopenedfordisembarkation. Note: This means that there are passengers that boarded.Theaircraftshallbedeem htevenifitsenginehasnotyetbeenstarted.

C.HumanSecurityActof2007(R.A.9372) Q:Whatarethepunishableactsofterrorism? an act punishable underanyofthefollowingprovisionsofthe: 1. RPC a. Piracy in n the HighSeasorinthePhilippineWaters (Art.122) b. RebellionorInsurrection(Art at, including acts committed by private person (Art.134a) d. Murder(Art.248) e. nd Serious Illegal Detention(Art.267) f. Crimes Involving Destruction (Art.324) lPenalLaws: a. TheLawonArson(P.D.1613) b. Toxic Substances and Hazardous and N rol Act of 1990 (R.A.6969) c. Atomic Energy Regulatory and LiabilityActof1968( iHijackingLaw(R.A.6235) e. AntiPiracy and AntiHighway RobberyLawof1974(P.D.53 fying the Laws on Illegal Unlawful Possession, and Manufacture, Dealing In, Acqu sposition of Firearms, Ammunitions or Explosives (P.D. 1866asamended) Note:Theactsunderspeciallawsmust: i. Sow and create a condition of widespread arandpanicamongthe populace; ii. Coerce the government to give in to an unlaw

Q: If the aircraft is of Philippine registry but it is not in flight and any ces mentioned under R.A. 6235 is committed, what lawapplies? A: The AntiHija ply and the actswillbepunishedaccordinglyundertheRPCor the applicable special elative crimemaybeoneofgravecoercionorgravethreat. If somebody is killed, th urder,asthecasemaybe. Q:Iftheaircraftisofforeignregistry,isitrequired th es? A: No, because aircrafts of foreign registry are considered in transit wh eign countries. Q:Istherehijackingintheattemptedstage? A: No. R.A. 6235 i ttemptedstageisnotpunishable. Q: In the course of the hijacking, a passenger ot and killed. What crime or crimeswerecommitted? A:Thecrimeremainstobeav law, but the penalty thereof shall be higher because a passenger or complement ad been killed. The crime of homicide or murderperseisnotpunished. 94


BOOK 2: Crimes Against National Security 3. Persons who conspire to commit the crime of terrorism. Q:Whoaretheperson Principal Any person who commits any oftheactsunderSection3and4. 2. Acco cipalunderArticle17oftheRPCora conspirator as defined under Section 4 hereof cution of either the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism by p eousacts. 3. Accessory any person who having knowledge of the commission of sm or conspiracy to commit terrorism and without having participatedthereineithe accomplice under Articles 17 and 18 of the RPC, takes part subsequent to its the following manner: a. By profiting himself or assisting the offender to prof softhecrime, b. By concealing or destroying the bodyofthecrimeortheeffects r topreventitsdiscovery, c. By harboring, concealing, or assisting in the escap al or conspirator of the crime. XPN: Spouses, ascendants, descendants, legitima nd adopted brothers and sisters or relatives by affinity within thesamedegree.



Whenhehasnotcommittedanycrimeor, atleast,thereisnoreasonablegroundfor suspi e.

XPN: A valid warrantless arrest (Sec.5, Rule113,RevisedRulesofCourt). 2. Wh g from violent insanity or any other ailment requiring compulsoryconfinementina cessarythatthepublicofficerbeapolice officer for him to be held liable for No. It is important, however, that the public officermustbevestedwiththeautho the detention of persons accused of a crime such as policemen and other agents ors. Note: In arbitrary detention, the offender is a public officerwhosefunctionshav hthe protectionoflifeand/orpropertyandmaintenanceof peaceandorder.Thus,ifthe thoutlegalground,iswithoutauthoritytodoso,like a clerk in the Office of the rbitrarydetentionisnottheproperchargebutillegal detention.

Q:Whataretheclassesofarbitrarydetention? A: 1. Detainingapersonwithoutlega iveryofdetainedpersons totheproperauthorities 3. Delayingrelease ARBITRARYDE etheelementsofthecrimeofarbitrary detention? A: 1. Offenderisapublicoffice rson 3. Detentioniswithoutlegalgrounds. Q:Whenisapersonconsideredindetention ned when he is placed in confinementorthereisrestraintonhisperson. Q: Can ion even if the victimswerenotkeptinanenclosure? A: Yes. The prevailing ju ng and illegal detention is that the curtailment of the victims liberty need ical restraint upon the victims person. If the acts and actuationsoftheaccuse he mind of the victim sufficient to paralyze the latter,totheextentthatthevi isownactionsandmovementsinaccordance with the wishes of the accused, then the tent and purposes, detained against his will. (Benito Astorga v. People, G.R. N ,2003) Q: When is detention said to be without legal grounds? A: The dete ut legal ground:

Q: Can a barangay chairman be guilty of this crime? A:Yes.Hehasauthority, rder, to cause the arrest and detention of a person.(Boado,2008) Q: Can pr d liable for arbitrarydetention? A:Yes,iftheyconspiredwithsuchpublicofficers ndsforthedetentionof persons without which a public officer may be heldliable onofacrime 2. Violentinsanityorotherailmentrequiring compulsoryconfinementofth l 3. When the person to be arrested is an escapingprisoner XPN: When the pe ood faithevenifthe3groundsmentionedaboveare notobtaining,thereisnoarbitrary 96


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Fundamental Laws of The State Illustration: 2 BIR secret agents, strangers in the municipality whowerespying fthemarket place and acting generally in a manner calculated toarousethesuspi s to their duty, were arrested by policemen of the town. The Supreme Court he ficers acted in good faith and cannot be held liableforarbitrarydetention.(U.S il.46)

A: ARBITRARYDETENTION Theprincipaloffender mustbeapublicofficer. Theoffenderwhois ty whichcarrieswithitthe authoritytodetaina person. ILLEGALDETENTION Theprinci ateperson. Theoffender,evenifheis apublicofficer,doesnot includeashisfuncti inaperson.

Q:Mayarbitrarydetentionbecommittedthrough simplenegligence? A:Yes,aswhena e but the police officer believing that the order is illegal,rearrestedthepri il. Note: In arbitrary detention, thelawdoes not fixany minimumperiodofdetention. arydetentiondependsuponthe period involved. A greater penalty is imposed if th

Q:Ifthepublicofficerwhoeffectedthearresthas no such authority to detain a deliablefor? A: If the offender does not have the authority to detain a pe t, the crime committed by him is illegal detention. A public officerwhoisacti fficial dutiesisnobetterthanaprivatecitizen. Q: What are the distinctions b ntionandunlawfularrest? A: ARBITRARY DETENTION Theoffenderisa publicofficer possessedwith authoritytomake osefor detainingthe offendedpartyis todenyhimofhis liberty. UNLAWFULARREST

Q: Can arbitrary detention be committed thru imprudence? A: The crime of ar an be committedthroughimprudence. Illustration: Apoliceofficerrearrestsawomanwhohadbeen released by means of e. Thepoliceofficeractedwithoutmalice,butdidnot verify the order of release ake the rearrest. He is liable for arbitrary detentionthroughsimpleimprudence.

Theoffendermaybeany person. Thepurposeistoaccusethe offendedpartyofacrimeh rsontotheproperauthority, andtofilethenecessarycharges inawaytryingtoincrim

Note: The crime of unlawful arrest is, however, absorbedinthecrimeofarbitrary

Q:Whataretheformsofillegaldetention? A: 1. Detainingapersonwithoutlegalgr xists but the arrest was made without a warrant, and the public officer does sted person to the proper judicial authority within the period of 12, 18, or e 3. Delaying release by competent authority with the same period mentioned in are the distinctions between arbitrary detentionandillegaldetention?

Q: X, a police officer, falsely imputes a crime againstAtobeabletoarresth edtofileachargeagainsthim. Whatcrime,ifany,didXcommit? A: The crime is lawfularrest.(Boado,2008) Q:SupposeXplantedevidencetoeffectthearrest, whatc A: It is arbitrary detention through incriminating innocentpersons.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 DELAYINTHEDELIVERYOFDETAINEDPERSONS TOTHEPROPERJUDICIALAUTHORITY (Art.125 A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficeroremployee 2. He has detained a person for some ails to deliver such person to the properjudicialauthoritieswithin: a. 12 hours enses punishablebylightpenaltiesortheir equivalent; b. 18 hours for crimes/offen le by correctional penalties ortheirequivalent; c. 36 hours for crimes/offenses y afflictive penalties or theirequivalent. Q: What are the circumstances consi ining liability of officer detaining a person beyondlegalperiod? A: 1. Themea 2. Thehourofarrest 3. Other ion. Q:WhatsituationsarecontemplatedbyArt.125? A: Art. 125 contemplates a asmadewithoutawarrantbutthereexistsalegal ground for the arrest. It does no on the strength of a warrant of arrest, becauseinthelattercase,apersonarrest itelyuntilhiscaseisdecidedbythe courtorhepostsbailforhistemporaryrelease. the detention becomesarbitrary? A: The detention becomes arbitrary when the pe ceeds 12, 18 or 36 hours as the case may be, depending on whether the crime rrectional or afflictive penalty ortheirequivalent. Q:Whatismeantbydelivery? e filing of correct information orcomplaintwiththeproperjudicialauthorities.It sical delivery or turnover of arrestedpersontothecourt. Q:Whatismeantbypro :Itreferstothecourtsofjusticeorjudgesofsaid courts vested with judicial pow detention or confinement of a person chargedwithhavingcommittedapublicoffense. edpursuanttoawarrantof arrest, within what period should a police officer tur erson to the judicial authority? A: There is no time limit specified except dewithinareasonabletime.The period fixed by law under Art. 125 does not appl s made by virtue of warrant ofarrest. Q: Should the person arrested without ighttoapreliminaryinvestigation, whatmustheexecute? A: Under the Revised Rul d waiveinwritinghisrightsunderArt.125. Note: Waiver must be under oath and with the assistanceofcounsel

Q:Whatisthelengthofwaiver? A: 1. Lightoffense5days 2. Serious and less at if the person arrested does not want to waivehisrightsunderArt.125? A: ocomplywithArt. 125andfilethecaseimmediatelyincourtwithout preliminaryinvesti Note:Thefilingoftheinformationincourtbeyondthe specified period does not cure tion hencedetainingofficerisstillliableforunderArt.125. Neither does it affec confinement underprocessissuedbythecourt.

Q: What is the difference between delay in the delivery of detained persons rarydetention(Art.124)? A: DELAYINTHEDELIVERYOF DETAINEDPERSONS Thedetentionislegalatthe ARBITRARY DETE 98


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Fundamental Laws of The State outsetbutbecomesarbitrary whenthedetentionexceeds anyoftheperiodsoftime speci thepersondetainedhaving beenchargedbeforethe properjudicialauthority. illegalat nbecause oftheabsenceof lawfulcausefor sucharrest. 2. Compelling a person to change his residence.

XPN: In cases of ejectment, expropriation or whenpenaltyimposedisdestierro. Q fexpulsion? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficeroremployee 2. Heeither: a. Expels ilippines b. Compels a person to change residence 3. Offenderisnotauthorizedtod ssenceofthecrimeofexpulsion? A: The essence of this crime is coercion but xpulsionwhencommittedbya publicofficer. Q: If any of the punishable acts un edbyaprivateperson,whatcrimecanhe bemaderesponsiblefor? A:Gravecoercion omake thecityfreefromprostitution.Heorderedcertain prostitutes to be transferr ut observing due process. What is the crime committedbyX? A: Expulsion. (Vil an, G.R No. L 14639,Mar.25,1919) Q: What is the crime committed if aliens der from the President or theCommissionerofImmigrationandDeportation afterduep ulsion. Note:Onlythecourtsbyafinaljudgmentcanordera persontochangehisresidence.

DELAYINGRELEASE (Art.126) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Delaying xecutive order for the release of a prisoner 2. Unduly delaying the service o rdertosaidprisoner 3. Unduly delaying the proceedings upon any petition for t uch person. Q:Whataretheelementsofdelayingrelease? A: 1. Offenderisapubli reisajudicialexecutiveorderforthe release of the prisoner or detention prison proceeding uponapetitionfortheliberationofsuch person 3. Offenderwithoutgood viceofnoticeofsuchordertothe prisoner,or b. Performance of such judicial or easeofthe prisoner,or c. Proceedings upon a petition for the releaseofsuchper Note: The prisoners could be prisoners by final judgmentordetentionprisoners. ers are the officers most likely to violatethisprovision. Pursuant to Sec. 69 of the Revised Administrative Code, only the President of s vested withauthoritytodeportaliens.

EXPULSION (Art.127) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: GR: 1. Expellinga

Q:WhatcrimeiscommittedwhenaFilipinowho, after voluntarily leaving the countr sedreentrybyapublicofficer? A: Expulsion, because it is considered a victim saddress.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 VIOLATIONOFDOMICILE (Art.128) Q:Whatarethemodesofcommittingthiscrime? lling against thewilloftheownerthereof Note: In the first mode, lack of consent would not suffice as the law require ntry must be over the ownersobjection,expressorimplied.

2. Second mode: Searching papers or other effects found therein without the pr uchowner Note: In the second mode, mere lack of consentissufficient. 3.

Third mode: Refusing to leave the premises after having surreptitiously entered g and after having beenrequiredtoleavethesame Note:Inthethirdmode,whatispunishedis the refusal to leave, the entry having ly.

Q:Whatarethecommonelements? A: 1. Offenderispublicofficeroremployee; 2. icial order to enter the dwelling and/or to make a searchforpapersandforothe rime of violation of domicile committed? A: Violation of domicile is committed cerauthorizedtoimplementasearchwarrantor warrant of arrest but at the time o edwithwarrant. Q: Suppose the public officer is not authorized to execute se rrants of arrests, whatcrimecanhebeliablefor? A:Qualifiedtrespasstodwelling hepunishableactsunderArt.128are committedbyaprivateperson,whatcrimedidhe co g.

Q:Ifapublicofficersearchesapersonoutsidehis dwelling, not armed with a searc f arrest, are the provisions of Art. 128 applicable? A: No, because the pape mentioned in Art. 128 must be found in dwelling. The crime committed is grave ce and intimidation are used (Art. 286), or unjust vexation,ifthereisnoviolen . 287). Q: Are the provisions under Art. 128 applicable if theoccupantofthe Yes, it would be sufficient if the inhabitant is lawfuloccupantusingthepremise houghheisnotthepropertyowner. Q: What are the qualifying circumstances under ttedatnighttime 2. If any papers or effects not constituting evidence of a immediately after the search is made by theoffender. Q: What is the meaning the owner? A: It presupposes opposition or prohibition by the owner,whetherex otmerely theabsenceofconsent. Note: If the surreptitious entry had been made throughanopeningnotintendedtot derwouldbeliableunderthefirstmodesinceit isentryovertheimpliedobjectionoft

WARRANTSMALICIOUSLYOBTAINEDANDABUSE INTHESERVICEOFTHOSELEGALLYOBTAINED (Art. eacts? A: 1. Procuring a search warrant without just cause. Elements: a. Tha public officer oremployee b. Thatheprocuresasearchwarrant c. Thatthereisnojus 100


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Fundamental Laws of The State Exceeding his authority or by using unnecessary severity in executing a searchw ocured Elements: a. That the offender is a public officer oremployee b. Thath dasearch warrant c. Thatheexceedshisauthorityoruses unnecessary severity in e atisasearchwarrant? A:Itisanorderinwriting,issuedinthenameofthe People dge and directed to a peace officer, commanding him to searchforpersonalproper nand bringitbeforethecourt. Note:Asearchwarrantshallbevalidfortendaysfrom itsdate. 2.

SEARCHINGDOMICILEWITHOUTWITNESSES (Art.130) Q:Whataretheelementsofthisc ceroremployee 2. He is armed with search warrant legally procured 3. Hesear rsorother belongingsofanyperson 4. Owner or any member of his family, or t the same localityarenotpresent. Note: In crimes under Art. 129 and 130, the search is made by virtue of a ant notwithstanding,the liability forthe crime is still incurred through the fo ions:

Q:Whatistherequisitefortheissuanceofsearch warrant? A: A search warrant probable cause in connection with one specific offense to be determined personal e afterexaminationunderoathoraffirmationofthe complainant and the witnesses he rticularlydescribingtheplacetobesearched andthethingstobeseizedwhichmaybean Sec.4,Rule126,RevisedRulesof CriminalProcedure) Q:Whatisthetestforlackof davit filed in support of the application for search warrant has been drawn in perjury could be charged thereon and affiant be held liable for damages caused. fect if the search warrant is securedthroughafalseaffidavit? A: The crime p e cannot be complexed but will be a separate crime from perjury, since the pe ed shall be inadditiontothepenaltyofperjury. Q: When is a search warrant ed? A:Whenasearchwarrantwasprocuredwithouta probablecause.

1. 2. 3. Searchwarrantwasirregularlyobtained Theofficerexceededhisauthorityunder hen the public officer employs unnecessary or excessive severity in the implemen rchwarrant Owner of dwelling or any member of the familywasabsent,ortwowitne e same locality were not present duringthesearch 4.

Q: What is the order of those who must witness thesearch? A: 1. Homeowner y of sufficient age anddiscretion 3. Responsible members of the community Q cted pusher lives in a condominiumunit.AgentsofthePDEAobtaineda search warran on in the search warrant did not tally with the address indicatedtherein.Event different address. X resisted but the agents insisted on the search. Drugs were dandXwasprosecutedandconvictedbythe trialcourt.Isthesearchvalid? A: No, re required to follow the search warrant by the latter. They have nodiscretion reArt.128withArts.129and130.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: ART.128 Thepublic officerisnot armedwitha warrant. ARTS.129AND130 Thepublic utitwasmaliciously obtainedorevenifitwasissued regularly,therewasabuseinthe If the offender is a private individual, the crime is disturbanceofpublicorder

Note: The papers or other belongings must be in the dwellingoftheowneratthe 30 does not apply to searches of vehicles and othermeansoftransportation.

PROHIBITION,INTERRUPTIONANDDISSOLUTION OFPEACEFULMEETINGS (Art.131) Q:Wh Prohibiting or interrupting, without legal ground, the holding of a peaceful me olvingthesame 2. Hindering any person from joining any lawful association or y ofitsmeetings 3. Prohibiting or hindering any person from addressing, either er with others,anypetitiontotheauthoritiesfor correction of abuses or redress atarethecommonelements? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficer 2. He performs any o ove Q:TobeheldliableunderArt.131,isitnecessary that the offender be a st meeting that has been interrupted and dissolved? A: Yes. If the offender is meeting,heisliableforunjustvexation Note: Interrupting and dissolving the meeting of municipalcouncilbyapublicoffic a legislative body not punished under Art. 131, but under Art . 143 (Acts Ten eeting of the Assembly and Similar bodies) and Art. 144 (DisturbanceofProceedin

Q:Istherighttopeacefulassemblyabsolute? A:Therighttopeacefulassemblyisno d in order that it may not be injurious to the equal enjoyment of others hav njurious to the right of the communityorsociety. Q: In requiring a permit b semblyisheld,canitbeconstruedaspreventing peacefulassemblies? A: No, the pe l be in exercise only of the governments regulatory powers and not really to emblies. This requirement is legal as long as it is not being exercisedasapr he application for the permit to peaceably assemble is arbitrarily denied, what tted? A:Thecrimecommittedisprohibitiontopeaceably assembleinaccordancewithAr ficerwouldnotgivethepermit unless the meeting is held in particular place whi ch place defeats the exercise of the rights to peaceably assemble, is Art.131 Note:Meetingmustbepeacefulandtheremustbeno groundforprohibiting,dissolving,or ting.

Q: What are the tests for determining whether thereisaviolationofArt.131? ule 2. ClearandPresentDangerRule Q:WhatarethedistinctionsbetweenProhibitio olution of Peaceful Meetings under Art. 131 and Tumults and other Disturbances, ART.131 Thepublicofficerisnota participant.Asfarasthe gatheringisconcerned, dparty. ART.153 Thepublicofficerisa participantofthe assembly. 102


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Fundamental Laws of The State Theoffendermustbe publicofficer. Theoffenderneednotbe inpublicoffice

Note: If committed in a place devoted to religious purpose,thereisnoneedfora

INTERRUPTIONOFRELIGIOUSWORSHIP (Art.132) Q:Whataretheelementsofthisc mployee 2. Religiousceremoniesormanifestationsof any religious are about to take ingon 3. Offenderpreventsordisturbsthesame Note:Qualifiedbyviolenceorthreats. Iftheprohibitionordisturbanceiscommitted ct,itwouldbepunishableunder Art. 131. E.g. reading of Bible and then attackin blicplaza. Religious worship includes people in the act of performing religiou gious ceremony or manifestation of religion. E.g. mass, baptism and marriagecere

Q: When is an act considered notoriously offensive? A: When the act is dir us practice or dogma or ritual for the purpose of ridicule,asmockingorscoffin geanobjectofreligiousveneration. Note:Offenseoffeelingisjudgedfromcomplainants pointofview. Theremustbedeli ngsof the faithful, mere arrogance or rudeness is not enough.

Q: X, a private person, boxed a priest while the priest was giving homily a e ofX.IsXliableunderArt131? A: No, because X is a private person. He m LIGIOUSFEELINGS (Art.133) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Actscom a place devoted to religious worship (not necessary that there is religiouswors y 2. Actsmustbenotoriouslyoffensivetothe feelingsofthefaithful. Note: Art. 133 is the only crime against the fundamentallawoftheStatethatmay icofficerbutalsobyaprivateperson.

Q:Maythecrimebecommittedbyapublicofficer oraprivateindividual? A:Yes.Th ecurityActof2007(R.A.9372) Q:Whatistheperiodofdetentionwithoutjudicial war thstanding Art. 125 of RPC , any police of law enforcement personnel who has rson charged or suspected of the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit te iver said charged person to the proper judicial authority within 3 days counted fthearrest. Note: Antiterrorism law amended Art. 125 of the RPC insofar as terrorism and t terrorismareconcerned.

XPN: In the event of an actual or imminent terrorist attack, suspects may be an 3 days upon the written approval of: 1. Municipal,city,provincialorregional an Rights Commissionor 2. Judge of the Municipal, RTC, the Sandiganbayanor 3. ttheplace ofthearrest.(Sec.19) Note:IfthearrestismadeduringSaturdays,Sundays, holidays or after office hours, ice or lawenforcementpersonnelshallbringthepersonthus arrested to the residenc cials

Q: What are the religious ceremonies covered by Arts.132and133? A:Religiou osereligious acts performed outside of a church, such as processionandspecialp rson.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 mentionedabove.Thewrittenapprovalofanyofsaid officialsshallbesecuredwithin5d ion. Provided that within 3 days after the date of detention of the suspects, ith the terror attack or threat is not established, shall be releasedimmediatel 9. Dentaltortureortheforcedextractionof theteeth 10. Pullingoutoffingernails 11. Harmfulexposuretotheelementssuchas sunlightandextremecold

B.AntiTortureAct(R.A.9745) Q. What are the punishable acts under Anti Tor

12. Theuseofplasticbagandothermaterials placed over the head to the point of

A. Physical torture is a form of treatment or punishment inflicted by a person ent of a person in authority upon another in his/her custody that causes sever n,disabilityordysfunctionofoneormore partsofthebody,suchas:

13. The use of psychoactive drugs to change theperception,memory,alertnessorwil :(i)theadministration of drugs to induce confession and/or reducementalcompeten rugstoinduceextremepainorcertain symptomsofadisease

1. Systematic beating, headbanging, punching,kicking,strikingwithtruncheon or rifl other similar objects, and jumpingonthestomach Food deprivation or forcible fee ed food, animal or human excreta and other stuff or substances not normallyeat 14. Otheranalogousactsofphysicaltorture

B. Mental/Psychological torture refers to acts committed by a person in authorit personinauthoritywhicharecalculatedtoaffector confuse the mind and/or undermin ndmorale,suchas: 2. 3.

1. Blindfolding Threatening a person(s) or his/her relative(s)withbodilyharm,exec erwrongfulacts Confinement in solitary cells or secret detentionplaces Prolonged n Preparing a prisoner for a show trial, public display or public humiliation er Causingunscheduledtransferofaperson deprived of liberty from one place to iefthathe/she shallbesummarilyexecuted Maltreating a member/s of a persons fa ture sessions to be witnessed by the persons family, relativesoranythirdparty

4. Cigarette burning; burning by electrically heatedrods,hotoil,acid;bytherubbi

ther chemical substances onmucousmembranes,oracidsorspices directlyonthewound( of the head in water or water polluted with excrement, urine, vomit and/or blo of suffocation Being tied or forced to assume fixed and stressfulbodilyposition abuse, including the insertion of foreign bodies into the sex organ or rectum, rture of thegenitals Mutilationoramputationoftheessential parts of the body s , ear,tongue,etc. 2. 3. 5. 4. 5. 6. 7. 6. 8. 7. 8. 104


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Fundamental Laws of The State 9. Denialofsleep/rest c. By harboring, concealing or assisting in the escape o /s in the act of torture or other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or p d, that the accessory acts are done with theabuseoftheofficialspublic functi prevent its discovery;or 10. Shame infliction such as stripping the personnaked,paradinghim/herinpublic g the victims head or putting marks on his/her body against his/herwill

11. Deliberately prohibiting the victim to communicatewithanymemberofhis/her f

12. Other analogous acts mental/psychologicaltorture(Sec.4) Q.Whoarepunishedund ct? A: 1. Any person who actually participated or induced another in the commis or other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment or who cooperated on of the actoftorturebypreviousorsimultaneous actsshallbeliableasprincipal. police or law enforcement officer or senior government official who issued an o ingpersonneltosubjecta victim to torture or other cruel, inhuman and degrading shment for whatever purpose shall be held equally liable as principal. Any publ ployee shall be liable as an accessory if he/she has knowledge that torture or man and degrading treatment or punishment is being committed and without having herein,eitherasprincipalor accomplice takes part subsequent to its commission i owing manner: a. Bythemselvesprofitingfromor assisting the offender to profit f of the act of tortureorothercruel, inhuman anddegradingtreatment Byconcealin er cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment and/or destroying the ef ruments of 2. b.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 III.CRIMESAGAINSTPUBLICORDER(134159) REBELLION,COUPDETAT,SEDITIONAND DISL es? A:Thosethataredirectlyaimedagainstthepolitical order, as well as such mmitted to achieve a political purpose. The decisivefactoristheintentormotive. Note: Killing, robbing, etc, for private purposes or profit without any politica would be separatelypunishedandwouldnotbeabsorbedinthe rebellion. (People v. G 6268, March10,2008)

Q:Whatisthenatureofthecrimeofrebellion? A: Rebellion is a crime of the m e of people. It is vast movement of men andacomplexnetworkofintriguesandplo ion? A: The persons liable for rebellion are the leaders andtheirfollowers. Illustration: The acts of accused who is not a member of the HUKBALAHAP orga cigarettes andfoodsuppliestoaHukleader;thechangingof dollars into pesos for and the helping of Huks in opening accounts with the bank which he was an of ute rebellion.(Carinov.People,7SCRA900)

REBELLIONANDINSURRECTION (Art.134) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? . Takingarmsagainstgovernment 2. Purpose of the uprising or movement is either e allegiance to said Governmentoritslaws: i. TheterritoryofthePhilippinesor a Any body of land, naval or other armedforces;or b. Deprive the Chief Executi ly or partially, of any oftheirpowersorprerogative. Note:Theuseofunlicensedfirearmisabsorbedinthe crimeofrebellionifusedinfurth n connection with the crime of rebellion, or insurrection,orsedition.(Sec.1

In one case, accused not only confessed his membership with the Sparrow Unit b ipationandthatofhisgroupinthekillingof policeman Manatad while the latter wa n Mandaue City. It is of judicial notice that the Sparrow Unit is the liquida Peoples Army with the objective of overthrowing the duly constituted government. re not hard to comprehend that the killingofManatadwascommitted,asameansto, e subversive ends of the NPA.Thecrimecommittedisrebellion,notmurder withdirec g,221SCRA549)

Q: What is the difference between rebellion and insurrection? A: REBELLION Theobjectofthe movementis completelyto overthrowand supersedethe exis . INSURRECTION Themovementseeksmerely toeffectsomechangeof minorimportance,or eof governmentalauthoritywith respectofparticularmatters ofsubjects.

If the act is to deprive the Judiciary of its power or prerogatives,thecrime

Q:Whatistheessenceofthecrimeofrebellion? A: The essence of rebellion is ng of arms. It aims to overthrow the duly constituted government. It is genera ivilians. Note:Ifthereisnopublicuprising,thecrimeisdirect assault.

Q: What are the distinctions between rebellion andsedition? A: REBELLION Theremustbetaking upofarmsagainst thegovernment. Purposeisalways pol rthrowthe government. SEDITION Itissufficientthatpublic uprisingbetumultuous. P icalor social,thatismerelytogo againsttheestablished governmentnotto overthro 106


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order Q: What are the distinctions between rebellion andtreason? A: REBELLION Theuprisingisagainstthe government. Thepurposeisto substitutetheexis th another. TREASON Thelevyingofwarisdone toaidtheenemy. Thepurposeistodeli my. Inrebellion,itisnotadefensethattheaccusednever took the oath of allegia cognizedthegovernment.

COUPDETAT (134A) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisa ceorholdinganypublic officeoremployment 2. Itiscommittedbymeansofaswiftat ce, intimidation, threat,strategyorstealth 3. Attackisdirectedagainstdulyconst ties of the Republic of the Philippines or any military camp or installation, tworks, public utilities or other facilities needed fortheexerciseandcontinuedp er 4. Purpose of the attack is to seize or diminishstatepower Note: Theuseofunlicensedfirearmisabsorbedinthe crimeofrebellionifusedinfu onnectionwiththecrimeofattemptedcoup detat.

Note: Mere giving of aid or comfort is not criminal in the case of rebellion. al participation. Hence, mere silence or omission of publicofficerisnotpunishab

Q: What are the distinctions between rebellion andsubversion? A: REBELLION Crimeagainstpublic order. Theremustbepublic uprisingtooverthrow theg RSION Crimeagainstnational security. Beingofficersandranking membersofsubversive itutesubversion.

Q: On May 5, 1992, at about 6:00 a.m., while Governor Alegre of Laguna was ng along the National Highway of Laguna. Joselito and Vicente shot him on the nstantdeath.Atthattime,Joselito andVicenteweremembersofliquidationsquadof the hey killed the governor upon orders of their senior officer Commander Tiago. Ac lito and Vicente,theywereorderedtokillGovernorAlegre because of his corrupt p e the prosecutor, what crime will you charge Joselito andVicente? A:IfIwere geJoselito andVicentewiththecrimeofrebellion,considering that the killers were uidation squadoftheNPAandthekillingwasuponordersof theircommander;hence,poli was the ruling in People v. Avila, SCRA 1568, involvingidenticalfactswhichisa alnoticeofasengagedinrebellionagainstthe Government. Note: Crimes done for private purposes without politicalmotivationshouldbesepara .

Rebellionisacontinuingcrimealongwiththecrimeof conspiracyorproposaltocommitr

Q:Whatistheessenceofthecrimeofcoupdetat? A: The essence of the crime sof thePhilippinegovernment,military camps and installations, communication netwo c utilities and facilities essential to the continuedpossessionofgovernmentalpow eobjectiveofcoupdetat? A: The objective of coup detat is to destabilize o hrough the seizure of facilities and utilities essential to the continued posses seofgovernmentalpowers. Q:Howiscoupdetatcarriedout? A:Itmaybecarriedby ,threat,orstrategy. Q:Whoaretheprincipaloffendersofcoupdetat? A:Theprin P or of the PNP organization or a public officer with orwithoutciviliansuppor


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q:Whatarethedistinctionsbetweencoupdetat andrebellion? A: COUPDETAT Essenceisaswiftattackagainst thegovernment,itsmilitary camporinsta ionnetworkand publicfacilitiesandutilities essentialtothecontinued exerciseofg rs. Maybecarriedoutsinglyor simultaneously. REBELLION Essenceofthe crimeispubl ng uparmsagainstthe government. Requiresapublic uprising,or multitudeof people ecommittedby theuniformed personnelofthe militaryorthe police. Thepurposeist g government. finances, abets, or aids undertakingacoupdetat. in Note:Thecrimeofcoupdetatmaybecommittedwith orwithoutcivilianparticipation. Principaloffendersmustbe membersofthemilitary, nationalpoliceorpublicofficer, iansupport. Thepurposeismerelyto paralyzetheexisting government. Note: State power includes the executive, legislative andjudicialpower.

PENALTYFORREBELLIONORINSURRECTIONOR COUPDETAT (Art.135) Q: Who are t urrectionorcoupdetat? 1. Leader a. Any person who promotes, maintains, or h urrection b. Any person who leads, directs, or commands others to undertake a c icipants a. Any person who participates or executesthecommandsofothersin rebe n b. Any person in the government servicewhoparticipates,orexecutes directions sin undertakingacoupdetat c. Any person not in the government service who ,

Q: Who shall be deemed the leader of the rebellion,insurrectionorcoupdetat sonwhoinfact: 1. Directedtheothers 2. Spokeforthem 3. Signed receipts and othe dintheirname 4. Performed similar acts on behalf of the rebels CONSPIRACYA IONORINSURRECTION (Art.136) Q:Whenisthereconspiracytocommitrebellion? A: it rebellion when twoormorepersonscometoanagreementtorise publicly and take ment for any of the purposes of rebellion and decide to commitit. Q: When ommit rebellion? A:Thereisproposaltocommit rebellionwhen the person who has cly and take arms against the government for any of the purposes of rebellion tion to someotherpersonorpersons. Q: Is advocacy to communism tantamount to ellion? A: No, because mere advocacy of theory or principle is insufficient t piracy to commit rebellion unless the advocacy is converted intoaction. Note:Themerefactofgivingandrenderingspeeches favoring communism would not make y of conspiracy, if there is no evidence that the hearers then and there ag gainstthegovernment.

DISLOYALTYOFPUBLICOFFICERAND EMPLOYEES (Art.137) Q: What are the puni ltyofpublicofficers/employees? 108


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order A: 1. Failingtoresistarebellionbyallmeansin theirpower Continuingtodischa sunderthecontroloftherebels A: 1. Offenderrise a. Publicly,and b. Tumultuou e, intimidation or other meansoutsideoflegalmethods Offenders employ any of nanyofthefollowingobjectsto: a. Prevent the promulgation or execution of any nypopularelection b. Preventthenationalgovernment,or any public officer from fr g its or his functions, or prevent the execution of any administrativeorder c. ct of hate or revenge of any person or property of any publicofficeroremploy olitical or social end, any act of hate or revenge againstprivatepersonsorany oil,foranypoliticalorsocialend anyperson,municipalityorprovince, ortheNationa opertyoranypartthereof 2. 2.

Note: The offender must be a public officer or employeeandtheremustbeanactua st not be in conspiracy with the rebels. Otherwise,thecrimetheycommitisrebell 3.

INCITINGTOREBELLIONORINSURRECTION (Art.138) Q:Whataretheelementsofth ction? A: 1. Offender does not take arms or is not in openhostilityagainst tes others to the execution of any oftheactsofrebellion 3. Inciting is done roclamations, writings, emblems, banners,orotherrepresentationstending tothesame Note:Incitingmusthavebeenintentionallycalculated toinduceotherstocommitrebellio

Note:Theoffendermaybeapublicorprivateperson. Theuseofunlicensedfirearmisa nifusedinfurtheranceoforincidentto,or inconnectionwiththecrimeofsedition.

Q: What is the difference between inciting to rebellionandproposaltocommitre PROPOSALTOCOMMIT INCITINGTOREBELLION REBELLION Itisnotrequiredthatthe Thepers dedtocommit offenderhasdecidedto rebellion. commitrebellion. Thepersonwhopropo gisdone theexecutionofthecrime publicly usessecretmeans. Theoffenderinducesa n. Thecrimeofrebellionshouldnotbeactually committedbythepersonstowhomitispr eycommitrebellionbecauseof theproposalorinciting,theproponentortheone incitin nducementinthe crimeofrebellion.

Q: Does the crime of sedition contemplate rising upofarmsagainstgovernment? the offenders in rising publicly is merely to create commotion and disturbance t to express their dissent and disobedience to the government or to theauthori Note: The objective of sedition is not always against the government, its prope It could be againstaprivatepersonorsocialclass. SEDITION (Art.139) Q:Whataretheelementsofthecrimeofsedition? Q: What is the difference between sedition and treason? A: SEDITION Seditioninvolves disturbanceofpublic TREASON Thereisnopublic uprising.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 orderresultingfrom tumultuousuprising.

INCITINGTOSEDITION (Art.142) Q: What are the punishable acts in the crim Inciting others to the accomplishment of any of the acts which constitute sedit peeches, proclamations, writings,emblems,etc 2. Uttering seditious words or spee endtodisturbthepublicpeace 3. Writing, publishing or circulating scurrilous li e government oranyofthedulyconstitutedauthorities thereof, which tend to distu e Note:Scurrilousmeanslow,vulgar,meanor foul. Note:Itistheuseofwords,emblems of an act that is punished in inciting to sedition.

Q:Whataretumultuousacts? A: Acts are considered tumultuous if caused by mo e armed or provided withthemeansofviolence. Q: What differentiates sedition sandotherdisturbanceofpublicorder? A: SEDITION Seditioninvolves disturbanceofpublic orderresultingfrom tumultuousuprisi SANDOTHER DISTURBANCEOFPUBLIC ORDER Thereisnopublic uprising.

Q: What is the crime committed if there is no publicuprising? A: If the to attain the objectsofrebellionorseditionbyforceorviolence, butthereisnopu itted isdirectassault. Note: Public uprising and an object of sedition must concur. Insedition,itis ecompletely attained.

Inincitingtosedition,theoffendermustnottakepart inanypublicortumultuousupris

Q: Suppose murder is committed in the course of sedition, can murder be abso edition? A: No. Murder cannot be absorbed in sedition. If murder is committed ed as a separatecrime. Ratio:Murderisnotanobjectofsedition. Note: There is no complex crime of se

CONSPIRACYTOCOMMITSEDITION (Art.141) Q:Isthereacrimeofproposaltocommit cy is punished and not proposaltocommitsedition. Note: To be liable, there must be an agreement and determination to rise publi sly to attainanyoftheobjectsspecifiedinArt.139.

Q: When are uttering seditious words/speeches and writing, publishing or circul lous libelspunishable? A:Suchareseditiouswhenthey: 1. Tend to disturb or o icer in executing the functions of his office 2. Tend to instigate others to herforunlawfulpurposes 3. Suggest or incite rebellious conspiracies orriots stir up the whole people againstthelawfulauthoritiesortodisturb the peace of fety andorderoftheGovernment Q: What are the two rules relative to seditiou d present danger rule words must be of such nature that by uttering them t uprising 110


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order andthatsuchdangershouldbebothclear andimminent 2. Dangerous tendency rule eadangerofpublicuprising, then those words could properly be subjectofpenalc ove rules is adopted in the Philippinejurisdiction? A:Itisthedangeroustenden adopted in the Philippines with respect to sedition cases.Itisenoughthatthewo edangerofpublicuprising. Q:Whataresomeinstancesofincitingtosedition? A: f discussing hatredagainstthegovernment 2. Lambasting government officials to d vernment. Q:Supposetheobjectiveofabovementionedacts istooverthrowthegovernmen mitted? A:Thecrimewouldbeincitingtorebellion. CRIMESAGAINSTPOPULARREPRESE HE.MEETINGOF THECONGRESSOFTHEPHILIPPINESANDSIMILAR BODIES(Art.143) Q:What There be projected or actual meeting of the Congress or any of its committees , constitutional committeesordivisionsthereof,orofany provincial board or city ncilorboard 2. Offender, who may be any person, preventssuchmeetingbyforceo Note: The chief of police and mayor who prevented the meeting of the municipal Art. 143, when the defect of the meeting is not manifest and requires an inve s existence can bedetermined. Under P.D. 1829, any person who disturbs the p lsoffice,inTanodbayan,orin the courts while in the prosecution of criminal c iolationofthesaiddecree.

DISTURBANCEOFPROCEEDINGS (Art.144) Q:Whataretheelementsofthecrime? any of its committees or subcommittees, constitutional commissions or committees ns thereof, or any provincial board or city or municipality councilorboard 2 efollowingacts: a. Disturbsanysuchmeetings b. Behaveswhileinthepresenceofany a manner as to interruptitsproceedingsortoimpair therespectdueit Note: Disturbance created by a participant in the meetingisnotcoveredbyArt.14 filed by a member of legislative body. The same act may be made the basis civeinnaturewhilethecrimeunderthis articleispunitive.

VIOLATIONOFPARLIAMENTARYIMMUNITY (Art.145) Q: What are the punishable aryimmunity? A: 1. Using force, intimidation, threats, or frauds to prevent an ressfrom a. Attending the meetings of congress or of any of its committees itutional commissionsorcommittees b. Expressinghisopinions c. Castinghisvote 2. r searching any member thereof while Congress is in regular or specialsession. Note:TheoffenderinPar.1maybeanyperson. Parliamentaryimmunitydoesnotprotect esponsibility before the legislative bodyitself.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q:Whatissession? A: It refers to the entire period from its initial conveni ent. Note: The 1987 Constitution exempts members of CongressfromarrestwhileCongressi ffenses punishable by a penalty less than prision mayor. It is not necessary ctually prevented from exercising any of his functions. It is sufficientthatCon .

ILLEGALASSEMBLIES (Art.146) Q:Whataretheformsofillegalassemblies? A: rsons forthepurposeofcommittinganyofthe crimespunishableundertheRPC. 2. Any dience, whether armed or not, is incited to the commission of the crime of tr insurrection, sedition, or assault upon a person in authority or his agents. Note: It is necessary that the audience is actuallyincited. Note: The word t limited to firearm. However, if the person present carries an unlicensed fire ption, insofar as he is concerned, is that the purpose of the meeting is to derthisCode,andthatheis theleaderororganizerofthemeeting.

A: The person inciting is liable for the crime of incitingtorebellionorsediti ements of the first form of illegalassembly? A: 1. There is a meeting, a g ons, whether in fixed place or moving 2. The meeting is attended by armed pe fthemeetingistocommit any of the crimes punishable under the RPC Note:Inthefirstformofillegalassembly,armedmen attend the gathering with the anyofthecrimespunishableunderRPC.Thepresence of armed men during the gatherin imeofillegalassembly. Not all persons at the meeting of the first form of ed. If none of the persons present in the meeting are armed, there is no c ed conspiringinameetingtocommitqualifiedtheftisnot punishable.

Q: Should persons merely present at the meeting have a common intent to commit galassembly? A: Yes. Absence of such intent may exempt the personpresentfrom :Supposeinthemeeting,theaudienceisincited tothecommissionofrebellionorsediti iability of the leaders or organizers thereofandthepersonspresenttherein? A: rsofthemeetingandthe persons present therein are liable for the crime of ill s the criminal liability of the person incitingthem?

Q: What are the elements of the second form of illegalassembly? A: 1. Ther ing group of persons, whether in a fixed place or moving 2. The audience, wh s incitedtothecommissionofthecrimeof treason, rebellion, or insurrection, sedi t Note: In this second form of illegal assembly, armed menmayormaynotattendthe etingareincitedtocommittreason,rebellion or insurrection, sedition or assault u uthority. When the illegal purpose of the gathering is to incite people to c tioned above, the presence of armed men is unnecessary. The mere gathering for fficient to bring about thecrimealready. A person invitedto givespeech in a tingandincitesthemembersofsuchassembly 112


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order isguiltyofincitingtoseditiononlyandnotpunishable underillegalassembly. Q:Whatisthegravamenofillegalassembly?

A: The gravamen of illegal assembly is mere assembly of or gathering of people ALASSEMBLY ILLEGALASSOCIATION purposepunishablebytheRPC.Withoutgathering, Thebasi ionof Thebasisofliabilityis ororganizationofan thereisnoillegalassembly. th ontoengageinan illegalpurposewhich unlawfulpurposewhichis Q:Whoarepersons onstitutesacrime notlimitedtoaviolationof undertheRPC. theRPC. A:Theperso g Notnecessarythattherebe isanactualmeeting :Ifthepresenceofapersonisoutofcuriosity,is andmembershipinthe attendanceat etheacts meetingaretheacts punished. punished. A: No, since he does not ha yofillegalassembly. ASSAULTUPON,ANDRESISTANCEAND DISOBEDIENCETOPERSONSINA galpurposeforthegatheringis THEIRAGENTS for the commission of a crime punish s (i.e. the gathering of drug lords to DIRECTASSAULTS facilitate drug traffic sembly (Art.148) committed? Q: What are the two ways to commit direct A: is a crime under a assault? special law, there is no illegal assembly. The cr llegalassociation. A: 1. First form: Without public uprising, by ILLEGALASSOC force or intimidation for (Art.147) attainment of any of the purposes enume rimes of Q:Whatareillegalassociations? rebellionandsedition. A: 2. Second f uprising, by 1. Associations totally or partially organized attacking, by employin or by forthepurposeofcommittinganyofthe seriously intimidating or seriously c rtheRPC. resistinganypersoninauthorityoranyof his agents, while engaged in ally or partially organized performance of official duties, or on the for some y to public occasionofsuchperformance. morals. Q:Whataretheelementsofthe als? A: A: Public morals refer to matters which affect the 1. That the of nterestofsocietyandpublicinconvenienceandare intimidation. not limited to good rs to acts that 2. That the aim of the offender is to attain areinaccordance ws. any of the purposes of the crime of rebellion or any of the objects in liable for the crime of crimeofsedition. illegalassociations? 3. Thatthereisno hepersonsliablearethefollowing: Q:Whataretheelementsofthesecondform? 1. Foun esident of the association ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII UNIVERSITYOFSANTOTOMA ad de Derecho Civil VICECHAIRFORADMINISTRATIONANDFINANCE:JEANELLEC.LEE VICECHAIR SIGN:EARLLOUIEM.MASACAYAN&THEENAC.MARTINEZ

Meremembersoftheassociation. Q: What are the distinctions between illegal ass ociation? A: 2. 113

UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. Thattheoffender: a. Makesanattack b. Employsforce c. Makesaseriousintimid eriousresistance The person assaulted is a person in authorityorhisagent T eperson inauthorityorhisagent a. Isengagedintheactualperformance ofofficiald lted,byreasonofthe pastperformanceofofficialduties Thattheoffenderknowsthat soninauthorityorhis agentintheexerciseofhisduties Thatthereisnopublicupr hority or the agentofapersoninauthorityexceedshis powersoractswithoutauthori orceorviolence 3. Descended to matters which are private innature Q: Suppose rity or the agent was killed when no longer performing official functions,what ? A: The crime may simply be the material consequence of the unlawful act, ecasemaybe. Q:Whatispenalizedinthecrimeofdirectassault? A:Thecrimeofdir lessness and the contempt or hatred for the authorityortheruleoflaw. Q: Ca ult be complexed with the material consequence of the unlawful act? A: Yes, pirit of the contempt or lawlessness is present, it is always complexed withth ncesoftheunlawfulact. If the unlawful act was murder or homicide committed un lawlessness or contempt of authority, the crime would be direct assault with mu e, as the case may be. Illustration: Thus, if A wouldattack apoliceman whileengaged in the performan hat of maintaining peace and order during a barangay fiesta, the crime would b de with direct assault depending on the presence of qualifying circumstances i ctim. (People v. Abalos, 258SCRA253) In one case, when the victim intervened ncounterbetweentheaccusedandtheRamos group, he was discharging his duty as Ba otect life and property and enforce law and order in the barrio, thus, the as is death is homicide with direct assault. (People v. Rillorta,180SCRA102) No the RPC and P.D. 299, a Barangay Chairman is a person in authority. If only eshavebeeninflicted,thecrime wouldbedirectassaultwithseriousphysicalinjuries. against a public officer did not hit him but he is in actual performance of mptedhomicidewithdirectassault. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Note:Inthesecondform,thereisaneedtodistinguish a situation where a person i asattackedwhileperformingofficialfunctions. If attack was done during the exe functions,thecrimeisalwaysdirectassault. Itis also importanttodistinguishwhe son in authority or merely an agent of the latter. Illustration: When the or fist, hit a policemanwhowasintheperformanceofhisduty,in the breast and ault is committed because the victim is only an agent of a personinauthority, stbe of serious character to show defiance of the law and itsrepresentativeof he victim is a person in authority, not a mere agent, the force necessarytoc tbeserious, asthelawwithrespecttothepersoninauthorityuses the phrase lays ity. (U.S v. Tabiana, 37 Phil. 51; U.S. v. Gumban, 39 Phil. 76) Note:Itis newthat thepersonheisattackingisapersoninauthorityoran agentofthepersonin al functions. No knowledge means no lawlessness or contempt. Q: What are considered as not in actual performanceofofficialduties? 114



BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order

Q:Whatistheexceptiontotheaboverule? A: The only time it is not complexed salightfelony,thatis,slight physical injury because the said injuries are con nt or consequence of the forceandviolenceemployed.Directassaultabsorbs theligh rsoninauthority? A: Any person directly vested with jurisdiction, whether as s a member of some court or governmental corporation, board, or commission. A d a barangay chairman shall also be deemed a person in authority.(Art.152par. d as an agent of a person in authority? A:Anypersonwhobydirectprovisionof ment by competent authority, is charged with the maintenance of publicorderand curityoflife and property, such as a barangay kagawad, barangay tanod, barangay erson whocomestotheaidofapersoninauthority. Note:Teachers,professors,andpersonschargedwith the supervision of public or dul ivate schools, colleges, and universities and lawyers in the actualperformanceof heoccasion of such performance, shall be deemed a person in authority.

assault was committed by reason of the past performanceofofficialduties. Q: ion of such performancemeans? A:Itmeanstheimpellingmotiveoftheattackisthe Note: For the crime to be direct assault, the attack mustbebyreasonofhisoff

Q:Whenisdirectassaultqualified? A: 1. 2. 3. Note:Evenwhenthepersoninauthorityortheagent agreestofight,directassaultisst son in authority or the agent provoked/attacked first the innocent party, the l dtodefendhimselfandmayraisejustifyingor mitigatingcircumstancesasthecasemayb

When the assault is committed with a weapon When the offender is a public off n the offender lays hand upon a personinauthority

Q:Isitimportantthattheoffenderknowsthatthe personheisattackingisapersoni that the offender should know that the offended party was exercising some form is not necessary that the offender knowswhatismeantbypersoninauthority. Q: eemployed toconstitutedirectassault? A: The force must be serious and must howcontemptofauthority.Casual force which usually accompanies resistance or diso horitiesisnotsufficient. Q:Whenisitimportanttoascertainthemotivefor theas ewhentheoffendedparty was not engaged in the performance of his official duti st be shown that the

Q: Because of the approaching town fiesta in San Miguel, Bulacan, a dance wa rinias. A, the Barangay Captain, was invited to deliver a speech to start the eliveringhisspeech,B,oneoftheguests,wentto the middle of the dance floor ma ents, brandishing a knife and challenging everyone present to a fight. A approa ished him to keep quiet and not to disturb the dance and peace of the occasi ng the advice of A, stabbedthelatterathisbacktwicewhenAturned hisbacktopr his speech. A fell to the ground and died. At the timeoftheincidentAwasnot ?Explain. A:Thecomplexcrimeofdirectassaultwithmurder was committed. A, as erson in authority and was acting in an official capacitywhenhetriedtomaintai the public dance in the Barangay by admonishingBtokeepquietandnottodisturbt ccasion. When B, instead ofheedingAsadvice,attackedthelatter,Bactedin contem e of authority constituting the crime of direct assault, which characterized the . And since A was stabbedatthebackwhenhewasnotinaposition


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 todefendhimselfnorretaliate,therewastreachery in the stabbing. Hence, the deat abbing was murder and having been committed with direct assault, a complex crim ult in murder was committed by B. (2000 Bar Question) Note:Evidenceofmotiveoftheoffenderisimportant when the person in authority or cked or seriously intimidated is not in the performanceofhisofficialduty. Di be committed during rebellion. Crime of slight physical injuries is absorbed by t if committed against an agent of a person in authority.Ifcommittedagainsta llbeconsideredasseparatecrime. Thecrimeofdirectassaultisnotcommittedwhent tissuspendedorunder suspensionwhenheisattacked. Directassaultabsorbslightfe isthemeansofcommittingdirectassault. character, the crime would be direct assa ,asamended) AsArticle149nowstands,thecrimeofindirectassault canonlybecomm intheaidofanagentofapersoninauthorityonthe occasion of direct assault agai d. He does not become another agent of the personinauthority.

DISOBEDIENCETOSUMMONSISSUEDBY CONGRESS,ITSCOMMITTEESOR SUBCOMMITTEES,BYTHE IONS,ITSCOMMITTEES, SUBCOMMITTEESORDIVISIONS(Art.150) Q:Whatarethepunishabl without legal excuse, to obey summons of Congress, its special or standingcomm ttees, the Constitutional Commissions and its committees, subcommittees or divisio any commission or committee chairman or member authorized to summonwitnesses 2 e sworn or placed under affirmation while being presented before such legislativ tional body or official 3. Refusingtoansweranylegalinquiryorto produceanybo records in his possession, when required by them to do so in the exercise of straining another from attending as a witness in such legislative or constitutio ducing disobedience to a summons or refusal to be sworn by any such body or onsliableunderArt.150? A: 1. Any person who commits any of the aboveacts ains another from attending as awitness b. Induceshimtodisobeyasummons c. Ind nto suchbody

INDIRECTASSAULTS (Art.149) Q:Whataretheelementsofindirectassault? A s the victimoftheformsofdirectassault 2. A person comes to the aid of suc ender makes use of force or intimidationuponsuchpersoncomingto theaidofthea stheassaultdirectedinthecrimeof indirectassault? A:Thevictiminthecrimeof nauthorityorhisagentbuttheperson whocomesintheaidofapersoninauthorityorh e crime of indirect assault? A: Indirect assault comes about only when direct d. Note: When any person comes in aid of a person in authority, said person at r a civilian,heisconstitutedasanagentofthepersonin authority. If such perso employing violence against him of serious nature or 116


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order Note:Anyoftheactsenumeratedmayalsoconstitute contempt of Congress and could dependentofthecriminalprosecution. Congress power to cite a witness in conte plied or incidental to the exercise of legislativepower. The testimony of a t be upon matters into which the legislature has jurisdiction to inquire. Perso agentmustbeengagedin theperformanceof officialdutiesorthatheis assaultedbyr dinfourways By: 1.Attacking. 2.Employingforce 3.Seriouslyintimidating 4.Seriou oninauthorityor hisagent Theattackor employmentofforce whichgiverisetothe riousand deliberate. Personinauthorityorhis agentmustbeinactual performanceofhis duties.

Committedonlyby resistingorseriously disobeyingapersonin authorityorhisagent.

RESISTANCEANDDISOBEDIENCETOAPERSONIN AUTHORITYORTHEIRAGENTS (Art.151) 51,par.1) Q:Whataretheelementsofthecrime? A: 1. Person in authority or rmance of official duty or gives a lawful order to the offender 2. Offender y disobeys suchpersoninauthorityorhisagent 3. Actoftheoffenderisnotinclude ,149and150 SIMPLEDISOBEDIENCE (Art.151,par.1) Q:Whataretheelementsof a person in authority is engaged in the performance of official duty or gives e offender 2. Offenderdisobeyssuchagentofaperson inauthority Note: The accused must have knowledge that the persongivingtheorderisapeaceo

Theuseofforceisnotso serious,asthereisno manifestintentionto defythelawan

Q:Whatisthecrimecommittedifthepersonwho was resisted is a person in autho ceinsuchresistance? A: The use of any kind or degree of force will give r se the offender did not use any force in resisting a person in authority, wha ? A: The crime committed is resistance or serious disobedience. Note: Art. 151 covers failure to comply with orders directly issued by authorit ise of their official duties, and not with judicial decisions merely declaratory bligations (E.g. decision renderedinacivilcase). Thedisobediencecontemplatedco re or refusal to obey a direct and lawful order from the authorityorhisagent ustified. Disobedience in the 2nd par. must not be serious, otherwiseitwillf

PERSONSINAUTHORITYANDAGENTSOF PERSONINAUTHORITY (Art.152) Q:Whoisape nedirectlyvestedwith jurisdiction, that is, the power and authority to governa : Enumerate the examples of persons in authority.

Q:Whatarethedistinctionbetweenresistanceor seriousdisobedienceanddirectassault? RESISTANCEORSERIOUS DISOBEDIENCE DIRECTASSAULT


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Note:Items7,8,and9oftheenumerationareadded bytheLGCwhichexpresslyprovidest d as person(s) in authority in their jurisdictions.(Sec.388) Teachers,lawyers ersonsin authority only for purposes of Art. 152 in relation to Arts.148and1 eirduties.

4. Mayors Divisionsuperintendentofschool Publicandprivateschoolteachers Provincia ges Lawyersinactualperformanceofduties SangguniangBayanmember BarangayChairman ngTagapamayapa 5. Displaying placards, or emblems which provoke a disturbance of public order in ing with pomp the body of a person whohasbeenlegallyexecuted.

Note: Burying with pomp the body of a person contemplatesanostentatiousdisplay rson who disturbs or interrupts a meeting considered as religious worship is a he shallbeliableunderArt.131or132.

Q:Whoisanagentofapersoninauthority(APA)? A:Anypersonwhobydirectprovis ompetentauthority ischargedwiththe: 1. Maintenanceofpublicorder;and 2. Protectio y of life and property. Note:Agentsofpersonsinauthorityincludes: 1. BarangayKagawad 2. BarangayTanod 3. cilman 4. Anypersonwhocomestotheaidofpersons inauthority.

Q: What is the essence of tumults and other disturbances? A: The essence o g public disorder. This crime is brought about by creating serious disturbances es, public buildings, and even in private places where public functionsorperfor ld. Note: Tumults and other disturbances can be complexed with direct assault if th sturbancesofpublicdisorderisdirectedtoaperson inauthorityoranagentofaperson

PUBLICDISORDER TUMULTSANDOTHERDISTURBANCESOFPUBLIC ORDER(Art.153) Q: sing any serious disturbance in a publicplace,officeorestablishment. 2. Interr rbing performances, functions or gatherings, or peaceful meetings, if act is not rts. 131and132. 3. Making any outcry tending to incite sedition in any meet blicplace.

Q:Whenisthedisturbancedeemedtumultuous? A: When it is caused by more than rprovidedwithmeansofviolence. Q:Whatdoesthewordarmedmean? A:Thetermar ludes even big stones capable of causing graveinjury. Q: What is the differe ny outcrytendingtoinciteseditionorrebellion(par. 3ofArt.153)andincitingtore MAKINGANYOUTCRY TENDINGTOINCITE SEDITIONOR REBELLION Themeeting atthe outsetwa blic disorderonlybecauseof suchoutcry. Theoutburstswhichby naturemaytendto i ionare spontaneous. INCITINGTOSEDITIONOR REBELLION

Themeetingfromthe beginningwasunlawful. Thewordsutteredare deliberatelycalculat orethought toinciteothersto rebellionorsedition. 118


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order Note: Serious disturbance requires that such must be plannedorintended. Ifthep rintingestablishmenttook partinthepreparationandpublicationofthelibelous writin nderArt.360. Ifthepublicationisbothobsceneandanonymous,the offensecannotbe ferent acts separately punished under this Article and Art. 201onobscenepublica

Q:Whatdoesoutcrymean? A:Outcrymeanstoshoutsubversiveorprovocative words t le to obtain by means of force or violence any of the objects of rebellionor Note: Crime is qualified if disturbance or interruption isofatumultuouscharacte

ALARMSANDSCANDALS (Art.155) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Discha acker, or other explosive within any town or public place, calculated to cause Instigatingortakinganactivepartinany charivari or other disorderly meeting of r or prejudicial to publictranquility. 3. Disturbing the public peace while wa t night or while engaged in any other nocturnal amusements. 4. Causing any di dal in public places while intoxicated or otherwise,providedtheactisnotcovered eessenceofthecrimeofalarmsand scandals? A:Theessenceofthecrimeisdisturban licpeace. Q: If a firearm is discharged, what are the crimes thatmaypossibl d scandals If the offender dischargesafirearminapublicplacebut the firearm ular personwhendischarged. 2. IllegaldischargeoffirearmIfthefirearm was dir erson who wasnothitifintenttokillisnotproved. 3. Attempted homicide or mur matically,thecrimeis attemptedhomicideormurder,ifthereis intenttokill.

UNLAWFULUSEOFMEANSOFPUBLICATIONAND UNLAWFULUTTERANCES (Art.154) Q:Wh ng or causing to be published, by means of printing, lithography or any other on, as news any false news which may endanger the public order, or cause dama editoftheState. 2. Encouragingdisobediencetothelaworto theconstitutedauthori tifyingorextollinganyactpunishedby law, by the same means or by words, utter aliciously publishing, causing to be published any official resolution or documen roper authority, or before they have been published officially. 4. Printing,pub tributingbooks, pamphlets, periodicals or leaflets which do not bear the real p whichareclassifiedasanonymous. Q: Is it necessary that the publication caused A: No. Mere possibility to cause such danger or damageissufficient. Note: To be liable, the offender must know that the newsisfalse. R.A. 248 g reproduction, republication of government publications and official documentswit iousauthority.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Note: When a person uses lethal weapon against another, such as firearm, intent t. verysimilarappearancewasnotatoncenoticedbythe guard,thattwinbrotherisl rnedtojailafterseveralhours, theonewhoremovedhimfromjailisliable.Sothatif nt, asked the jailer of prisoner B to turn the latter over him on the pretex tigate the prisoner, but after several hours of drinking liquor with B in a s dprisonertothejailer,Aiscriminally liableunderthisarticle. Illustration: soffduty,brought a released prisoner inside the jail to substitute for a dete he brought out of jail, returning him inside the jail after five hours may be is article. (People v. del Barrio,., 4 C.A.Rep337) 4. 5.

Physical injuries If the person was hit andinjuredbuttherewasnointenttoki eat was directed, immediate and serious and the person is compelled or prevente gagainstthewill.

Note: The discharge may be in ones home since the lawdoesnotdistinguishasto of firearms and rockets during town fiestasandfestivalsarenotcoveredbythelaw.

Q:Whatischarivari? A:Charivariisamockserenadeofdiscordantnoises made of ca horns etc. designedtoannoyandinsult.Thisbringsaboutthe crimeofalarmsandscand Ratio: Punishing, instigating or taking active part in charivari and other disor g is to prevent moreseriousdisorders.

Q: What offenses are possibly committed by creatingnoiseandannoyance? A: 1 f the disturbance affects the public in general (i.e. by playing noisily during themorningintheneighborhood). 2. Unjust vexation If the noise is directed ily. DELIVERINGPRISONERSFROMJAIL (Art.156) Q:Whataretheelementsofthe in a jail or penalestablishment 2. Offenderremovestherefromsuchperson orhelpst n Illustration: Aslongasthepersonwhowasassistedinhisescapeis aprisoner,whate on who removed him from jail, is punishable under this law. If a twin brother the latter escape by substituting himself, and because of their

Q:Whomaybetheoffender/s? A: 1. Usually,anoutsidertothejail 2. Itmayalso l establishment who does not have thecustodyoftheprisoner b. A prisoner who therprisoner. Q:Supposetheprisonerwasconfinedinahospital when he was assist rime deliveryofprisonersfromjailcommitted? A: Yes, because the hospital may tensionofthejail. Illustration: Even if the prisoner is in hospital or asylum or any place for er, as long as he is classified as a prisoner, that is, a formal complaint o filed in court, and he has been officiallycategorizedasaprisoner,thisarticlea e is considered extension of the penal institution.Thus,ifAwasarrestedbyapol dinjailbutminutesbeforethecaseis filed in court, B helped him escape, B is .

Q: What is the difference between delivering the prisoners in jail and infide y of prisoners? 120


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order A: DELIVERINGPRISONERS FROMJAIL Theoffenderisnotthe custodianoftheprisonerat the val INFIDELITYINTHE CUSTODYOF PRISONERS Theoffenderisthe custodianatthetimeo

A: 1. Sarah, a stranger or an outsider is liable fordeliveryofprisonerfromjai ittedthecrimeof infidelityinthecustodyofprisoners; Michael is liable for th tence. 2.

Note:Inboth,theoffendermaybeapublicofficerora private citizen. In both crim aybeaconvictorameredetentionprisoner. 3.

Q: What is the liability of the convicted prisoner servingsentencewhoescaped? the crime of evasion of service underArt.157. Q: Suppose the one who escape soner,whatishisliability? A: He does not incur liability from escaping if h ovehimfromjail. If such prisoner knows of his plot to remove him from jail y escaping, he himselfbecomesliablefordeliveringprisonersfrom jailasaprincipal peration. Q:Whatarethequalifyingcircumstance? A:Useofviolence,intimidationo s the qualifying circumstance of briberyunderthisarticlecontemplate? A: The o loying bribery as a meansofremovingordeliveringtheprisonerfrom jail, and not ceiving or agreeing to receive a bribe as a consideration for committingtheoff igatingcircumstance? A:Ifittakesplaceoutsidethepenalestablishment bytakingth Note: This felony may also be committed through imprudenceornegligence.

EVASIONOFSERVICEOFSENTENCE (Art.157) Q:Whataretheelementsofthecrime Heisservinghissentencewhichconsistof deprivationofliberty 3. He evades the ce by escapingduringthetermofhissentence Note:Thecrimeisacontinuingoffensewhichmaybe prosecuted in any place where th his article does not apply to minor delinquents, detentionprisonersordeportees.

Q:SupposeMichaelwasconvictedofrobberyand heisservinghissentenceinMuntinlupa nds, Sarah and the jail warden, Z hatched the plan of escaping from the priso ntually materialized. Determine thecriminalliabilityofMichael,SarahandZ.

Q: What are the qualifying circumstances under Art.157? A:Ifevasionorescap funlawfulentry(byscaling) 2. Bybreakingdoors,windows,gates,walls, roofs,orfl klocks, false keys, disguise, deceit,violenceorintimidation;or 4. Through conni her convicts oremployeesofthepenalinstitution Q: What are the forms of evas nce? A:Evasionofserviceofsentencehasthreeforms: 1. By simply leaving or e ablishmentunderArt.157 2. Failure to return within 48 hours after having left shment because of a calamity, conflagration or mutiny and such calamity, conflag


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 ormutinyhasbeenannouncedasalready passedunderArt.158. Violating the conditio donunderArticle159. A: 1. Offender is a convict by final judgment, whoisconf Thereisdisorder,resultingfrom: a. Conflagration b. Earthquake c. Explosion d. Simil strophe e. Mutiny in which he has not participated Offender evades the servic y leaving the penal institution where he is confined on the occasion of suchd iny Offender fails to give himself up to the authorities within 48 hours fol of proclamation by Chief Executiveannouncingthepassingawayof suchcalamity. 3. 2. Note: The term jailbreaking is synonymous with evasionofsentence.

Q: Suppose X, a prisoner convicted of theft was abletoescapefromthepenalin after the escape, he changed his mind prompting him to return to penal facilit rimeevasionofsentence? A: Yes. It is enough that he left the penal establis it. His voluntary return may only be mitigating being analogous to voluntarysur ewillnotabsolve hiscriminalliability. Q:Ifaprisonerissentencedtodestierro, asionofservice? A: Yes, because destierro involves deprivation of liberty,alth eprisonerisdeprived of his liberty to enter a prohibited area. So, if he ent a, he commits evasion of serviceofsentence. Q:Aforeignerwasfoundguiltyofvi redbythecourttobedeported. Later on, he returned to the Philippines in viola ltyofevasionof serviceofsentence? A:No,becausethelawisnotapplicabletooffe on. (U.S. v. Loo Hoe, 36 Phil 867) Q:Whatiftheoffenderescapedwithinthe15 hecrimeisnotevasionbecausejudgmentisnot yetfinal. Note: Persons convicted under this article are disqualified from the benefits of inate SentenceLaw. 3. 4.


Q:WhatisthebasisofliabilityunderArt.158? A: Liability is based on the f rs after the passing of the calamity, conflagration or mutiny had been announce ngfromthepenalestablishment. Q:Whatconstitutesmutinyinthesecondformof evasi :Themutinyreferredtohereinvolvessubordinate personnel rising against the superv penalestablishment. Q:Whatisamutiny? A:Amutinyisanorganizedunlawfulresist ilartoseditionorarevolt. Mutinyisoneofthecauseswhichmayauthorizea convic tentiary to leavethejailprovidedhehasnottakenpartinthe mutiny. If one par iable for the offenses which he committed during the mutiny whetherornotheret a,G.R. No.121917,Mar.12,1997) Note: The penalty of commission of this felony is an increase by 1/5 of the rved under the original sentence, in no case to exceed 6 months. The special ty (E.g. deduction of sentence) authorized by Art. 98 and 158 (2nd par.) 122


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Order refers to those convicts, who having evaded the service of their sentences by institution, give themselves up within 48 hours. They will be entitled to a de heir respectivesentences.

OTHERCASESOFEVASIONOFSERVICE (Art.159) VIOLATIONOFCONDITIONALPARDON ional pardon is a contract between the Chief Executive, who grants the pardon oacceptsit. Theconditionimposedupontheprisonernottobe guilty of another cr e punishable by the RPC. It includes those punished underspeciallaw.(Peoplev. ually, the condition of a conditional pardon is that the prisoner shall not co more. So, if he committed an offense while on pardon,hehasviolatedthisarticle e a final conviction for the second offense. Otherwise,wecouldnotsaythatthere dition of the pardon as he would be presumedtobeinnocent. Note: However, under the Revised Administrative Code,noconvictionisnecessary.The e power to arrest and reincarcerate the offender withouttrial. The court cann vict to serve the unexpired portion of the original sentence if it does not e remedy is left to the President who has the authority to recommit him to serv fhisoriginalsentence. Theperiodwhenconvictwasatlibertyisnotdeducted incase

of the pardon is violated when the remaining unserved portion of the sentence d, there will be no criminal liability for the violation. However, the convict o servetheunservedportionofthesentence,thatis, continueservingoriginalpenalty. erence between violation of conditional pardon and evasion of service of sentenc VIOLATIONOF CONDITIONALPARDON Itisnotapublicoffense foritdoesnotcause harmo erson nordoesitdisturbpublic order. EVASIONOFSERVICEOF SENTENCE Itisapublic pendentfromany otheract. Note: Violation of conditional pardon is a distinct crime.

A.DecreeCodifyingtheLawsonIllegal/Unlawful Possession,Manufacture,Dealingin,Ac sition,ofFirearms,Ammunitionor Explosives(P.D.1866,asamendedbyR.A.8294) Note: If the unlawful manufacture, sale, acquisition, dispositionorpossessionof nitionor instruments used or intended to be used in the manufacture of firearm in furtheranceoforincidentto,orinconnectionwiththe crime of rebellion or ins or attempted coup d etat, such violation shall be absorbed as an element of th on, or insurrection, sedition, or attempted coup d etat. (Sec. 1,RA8294)

B.HumanSecurityActof2007(R.A.9372) Q:Whatarethepunishableactsofterrorism? an act punishable underanyofthefollowingprovisionsofthe: a.RPC: i. Piracy he HighSeasorinthePhilippineWaters ii. RebellionorInsurrection iii. Coup d etat s committed byprivatepersons iv. Murder v. Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detenti mesInvolvingDestruction;or

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderwasaconvict 3. Heviolatedanyoftheconditionsofsuch pardon Q: When can there be a violat don? A: When the condition is violated during the remaining period of the se tion


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 b.SpecialPenalLaws: i. TheLawonArson ii. Toxic Substances and Hazardous and N tof1990 iii. Atomic Energy Regulatory and Liability Actof1968 iv. AntiHijacking y and AntiHighway Robbery Lawof1974and vi. Decree Codifying the Laws on Illeg sion,Manufacture, DealingIn,AcquisitionorDispositionof Firearms,AmmunitionsorExp Note:Theabovementionedactmust: 1. Sow and create a condition of widespread and randpanicamongthe populace 2. Coerce the government to give in to an unlawful

assisting in the escape of the principal or conspirator of the crime. XPN:Sp scendants, legitimate, natural and adopted brothers and sisters or relatives by inthesamedegree XPNtotheXPN:thosefallingunder(a). Q:Is er special penallaws? A: When a person has been prosecuted under a provision lid complaint or information or other formal charge sufficient in form and subs n a conviction and after the accused had pleaded to the charge, the acquittal ssalofthecase shall be a bar to another prosecution for any offense or felon included in theoffensechargedunderthisAct.(Sec.49) (3)AbsorptionPrinciplei s

2. Persons who conspire to commit the crime of terrorism. Q:Whoareliableund pal Any person who commits any oftheactsunderSection3and4 2. Accomplice rArticle17oftheRPCora conspirator as defined under Section 4 hereof, coopera either the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism by previousors . Accessory any person who having knowledge of the commission of the crime o iracy to commit terrorism and without having participatedthereineitherasprincipa e under Articles 17 and 18 of the RPC, takes part subsequent to its commissio ing manner: a. By profiting himself or assisting the offender to profit by t . By concealing or destroying the bodyofthecrimeortheeffects orinstrumentsthe tsdiscovery c. By harboring, concealing, or 124


BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest IV.CRIMESAGAINSTPUBLICINTEREST(161187) FORGERIES COUNTERFEITINGTHEGREATSEA LIPPINEISLANDS, FORGINGTHESIGNATUREORSTAMPOFTHE CHIEFEXECUTIVE(Art.161) Q:W ? A: 1. ForgingthegreatsealoftheGovernment ofthePhilippines 2. Forgingthe ForgingthestampofthePresidentofthe GovernmentofthePhilippines Note: When the Presidents signature is forged, it is not falsification but for of the Chief Executiveunderthisarticle.

A: 1. 2. Therebefalseorcounterfeitedcoins Offendermade,importedorutteredsuch ering such false or counterfeitedcoins,heconnivedwiththe counterfeitersorimport 3.

USINGFORGEDSIGNATUREORCOUNTERFEIT SEALORSTAMP(Art.162) Q:Whataretheelem l of the Republic was counterfeited or the signature or stamp of the Chief Ex y anotherperson 2. Offender knew of the counterfeiting or forgery 3. He used eal or forged signatureorstamp Note: Offender here should not be the forger or the cause of counterfeiting; o e committedisforgeryunderArt.161. InusingtheforgedsignatureorstampofthePr participation of the offender is in effectthatofanaccessory.Althoughthegeneral d be punished by a penalty 2 degrees lower,underArt.162,heispunishedbyapen

Q:Whatiscounterfeiting? A: Counterfeiting means to imitate a coin that is pearance of one of legal tender. The coin is counterfeit even if it has more oinoflegaltender. Q:Apersongaveacoppercenttheappearanceof asilverpiece,i d to pay with it a package of cigarettes which he bought at a store. What c ed? A: Such person is not liable for counterfeiting of coin,butforestafaund : What is the criterion used in determining whetheracoinisacounterfeitornot? t the imitation must be such as to deceive an ordinary person in believing it quently, if the imitation is so imperfect that no one was deceived, the felony ed. Q:Canformercoinswithdrawnfromcirculationbe counterfeitedunderArt.163? ns coin without any qualifyingwordssuchascurrent. Note:Thereasonforpunishingthefabricationofcoin withdrawn from circulation is t at the counterfeiter may later apply his trade to the making ofcoinsinactual 08) COUNTERFEITINGCOINS MAKINGANDIMPORTINGANDUTTERINGFALSE COINS(Art.163)

Q:Whatispunishedinimportingfalsecoins? A: It is the mere act of import if the coins are not placed in circulation. Q:Whatismeantbyutteringofcoi late, to pass counterfeit coins. Q: What are the kinds of coins the counterf hed?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. 2. Silver coin of the Philippines or coins of theCentralBankofthePhil or coinage of the Philippines or of the Central of the Bank ofthePhilippines gncountry. A: 1. 2. 3. Note:Foreignnotesandcoinsarenotincludedunder thisarticle.Also,theremustbeint

Coinmutilatedisoflegaltender Offender gains from the precious metal dustabstra stobeacoin. 3.

SELLINGOFFALSEORMUTILATEDCOIN, WITHOUTCONNIVANCE(Art.165) Q:Whatarethep ion of coins counterfeited or mutilated by another person, with intent toutter titisfalse ormutilated. 2. Actually uttering such false or mutilated coin, k false or mutilated. Note:Constructivepossessionorthesubjectionofthe thingtoonescontrolisincluded. dgeofthefactthatthecoin isfalse.

Note: With respect to par. 3 the use of the word currencyisnotcorrectbecau oneda which embraces not only those thatarelegaltender,butalsothoseoutofcir

Q:Whataretheactsoffalsificationorfalsity? A: 1. Counterfeiting refers to gery refers to instruments of credit and obligations and securities issued by rnmentofanybanking institution authorized by the Philippine governmenttoissueth ication can only be committed in respectofdocuments Q: What crimes may be coinsincirculation? A:Counterfeitingandmutilationofcoins. MUTILATIONOFCOIN NCEOFMUTILATEDCOINS (Art.164) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Mutilat urther requirement that there be intent todamageordefraudanother 2. Importing mutilated coins, with the further requirement that there must be connivance with rorimporterincaseofuttering. Q:Whatismutilation? A: Mutilation means dimi ngenuous means part of the metal in the coin either by filing or substituting l ofinferiorquality. Q:Whataretherequisitesofmutilation?

Q: In Art. 165, is it necessary that the counterfeitedcoinisalegaltender? ilatedcoin,itmustbea legaltender. Q:Whatifthefalseormutilatedcoinsarefou feiters or mutilators or importers? A: Such possession does not constitute a but is punished either under Art. 163 or 164. Note: P.D. 427 punishes possession of silver or nickel coins in excess of P50. of national policy to protect the people from the conspiracy of those hoarding coins and to preserve andmaintaintheeconomy. 126


BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest FORGINGTREASURYORBANKNOTESOROTHER DOCUMENTSPAYABLETOBEARER;IMPORTING, ANDUT ES ANDDOCUMENTS;IMPORTING,ANDUTTERING SUCHFALSEORFORGEDNOTESANDDOCUMENTS (Art. hableacts? A: 1. Forgingorfalsificationoftreasuryorbank notes or other docum er. 2. Importation of such false or forged obligationsornotes. Note: It means to bring them into the Philippines, which presupposes that the sareforgedorfalsifiedin aforeigncountry. 3. Other obligations and securities payable tobearer

Note: Falsification of PNB checksisnot forgeryunder Art. 166 of RPC but falsi ial documentsunderArt.172inconnectionwithArt.171 oftheRPC.

COUNTERFEITING,IMPORTINGANDUTTERING INSTRUMENTSNOTPAYABLETOBEARER (Art.167) scrime? A: 1. There be an instrument payable to order or other document of arer 2. Offender forged, imported or uttered suchinstrument 3. In case of ut ed with the forgerorimporter Q: What are the acts of forgery punished under instruments payable to order or documents of credit not payable to bearer 2. Im einstruments 3. Uttering such false instruments in connivance with the forger or Note: Connivance is not required in uttering if the uttereristheforger. Coun is article must involve an instrument payable to order or other document of cr rer. 3.

Uttering obligations or note knowing themtobefalseorforged,whethersuch offer ith a representation. Note:Itmeansofferingobligationsornotes knowing them to be false or forged, w edornot,with arepresentation.

Q:Xpleadedguiltytothechargeofhavingpassed a P20 counterfeit bill in a sto latingArt.166? A:No.Utteringforgedbillmustbewithconnivance with the authors itute a violationofArt.166.(Reyes,2008) Q: What is the difference between f ion? A: FORGERY Committedbygivingtoa treasuryorbanknoteor anyinstrumentpayable tothe ranceoftrue andgenuinedocument. FALSIFICATION Committedbyerasing, substituting, c ting,oraltering byanymeans,thefigures, letters,words,orsigns containedtherein.

ILLEGALPOSSESSIONANDUSEOFFALSE TREASURYORBANKNOTESANDOTHER INSTRUMENTS(Art iscrime? A: 1. Any treasury or bank notes or certificate or other obligation le to bearer, or any instrument payable to order or other document of credit orgedorfalsifiedby anotherperson 2. Offender knows that any of those instrument ied

Q: What are the notes and other obligations and securities that may be forge Art.166? A: 1. Treasuryorbanknotes 2. Certificatesand


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 3. Heperformsanyoftheseacts: a. Using any of such forged or falsified instrume ng with intent to use any of suchforgedorfalsifiedinstruments Note: The act being punished under Art. 168 is knowingly possessing with intent orgedtreasuryorbanknotes.

originally made payable to B or his order, he converted the treasury warrant t arer. It had the effect of erasing the phrase or his order upon the face o to) Note:ForgeryundertheRPCappliestopapers,which areintheformofobligationsandse ippine Government as its own obligations, which are given the same status as l reasuryandbanknotes. If all acts are done but genuine appearance is not giv .

Q: Is possession of false treasury or bank notes alone without intent to use noughtoconsummatethecrime? A: No. But mere possession with intent to utter of illegal possession of falsenotes. Note:Apersoninpossessionoffalsifieddocumentand who makes use of the same is ialauthoroffalsification. The accused has the burden to give satisfactory exp ssionofforgedbills.

FORGERY(Art.169) Q:Howisforgerycommitted? A: 1. By giving to a treasury ent payable to bearer or to ordermentionedtherein,theappearance ofatrueandge sing,substituting,counterfeiting,or alteringbyanymeansthefigures,letters, words, ained therein. (Art. 169) Q:Xcausedtheprintingofthechecksanddirected the p erein the important detailsandwordingscontainedinchecksregularly issuedbyaUSg tcrimedid Xcommit? A:Xcommittedforgerywithinthemeaningofpar.1 of Art. 169 yable to order.(Peoplev.Orqueza) Q:Areceivedatreasurywarrant,acheckissuedb nallymadepayableto B, or his order. A wrote Bs name on the back of said t orsed it, and then presented it for payment. It was paid to A. Whatcrimedid y because when A wrote Bs name on the back of the treasury warrant which wa

Q:Wheniscounterfeitingnotforgery? A:Thesubjectofforgeryshouldbetreasuryor of forgery were a document other than these, the crime would be falsification. atistheessenceofforgery? A:Theessenceofforgeryisgivingadocumentthe appear . Q: In checks and other commercial documents, howisforgerycommitted? A:Fo iguresorwords arechangedwhichmateriallyaltersthedocument. Q:Inacasewhereth g outhisintention,threwawaytheforgednote,can hebemadeliable? A: No, for of repentanceonhim,whohavingsetfootonthepath of crime, retraces his steps b lev.Padilla,36O.G.2404) FALSIFICATIONOFLEGISLATIVEDOCUMENTS (Art.170) here be a bill, resolution or ordinance enactedorapprovedorpendingapproval by Legislature or any provincialboardormunicipalcouncil 2. Offenderaltersthesame 3 thoritytherefore 4. Alteration has changed the meaning of thedocument 128


BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest Note: The offender must not be a public official entrusted with the custody or h document,otherwiseArt.171willapply. Thebill,resolutionorordinancemustbege flading Note: Under the Rules of Court, there are only two kindsofdocument . Public document is broader than the term official document. Before a docume ed official,itmustfirstbepublicdocument.Tobecomean officialdocument,theremust licofficertoissueortorendersuchdocument. E.g.Acashierisrequiredtoissuean eceives.Theofficialreceiptisapublic documentwhichisanofficialdocument.

Q:Definedocument. A: It is any written instrument by which a right is est n is extinguished, or everydeedorinstrumentexecutedbyapersonby which some di t is proved, evidencedorsetforth. Q:Whatarethekindsofdocuments? A: 1. Pu t notarizedbyanotarypublicorcompetent public official with the solemnities req E.g. a. Civilserviceexaminationpapers b. Official receipt required by the govern ued upon receipt ofmoneyforpublicpurposes c. Residencecertificate d. Driverslic 2.

Officialdocumentanyinstrumentissued by the government or its agents or offi oandthe offices, which in accordance with their creation,theyareauthorizedtoi E.g. Register of attorneys officially kept by theClerkoftheSupremeCourtinwhic me of each attorney admittedtothepracticeoflaw. 3. 4.

Private document every deed or instrument by a private person without thei ublicorof any other person legally authorized, by which document some dispositi is proved, evidenced or set forth. Commercial document any instrument execut ith the Code of Commerce of any mercantile law containing disposition of commer igations. E.g. a.Billsofexchange b.LettersofCredit c.Checks d.Quedans

Q: What are examples of writings that do not constitutedocuments? A: 1. Adr ichisnot yetapprovedbytheproperauthority 2. Mere blank forms of official do charenotfilledup 3. Pamphlets or books which are mere merchandise, not evide onoragreement Q:Whatarethefiveclassesoffalsification? A: 1. Falsificationo 2. Falsification of a document by a public officer,employeeornotarypublic 3. public or official, or commercial documents by a private individual 4. Falsific ate document by any person 5. Falsification of wireless, telegraph and telephon wisdocumentfalsified? A: A document is falsified by fabricating an inexistent gthecontentsof an existing one through any of the 8 ways enumeratedunderArt. Note: R.A. 248 prohibits the reprinting, reproduction orrepublicationofgovernment nswithout


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 FALSIFICATIONBYPUBLICOFFICER,EMPLOYEEOR NOTARYORECCLESIASTICALMINISTRY (Art.17 ntsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficer,employee,or notarypublic. icialposition a. He has the duty to make or prepare or to otherwise interv edocument;or b. He has the official custody of the documentwhichhefalsifies. cument by committing anyofthefollowingacts: a. Counterfeiting or imitating any gnatureorrubic; Note: It is not necessary that the imitation be perfect, it is enough that th e,andthe two signatures (the genuine and the forged), bear some resemblance to e.

Alteringtruedates Note: This mode of falsification is committed only if the true date is essenti

f. Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine document whichchangesit Note:Thealterationmustaffecteither the veracity of the document or the effect tion which makes a document speak the truth does not constitutefalsification. g. h.

Issuing in authenticated form a document purporting to be a copy of any orig o such copy a statement contrary to, ordifferentfromthatofthegenuine original nstrument or note relative to the issuance thereof in a protocol,registryoroff b. c. d.

Causing it to appear that persons have participated in any act or proceedingwh articipate; Attributing to persons who have participated in an act or proceeding her than those in fact madebythem; Making untruthful statements in a narration Elements: i. That the offender makes in a document untruthful statements inanar i. That he has legal obligation to disclose the truth of the facts narratedby narrated by the offenderareabsolutelyfalse. iv. The untruthful narration must be ect the integrity of the document or to change the effects which it would oth

Note:In1st,2nd,6th,7th(2ndpart),8thmode of falsification, there must be genu ragraphsof171,falsificationmay becommittedbysimulatingorfabricatinga document. eeper extracted the original of marriage contract in the file and changeditwit snot todisruptthenumberingofthedocuments numerically filed, to help prove the ge was solemnized, he is guilty of Falsification for intercalating any instrumen tive to the issuance thereof in a protocol, registry or official book.

4. In case the offender is an ecclesiastical minister, the act of falsificatio ith respect to any record or document of such character that the falsification vil status of persons. Note: This kind of falsification may be committedbyomission.

Q:Xwaschargedwithfalsificationbecauseinher certificate of candidacy for the r she had willfully and unlawfully made the false statement that she was eli



BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest office although she knew fully well that she was under23yearsold.Wasthecharg sedcertifiedshewaseligible for the position, she practically wrote a conclusion e may not be declared guilty of falsification because Art. 171 punishes untruth nnarrationoffacts.(Peoplev.Yanza) Q:Whoarethepersonsliable? A: 1. Public blic whotakesadvantagesofofficialposition 2. Ecclesiastical minister if the ac ion may affect the civil status of persons 3. Private individual, if in consp fficer Q: Augustina filed a criminal complaint against Bernante for falsificati ocument because the latter allegedly falsified leave forms. ItwasallegedthatBer rinhis leaveapplicationthathewasonforcedleaveand on vacation leave on certa nte was serving a 20day prison term because of his conviction of the crime o ies.IsBernanteliableforthecrimeof falsificationofdocuments? A:No.Augustinaf ing upon Bernante the legal obligation to disclose wherehewasgoingtospendhis ligation means that there is a law requiring the disclosure of the truth of rnante may not be convicted of the crimeoffalsificationofpublicdocumentbymaki in a narration of facts absent any legal obligation to disclose where he would n leave and forced leave. (Enemecio v. Office of the Ombudsman [Visayas] G.R. 004) FALSIFICATIONBYPRIVATEINDIVIDUALSANDUSE OFFALSIFIEDDOCUMENTS (Art.172) cts? A: 1. Falsification of public official or commercial document by a privat lementsunderparagraph1: a. Offender is a private individual or public officer o id not take advantage of his official position Hecommittedanyactoffalsificatio on is committed in a public, official, or commercial documentorletterofexchang b. c.

Note: Under this par., damage is not essential.Itispresumed. Lackofmaliceor sadefenseunderthisarticle,aswhenit is with the authority of the heirs of a sbursement vouchers or receipts evidencing payments are not commercial documents. ormofanofficialdocumentis notinitselfadocument. The possessor of falsified heauthoroffalsification. 2.

Falsification of private document by any person Elementsunderparagraph2: a. ed any of the acts of falsification except Art. 171 (7), that is issuing in ocumentpurportingtobea copy of an original document when nosuchoriginalexists yastatementcontraryto, ordifferentfromthatofthegenuine original b. Falsificati n any privatedocument c. Falsificationcausedamagetoathird partyoratleastthef ttedwithintenttocausesuch damage Note: It is not necessary that the offender profitedorhopedtoprofit. There rough reckless imprudence if the document is private and noactualdamageiscause s already consummated at the time the falsification of a private document was purpose of concealing the estafa, the falsification is not punishable. As regard


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 falsification of the private document, there wasnodamageorintenttocausedamage. sifieddocumentsis deemed the author of the falsification, if: 1.Theusewassocl e falsification;and2.theuserhadcapacityof falsifyingthedocument.

A private document may require the character of a public document when it beco cial record and is certifiedbypublicofficerdulyauthorizedby law. The crime blic documents even if the falsification took place before the private document epublicrecord. Damagetooneshonorisincluded.(People v.Marasigan)

Q: Is there a complex crime of estafa through falsificationofaprivatedocumen diateeffectoffalsification ofprivatedocumentisthesameasthatofestafa. Q: In edocuments, whatwill determinewhetherthecrimecommittedisestafa orfalsification? ication of the private document was essential in the commission of estafa becau alsification, estafa cannot be committed, the crime is falsification. Estafa beco sequence of the crime. If the estafacanbecommittedevenwithoutresortingto fals meisestafa. 3. Useoffalsifieddocument. Elementsunderthelastparagraph: a. I cial proceeding i. Offender knew that the document was falsified by anotherpe ied document is in Articles171or172(1or2) iii. Heintroducedsaiddocumentin e ceeding b. Inuseinanyothertransaction i. Offenderknewthatadocument wasfal hefalsedocumentisembraced inArt.171or172(1or2) iii. Heusedsuchdocument iv. nother or at least used with intenttocausedamage

Q:Isdamagearequirementintheuseoffalsified document? A:Theelementofdamage n the falsified document is introduced in evidenceinaproceedingotherthanjudici sed a falsified document what shouldbetheproperchargeagainsthim? A: Falsific ecause of the legal principle that when a person made use of falsified documen sifier. Note:Onlywhenheisacquittedtherefromwillhebe prosecutedforthecrimeofuseoffa 08) Note: If the crime was use of falsified document, the nature of the doc ng. In this crime, the purpose for knowingly using falsified document is essent ocument is presented in court, even if rejected, the mere offer thereofiscrimi

Q: Is there such crime as attempted/ frustrated falsification? A:None.Falsific tedthemoment thegenuinedocumentisalteredofthemomentthe falsedocumentisexecut at instance will falsification not give rise tocriminalliability? A:Wherethe thisabsent. Intentional falsification requires criminal intent to falsify. Lack ntent is shown by the followingcircumstances: a. Accused did not benefit out of ion,and b. No damage has been caused either to the government or third person. tarethedistinctionsbetweenfalsification ofpublicdocumentandprivatedocument? A FALSIFICATIONOF PUBLICDOCUMENT Merefalsificationis enough FALSIFICATIONOF PRIVAT defromfalsification, prejudicetoathird personorintenttocause it,isessential. 132


BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest Canbecomplexedwith othercrimesiftheactof falsificationwasthe necessarymeansi imes,likeestafa,theft, ormalversation. E.g.Malversationthrough falsificationof t;Estafa throughfalsificationofa publicdocument.

Thereisnocomplex crimeofestafathrough falsificationofaprivate document.Hence, vatedocument,which hefalsified,todefraud another,thereresults onlyonecrime:tha faprivate document. 3.

Note: Falsification has no attempted or frustrated stage. Falsification is consum oment the genuinedocumentisalteredorthemomentthefalse documentisexecuted.

Usingsuchfalsifiedmessage Elements: a. Offender knew that wireless, cable, tele ephone message was falsified by an officer or employee of a private corporation viceofsendingor receiving wireless, cable or telephonemessage b. Heusedsuchfal Theuseresultedintheprejudiceofa third party or at least there was intentto

Note:ActNo.1851,Sec.4,punishesprivateindividuals whoforgeoraltertelegrams. blemustbeengagedinthe service of sending or receiving wireless, cable and tel sage. Forutteringorfalsifying,aprivateindividualmaybea principal by induceme ticipation. Foruseofafalsifiedmessage,theoffendermaybeany person.

Q:Doesthepaymentmadeshowslackofdamage andconsequently,negatescriminalintent? edoesnotnecessarily imply that there can be no falsification as it is merely dered to determine whether or not there is criminal intent to commit falsificat led rule that in the falsificationofpublicorofficialdocuments,itisnot necessa eideaofgainor the intent to injure a third person. This is so because in t c document, the principal thing punished is the violation of the public faith on of the truth as thereinsolemnlyproclaimed.(Lastrillav.Granda,G. R.No160257 TIONOFWIRELESS,CABLE,TELEGRAPH, ANDTELEPHONEMESSAGES,ANDUSEOFSAID FALSIFIEDMES tarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Uttering fictitious, wireless, telegraph or telep Falsifyingwireless,telegraphortelephone message Elements: a. Offenderisanofficer he government or an officer or employee of a private corporation engagedinthe ceiving wireless, cable or telephonemessage b. He falsifies wireless, cable teleg phonemessage

Q: A telegraph operator, who received two telegramsfortransmission,reducedthe he telegraph messages by twelve and eightwords,withouthavingbeenauthorizedtodo e pocketed the differences in thepriceschargedinthesumsofP0.72and0.48, resp idthetelegraph operatorcommit? A: He was guilty of falsification of telegraph mero) FALSEMEDICALCERTIFICATES,FALSE CERTIFICATESOFMERITORSERVICEETC. (Art cts? A: 1. Issuanceoffalsecertificatebyaphysician or surgeon in connection w rofession Note: It is essential that the medical certificateisusedknowingittobefalse.

2. Issuance of a false certificate or merit or service, good conduct or simil yapublicofficer; Note:Intenttogainisimmaterial.Butifthe public officer issued the false certif


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 consideration of a promise, gift or reward, hewillalsobeliablebribery. 3. Falsification by a private person of any certificatefallingwithin1and2.

MANUFACTURINGANDPOSSESSION.OF INSTRUMENTSORIMPLEMENTSFOR FALSIFICATION(Art.176) hableacts? A: 1. MakingorintroducingintothePhilippines any stamps, dies, mar ents or implements for counterfeitingorfalsification 2. Possessing with intent trument or implements for counterfeiting or falsification made in or introduced ippines by anotherperson Q:Isitnecessarythattheimplementsconfiscated form a terfeiting or falsification? A:No,itbeingenoughthattheymaybeemployed by the th other implements to commit the crime of counterfeiting or falsification. Ar nish not only actual physical possession,butalsoconstructivepossessionorthe sub gtoonescontrol. OTHERFALSITIES USURPATIONOFAUTHORITYOROFFICIAL FUNCTIONS tion? A: 1. Usurpation of Authority Knowingly and falsely representing onese , agent or representative of any department or agency of the Philippine Governm vernment. Note: Under the first form, mere false representation is sufficient to bring ab bility.

Q:Whatisacertificate? A: Any writing by which testimony is given that a oarethepeopleliableunderthisArticle? A: 1. Physicianorsurgeon 2. Publicoff al who falsified a certificatefallingintheclassesmentioned innos.1and2. Note: Falsification of certificate of large cattle is not coveredbyArt.174.The attleisa publicdocumentanditsfalsificationiscoveredbyArt. 171orArt.172,depe s apublicofficeroraprivateindividual. ThephraseorsimilarcircumstancesinAr ty,becausethecircumstance contemplatedmustbesimilartomerit,service,or good

USINGFALSECERTIFICATES (Art.175) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? ical certificate, or public officer had issue a false certificate or service, g similar circumstance, or a private person had falsified any of said certificates knew that the certificate was false 3. Heusedthesame Note:WhenanyoffalsecertificatesmentionedinArt. 174 is used in judicial procee oes not apply because it is limited only to those false documentsembracedinAr o: Use of false document in judicial proceeding under Art. 172 is limited to t embracedinArts.171and172. Theremustbepositive,expressandexplicit representation.

2. Usurpation of Official Functions Performing any act pertaining to any per licofficerofthe Philippine Government or of a foreign governmentoranyagencyth e of official position, and without beinglawfullyentitledtodoso. 134


BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest Note:Underthesecondform,withoutfalse pretensethere is no crime of usurpation

Q:Canapublicofficialcommitthiscrime? A: Yes. Violation of Art. 177 is no viduals,publicofficialsmayalsocommit thiscrime. Note:Itdoesnotapplytoanoccupantundercolorof title. If it can be proven tha ty orofficial functionsby accusedwas done in goodfaithorunderclothofauthorit tionwillnotapply. R.A. 75 provides penalty for usurping authority of diplomat her official of foreign government.

Q:Whatisafictitiousname? A: Fictitious name is any other name which a pe thoutauthority oflaw. Q: What are the distinctions between using fictitiousna ename? A: USINGFICTITIOUSNAME Elementofpublicitymustbe present. Thepurposeiseithertocon xecution ofajudgment,ortocause damage. CONCEALINGTRUE NAME Elementofpublicity urposeis merelytoconceal identity.

Note: The crimeunder this article may be complexed with the crime of deliverin ail, but may not be complexed with evasion of service of sentence.

Q: To whom does the authority or function usurpedpertain? A: The function or ust pertain to: 1. Thegovernment 2. Anypersoninauthority 3. Anypublicofficer NDCONCEALINGTRUE NAME(Art.178) Q:Whatarethepuni Heusesthefictitiousnamepublicly c. Purposeofuseistoconcealacrime, to evade ent or to cause damage (to publicinterest) Note: If the purpose is to cause damage to private interest, the crime will b ,subdivision2Par(a).

COMMONWEALTHACTNo.142, asamendedbyR.A.No.6085 (AnActRegulatingtheUseof : GR: No person shall use any name different from the one with which he was e office of the local civil registry, or with which he was registered in the n upon entry; or such substitute name as may have been authorized by a compet onym solely for literary, cinema, television,radio,orotherentertainmentandin at here the use of pseudonym is normallyacceptedpractice. Note: Any person desiring to use an alias shall apply forauthoritythereforein elegally providedtoobtainjudiciallyauthorityforachangeof name. No person sh e such judicial authorityformorethanonealias. Thejudicialauthorityfortheuse e and the aliens immigrant name shall be recorded in the proper local civil nshalluseanyname/sotherthanhisoriginalor real name unless the same is or a rlocalcivilregistry. 2. Elements: a. Offenderconcealshistruenameand otherpersonalcircumstances b. to conceal his identity Concealingtruename


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q: Does the commonlaw wife incur criminal liabilityifheusesthesurnameofhisc monlaw wife does not incur criminal liability under the AntiAlias Law if she nshehasbeenlivingwithforthe past 20 years and has been introducing herself LUSEOFUNIFORMORINSIGNIA (Art.179) Q:Whataretheelementsofthecrime? A: uniform ordress 2. Theinsignia,uniformordresspertainsto anofficenotheldbythe sons of which he is not a member 3. Said insignia, uniform, or dress is used y Q: Is it required that there be exact imitation of uniform to constitute s or insignia? A:No.Colorableresemblancecalculatedtodeceive ordinarypersonsis smeantbyimproperuseofuniformor insignia? A: It means that the offender h signia. Note:Usinguniform,decoration,orregaliaofaforeign StateispunishedbyR.A.75. or emblem of rank of the members of the AFP or Constabulary is punished by R n playhouse or theater or in movingpicturefilms.

what is true, or to deny the same or to alter essentialtruth. Note: Committed by a person who, being under oath and required to testify as ain matter at a hearing before a competent authority, shalldenythetruthorsay

Q: What are the three forms of false testimony? A:Falsetestimonyin: 1 OtherCases Q: Can a false testimony be committed thru negligence? A: No. F es a criminal intent andcannotbecommittedthrunegligence.Itcould notbefrustrat t is the reason for punishing false testimony? A: Falsehood is ever reprehens ticularly odious when committed in a judicial proceeding,asitconstitutesanimpos rt and seriously exposes it to a miscarriage of justice. FALSETESTIMONYAGAI Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Thereisacriminalproceeding 2. Offen der oath againstthedefendanttherein 3. Offender who gives false testimony knows Defendant against whom the false testimony is given is either acquitted or conv ment Note: The offender must however testify on material matters so that even if he ing his testimony on immaterial matters, like his or her age, thisarticleisno nofthisarticlerequirescriminalintent.Hence, itcannotbecommittedthroughnegligen

Wearing the uniform of an imaginary office is not punishable. EO 297 punishes acture, sale, distribution and use of PNP uniforms, insignias and otheraccoutrem

FALSETESTIMONY Q:Whatisafalsetestimony? A:Afalsetestimonyisadeclarati ceedingwhichiscontraryto

Q:Istherefalsetestimonyevenifthetestimonyis notconsideredbythecourt? A: edhereisthe tendencyofthetestimonytoestablishoraggravate 136


BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest theguiltoftheaccusedandnottheresultthatthe testimonymayproduce. Note: Defendant must be sentenced to at least a correctionalpenaltyorafineor enderneednotimputeguiltupontheaccused to be liable. For this crime to come n the criminal case where he testified must havebeenalreadyfinal. Art.180ap ecauseSpecial PenalLawsfollowthenomenclatureoftheRPC. FALSETESTIMONYINCIVILCASES (Art.182)

FALSETESTIMONYFAVORABLETOTHE DEFENDANT(Art.181). Q:Whatisessentialinth Note:Falsetestimonyinfavorofadefendantneednot directlyinfluencethedecisionof enefit the defendant. The intent to favor defendantissufficient.

Q: Is rectification made spontaneously after realizingthemistakeafalsetestimon Note:Falsetestimonybynegativestatementisstillin favorofthedefendant. Astate ishable. Convictionoracquittalisnotnecessary(finaljudgment isnotnecessary),bu ncipalcase shouldbeshown.

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Testimonymustbegiveninacivilcase es presented in saidcase 3. Itmustbefalse 4. It must be given by the defenda e 5. It must be malicious and given with an intent to affect the issued prese ppose the false testimony is given a special proceeding (i.e. probate proceeding crimecommitted? A: Perjury is committed if the false testimony is given in s . Art. 182 is not applicable when the false testimony is given in specialproc Note: The basis of penalty is the amount involved in thecivilcase.

The criminal action in false testimony must be suspended when there is a pendi of the falsity of the subject testimonies of private respondents in the civil Express v. JudgeAbrogar,410SCRA148,2003)

Q:Canadefendantwhofalselytestifiedinhisown behalf in a criminal case be g orabletothedefendant? A:Yes.Itmustnotbeforgottenthattherightofan accused s secured to him,notthathemaybeenabledtointroducefalse testimony into the r o spreadupontherecordthetruthastoanymatter within his knowledge which will ledge.(U.S.v.Soliman) Note: The ruling in Soliman would only apply if the defendantvoluntarilygoesup d falselyimputestosomeotherpersonthecommission ofagraveoffense.Ifhemerelyde meorhisparticipationtherein,heshouldnot beprosecutedforfalsetestimony.(Reyes2

Q:Whatistheeffectonprescriptiveperiodofthe classificationofthefalsetestimon in favor or against the accused in a criminalcase? A:Theclassificationsignif en theprescriptiveperiodbeginstorun: 1. In Favor right after the witness te rescriptive period commences to run because the basis of the penalty on the fa felony charged to the accused regardless of whether theaccused was acquitted or ialhasterminated. 2. Against period will not begin to run as long as the c ith finality because the basis of the penalty on the false witness is the sen ifiedagainst it.Whentheaccusedisacquitted,thereis alsoacorrespondingpenaltyon is false testimony. (Boado, 2008)



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 FALSETESTIMONYINOTHERCASES ANDPERJURYINSOLEMNAFFIRMATION deroath 2. Makingafalseaffidavit. Q:Whataretheelementsofperjury? A: 1. r executed an affidavit upon a material matter 2. Statementoraffidavitwasmadeb fficer, authorized to receive andadministeroath 3. Inthatstatementoraffidavit,t llfulanddeliberateassertionof afalsehood 4. Sworn statement or affidavit contain yisrequiredbylaw Note: The SC held that the statement need not be requiredbutthatitwassuffici aw to be made. (People v. Angangco G.R. No. L 47683,Oct.12,1943)

Q:Whatarethedistinctionsbetweenperjuryand falsetestimony? A: PERJURY Anywillfulandcorrupt assertionoffalsehoodon materialmatterunder oathand alproceedings Thereisperjuryeven duringthepreliminary investigation. FALSETESTIM ourseofa judicialproceeding

Contemplatesactualtrial wherejudgmentof convictionoracquittalis rendered. Perver

Note: Mere assertion of falsehood is not enough to amount to perjury. The asse berate andwillful.

Q:Whatcouldbeusedasadefense? A: Good faith or lack of malice is a defe st be deliberate and willful. Note: Falsely testifying under oath must not be in a judicialproceeding.

OFFERINGFALSETESTIMONYINEVIDENCE (Art.184) Q:Whataretheelementsofthis idence a false witnessorfalsetestimony 2. He knew the witness or testimony was s made in a judicial or official proceeding Note: Art. 184 does not apply when the offender induced a witness to testify plies when the offender knowingly presented a false witness,andthelattertestifi ssubordinationofperjury?

Q:Whatisperjury? A: Perjury is the willful and corrupt assertion of falseh mation administered byauthorityoflawonamaterialmatter. Q:Whatisanoath? A ichaperson signifiesthatheisboundinconsciencetoperform anactfaithfullyandtr erialmatter? A:Materialmattermeansthemainfactwhichisthe subject of the in hich tendstoprovethatfact,oranyfactorcircumstance which tends to corroborate timony relative to the subject of inquiry, or whichlegitimatelyaffectsthecredit stifies. Q:Whatisthetesttodeterminethematerialityof thematter? A:Thetest er to be admitted but whether if admitted it could properlyinfluencetheresult

A: It refers to the act of a person of procuring a falsewitnesstotestifya heactoftheprocurer. Q: Does subordination of perjury exist under the RPC? perjury no longer exists under the RPC but the act is punished as plain 138


BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest perjuryunderArt.183.Itis,however,requiredthat thefalsewitnessmustfirstbeconv he subordinate may be prostituted for his acts. Note:Thefelonyisconsummatedthemomentafalse witnessisofferedinanyjudicialoro ng for a false witness is not punished by law as thatisnotofferingafalsewi ed not be convicted of false testimonyAmereoffertopresenthimissufficient. th rtheofferor giftaccepted. Execution sales should be opened to free and full o secure the maximumbenefitforthedebtors.

MONOPOLIESANDCOMBINATIONSIN RESTRAINTOFTRADE(Art.186) Q:Whatismonopoly? ar advantage vested in one or more persons or companies, consisting in theexcl arryonaparticular articleor controlthesaleorthewholesupplyofa particularcom oninrestraintoftrade? A: Combination in restraint of trade is an agreemento oormore persons,intheformofcontract,trust,pool,holding company or other form e purpose of unduly restricting competition, monopolizing trade and commerce in modity, controlling its production, distribution andprice,orotherwiseinterferingw f tradewithoutauthority. Note: Monopoly refers to end while combination in restraintoftradereferstomean

FRAUDS,MACHINATIONSINPUBLICAUCTIONS (Art.185) Q:Whatarethepunishableac promise as a consideration for refraining from taking partinanypublicauction. reisapublicauction b. Offender solicits any gift or compromisefromanyofthebi romise is the consideration for his refraining from takingpartinthatpublicauct stheintenttocausethe reduction of the price of the thing auctioned Note: The crime is consummated by mere act of soliciting a gift or promise, a that the person making the proposalactuallyrefrainsfromtakingpartin anyauction

2. Attemptingtocausebidderstostayaway from an auction by threats, gifts, pro ce. Elements: a. Therei Offenderhastheintenttocausethe reduction of the price of the thing auctioned Note: Mere attempt to cause prospective bidders to stay away from the auction onstitute an offense. The

Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Combination to prevent free competition i : a. Entering into any contract or agreement or taking part in any conspiracy he formofatrustorotherwise b. Inrestraintoftradeorcommerceor to prevent by petitioninthemarket 2. Monopoly to restrain free competition in themarket. polizinganymerchandiseor object of trade or commerce, or by combining with any rsons to monopolize said merchandiseorobject


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 b. Inordertoalterthepricesthereofby spreading false rumors or making useofan ain free competition in the market Mereconspiracyorcombinationispunished. When the offense is committed by a co ation, the president and directors or managers who knowingly permitted or failed e commissionofsuchoffenseareliable. The penalty is higher if the items invo e,motorfuelorlubricantsandgoodsorprime necessity. c. 3.

Manufacturer, producer, or processor or importer (persons liable) combining, con agreeing with any person (how crime committed) to make transactions prejudicial merceortoincreasethemarketprice ofmerchandise(purposeofthecrime).

IMPOSITIONANDDISPOSITIONOFFALSELY MARKEDARTICLESORMERCHANDISEMADEOF GOLD,S LSOR THEIRALLOYS(Art.187) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offend ofthosearticlesormerchandise 2. Stamps,brands,ormarksofthosearticles of mercha ate the actual finenessorqualityofsaidmetalsoralloys 3. Offender knows that t marks fail to indicate the actual fineness or the quality of the metals or al Note:Manufacturerwhoaltersthequalityorfineness ofanythingpertainingtohisartor tafaunderArt.315subdivision2(b)oftheRPC.

Elements: a. Manufacturer, producer, processor or importer of any merchandise or merce b. Combines, conspires, or agrees with anyperson c. Purpose is to make tr judicialtolawfulcommerceorto increase the market price of any merchandise or anufactured, produced, processed, assembled or imported into the Philippines Q: mpetition? A: Unfair competition consists in employing deception or any other to good faith by which any person shall pass off the goods manufactured by hi , or his business, or services for those one having established goodwill or co alculated to produce the result. (Sec. 168.2, R.A. 8293) Q:Whatisthetestof e test is whether certain goods have been clothed with the appearance which is the ordinary purchaser exercising ordinary care. Q: What are the grounds for rt. 186? A:Thegroundsforliabilityare: 1. Knowingly permitting commission of t ;or 2. Failing to prevent the commissio Note: Any property possessed under any contract or combination contemplated in t hall be forfeitedinfavoroftheGovernment. Q: What are the articles of the merchandise involved? A: 1. Gold 2. Silver als 4. Theiralloys Note:Sellingthemisbrandedarticlesisnotnecessary.

SUBSTITUTINGANDALTERINGTRADEMARKS, TRADENAMESORSERVICEMARKS (Art.188) Q Substitutingthetradenameortrademark ofsomeothermanufacturerordealer,or a col ereof, for the tradename or trademark of the real manufacturer or dealer upon erceandsellingthesame 140


BOOK 2: CRIMES Against Public Interest Sellingorofferingforsalesucharticlesof commerce, knowing that the trade name udulentlyused 3. Using or substituting the service mark of someotherpersonorco ofsuchmark,inthesaleoradvertisingof hisservices 4. Printing, lithographing or name, trademark, or servicemark of one person, or a colorable imitation thereof, person to fraudulently use the same knowing the fraudulent purpose for which it OMPETITION,FRAUDULENT REGISTRATIONOFTRADENAME,TRADEMARK,OR SERVICEMARK,FRAUDULENT ONOF ORIGIN,ANDFALSEDESCRIPTION (Art.189) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? the general appearance of the goods of another manufacturer or dealer. (Unfair . Affixingtohisgoodorusinginconnection with his services a false designation se description or representation and selling such goods or services(Fraudulentde igin. (Falsedescription) Note: Arts. 188 and 189 have been repealed by R.A. 8293.TheIntellectualPropert es. 2.

evaluation and post evaluation of bids, and awarding of contracts beyond the pr ds of Bids or other documents. Unduly influencing or exerting undue pressure BAC or anyofficeroremployeeoftheprocuring entitytotakeaparticularbidder. d which exceed procedural purchase limits and competitivebidding. e. Whenthehead sthe exerciseofhispowertorejectanyandall bids as mentioned under Section 41 preference to any bidder who is closely related to him in accordancewithSectio Note: When any of the foregoing acts is done in collusion with private individ individualsshalllikewisebeliablefortheoffense.

2. Private individuals who commit any of the following acts, including any publ conspireswiththem: a. When two or more bidders agree and submit different Bids na fide, when they knew that one or more of them was so much higher than th e honestly acceptedandthatthecontractwillsurely be awarded to the prearranged bidder maliciously submits different Bids through two or more persons, corporatio rships or anyotherbusinessentityinwhichhehas interest of create the appearanc oesnotinfactexistso astobeadjudgedasthewinningbidder. c. Whentwoormore llupononetorefrain from bidding for Procurement contracts, or which call for lready submitted, or which are otherwise intended to secure as undue advantaget hen a bidder, by himself or in connivancewithothers,employschemes whichtendto alry of the parties or operates to stifle or

B.TheNewPublicBiddingLaw(R.A.9184) Q:WhataretheprohibitedactsunderR.A.9 ommit any of the following acts: Open any sealed Bid including but not limited ve been submittedthroughtheelectronicsystem and any and all documents required vulging their contents, priortotheappointedtimeforthepublic openingofBidsoro ying, without justifiable cause, the screening for eligibility, opening of bids,


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 suppresscompetitionandthusproducea resultdisadvantageoustothepublic. 3. Priva o commit any of the following acts, and any public officer conspiring withthem bility requirements of whatever kind and nature that contain false information o ocuments calculated to influence the outcome of theeligibilityscreeningprocessor nformation in the eligibility requirements when the information will lead to a ineligibility from participatinginpublicbidding. b. Submit Bidding Documents of d and nature than contain false information or falsified documents or conceal s n in the Bidding Documents, in order to influence the outcomeofthepublicbiddi in a public bidding using the nameofanotherorallowanothertouse one s name f patinginapublicbidding. d. Withdraw a Bid, after it shall have qualified as d Bid/Highest Rated Bid, or to accept and award, without just cause or for th rocuringEntityto award the contract to another bidder. This shall include the equirements such as, but not limited to, performance security, preparatory to th hecontract. 4. When the bidder is a juridical entity, criminal liability and t lties shall be imposedonitsdirectors,officersoremployeeswho actuallycommitany Sec.65) 142


BOOK 2: CRIMES Relative to Opium and Other Prohibited Drugs V.CRIMESRELATIVETOOPIUMANDOTHER PROHIBITEDDRUGS A. TheComprehensiveDangerous 65) Q:Whatarethepunishableactsunderthisact? A: 1. Importation of Dangerous Precursors and Essential Chemicals (Sec.4) Note:Anyperson,who,unlessauthorizedbylaw,shall import or bring into the Phili s drug, regardless of the quantity and purity involved, including any and all oppy or any partthereoforsubstancesderivedtherefromevenfor floral,decorativean . Note: Ifsuchdenordiveisownedbya3rdperson,the followingisrequired: 1. Tha all allege that such place is intentionally used in the furtheranceofthecrime tion shall prove such intent on the part of the owner touse the property for nershallbeincludedasanaccused inthecriminalcomplaint

Such den, dive or resort shall be confiscated and escheatedinfavorofthegovern : a. Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled PrecursorsandEssentialChemicals b. Equipmen ument, Apparatus, and

2. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and Transpor n of DangerousDrugsand/orControlledPrecursorsand EssentialChemicals.(Sec.5) Note: Selling is any act of giving away any dangerous drug and/or controlled p ntial chemical whether for money or any other consideration.(Sec.5)

OtherParaphernaliaforDangerousDrugs and/or Controlled Precursors and EssentialChe .8) Q:Whatdoyoumeanbymanufacturing? A:Itisthe: 1. The production, prepar essing of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical, ctlyorindirectlyorbyextractionfrom substances of natural origin, or independent emical synthesis or by a combination of extractionandchemicalsynthesis, 2. And y packaging or repackagingofsuchsubstances,designor configuration of its form, labelingofitscontainer; 3. Except preparation, compounding, packaging or labeling r other substances by a duly authorized practitioner as an incident to his/her or dispensation of such drugorsubstanceinthecourseofhis/her professional pract earch, teaching and chemical analysis of dangerous drugs or such substances that dforsaleorforanyother purpose.(Sec.8) 4. Possessionof: a. Dangerousdrugs(Sec nstrument, Apparatus and Other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs (Sec.12) c. Dang s during Parties, Social GatheringsorMeetings(Sec.13)

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Theidentityofthebuyerandtheselle tion 3. The delivery of the thing sold and the paymenttherefor. Note: All these require evidence that the sale transaction transpired, coupled w ntation in court of thecorpus delicti, i.e.,the body or substance of the crim , G.R.185715,19January2011)

3.MaintenanceofaDen,DiveorResort(Sec.6) Q:Whoareliable? A: 1. Owner of den ngerous drug is used or sold in any form Employee of den dive or resort ceassuch Visitorofden,diveorresortwhoisaware of the nature of the place hesame 2. 3.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 d. Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs du ties, Social Gatherings or Meetings(Sec.14) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime sessionofanitem oranobjectidentifiedtobeaprohibited orregulateddrug Suchpos w The accused was freely and consciously awareofbeinginpossessionofthedrug. actitioner, manufacturer, wholesaler, importer,distributor,dealerorretailerwhoviol ails to comply with the maintenance and keeping of the original records of tra angerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical in accordance wi 40ofthisAct. 8. Unnecessary Prescription of Dangerous Drugs (Sec.18) Q:Whoar itioner, who shall prescribe any dangerous drug to any person whose physical or onditiondoesnotrequiretheuseor inthedosageprescribedtherein,asdeterminedby t on with recognized competent experts who are authorized representatives of profes anizations of practitioners,particularlythosewhoareinvolvedin thecareofpersons UnlawfulPrescriptionofDangerousDrugs(Sec. 19) Q:Whoareliable? A:Anyperson, aw,shall make or issue a prescription or any other writing purporting to be a y dangerous drug. Q:Whatistheeffectofattemptorconspiracyon thecriminalliabil ll be penalized by the same penaltyprescribedforthecommissionofthesame aspro ation of any dangerous drug and/orcontrolledprecursorandessential chemical Sale, inistration, dispensation, delivery, distribution and transportation of any dangero g and/orcontrolledprecursorandessential chemical Maintenance of a den, dive or ngerousdrugisusedinany form Manufacture of any dangerous drug and/orcontrolled ial chemical Cultivation or culture of plants which are sourcesofdangerousdrugs 2. 3. 5. Useofdangerousdrugs(Sec.15)

Note: Use is any act of injecting, intravenously or intramuscularly, of consumin hewing, smoking, sniffing, eating, swallowing, drinking or otherwiseintroducingint ologicalsystemof thebody,andofthedangerousdrugs.

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. 2. 3. NOTE:Wherethepersontestedisalsofoundtohave inhispossessionanyotherdangerous uted in accordance with Sec. 11, for illegal possessionofdangerousdrugs. Notw visions of any law to the contrary, a positive finding for the use of dangero yingaggravatingcircumstancein the commission of a crime by an offender, and th enaltyprovidedforintheRPCshall beapplicable.

Theaccusedwasapprehendedfortheuse ofdangerousdrugs Hewasfoundtobepositivefo therdangerousdrugwasfoundinhis possession.

6. Cultivation or culture of plants classified as DangerousDrugsoraresourcest atdoyoumeanbycultivationinR.A.9165? A: Cultivation is any act of knowingly ing, or permitting the planting, growingorraisingofanyplantwhichisthesource intenance and Keeping of Original Records of Transactions on Dangerous Drugs and ed Precursors and Essential Chemicals (Sec.17) 2. 3. 4. 5. 144



BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Morals VI.CRIMESAGAINSTPUBLICMORALS(200202) GAMBLINGANDBETTING Note:Arts.195196havebeenrepealedandmodified byP.D.Nos.449,483and1602,asame sNo.816.

Q: What is the difference between grave scandal andalarmsandscandal? A: GRAVESCANDAL Thescandalinvolved referstomoralscandal offensivetodecency, althoug urbpublicpeace.But suchconductoractmust beopentothepublic view. ALARMANDSC committedagainstthe willofthewoman.Force orintimidationis employed.

OFFENSESAGAINSTDECENCYANDGOOD CUSTOMS Note: Decency means propriety of conduct, proper observance of the requirements ood taste,etc. Customs are established usages, social conventions carried on b enforced by social disapprovalofanyviolationthereof.

GRAVESCANDAL ART.200 Q:Whataretheelementsofgravescandal? A: 1. Offender ct or acts be highly scandalous as offending against decency or good customs Note: The offense must be directed on the sense of decency or good customs tteringhumanfeceson buildings.

Q: What is the difference between grave scandal andactsoflasciviousness? A: GRAVESCANDAL Theperformanceof scandalousactsis mutuallyconsented. ACTSOF LASCIVI andalousactsare committedagainstthe willofwoman.Forceor intimidationisemployed

IMMORALDOCTRINES,OBSCENEPUBLICATIONS ANDEXHIBITIONS,ANDINDECENTSHOWS (Art.2 ble? A: 1. Those who shall publicly expound or proclaim doctrines openly cont ls 2. The authors of obscene literature, published with their knowledge in any rs publishing such literature; and the owners/operators of theestablishmentsellin Those who, in theaters, fairs, cinematographs or any other place, exhibitinciden s,scenes, acts, or shows, it being understood that the obscene literature or i l plays, scenes, acts, or show, whether live or in film which are prescribed ll include thosewhich: a. Glorifycriminalsorcondonecrimes . Offendanyrace,orreligion d. Tend to abet traffic in and use of prohibiteddr 3. 4.

Highly scandalous conduct is not expressly falling within any article of this omplained of be committed in a public place or within the public knowledgeorv

Note: If the act or acts of the offender are punished under another article o not applicable. Ifinpublicplace,thereiscriminalliabilityirrespective ofwhethe othepublicview. Publicviewisnotrequired.Itissufficientifcommitted inpublicp public place, the act is deemed committedinpublicviewbecauseofthepossibilityo rdpersons. If in private place, public view or public knowledge is required.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 e. Are contrary to law, public order, morals, good customs, established policies, rders, decrees andedicts A:Thepurposeofthelawisnotsimplytopunisha personbe ;itis topreventfurthercriminality. Note: Being jobless does not make one a vagrant. What the law penalizes is th l to work and the loitering in or about public places withoutgivingagoodacco .

Note:Publicityisanessentialelement. Merenudityinpaintingsandpictureisnotobs ight degree of obscenity having no artistic value and being intended for commer llwithinthisarticle. 4.

Thosewhoshallsell,giveaway,orexhibit, film, prints, engravings, sculptures, o h are offensive to morals. Publicityisessential.

Q:Whatisthetestofobscenity? A:Whetherornotthematerialchargedasobscene h ttheminds of those open to the influence thereof, or into whosehandssuchmat ule) Note: The test is objective. It is more on the effect upontheviewerandnotal mer.

Q:Whoarethepersonsliable? A: 1. Anypersonhavingnoapparentmeansof subsiste ability to work and who neglects to apply himselforherselftosomecalling 2. ring about public or semipublic buildings or places or trampingorwanderingabou treets without visible means of support Note: Article 202 (2) does not violate the equal protectionclause;neitherdoesi nst the poor and the unemployed. Offenders of public order laws are punished n s, as for being poor or unemployed, but for conducting themselves under such c o endanger the public peace or cause alarm and apprehension in the community. ployed is not a licenseorajustificationtoactindecentlyortoengage inimmoralc t be so lightly treated as to be considered constitutionally offensive. It is me which punishes persons for conducting themselves,atacertainplaceandtimewhic inds unusual, under such conditions that are repugnant and outrageous to the co and norms of decency and morality in a just, civilized and ordered society, as ustifiable concern for the safety and wellbeing of members of the community. ( R 169364, September18,2009)

Q: When is the author and the publisher of the obsceneliteratureliableunder cene literature is not punished, but the author is liable if it is published neverycase,theeditorpublishingitis liable.(Reyes,2008) Q:Iftheviewingofpo rivately,cantherebeviolationofArt.201? A: No. What is protected is the mor al.Thelawisnotconcernedwiththe moralofoneperson. VAGRANTSANDPROSTITUTES nts are those who loiter around public or privateplaceswithoutanyvisiblemeans physically able to work and without anylawfulpurpose. Q:Whatistherationaleo

3. Any middle or dissolute person who lodges in houses of illfame; ruffians ituallyassociate withprostitutes Anypersonwhonotbeingincludedinthe provisions of this Code, shall be found loitering in any inhabited oruninhabitedplacebelo houtanylawfulorjustifiablepurpose Prostitutes. 4. 5. 146


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Public Morals Q: If a person is found wandering in an estate belonging to another, whether ithout any lawful purpose, what other crimes maybecommitted? A: When a perso tering inside an estate belonging to another, the following crimesmaybecommitte to property If the estate is fencedthereisaclearprohibitionagainst entering red without the consent of the owner or overseerthereof. 2. Attempted theft ed and the offender entered the same to hunt therein or fish from any waters ny farm products thereinwithouttheconsentoftheowner oroverseerthereof; 3. Va s not fenced or there is no clear prohibition against entering. Q:Whoarepro omen who, for money or profit, habituallyindulgeinsexualintercourseorlascivious exual intercourse a necessary element to constituteprostitution? A: No, the me lascivious conducts habituallybecauseofmoneyorgainwouldamount to prostitution. t a defense. Habituality is the controlling factor; it has to be morethanonce itutionbyconspiracy? A: None. One who conspires with a woman in the prostitu imps, taxi drivers or solicitorsofclientsareguiltyofthecrimeunderArt. 341for Note: Under this article, a prostitute is limited to a woman. A city or munic ver may cover a male prostitute usually called call boy. He cannot,however,b an beprosecutedundertheordinanceconcerned.

A: VAGRANCY Canbecommittedby eitheramanorwoman. Amanifheengagesin sexformoney PROSTITUTION Canonlybecommitted byawoman. Awomanwhoforprofit ormoneyhabituall sciviousconductisa prostitute. Note:Art.202isnotapplicabletominors. Q: What are the distinctions between vagrancy andprostitution?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 VII.CRIMESCOMMITTEDBYPUBLICOFFICERS PRELIMINARYPROVISIONS PUBLICOFFICERS e considered a public officer? A:Tobeapublicofficer,onemust: 1. Take part lic functions in the government, or in performing in said government or in any blic duties as an employee, agent or subordinate official, oranyrankorclass;a rity to take part in the performance of public functions or to performpublicd rovisionofthelaw b. Popularelection c. Appointment by competent authority Note: Under R.A. 3019, the term public officer is broader and more comprehens des all persons whether an official or an employee, temporary or not, classifie ctual or otherwise. Any person who receives compensation for services rendered

not take her position outside the meaning of a public office.(Javier v. Sandiga 26 27,September11,2009) MALFEASANCEANDMISFEASANCEINOFFICE Q: What are the h/duty? A: 1. Misfeasance when a public officer performsofficialactsinthem thwhatthelawprescribes. 2. Nonfeasance when a public officer willfullyrefra n officialdutywhichhisofficerequireshim toperform. 3. Malfeasance when a in his public office an act prohibitedbylaw. Q:Whatarecrimesofmisfeasance? ngunjustjudgment 2. Renderingjudgmentthroughnegligence 3. Renderingunjustinterlocu r 4. Malicious delay in the administration of justice Q:Whatisacrimeofnonfe fdutyintheprosecutionofoffenses Q:Whatarecrimesofmalfeasance? A: 1. Direc ery KNOWINGLYRENDERINGUNJUSTJUDGMENT (Art.204) Q:Whataretheelementsoft He renders a judgment in a case submittedtohimfordecision 3. Thatthejudgment geknowsthathisjudgmentis unjust Q:Whatisjudgment?

Note:Publicofficersincludeeverypublicservantfrom the lowest to the highest ran ey exercisepublicfunctions.

Q:Javierwaschargedwithmalversationofpublic funds.Shewastheprivatesectorrepres nal Book Development Board (NBDB), whichwascreatedbyRepublicAct(R.A.)No.8047, okPublishingIndustry Development Act. Is Javier, a private sector representati cofficer? A: Yes. Notwithstanding that Javier came from the privatesectortosit law invested her with some portion of the sovereignfunctionsofthegovernment,so overnmentisachieved.Inthiscase, the government aimed to enhance the book publi sasignificantroleinthe nationaldevelopment.Hence,thefactthatshewas appointed tfromthe otherbranchesoragenciesofthegovernmentdoes 148


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers A: A judgment is the final consideration and determination of a court of compe n upon the matters submitted to it, in action or proceeding. It must be wri nguage, personally and directly prepared by the judge and signed by him and sh ly and distinctlyastatementofthefactsandthelawupon whichitisbased. Q:Wha t judgment is one which is contrary to laworisnotsupportedbytheevidenceorb stjudgment? A: 1. Error 2. Illwillorrevenge 3. Bribery Note: There must be evidence that the decision rendered is unjust. It is not me Courtmusthavedeclaredthejudgmentasunjustina certiorari,prohibition,oradmin g. Abuseofdiscretionormereerrorofjudgmentcannot likewise serve as basis for dgment in the absence of proof of an allegation of badfaith. 2. 3. 4.

He renders a judgment in a case submittedtohimfordecision Judgmentismanifestl s inexcusable negligence or ignorance

Q: What is meant by manifestly unjust judgment? A: A manifestly unjust j annot be explained with reasonable interpretation or is a clear, incontrovertible ous violation of a legal precept. It must be patently contrary to law if rend eorinexcusablenegligence. Note: Before a civil or criminal action against a judge for violations of Arti n be entertained, there must be a final and authoritative judicial declaration or order in question is indeed unjust. The pronouncement may result from either or certiorari or prohibitioninahighercourtimpugningthevalidityof ajudgment,or oceedinginthe Supreme Court against the judge precisely for promulgatinganunjus .(DeVerav. Pelayo,G.R.No.137354,July6,2000)

UNJUSTINTERLOCUTORYORDER (Art.206) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: rmsanyofthefollowingacts: a. Knowingly renders an unjust interlocutoryorderord rs a manifestly unjust interlocutory order or decree through inexcusable negligen ance. Q:Whatisaninterlocutoryorder? A:Itisoneissuedbythecourtdecidinga t isnotafinaldetermination oftheissuesoftheactionorproceeding. E.g.JudgesorderorresolutiondenyingtheDemurrer toEvidencesubmittedbytheaccused

Q: Can this crime be committed by the member/justicesoftheappellatecourts? ybyajudgeofatrial courtandneverofacollegiatebody. Ratio:IncollegiatecourtsliketheCAandSC,notonly one magistrate renders or iss erlocutory order. Conclusions and resolutions thereof are handed down only after ons among the members, so that it cannot be said that thereismaliceorinexcus nce in the rendering of a judgment or order that is supposedlyunjust. Note: ected to liability civil, criminal or administrative for any of their offi oneous,aslongastheyacted ingoodfaith.


Q: What is the test in determining whether the orderisconsideredaninterlocut nswersthequestionDoesitleave somethingtobedoneinthetrialcourtwithrespect ve,then itisinterlocutory;ifitdoesnot,itisfinal.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 MALICIOUSDELAYINTHEADMINISTRATIONOF JUSTICE(Art.207) Q:Whataretheelements erisajudge 2. Thereisaproceedinginhiscourt 3. Hedelaystheadministrationofju s,thatis,withdeliberate intenttoinflictdamageoneitherpartyin thecase Note:Meredelaywithoutmaliceisnotpunishable. If the delay is not malicious, gross negligence, the crime committed is that under R.A.3019,Sec.3(e).

cause prosecution and punishment of offenders) Note: There must be a duty on thepart ofthepublic officertoprosecuteormove der.However,afiscalisundernocompulsionto file information based upon a compla dthatthe evidencebeforehimisinsufficient towarrantfilinganactionincourt.

Q:Whatdoesmaliciouslyconnote? A: Maliciously connotes that the act complai erateevilintentand doesnotcoveramerevoluntaryact. Note:Aderelictionofdutycausedbyapoorjudgment orhonestmistakeisnotpunishable. the lawviolator must be proved first. If the guilt of the lawviolator is not dwithderelictionofdutyis notliable.

PROSECUTIONOFOFFENSE;NEGLIGENCEAND TOLERANCE(Art.208) Q:Whatarethepunish y refraining from instituting prosecutionagainstviolatorsofthelaw. 2. Maliciously g the commission of offenses. Q:Whataretheelementsofderelictionofdutyin th : 1. Offender is a public officer or officer of the law who has a duty to c oprosecuteoffenses 2. There is dereliction of the duties of his office,thati onof the crime, he does not cause the prosecution of the criminal, or knowing mitted,he toleratesitscommission 3. Offender acts with malice and deliberate i olatorofthelaw Q:WhocanbeoffendersinArt.208? A: 1. Apublicofficer(offic whose duty is to institute criminal proceedings upon being informed) 2. An off by reason of position held by them are dutybound to

Q:Whocanbeliableforderelictionofdutyinthe prosecutionofoffenses? A: This by a public officerwhoseofficialdutyistoprosecuteoffenders, thatis,stateprose ficerswho are not duty bound to perform these obligations cannotcommitthiscrim :Ifapoliceofficertoleratesthecommissionofa crimeorotherwiserefrainsfromappre eliableforderelictionofduty? A:No.Suchpoliceofficercannotbeprosecutedfor d can be prosecuted as follows: 1. An accessory to the crime committed by the pr ance with Article 19,paragraph3 2. He may become a fence if the crime commi t, in which caseheviolatestheAntiFencingLaw 3. He may be held liable for rruptPracticesAct Q: Can a Barangay Chairman be held liable for derelictiono e a Barangay Chairman is expressly authorized by law to prosecute violators of urisdiction.Ifhedoesnotdoso,hecan beprosecutedforderelictionofduty. 150


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers Q:Whatisprevaricacion? A: There is prevaricacion when a public officer regard estheoathofhisoffice bynotcarryingoutthedutiesofhisofficeforwhich hewass onof duty. Q:Whatiscoveredinprevaricacion? A: Prevaricacion covers any der bythepublicofficerinvolvedviolateshisoath of office. The thrust of prevaricaci heoathofofficebythepublicofficerwhodoes an act in relation to his official o dereliction of duty in the prosecution of offenders. Q: What is the differ icacion andderelictionofduty? A: PREVARICACION Appliestopublicofficers ingeneralwhoisremiss orwhoismaliciously cising thedutiesofhisoffice. DERELICTIONOFDUTY Derelictionofdutyrefers onlyto rs.

A: Under the rules on evidence, communications made with prospective clients t view to engaging his professional services are already privileged even though cl lationshipdid noteventuallymaterializebecause theclientcannotaffordthefeebeing Note:Thatprivilegecommunicationwithaprospective clientimpliesthatthesameisconf re, if the lawyer would reveal the same or otherwise accept a case from the d alreadybeviolatingArticle209. Itisnotonlythelawyerwhoisprotectedbythem cestafflikethesecretary.

BETRAYALOFPUBLICTRUSTBYANATTORNEYOR SOLICITORREVELATIONOFSECRETS (Art.20 : 1. Causing damage to his client, either by anymaliciousbreachofprofessionald egligenceorignorance. Note:Damageisnotnecessary. 2. 3.

Revealing any of the secrets of his client learned by him in his professiona king the defense of the opposing party in the same case, without the consent after having undertakenthedefenseofsaidfirstclient or after having received co mationfromsaidclient. Note:iftheclientconsentstotheattorneys takingthedefenseoftheotherparty,ther Q:Whatistherulewithregardtocommunications madewithprospectiveclients?

Q: Are all information confided to counsel classifiedasprivileged? A: No. A made between confidentialcommunicationsrelatingtopastcrimes already committed, an imes intended to becommitted,bytheclient.Itisadmittedthatthe announced intent mit a crime is not included within the confidences which his attorneyisboundt ) Q:WhoisaProcuradorJudicial? A: A person who had some practical knowledg t not a lawyer, and was permitted to represent a partyin a case before an i Y (Art.210) Q:Whatisbribery? A: Bribery is the crime of the public o rorpromisebyreason orinconnectionwiththeperformanceofhisofficial duties.Iti eofthe giver is corruption of public officers. Bribery requires the concurrence e corruptor and the public officer otherwise the crimeisnotconsummated(Boado,2 dsofbribery? A: 1. Agreeingtoperformorperforminganact pertainingtotheduties utesacrimeIftheactoromission amounts to a crime, it is not necessary that the consideration or the doing of the act.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Mere promise is sufficient. The moment there is a meeting of the minds, even heconsideration, even without the public officer performingtheactamountingtoac lready committed on the part ofthepublicofficer.Corruptionisalready committed upposed giver. Illustration: This is the first kind of direct bribery. If a court stenographer ion of a gift or present or even a promise, agrees with the accused to alter gthetrialtomakeitappear that the witness testified favorably to the accused, nywasadversetohim,said stenographerisguiltyofbribery.Heagreedtoperform falsi ndtheaccusedshall likewise be held liable for Falsification of Public Documents

A: 1. Offender is a public officer within the scopeofArticle203 Offender acc ise or receives a gift or present by himself or throughanother Suchofferor rpresentreceivedbythepublicofficer a. With a view of committing some crime he execution of an act which does not constitute a crime,buttheactmustbeunj ing something, whichishisofficialdutytodo; That act which the offender agre e executes be connected with the performance of his officialduties. 2. 3. 4.

2. Accepting a gift in consideration of the execution of an act which does n e (but which must be unjust) If the act or omission does not amount to a stbedeliveredbythecorruptorbefore a public officer can be prosecuted for brib tenoughto constitutethecrimebecausetheacttobe done in the first place is l ance of the official duties of thepublicofficial.

Illustration: Thus, the Secretary of the Municipal Mayor who was underinstructio plicationofawards inthemunicipalityspublicmarketforonlytenpersons therebeing eased,andin consideration of some money received from the eleventh applicant, m that his applicationwasthetenthisguiltyofthisformofDirect Bribery.Theactof er is not a crime but it is unjust, it being unfair to the tenthapplicant.

3. Illustration: A police traffic officer who, in consideration of gift receivedor yataxidriverwhobeat the red light, refrains from issuing a TVR and from con sewhenitishisdutyto doso,commitsthisthirdformofDirectBribery. Abstaining from the performance of officialduties. Q:Whataretheelementsofdirectbribery?

Q:Isitrequiredthattheactwascommitted? A:No.ThelastphraseofArt.210whic ommitted does not presumethattheactwascommitted. Q: A gave X, a public of try in the registry of the Land Registration Authority.Whatcrimeswerecommitted? eofficer: a. DirectBribery b. Falsificationofpublicdocument. 2. Onthepartofthe ruptionofpublicofficer b. Falsificationofpublic document,asprincipalby inducemen ) Q:Istherefrustratedbribery(directorindirect)? A: None. Bribery cannot be rated stage, for the reason that if the corruptionoftheofficialisaccomplished, ted. Q: Suppose the public official accepted the considerationandturneditover ence of corruption, what is the crime committed? A:Theoffenseisattemptedcorr trated. The official did not agree to be corrupted. 152


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers Q: Suppose the public official did not report the same to his superior and ac he allowedhimselftobecorrupted,whatisthecrime committed? A: The corruptor b ummated corruption of public official. The public officer also becomesequallylia atedbribery. Q:Whatarethedistinctionsbetweenbriberyand robbery? A: BRIBERY Thepersonarrestedhas committedthecrimeand heisthreatenedtogive money hetransactionis generallymutualand voluntary. ROBBERY Thepersonarrestedhas notc Thetransactionisneither mutualnorvoluntarybut consummatedbytheuse offorceori

total amount of P550.00, aside from P2000.00 in consideration of prompt enforcem t from Estrada and her lawyer. The writ was successfully enforced. What crime, eriffcommit? A:ThesheriffcommittedthecrimeofDirectBribery under the second 10, RPC, since the P2000.00 was received by him in consideration of the prom rit of execution which is an official duty of the sherifftodo. INDIRECTBR tbribery? A: It is the crime of any public officer who shall acceptgiftsof e. Note:Ifthepublicofficerdoesnotacceptthegift,this crime is not committed but CorruptionofPublicOfficialsunderArticle212.

Q: Is temporary performance of public function sufficienttoconstituteapersona s.Aprivatepersonmaycommitthiscrimeonly in the case in which custody of pris : Does the crime of direct bribery involve moral turpitude? A: Yes, direct b olving moral turpitude. Moral turpitude can be inferred from the third elemen e offender agrees to accept a promise or gift and deliberately commits anunjus rforminganofficial duty in exchange for some favors, denotes a malicious intent e offender to renegeonthedutieswhichheoweshisfellowmen and society in genera he offendertakesadvantageofhisofficeandposition is a betrayal of the trust r lic. It is a conduct clearly contrary to the accepted rules of right and duty nd good morals. (Magno v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147904,Oct.4,2002) Q:DeputySher heRTC Clerk of Court a Writ of Execution in the case of Ejectment filed by is Ablan. The judgment being in favor of Estrada, Rivas went to her lawyers en the necessary amounts constituting the sheriffs fees and expenses for executi

Q:Whataretheelementsofindirectbribery? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficer 2. He tsareofferedtohimbyreasonof hisoffice Note: Mere acceptance of the gift because of the offenderspositionconstitutesb e uses the words gift and not promise, andaccept,notjustreceive. Theg omthe publicofficer.

Q:Shouldtherebeaclearintentiononthepartof thepublicofficertotakethegiftof nsider the property as his own for that moment. Mere physical receipt unaccompa n,circumstanceor act to show such acceptance is not sufficient to convicttheo he distinctions between direct briberyandindirectbribery? A: DIRECTBRIBERY INDIRECTBRIBERY Publicofficerreceivesgift Thereisnoagreement There etweenthepublic betweenthepublic officerandthecorruptor. officerandthecorrupto


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Thepublicofficeriscalled upontoperformor refrainfromperforming anofficialact. necessarilycalleduponto performanyofficialact.It isenoughthatheaccepts thegi fhisoffice.

FRAUDANDILLEGALEXACTIONSAND TRANSACTIONS FRAUDSAGAINSTTHEPUBLICTREASURY.AND ) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Entering into an agreement with any i lator or making use of any other scheme, to default the Government, in dealing with regard to furnishing supplies, the makingofcontracts,ortheadjustmentor se nts relating to public propertyfunds. 2. Demanding, directly or indirectly, the s different or larger than thoseauthorizedbylaw,inthecollection oftaxes,licen ts. Note: By mere demanding an amount different, whether bigger or smaller, than wh d, even if the debtor refuses,illegalexactioniscommitted.

Note: There is no attempted or frustrated indirect bribery because it is comm g gifts to thepublicofficerbyreasonofhisoffice.

QUALIFIEDBRIBERY (Art.211A) Q:Whataretheelementsofqualifiedbribery? stedwith lawenforcement 2. He refrains from arresting or prosecuting an offend tted a crime punishable by reclusion perpetua and/or death 3. He refrains from osecuting the offender in consideration of any promise,giftorpresent Note: The crime involved in qualified bribery is a heinous crime. The public o ceive a gift or present because a mere offer or promise is sufficient.

CORRUPTIONOFPUBLICOFFICIALS (Art.212) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? seorgives giftsorpresentstoapublicofficer 2. The offers or promises are ma s are given to a public officer under circumstances that will make the public direct briberyorindirectbribery Note: Bribery is the act of the receiver; corruption of Publicofficialistheac

Q:Whenthepublicofficerrefusestobecorrupted, whatcrimeiscommitted? A:Attem icialonly.

Failing voluntarily to issue a receipt as provided by law, for any sum of mon fficially, in the collection of taxes, licenses, fees and otherimposts. 4. Col iving directly or indirectly, by way of payment or otherwise, things or objects erent from that provided by law, in the collection of taxes, licenses, fees an What are the elements of fraud against public treasury? A: 1. Offenderisapu ld have taken advantage of his office, that is, he intervened in the transacti city 3. He entered into an agreement with any interested party or speculator rschemewithregardto: a. Furnishingsupplies b. Themakingofcontractsor c. The ad ement of accounts relating to public property orfunds 3. 154


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers 4. Accused had intent to defraud the Government. c. Third form: Collecting or re ctly or indirectly, by way of payment or otherwise, things or objects of a na thatprovidedbylaw GR: Under the rules and regulations of the government, ging to the taxpayer should not be accepted to settle the obligation ofataxpa k is a managers checkoracertifiedcheck.

Q: Should there be a fixed allocation on the matter? A:No.Theallocationor dulentquotationsmadebythepublicofficer involved. Note: The fraud is in the implementation of procurement.

Q: What is the essence of the crime of fraud againstpublictreasury? A: Th making the government pay for something not received or makingitpaymorethanwh mentsofillegalexactions? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficerentrustedwith the col censes, fees and otherimposts. 2. Heisguiltyofanyofthefollowingactsor omis tions) a. First form: Demanding, directly or indirectly, the payment of sums d ger that those authorized by law Mere demand will consummate the crime, even l refuse to come across with the amount being demanded. Note: Criminal intent must be shown that public officer demanded the payment of owing themtobeexcessive. If good faith is present, there is no criminalliab

Q: What is the essence of the crime of illegal exaction? A:Theessenceoft n ofanyoftheamountsbuttheimpropermakingof the collection which would prejudi llected amounts by the government. Q:Whomaybeliableforillegalexaction? A: ommitteesbyapublic officer charged with the duty to collect taxes, license fee nd other dues payable tothegovernment. Note: Damage to the government is not required. Public officers with such funct he serviceoftheBIRorBureauofCustomsarenottobe prosecuted under the Revised CortheRevisedAdministrativeCode. Illustration: If sums are received without d , a felonyunderthisarticleisnotcommitted.However,if the sum is given as a on, the crimeisindirectbribery. Wherethereisdeceitindemandingagreaterfeeth ecrimecommittedisestafa andnotillegalexaction. Thisfelonymaybecomplexedwith collector who collected a sum larger than that authorized by law spent all of o crimes: (1) illegal exaction, for demanding a greater amount; and (2) malvers ppropriating theamountcollected.

b. Second form: Failing voluntarily to issueareceiptasprovidedbylaw,for any d by him officially The act of receiving payment due to the government with verise to illegal exaction even though a provisional receipt has been issued. sareceiptin the form prescribed by law, which meansofficialreceipt. OTHERFRAUDS (Art.214) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. 2. 3. Offenderisapublicofficer Hetakesadvantageofhisofficialposition He rauds or deceits enumeratedinArticles315318 3. Guardians and executors with r erty belonging to their wards or theestate.

Note:Themereviolationoftheprohibitionispunished althoughnofraudoccurstherefrom cial to be subject of this crime, it is necessary that by reason of his offi nsaidcontractsortransactions. In Article 216, the offender includes not only o elective public officials. In fact, under the second paragraph of the said a ateindividualscanbeheldliable. Act is punished because of the possibility th tted or that the officer may place his own interest above that oftheGovernmen epresents. Constitutionalprohibitionexists: Congresscannotpersonallyappearascoun be interested financially in any franchise or special privilege granted by gover t intervene in anymatterbeforeofficeofGovernment; Executivecannotholdanyothe onal Commission cannot hold any other office, or engage in practice of professi t of business, or be financially interested in a contract with or franchise/pri vernment.

Q:Whichcourthasjurisdiction? A: The RTC has jurisdiction over the offense nt or penalty involved, becausetheprincipalpenaltyisdisqualification. PROHIBI t.215) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisanappointivepubl erested, directly or indirectly, in any transaction of exchange orspeculation n takes place within the territorysubjecttohisjurisdiction 4. Hebecomesintere on duringhisincumbency E.g. Buying and selling stocks listed in the stock exchangebyanofficialofthe ck or shares in a company is simple investmentandnotaviolationofthearticle. gsecuritiesforresaleisspeculation. Note: Actual fraud is not required for vi 15. The act being punished is the possibility that fraud may be committed or placehisowninterestabovethatofthegovernment.

POSSESSIONOFPROHIBITEDINTERESTBYA PUBLICOFFICER(Art.216) Q:Whoaretheper 1. Public officer who, directly or indirectly, became interested in any contract nwhichitwashisofficialdutyto intervene. 2. Experts, arbitrators, and private n like manner, took part in any contract or transaction connected with the est theappraisal,distributionoradjudication ofwhichtheyhadacted.

MALVERSATIONOFPUBLICFUNDSORPROPERTY (Art.217) Q:Whatarethepunishable sorproperty 2. Takingormisappropriatingthesame 3. Consenting, or through abandon gence, permitting any other person totakesuchpublicfundsorproperty 4. Being ot the misappropriation or malversation of such fundsorproperty. Note:Thenatureofthedutiesofthepublicofficerand not the name of the office , SBCaseNo.26892,August15,2006)

Q: What are the common elements to all acts of malversation? A: 1. Offender 156


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers 2. Hehadthecustodyorcontroloffundsor property by reason of the duties of hi operty were public funds or property for which he was accountable He appropriat propriated or consented, or through abandonment negligence, permitted another pers ethem involvedandconvictionthereofisproper.(Peoplev. Pepito) Q: Is damage t sary to constitutemalversation? A: No. It is not an element of the offense. roprietary rights of the government over the funds have been disturbed throughb Suppose the money is refunded on the same day it was misappropriated, is malve d? A: Yes, refund of funds on the same day of misappropriation does not exe riminal liability. The return of the funds malversed is only mitigating not exe tance. Q: Suppose the offender is willing to pay the amountmisappropriatedor titution of the property misappropriated, can hestillbeliableformalversation? ymentorrestitutiondoesnot extinguish criminal liability for malversation but onl lityoftheoffender. Q: If the disbursement of public funds is unauthorized, w e of malversation? A:No.Thereisonlymalversationonlyifthepublic officer who nds should appropriate, take, misappropriate; or consents or permitsanyotherpers ndonmentor negligence,totakesuchpublicfundsorproperty. Note: Where the payment of public funds has been made in good faith renders h ot criminallyliable.(Boado,2008) 3. 4.

Q:Whatisthethrustofthecrimeofmalversation? A:Malversationispredicatedont rtothepropertyorfundsinvolved. Q:Ingeneral,whocanbeheldliableforthecrime f malversation can be committed only by an officer accountable for the funds o propriated. Q:Whoareaccountableofficers? A:Accountableofficersincludecashie ers or property custodians and any public officer having custody of public fund rwhichheisaccountable. Q: Is it necessary that the offender actually misappr No, somebody else may have misappropriated the funds in question. It is enough ted the trust reposed on him in connection withtheproperty. Q:Isitnecessary yhis malversation? A: No. His being remiss in the duty of safekeeping public eposed. Q: Is there a crime of malversation through negligence? A: None. Th ersation whether committedthroughdoloorculpa. Q:Ifthechargeisforintentional s proved was culpable malversation, can theoffenderbeconvictedunderthatInformat dolo or culpa present in the offense is only a modality in the perpetration o the mode charged differs from the mode proved, the same offense of malversation

Q: A private property was attached or levied by the sheriff, can it be a s versation? A: Yes, though the property belonged to a private person, the levy he property impresseditwiththecharacterofbeingpartofthe publicpropertyitbein pose the municipal treasurer allowed a private persons check to be encashed us s custody, can he be liable for malversation?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: Yes, the act of changing the cash of the government with the check of a ugh the check is good, malversation is committed. Ratio:Acheckisclearedonlyafterthreedays.During that period of three days, th eniedtheuseofthepublicfund.

andliquidated,thatis,acompleteandtrustworthy auditshouldhavebeenundertaken. Note:Themomentanymoneyiscommingledwiththe public fund even if not due the g pressed with the characteristic of being partofpublicfunds. An accountable pu e convicted of malversation even if there is no direct evidence of misappropria denceistheshortage intheaccountswhichhehasnotbeenabletoexplain satisfactoril

Q: May a private person commit the crime of malversation? A: Yes, a privat t malversationunderthefollowingsituations: 1. Conspiracy with a public officer alversation 2. When he has become an accomplice or accessorytoapublicofficer tion 3. When the private person is made the custodian in whatever capacity of operty, whether belonging to national or local government, and misappropriatesthe nheisconstitutedasthedepositary or administrator of funds or property seized c authority even though said funds or property belongtoaprivateindividual Q: ersation? A: No. Demand merely raises a prima facie presumption that missing t to personaluse. Q:Iffalsificationofdocumentswasresortedtofor the purpose tion, is a complexcrimecommitted? A:No,forcomplexcrimesrequirethatonecrime . If the falsification is resorted to for the purpose of hiding the malversati onandmalversationare separateoffenses.(Peoplev.Sendaydiego) Q: When does pres ropriation arise? A: When a demand is made upon an accountable officerandhe perty involved.Thepresumptionarisesonlyifatthetime the demand to produce the ountabilityoftheaccusedisalreadydetermined

Q: What are the distinctions malversationandestafa? A: MALVERSATION Committedbyan accountablepublic officer. Dealswithpublicfundsor pro mmitted withoutpersonal misappropriation,as whentheaccountable officerallowsanoth ropriatethesame. between

ESTAFA Committedbyaprivate personorevenapublic officerwhoactsina privatecap roperty. Committedbypersonal misappropriationonly.

Q: A Municipal Treasurer, accountable for public funds or property, encashed w s private checks drawn in favor of his wife. The checks bounced, the drawer n hinthedraweebank.TheMunicipalTreasurer, in encashing private checks from publi egulationsofhisoffice.Notwithstanding restitution of the amount of the checks, al Treasurer nevertheless be criminally liable?Whatcrimedidhecommit?Explain. anding the restitution of the amount of the check, the Municipal Treasurer will iable as restitution does not negate criminal liability although it may be cons ating circumstance similar or analogous to voluntary surrender. (People v. Velasq l. 98) He will be criminally liable for malversation. However, if the restituti diately under vehement protest against an imputation of malversationandwithoutle e,hemay notbecriminallyliable.(1999BarQuestion) FAILUREOFACCOUNTABLEOFFICE ) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? 158


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers A: 1. 2. 3. Offender is a public officer, whether in theserviceorseparatedthere n accountable officer for publicfundsorproperty He is required by law or regu ounts to the Commission on Audit,ortoaprovincialAuditor He fails to do so f fter such accounts should be rendered malversationbecausedisbursementofpublicfundsfor public use is per se not an u la v. People,G.R.No.150129,April6,2005) 4.

Note: This is a felony by omission and misappropriation is not necessary. Deman gisnecessary.Itisnotnecessarythatthere be misappropriation. If there is misap ldbeliablealsoformalversationunderArt.217.

FAILUREOFARESPONSIBLEPUBLICOFFICERTO RENDERACCOUNTSBEFORELEAVINGTHE COUNTRY entsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficer 2. He must be an accountable dsorproperty 3. He must have unlawfully left (or be on point of leaving) the securingfromtheCommissiononAudita certificateshowingthathisaccountshave beenf Note: Mere act of leaving without securing clearance constitutesthecrimeunderAr ssary that the public officer really misappropriated public funds.

ILLEGALUSEOFPUBLICFUNDSORPROPERTY (Art.220) Q:Whataretheelementsof . Thereispublicfundorpropertyunderhis administration 3. Such public fund or pr propriatedbylaworordinance 4. Heappliesthesametoapublicuseother thanthatfor been appropriated by law or ordinance Note: Illegal use of public funds or property is also knownastechnicalmalversa ion of criminal intentwillnot, however, automatically apply to all charges of

Q:Whyisittermedtechnicalmalversation? A:Becauseunderthisarticle,thefundor propriatedorearmarkedfora certainpublicpurpose. Q:Howistechnicalmalversation ad of applying it to the public purpose for which the fund or property was a aw,thepublicofficerapplieditto anotherpurpose. Q: X appropriated the salary ondary school teachers of the Sulu State Collegecontrarytotheauthorizationissue e held liable for technical malversation? A: No. The third element is lacking on given by DBM isnot an ordinance or lawcontemplatedinArt.220.(Abdullav.Pe ication made proved to be more beneficial to the public than the original purp mount or property is appropriated,istheretechnicalmalversation? A:Yes,because ialelement oftechnicalmalversation. Q:Supposethefundshadbeenappropriatedfora urpose, but the same was applied to private purpose, what is the crime committ mmitted is simple malversation only. Q: What are the distinctions between tech tionandmalversation? A: TECHNICAL MALVERSATION MALVERSATION Offendersareaccountablepublicofficersinboth c enderderivesno Generally,theoffender personalgainorbenefit. derivespersonalbene nisforthe Publicfundorpropertyis personalinterestofthe divertedtoanother of eotherthanthat person. providedforinthelaw.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 FAILURETOMAKEDELIVERYOFPUBLICFUNDS ORPROPERTY(Art.221) Q:Whatarethepuni e payment by a public officer who is under obligation to make suchpaymentfrom ossession 2. Refusing to make delivery by a public officer who has been order thority to deliver any property in his custody or under his administration Q: hiscrime? A: 1. That the public officer has government fundsinhispossession bligation to make paymentsfromsuchfunds 3. Thathefailstomakepaymentmalicious EPRECEDING PROVISIONS(Art.222) Q: Who are the individuals that may be liabl Private individual who in any capacity whatsoever,havechargeofanynational, pro cipal funds, revenue or property 2. Administrator, depository of funds or prope eizedordepositedby public authority even if such property belongstoaprivatein Note: Sheriffs and receiver fall under the term administrator. Judicial admin vered by this article. (Appointedtoadministerestateofdeceasedandnotin charge d, impounded or placed in depositbypublicauthority) Privatepropertyisincluded dor depositedbypublicauthority.

A: 1. 2. 3. When a private person conspired with a publicofficertocommitmalvers compliceoraccessory Whereaprivatepersonwasconstituteda custodian in whatever c out a public officer involved and he misappropriatedthesame.(Boado,2008)

Q: AA was designated custodian of the distrained propertyofJJbytheBIR.Heas kings which included the promise that he willpreserveandtheequipment.Subsequent heBIRthatJJsurreptitiouslytookthe distrained property. Did AA become a public esignationascustodianof distrainedpropertybytheBIR? A:No.Tobeapublicoffice the performance of public functions in the government, or in performing in said n any of its branches public duties as an employee, agent or subordinate offic s;and 2. That his authority to take part in the performance of public function icdutiesmustbeby: a. Directprovisionofthelaw,or b. Popularelection,or c. Appo thority. (Azarconv.Batausa) CONNIVING Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: er 2. He is charged with the conveyance or custody of a prisoner, either deten sonerbyfinaljudgment 3. Such prisoner escapes through his negligence Note:Theremusthavebeendefinitelaxityamounting todeliberatenonperformanceofduty alevasionofserviceofsentence when the custodian permits the prisoner to obtain risonment. Illustration: Thefactthatthepublicofficerrecapturedtheprisoner who custody does not afford completeexculpation. Ifapolicemanonguarddutyunlocked t a detention prisoner to go out so he can clean the premises, but on the l by faucet, he walked behind the police Q: How is malversation committed by a private person? 160


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers headquarters, climbed over the wall and escape, this crimeisnotcommitted. Mer sonertokeepclosewhile answeringthetelephoneisnotasufficientprecaution under t d of the escape of the prisoner,heisliableunderthisarticle.Heshouldhave loc ail before answering the telephone as there was nothing in the call necessitati o accuseds official duty of lockinghimbackinjail. Note:Theelementsofthisfel elity in the custody of prisoners, except that the offender is a private perso dy of prisonershallhavebeenconfided.

Illustration: When such private person shall accept any considerationorgiftfort eofaduty confided to him, bribery is committed in addition because he is per ion, hence, at thatinstance,heisdeemedtobeapublicofficer.

Q: Will mere laxity amount to negligence within thecontemplationofArt.224? f any police officer having custodyofaprisonertotakenecessaryprecautions to a any means of escape. A failuretoundertaketheseprecautionswillmakehis act one negligence amounting todeliberatenonperformanceofduty.(Rodillasv. Sandiganbayan, 08p.609) Note: But in People v. Nava, negligence here is one which approximates malice performance of duty. He may be charged administrativelybutnotcriminally.(Boado,

Note: This article is not applicable if a private person wastheonewhomadethe eescapeofthepersonarrested.

Q: How is the infidelity committed by private person? A: Under Article 225, be committed by a private person to whom the prisoner was entrusted and he co oner (Art.223) or through his negligence (Art. 224)theprisonerwasallowedtoesca Note: If the escapewaswith consideration, bribery is deemed committed in additi s performing a public function, hence is, at that instance,deemedtobeapublic

Q: What is the liability of the escaping the prisoner? A: 1. If the fugitive nce by reason of final judgment he is liable for evasion of the service of 2. Ifthefugitiveisonlyadetentionprisoner hedoesnotincuranycriminalliability. STODYOFA PERSONNOTAPUBLICOFFICER(Art.225) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime on 2. Conveyance or custody of prisoner or personunderarrestisconfidedtohim derarrestescapes 4. Offender consents to the escape of the prisoner or person at the escape takes place through his negligence REMOVAL,CONCEALMENTORDESTRUCTIONOF DOCUMENT(Art.226) Note:Thiscrimeisalsocalledinfidelityinthecustody ofdocuments.

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Theoffenderisapublicofficer 2. He nceals documentsorpapers Note: Destroying or concealing documents or papersdoesnotrequireproofofillicit 3.

Said documents or papers should have been entrusted to such public officer by

Note: The document must be complete and one by which a right can be establish uldbeextinguished. 4.

Damage, whether serious or not, to a thirdpartyortothepublicinterestshould



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Note: The damage to third persons or to the publicmustbeactualbutneednotbe geinthisarticlemayconsistinmerealarm tothepublicorinthealienationofitscon entservice. If the act charged is removal of the documents, there must be p lawful purpose on the part of the offender unlike in cases of destroying or c or whichnoproofofcriminalpurposeorobjectiveis required. 3.

Concealment means that the documents are not forwarded to their destination a ary that they are secreted away in a place where theycouldnotbefound.

Q:Mustremovalbeforanillicitpurpose? A: Yes. Removal is for an illicit purp eoffenderisto: 1. Tamperwithit 2. Profitbyit 3. Commit an act constituting icialcarethereof. Q:Whenisthecrimeconsummated? A: The crime of removal of h of official trust is consummated upon its removal or secreting away from its fficeandaftertheoffenderhadgoneoutand lockedthedoor,itbeingimmaterialwhether mplishedtheillicitpurpose forwhichheremovedsaiddocument. Q: What is punished elity in thecustodyofdocuments? A:Itisthebreachofpublictrustwhichispunish of infidelity of documentsmaybecommitted? A: 1. Removal presupposes approp ocuments.Itdoesnotrequire that the record be brought out of the premises wher ugh that the record be removed from the place where it should be transferred tisnotsupposedto bekept. 2. Destruction Is equivalent to rendering useless said documents; the complete destruction thereofisnotnecessary.

Q: Suppose, in the case for bribery or corruption, the monetary consideration ibits, the custodian spent the money so marked,whatisthecrimecommitted? A:T elityinthecustody of documents because the money adduced as exhibitspartakethe ot asmoney. Note: Papers would include checks, promissory notesandpapermoney. Delivering wrong party is infidelityinthecustodythereof.

OFFICERBREAKINGSEAL (Art.227) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: edwiththecustodyofpapers orproperty 3. These papers or property are sealed by Hebreaksthesealsorpermitsthemtobe broken Q: Is damage or intent to cause crime may be committed through negligence. Note: It is the breaking of the seals and not the openingofaclosedenvelopew esumed.

Q: What constitutes the crime of breaking the seal? A: The mere breaking o ening of the document would already bring about infidelity even though no damag redbyanyoneorbythepublicatlarge. Q: What is the rationale for penalizing 162


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers A: The act is being punished because the public officer, in breaking the seal lope, violates the confidence or trust reposed onhim. OPENINGOFCLOSEDDOCUME mentsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficer 2. Any closed papers, doc trustedtohiscustody 3. He opens or permits to be opened said closedpapers,d edoesnothaveproperauthority Note:Thecloseddocumentmustbeentrustedtothe custodyoftheaccusedbyreasonofhis d. e. f.

He delivers those papers or copies thereoftoathirdperson Thedeliveryiswrongfu icinterest

Note: This article punishes minor official betrayals, infidelities of little cons ffecting usually the administrationofjustice,executiveofofficialdutiesor thegen epublicorder.

Note:Thesecretsreferredtointhisarticlearethose which have an official or p ationofwhichmayprejudicepublicinterest.They refer to secrets relative to the he government. Note: Charge here means control or custody. If the publicoffic dwiththepapersbut not with the custody, he is not liable under this provisio n secrets which should not be published,andthepublicofficerhavingchargethereof ers them wrongfully to a third person,thecrimeisrevelationofsecrets.Ontheoth o not contain secrets, their removalforanillicitpurposeisinfidelityinthecusto

Q: Suppose in the opening of the closed document, the public officer abstract atcrime/sis/arecommitted? A: The public officer is liable under Art. 228. He . REVELATIONOFSECRETSBYANOFFICER (Art.229) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts n to the offending public officer by reason of his officialcapacity. Elements licofficer b. Heknowsofasecretbyreasonofhis officialcapacity c. He reveals s horityorjustifiablereasons d. Damage,greatorsmall,iscausedto thepublicinterest ongfully papers or copies of papersofwhichhemayhavechargeand whichshouldnot . Offenderisapublicofficer b. Hehaschargeofpapers c. Those papers should not

Q: Are military secrets or those affecting national securitycoveredinthisarti e military secrets or those affecting national interest are covered by the crim Q: What is the difference between Revelation of SecretsbyanOfficerandInfidelit ment/PapersbyRemovingthesame? A: REVELATIONOFSECRETS BYANOFFICER Thepaperscontain secretsandtherefore shouldnot blicofficer havingchargethereof removesanddelivers themwrongfullytoa thirdpers E CUSTODYOFTHE DOCUMENTS/PAPERSBY REMOVINGTHESAME Thepapersdonot containsecretsbuttheir removalisforanillicit purpose.



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. 2. 3. Note:Therevelationwillnotamounttoacrimeunder thisarticleifthesecretsarecont eadministrationofjustice. If the offender is an attorney, he is properly lia ayaloftrustbyanattorney) The refusal must be intentional and must notbe conf ng from oversight, mistake or erroneous interpretationoftheorder.

Offenderisapublicofficer He knows of the secrets of private individualbyreaso uchsecretswithoutauthority orjustifiablereason

Q:Shouldthesecretsberevealedpublicly? A: No. The crime is consummated if th dtoanotherevenincloseintimacy. Q: Should damage be suffered by the private obeliable? A: No. The reason for this provision is to uphold faithandtrust Note: Revelation to any one person is necessary and sufficient,forpublicrevelat .

DISOBEDIENCETOORDEROFSUPERIOROFFICER, WHENSAIDORDERWASSUSPENDEDBYINFERIOR O eelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficer 2. An order is issue ution Note: The order of the superior must be legal or issued within his authority, cledoesnotapply. 3. 4.

OTHEROFFENSESORIRREGULARITIESBYPUBLIC OFFICERS OPENDISOBEDIENCE (Art.2 A: 1. Offenderisajudicialorexecutiveofficer 2. There is judgment, decision or rauthority 3. Such judgment, decision or order was madewithinthescopeofthej erior authority and issued with allthelegalformalities Note:Judgmentshouldhavebeenrendered inahearing 5.

He has for any reason suspended the executionofsuchorder His superior disa n oftheexecutionoftheorder Offender disobeys his superior despite thedisappr Note: The disobedience must be open and repeated.

Note: What is punished by the law is insubordination oftheactofdefyingthea al topublicinterest.

REFUSALOFASSISTANCE (Art.233) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: t authority demands from the offender that he lend his cooperation towards the of justice or otherpublicservice 3. Offenderfailstodosomaliciously Q:Give erefusal ofassistance. A: Investigators and medicolegal officers refusing to in court after having been subpoenaed 4.

Offender without any legal justification openly refuses to execute the said ju on or order, which he is dutyboundtoobey Note: The refusal must be clear, manifest and decisive or a repeated and obsti einthefulfillmentofanorder. 164


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers Q:Isthecrimeofrefusalofassistancecommitted only in connection with the admini ? A: No, any refusal by a public officer to render assistance when demanded uthority,aslongastheassistancerequestedfrom himiswithinhisdutytorenderandth r public service, constitutes refusal of assistance. Note:Therequestmustcomefromonepublicofficeto another. i. ii.

By the imposition of punishments not authorized by theregulations By inflicting nts (those authorized) in a cruel or humiliatingmanner b.

By maltreating such prisoner to extort a confession or to obtain someinformat .

Note: Maltreatment should not be due to personal grudge, otherwise, offender is sical injuriesonly. Illustration: The public officer/employee either imposed pun t authorized by the regulation or by law, or inflicted punishment/disciplinary a izedbylawinacruelorhumiliatingmanner. Thus,hittingaprisonerbyalatigoeven ipline is not authorized by law and constitutesviolationofthisarticle.Ontheot isonerstodigacanalwhereculvertsshall beplacedtopreventfloodingintheprisonco aw and does not violate this article; butifthepublicofficerwouldorderthepris ateeveningwithoutanyfood, then this article is involved, as he inflicted such ment in a cruel and humiliating manner.

REFUSALTODISCHARGEELECTIVEOFFICE (Art.234) Q:Whataretheelementsofthis ularelectionto apublicoffice 2. Herefusestobesworninortodischarge theduties legal motive for such refusal tobesworninortodischargetheduties ofsaidoffic Ratio: Discharge of duties becomes a matter of duty andnotaright. Note:Refu fanappointive officeisnotcovered. If the elected officer is underage or dis ltobesworninortodischargethedutiesofthe officeisjustified.

MALTREATMENTOFPRISONERS (Art.235) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: yee 2. He has under his charge a prisoner or detentionprisoner Note: To be considered as a detention prisoner, the person arrested must be pl rttime. 3.

He maltreats such prisoner either of the followingmanners: a. By overdoing h ection or handling of a prisoner or detention prisoner under his chargeeither:

Q: If the public officer who maltreated the prisoner is not charged with the oner,whatcrimeisheresponsiblefor? A:Thepublicofficerisliableforphysicalinj scharge? A:Underhischargemeansactualcharge. Q:Whenapersonismaltreated ge of prisoners, how many crimesmaybecommitted? A: Two crimes are committed, under Art.235 and physical injuries. Maltreatment and physical injuries may not because the law specified that the penaltyformaltreatmentshallbeinadditiontoh sicalinjuriesordamagecaused. Q:Towhatdoesmaltreatmentreferto? A: Maltreatm hysical maltreatment but also moral, psychological, and otherkindsofmaltreatment rase physical injuries or damage caused and cruel or humiliatingmanner.(Boad



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Note: The practice of presenting captured persons in national television for pub s a form of maltreatment because they are being presented as criminals even be ged which is humiliating.(Boado,2008) 3. He continues to exercise the duties and powersofsuchoffice

Q:Supposethepersonmaltreatedisnotaconvict or a detention prisoner, what cri hecrimecommittedwouldeitherbe: 1. Coercionifthepersonnotyetconfinedin jail sion,or 2. Physicalinjuriesifthepersonmaltreated has already been arrested eofficeofthepoliceandput injail. Illustration: If a Barangay Captain maltreats a person after the latters arrest inement, the offense is not maltreatment but physical injuries. The victim must nfined either as a convict or a detentionprisoner.(Peoplev.Baring,37O.G.1366)

Q:Whoaretheofficerscontemplated? A: Those who have been suspended, separate ismissed. ABANDONMENTOFOFFICEORPOSITION. (Art.238). Q:Whataretheeleme icofficer 2. Heformallyresignsfromhisposition 3. Hisresignationhasnotyetbeena ons his office to the detriment ofthepublicservice Note:Theremustbeaformalorwrittenresignation.

ANTICIPATIONOFDUTIESOFAPUBLICOFFICE (Art.236) Q:Whataretheelementso o hold public office or employment, either by election or appointment 2. Lawr dfirstbesworn inand/orshouldfirstgiveabond 3. He assumes the performance o ffice 4. Hehasnottakenhisoathofofficeand/or givethebondrequiredbylaw OWERS(Art.237) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisholdinga ided by law, regulations or special provisions for holding such office, hasalre

Q: Supposing the purpose of abandonment is to evade the discharge of duties, me? A:ThecrimeofAbandonmentofOfficeorPosition will be qualified if the pur ent is to evade the discharge of duties consisting of preventing, prosecuting o of the crimes against national security (E.g. espionageortreason),inwhichcase, r. Q: What are the differences between abandonment of office and negligence a ecutionofoffense(Art.208)? A: ABANDONMENTOF OFFICE DERELICTIONOFDUTY Committedonlybypublic officerswhohaveth rosecutionofthe punishmentofviolations oflaw. Thepublicofficerdoes notabandon rosecute anoffensebydereliction ofdutyorbymalicious toleranceofthe commission Committedbyapublic officer. Thepublicofficer abandonshisofficeto evadethedischargeofhis duty.

USURPATIONOFLEGISLATIVEPOWERS (Art.239) Q:Whataretheelementsthiscrime 166


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers A: 1. 2. Offenderisanexecutiveorjudicialofficer Offender makes general rules yond the scope of his authority or attempts to repeal a law or suspendstheex Note:Theoffenderisanypublicofficerwhohasbeen lawfully required to refrain fro s course of action. He must wait until the question of jurisdictionisfinallys

ORDERSORREQUESTSBYEXECUTIVEOFFICERS TOANYJUDICIALAUTHORITY (Art.243) Offenderisanexecutiveofficer 2. He addresses any order or suggestion to anyju . The order or suggestion relates to any case or business coming within the ex tion of the courts of justice. Note: Legislative or judicial officers are not liable underthisarticle. Meres able.

USURPATIONOFEXECUTIVEFUNCTIONS (Art.241) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscri a. Assumes a power pertaining to the executiveauthorities;or b. Obstructs executi ties in thelawfulexerciseoftheirpowers. Note: Legislative officers are not liable for usurpation ofexecutivefunctions.

USURPATIONOFJUDICIALFUNCTIONS (Art.242) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrim f the executive branchoftheGovernment 2. He assumes judicial powers, or obstr n of any order or decision rendered by any judge within the jurisdiction Note:Art.239to241punishinterferencebyofficersof oneof thethree departmentof nctionsofanofficialofanotherdepartment.

UNLAWFULAPPOINTMENTS (Art.244) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. minates or appoints a person to a publicoffice 3. Such person lacks the he le ereof 4. Offender knows that his nominee or employee lacks the qualifications at de the nomination or appointment Q: Is the act of recommending punishable und No, mere recommending, even if with the knowledge that the person recommended i ,isnotacrime.Hemustnominate. Note:Theremustbealawprovidingforqualifications ofapersontobenominatedorappo

DISOBEYINGREQUESTFORDISQUALIFICATION (Art.242) Q:Whataretheelementsoft fficer 2. Proceeding is pending before such public officer 3. There is a questio ore the proper authority regarding his jurisdiction,whichisyettobedecided 4. H y required to refrain fromcontinuingtheproceeding 5. Hecontinuestheproceeding ABUSESAGAINSTCHASTITY (Art.245) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. Soliciting or making immoral or indecent advances to a woman interested i ng before the offending officer for decision, or with respect to whichheisreq orconsultwithasuperiorofficer Soliciting or making immoral or indecent advanc the offenderscustody Solicitingormakingindecentadvancesto the wife, daughter, e withinthesamedegreebyaffinityofany person in the custody of the offending heinstanceswhereabuseofchastity mayarise? A: 1. Thewoman,whoistheoffendedp est in a case where the offender is the investigator or he is required to re quiredtoconsultwithasuperiorofficer. This does not include any casual or i s refers to interest in the subject of the case under investigation. Note: It is immaterial whether the woman didnotagreeoragreedtothesolicitation lic officer before whom matters are pending for resolution or for which he is a report or consultasuperior. 2. 3.

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisapublicofficer 2. He ndecent advancestoawoman 3. Suchwomanis: a. Interestedinmatterspendingbefore cision or with respect to which he is required to submit a report to or cons cer;or b. Underthecustodyoftheoffenderis a warden or other public officer e care and custody of prisoners or persons underarrest;or c. Thewife,daughte thinthesamedegreebyaffinityof the person in the custody of the offender. Note:Thecrimeiscommittedbymereproposal.Ifthe offender succeeds in committing tity, the solicitation and advances are considered asmerelyaspreparatoryacts. ation is not necessary when there is sexualintercourse.

2. The woman who is the offended party in the crime is a prisoner under the he jailer who is the offender. This crime cannot be committedifthewardenis an. Men have no chastity.Onlyaladycanbeacomplainant here so that a gay gua al proposals or indecent advances to a male prisoner is not liable underthisl Note: Immoral or indecent advances contemplated here must be persistent. It must erejokewouldnot suffice. 3.

Q:Whatistheessenceofthecrimeabusesagainst chastity? A: The essence of th oralorindecentsolicitationoradvances.

The crime is committed upon a female relativeofaprisonerunderthecustodyof oman is the daughter, sister or relative by affinity in thesamelineasofthep f the offender who made the indecent or immoral solicitation. The mother is ny immoralorindecentsolicitationuponthe motheroftheprisonerdoesnotgiverise t fender may be prosecuted under the Section 28 of the RA3019(AntiGraftandCorr

Note: To solicit means to propose earnestly and persistently something unchaste woman. 168


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers Q:Ifthejailwardenforcedhimselfagainstthewill of the woman prisoner, what is/ ted? A:Rapeiscommittedasidefromtheabuseagainst chastity. Abuse of chastity rime of rape because the basis of penalizing the actsisdifferentfromeachother tPracticesAct (R.A.3019,asamended) Q:Whoarecoveredunderthisact? A: All es elective and appointive officials and employees, permanent or temporary,whethe fiedorunclassified or exempt service, receiving compensation, even nominalfromth Note:Governmentincludes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nationalgovernment Localgovernment GOCCs Ot trumentalitiesoragencies Theirbranches

for himself or for any other person, in connection with any contract or transa Governmentand any other part, wherein the public officer in his official capaci nderthelaw. Note:Thisisaspecialformofbribery

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Theoffenderisapublicofficer 2. H directly or indirectly a gift, present or consideration 3. Thegift,presentorcon r thebenefitofthesaidpublicofficerorfor anyotherperson 4. It was requested ctionwithacontractortransaction withtheGovernment 5. The public officer has th ne in such contract or transaction inhisofficialcapacity Note: R.A. 3019 punishes the separate acts of: 1. Requesting 2. Receiving 3. Requ ceiving Lack of demand is immaterial. After all, it usesthewordorbetweenr

Q: What are the punishable acts under Sec. 3 of R.A.3019? A: 1. Apublico ucing, or influencing anotherpublicofficerto: i. Perform an act constituting a e Rules and Regulations duly promulgated bycompetentauthority,or ii. An offense with theofficialdutiesofthelatter

Note: An example of the abovementioned punishable act is the act of Former C minAbalosinbribingRomuloNeri theamountof200MillionPesosinexchangefor the ap . (Neri v. Senate Committee on Accountablility of Public Officers and Investigat 180643, March 25, 2008)

3.Directlyorindirectlyrequestingorreceiving anygift,presentorotherpecuniaryor r himself or for another, from any person for whom the public officer, in any has secured or obtained, or will secure or obtain, any Government permitorlice onforthehelp givenortobegiven. Note:Thisisaspecialformofbribery

b. Allowing himself to be persuaded, induced or influenced to commit such viola .Directlyorindirectlyrequestingorreceiving anygift,present,share,percentage,or

4. Accepting or having any member of his family accept employment in a priva has pending official business with him during the pendency thereof or withinone nation. Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. The public officer accepted, or having any of his family member accept a private enterprise Such private enterprise has a pending official business with icer Itwasacceptedduring: i. Thependencythereof,or ii. Within 1 year after its b. Offenderisapublicofficer Public officer neglected or refused to act withou ification after due demand or request has been made on him Reasonable time h demand or request without the public officer having acted on the matter pending luretoactisforthepurposeof: Obtaining(directlyorindirectly) i. from any perso atter some pecuniary or materialbenefitoradvantage, Favoringhisowninterest, ii ntageinfavor iii. of or discriminating against any otherinterestedparty. 2. c. 3.

5. Causing any undue injury to any party, including the Government, or giving any unwarranted benefits, advantageorpreferenceinthedischargeofhis official adm judicial functions through manifest partiality, evident bad faith orgrossinexcusa nce. Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Theaccusedmustbeapublicofficer e,judicialor officialfunctions He must have acted with manifest partiality, e r inexcusablenegligence Thathisactioncaused: i. Any undue injury to any party vernment,or ii. Giving any private party unwarranted benefits, advantageorprefere scharge of his functions. d.

Note: The neglect or delay of public function must be accompanied by an expres D of any benefit or consideration for himself or another. Absent such demand, erelyadministrativelyliable. 7. 2.

Entering, on behalf of the Government, into any contract or transaction manifest sadvantageousto the same, whether or not the public officerprofitedorwillprofi heelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. 2. Accusedisapublicofficer Thepublicofficerente saction on behalf of the government Suchcontractortransactionisgrosslyand mani ageous to the government.(thethresholdofthecrime) 3. 3.

Note: Since bad faith is an element, good faith andlackofmaliceisavaliddefe 6.

Neglectingorrefusing,afterduedemand orrequest,withoutsufficientjustification, to easonable time on any matterpendingbeforehim. Note: Lack of public bidding and violation of administrative orders do not by fythe3rdelement.Itdoesnotinitselfresult to manifest and gross disadvantage. dvantagebegrossandmanifest. (Caunanv.People) 8.


Directly or indirectly having financial or pecuniary interest in any business, c sactioninwhichhe: a. Intervenesortakespartinhisofficial capacity;or 170


BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers b. Is prohibited by the constitution or bylawfromhavinganyinterest 3. Person urging the divulging or untimely release of the confidential informatio

Note: Intervention must be actual and in the officialcapacityofthepublicoffice

9. a. Directly or indirectly becoming interested,forpersonalgains,or b. Having rest in any transactionoractwhich: i. Requires the approval of a board, panel is a member and which exercises discretion in such approval Even if he votes oes not participate in the action of the board, committee,panelorgroup.

Q: What are the prohibited acts for private individuals? A:Itshallbeunlawf ving family or close personal relation with any public official to capitalize o advantage of such family or personal relation, by directly or indirectly request ing any present, gift, material or pecuniary advantage from any person having s ransaction, application, request or contract with the government, in which such er hastointervene(Sec.4) ii.

Note: Interest for personal gain shall be presumed against those public official e for the approval of manifestly unlawful, inequitable, or irregular transaction e board, panel or group to which they belong.

10. Knowingly approving or granting any license, permit, privilege or benefit in Any person not qualified for or not legally entitled to such license, permit,p ;or b. A mere representative or dummy of one who is not so qualified or enti aluableinformationofa: i. Confidentialcharacter ii. Acquiredbyhisofficeorbyhi ficial positiontounauthorizedperson b. Releasing such information in advance of ed released date. Note: The ff. persons shall also be punished with the publicofficerandshallbe rily disqualified, in the discretion of the Court, from transactingbusinessinan nment: 1. Person giving the gift, present, share, percentageorbenefitinpar.2an ingorgivingtothepublicofficer theemploymentmentionedinpar.4.

Note: Family relations include the spouse or relatives by consanguinity or affin d civildegree. ClosePersonalrelationsinclude: a. Closepersonalfriendship b. Soc alrelations c. Personalemployment Thisallgivesrisetointimacywhichassumesfree ficer. 2. For any person to knowingly induce or causeanypublicofficialtocommitanyof theoffensesdefinedinSec.3.(Sec.6) Q: What are the other prohibited acts for the relatives?

A: GR: it shall be unlawful for the spouse or rd relative by consanguinity civil degree of the President, Vice President, Senate President, or Speaker of ervene directly or indirectly in any business, transaction, contractorapplication nment. XPN:Thiswillnotapplyto: 1. Any person who prior to the assumption of ve officials to whom he is related, has been already dealing with the Governme neofbusiness


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 2. Any transaction, contract or application alreadyexistingorpendingatthetimeof fpublicoffice Anyapplicationfiledbyhimtheapproval of which is not discretio fficial or officials concerned but dependsuponcompliancewithrequisites provided es or regulations issuedpursuanttolaw Any act lawfully performed in an offic rciseofaprofession. equity or any other form of interest or participation incl of future employment in any business enterpriseorundertaking By establishing a ndustrial or commercial monopolies or other combinations and/or implementation of nd orders intended to benefit particularpersonsorspecialinterests By taking u official position, authority, relationship, connectionorinfluencetounjustlyenrich hemselvesattheexpenseand to the damage and prejudice of the Filipino people a e Philippines 3. 5. 4. 6.

B.AntiPlunderAct (R.A.7080,asamended) Q:Whoarecoveredunderthisact? A: Pu person holding anypublicofficeintheGovernmentoftheRepublic of the Philippines intment, electionorcontract. Q:Whatisillgottenwealth? A: It is any asset, pr rprise or material possession of any person, acquired by a public officer direc ly through dummies, nominees, agents, subordinates and/or businessassociates. Q:H nwealthacquired? A:Itisacquiredbyanycombinationorseriesofthe followingmeans ough misappropriation, conversion, misuse,ormalversationofpublicfundsor raidson ry By receiving, directly or indirectly, any commission, gift, share, percentag or any/or entity in connection with any government contract or project or by r e or position of thepublicofficerconcerned Bytheillegalorfraudulentconveyanc sets belonging to the National government or any of its subdivisions,agenciesor ies or governmentowned or controlled corporationsandtheirsubsidiaries By obtai g or accepting directly or indirectly any shares of stock,

Q:WhatisPlunder? A: It is a crime committed by a public officer by himse bers of his family, relatives by affinity or consanguinity, businessassociates,s rotherpersons, by amassing, accumulating or acquiring illgotten wealth through r series of overt acts in the aggregate amount or total value of at leastP50 tion? A: Combination refers to at least 2 of the above enumerationsfoundind e.g. misappropriation in no.(1) and receiving commissioninno.(2). 2. Q:Whatisseries? A: Series refersto at least 2 or more overt acts is e.g. misappropriation and raids of public treasury all foundinno.(1) 3. 4.

Q:Isitnecessarytoproveeachandeverycriminal act done by the accused to com o.Itissufficienttoestablishbeyondreasonable doubtapatternofovertorcriminalac llunlawfulschemeorconspiracy. Note: Plunder is a malum in se. The degree of responsibility of the offender 172



BOOK 2: Crimes Committed By Public Officers criminalintent.Hence,itauthorizestheapplicationof mitigatingandextenuatingcircum C. TheLawissilentonwhetherapersoncanbecharged with a predicate crime. E.g.G fore the Sandiganbayan to the lesser offenses of indirect bribery and facilitati dering, instead of plunder, which is a nonbailable capital offense, and to ret e loot he was accusedofstealing.

C.HumanSecurityActof2007(R.A.9372) Q: What is the effect of failure to de udicialauthorityunderthis act? A: Any police or law enforcement personnel w of a person charged with or suspectedofthecrimeofterrorismorthecrimeof cons sm shall deliver the same to the proper judicial authorities within a period o om the moment of apprehension, arrest, detention and taking into custodybythep entpersonnel otherwise, such police or law enforcement personnel shall be penali ars and 1 dayto12yearsimprisonment. Q:Whatisthepenaltyforinfidelityinthe Any public officer who has direct custody of a detainedpersonorundertheprovis y his deliberate act, misconduct, or inexcusablenegligencecausesorallowstheesca dpersonshallbeguiltyofanoffense andshallsufferthepenaltyof: 1. 12 years nmentifthedetainedpersonhas already been convicted and sentenced in afinalj . 6 years and 1 day to 12 years of imprisonmentifthedetainedpersonhas not d in a finaljudgmentofacompetentcourt.(Sec. 44)


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 VIII.CRIMESAGAINSTPERSONS(246266) DESTRUCTIONOFLIFE PARRICIDE (Art.246 Deceasediskilledbytheaccused. 2. Deceasedisthe: a. Father b. Mother c. Child, te or illegitimate d. Legitimate other ascendant or other descendant e. Legitimate eaccused. Illustration: The relationship, except the spouse, must be in the direct li ateral line. Hence, if A, fatherofthevictimV,wasassistedbyN(anephew)in kil rricide while N committed murder (as the deceased was killed while sleeping)and

offendedparty.Itisimmaterialthatheknewofthe relationshipoftheaccusedandthed cideofaspouse,whatmust beestablished? A:Theremustbeavalidsubsistingmarri so, the information should allege the fact of such valid marriage between the m. Note:Parricideofspouserequiresproofofmarriage.

Q:SupposeaMuslim,whohasthreewives,killed thethird.Isheliableforparricide? lwivescanbe convicted of parricide only in case the first wife is killed. Th he other wives are killedalthoughtheirmarriageisrecognizedasvalid. Ratio:ACatholicmancancommitthecrimeonlyonce. If a Muslim husband could commi ce, in effect, he is being punished for the marriage which the law itself aut act.

Q: Must the relationship between the offender andtheoffendedpartybelegitimat enderandtheoffended partyarerelatedasparentandchild. Note:Iftheoffenderandtheoffendedparty,although related by blood and in the d ted by an intervening illegitimate relationship, parricide cannolongerbecommitte imaterelationshipthatcanbringabout parricide is that between parents and illegi nastheoffenderandtheoffendedparties. Thepresenceofanyofthequalifyingcir idered a generic aggravating circumstanceinparricide. Note: The victim must n ys old, otherwise,thecrimeisinfanticide.

Q:Supposeastrangerconspiresinthecommission of the crime of parricide, what ty? A:Thestrangerisliableforhomicideormurder,as the case may be, because p.Theruleonconspiracythattheactof oneistheactofalldoesnotapplyherebecaus the offender to the

Q: What are the cases of parricide where the penalty of Reclusion Perpetua osed? A: 1. Parricidethroughnegligence(Art.365) 2. Parricidethroughmistake(A nderexceptionalcircumstances (Art.247) Q:Whataretheessentialelementsofthec e offender with the victim is the essential element of the crime. Hence, if a angerbutbymistakehe killed his own father, he will be held liable for parric ly as regards the properpenaltytobeimposed. Q: If a person killed his/her nstituteparricide? A: No. Since relationship of the offender with the vict ment of the crime, killing an adopted child even if adoption confers on the a hts and privileges of a legitimate child could not be parricide. It is either ecasemaybe. Q:Akilled: 1. A woman with whom he lived without thebenefit 174


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons 2. 3. 4. Theirchildwhowasonlytwodaysold Theirdaughter;and Theiradoptedson co in a justified outburst of passion or a state of mental disequilibrium. The of no time to regain his self control.

WhatcrimeorcrimesdidAcommit? A:Acommittedthefollowingcrimes: 1. Homic r the killing of the commonlaw wife whoisnotlegallyconsideredasspouse. 2. ng of the child as saidchildislessthan3daysold(Art255, RPC). However, the rricide shall be imposed since A is related to the child withinthedegreedefin de. 3. Parricide for the killing of their daughter, whetherlegitimateorillegi e is not less than 3 days old at the timeofkilling. 4. Murder for the ki elationshipbetweenAandthe said son must be by blood in order for parricideto ER EXCEPTIONALCIRCUMSTANCES (Art.247) Q:WhataretheelementsofArt.247? nt surprises his spouse or daughter, the latter under 18 years of age and liv mmittingsexual intercourse. 2. He or she kills any or both of them or infli hem any serious physical injury in the act or immediatelythereafter. 3. He h cilitated the prostitution of his wife or daughter, or that he or she has not idelityoftheotherspouse. Note:Thisarticledoesnotdefineacrime.Itprovidesa defense,whichtheaccusedmust

Q:WhatisthenatureofArt.247? A:Art.247farfromdefiningafelonyismoreofa y intended morefortheprotectionoftheaccusedratherthan apunishment.Putdifferen ntsa privilege amounting to an exemption for adequate punishment. Q: What ar emplated under Art.247? A: 1. When the offender surprised the other Note:Surprisemeanstocomeuponsuddenly orunexpectedly. The attack must take pl intercourse is going on. If the surprise was beforeoraftertheintercourse,noma ticle247doesnotapply. 2.

When the offender kills or inflicts serious physical injury upon the other spou hileintheactofintercourse,or immediately thereafter, that is, after surprising.

Q: What is meant by the phrase immediately thereafter? A: The phrase i interpreted to mean that between the surprising andthekillingortheinflictingof thereshouldbenointerruptionorintervaloftime. Inotherwords,itmustbeacontinuo y the phrase in the act of committingsexualintercourse? A: It means that tercourse.Itdoesnotincludepreparatoryacts. Q:Isitnecessarythatthespousea se? A: No. It is enough that he/she surprised them undersuchcircumstancesthat clusioncanbeinferredbutthatacarnalactwas beingperformedorhasjustbeencommitt Note: The killing or infliction of physical injuries must

Q:WhatistherationaleforArt.247? A: The law affords protection to a spous


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 be in the act of sexual intercourse or immediately thereafter.Thus,wheretheacc fe and herparamour in the carnalact but the latter ran away,hefirstchasedhi eturnedtohiswife whomhefoundatthestairs of their house, no longer in the p sex with the paramour and killed her, he canavailofArt247. Illustration: ourofhiswifein a mahjong session, an hour after he had surprised them in th se in his house, sinceatthattime,hehadtorunawayandgetagunas theparamour sarticle.(Peoplev.Abarca,G.R.No.74433,Sept.14, 1987)

Q:Whenthirdpersonsareinjuredinthecourseof the firing at the paramour, wil romcriminalliability? A: No. Inflicting death or physical injuries under exc nces is not murder. The offender cannot therefore be held liable for frustrated erious injuries suffered by third persons. It does not mean, however, that the lly free from any responsibility. Theoffendercanbeheldliableforseriousphysical mpleimprudenceornegligence. Q:Whatisthemeaningofthephraselivingwith them oodtobe in their own dwelling because of the embarrassment and humiliation don entbutalsototheparentalabode.Ifitwas doneinamotel,thearticledoesnotapply. Note: The benefits of Art. 247 may also apply to parents who shall surprise t 18 years of age in actual sexual intercourse while living withthem. Thesex ndaseducer. Theparentscannotinvokethisprovision,if,inaway, they have encoura f the daughter.Theparentneednotbelegitimate.

Q:AandBarehusbandandwife.Aisemployedas asecurityguardatLandmark,hisshif ht,hefeltsickand cold, hence, he decided to go home around midnight after ge his duty officer.Uponreachingthefrontyardofhishome, he noticed that the ligh was on and that the bedroomwindow wasopen. Approaching the front door, he was ghs and giggles inside the bedroom. He

openedthedoorverycarefullyandpeepedinside wherehesawhiswifeBhavingsexualint orC.Arushedinsideandgrabbed Cbutthelattermanagedtowresthimselffreeand jump wed suit and managed to catch C again and after a furious struggle,managedals thenrushedbacktotheirbedroomwherehiswife B was cowering under the bed covers istblowsandrenderedher unconscious. The police arrived after being summonedbyt restedAwho was detained, inquested and charged for the deathofCandseriousphy leforCsdeath?Why? 2. IsAliableforBsinjuries?Why? A: 1. Yes.Aisliable ances in Art. 247 of the RPC where only destierro is prescribed. Article 247 rised his wife B in the act of having sexual intercourse with C, and the kil ly thereafter as the discover, escape, pursuit and killing of C formonecontinu Phil194) 2. Likewise, A is liable for the serious physical injuries he infli nder the same exceptional circumstances in Article 247 of the Revised Penal Cod ason. (2001BarQuestion) MURDER (Art.248) Q:Whataretheeleme tended by any of the qualifying circumstances mentioned in Art. 248 4.Tha ticide Note:Oneattendingcircumstanceisenoughtoqualify thecrimeasmurderandanyotherwi ggravatingcircumstances. To be considered qualifying, the particular circumstanc leged in the information. Otherwise, they will only be considered as generic ag mstances. 176


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons Q:Whatismurder? A: Murder is the unlawful killing of any person which is e, provided that anyofthefollowingcircumstancesispresent: 1. With treachery, superior strength, with the aid of armed men,oremployingmeanstoweakenthe defe oinsure oraffordimpunity 2. In consideration of a price, reward or promise Note: For reward and promise to be considered, the same must the primary consi mmission of a crime orfelony. Ifthisaggravatingcircumstanceispresentin the it affects not onlythepersonwhoreceivedthemoneyor rewardbutalsothepersonwho

Q:Whenistheretreachery? A: There is treachery when the offender commits any e person employing means,methodsorforms intheexecutionthereof that tend direct to insure its execution without risk to himself arising from the defensewhicht htmake. Note: Treachery is inherent in poison. Abuse of superiorstrengthisinherentinan eachery. Illustration: Thekillingofachildoftenderageismurderqualified b fthechilddue tohistenderageresultsintheabsenceofanydanger totheaggressor. 3. 4. 5.

By means of inundation, fire, poison, explosion, shipwreck, stranding on a ves t or assault upon a railroad, fall of an airship, by motor vehicles, or with ansinvolvinggreatwasteandruin On occasion of any of the calamities enumerate ragraph, orofanearthquake,eruptionofvolcano, destructive cyclone, epidemic, or amity Withevidentpremeditation Note: The offender must have taken advantage of the same and the resultant con

Q:Whataretheelementsoftreachery? A: 1. The employment of means of ex of the accused from retaliatory acts of the intended victim and leaving the la rtunitytodefendhimself 2. Themeansemployedweredeliberatelyor consciouslyadopte hatistheessenceoftreachery? A: The essence of treachery is that the offen ance to defend himself because of the means, methods, or form in executing the ly adopted by the offender. This is true even if there is no intent to kill. Note: While the circumstance of by a band is not among those enumerated that ng as murder, it would seem that if the killer constituted a band,thecrimeis tanceof with aid of armed men is included in the qualifying circumstances.Thes evermustbe alleged in the information, otherwise, they will be consideredonlya ingcircumstances tothecrimeofhomicide. Illustration: 6.

With cruelty, by deliberately and inhumanly augmenting the suffering of the vi ing or scoffing at his personorcorpse. Note: Cruelty includes the situation where thevictimisalreadydeadandyet,actsw would decry or scoff the corpse of the victim. The crime becomes murder.

Asuddenandunexpectedattackundercircumstances which render the victim unable to y reason of the suddenness and severity of the act constitutesalevosia.(People

Thereisnocrueltyiftheactistheresultof an impulse of passion or extreme obf tentwith theconceptofdeliberatenessinaugmenting thesufferingofthevictim Q: What is the crime committed if the person is killedwithfire?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A:Theprimordialcriminalintentoftheoffenderis considered: 1. Murderifthepri ffenderistokillandfirewasonly usedasameanstodoso. 2. Arsoniftheprim estroy the property with the use of pyrotechnics and incidentally, somebody with esiskilledoriftheintentistoburn ahousebutitjustsohappensthatthere issom Note: Arson with murder is not a complex crime under Art. 48. This is a sing enalized under Art. 326, whichisdeathasaconsequenceofarson.

A: CRUELTY (ART.248) Asidefromcruelty,any actthatwouldamountto scoffingordecrying mwill qualifythekillingto murder. CRUELTY (ART.14) Requiresthatthevictim bea swereinflicted and,therefore,mustbe evidencetothateffect.

Illustration: Dismemberment of a dead body is one manner of outraging or scof of the victim. (Peoplevs.Guillermo,2004)

3. Homicideiftheburningisresortedtoas ajokebutdeathresulted. Two separ reisusedtoconcealthekilling ofthevictims. 4.

Illustration: To qualify killing to murder by means of inundation, fire, poi pwreck etc., the offenders purpose and design must be to kill the victim in modes. Thus, A and B to enhancefurthermerriment,pouredgasontheclothof a men ued dancing while his cloth is on fire to the delight of the crowd gathered, murder if the mental retardate died of 3rd degree burns because the fire was ctim.(Peoplev.Pugay,G.R. No.74314,Nov.17,1988).

Q: Can murder be committed even if at the beginningtheoffenderhasnointenti though generally, murder can only be committedifattheoutset,theoffenderhasint alifyingcircumstancesmustbe restoredtowiththeviewofkillingthevictim. Howev tendedto kill the victim but he only wanted to commit a crime against him in still be liableformurderifinthemannerofcommittingthe felony, there was treac ce thereof,thevictimdied. Ratio: This is based on the rule that the person committing a felony shall be quences thereof although different from that whichisintended.

Q: What is required for evident premeditation to qualifythekillingtomurder? stheevidenceof thecrimeitselfofthefollowingelements: 1. The time when the o mitthecrime 2. An act manifestly indicating that the offenderclungtohisorhe pse of time between the determination and the execution, sufficient to allow th flect upontheconsequencesofhisact. Q:Whatisthedifferenceofcrueltyasaqual rt.248)andcrueltyasa genericaggravatingcircumstanceunderArt.14?

Q: Where the qualifying circumstances were not those proved in the trial, can victedofmurder? A:No,becauseanyofthequalifyingcircumstances under Art. 248 r, not merelyqualifyingcircumstance. The circumstances must be both alleged a ial, otherwise, they cannot be considered because the right of the accused to rgeagainsthimwillbeviolated. Q: A, a 76year old woman, was brought to t alhemorrhage. Anendotrachealtubewasinsertedinhismouthto facilitate her breathi anitor, who had no business in the emergency room, for reasons known only to ster holding the tube in place. A doctor saw him and told him to get out of replaced. But when the doctor was gone, B came 178



BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons backandremovedthetube.Thevictimstartedto convulseandbleedinthemouth.Onlythe ventedthepatientsdeath. The patient was then transferred to another hospital w ext day of cardio respiratoryarrest.IsBcriminallyliable?Ifso,what crimeifany yliableformurder(qualifiedby treachery) because the death of A appears to be vertactsofB. Q: A died of cardiorespiratory arrest which evidently was bro ion andbleedinginthemouthofthevictimduetothe removal of Bof the endotrache ts of B be considered as the result of onecriminaldesign? A: In People v preme Court ruled that the removal of the endotrachealtubeisattemptedmurderqua y because the patient did not die. (1991 BarQuestion) HOMICIDE (Art. lawful killing of any person, whichisneitherparricide,murdernorinfanticide. micide? A: 1. Thatapersoniskilled 2. That the accused killed him without e 3. Theaccusedhadintentiontokillwhichis presumed 4. Thekillingwasnotattended rcumstancesofmurder,orby thatofparricideorinfanticide Note: Intent to kill is conclusively presumed when deathresulted,hence,neednot ence of intent to kill is important only in attemptedorfrustratedhomicide. included as one of the essential elementsoffrustratedhomicide. Whenthewoundst lictedby 2 different persons, even if they were not in conspiracy,eachoneoft nallcrimesagainstpersoninwhichthedeathofthe victim is an element, there mus ceof: 1. Thefactofdeath 2. Theidentityofthevictim.

When there is no way of determining how the attack was committed, treachery ca d and theaccusedisguiltyofhomicideonly.(PeoplevsDela Cruz,G.R.No.152176,Oct

Q:Isthereacrimeoffrustratedhomicidethrough recklessimprudence? A: None. herent in frustratedorattemptedhomicide. Illustration: When there is an agreement to fight between the accused and th ing will always be considered as homicide, as treachery cannot exist in thatsc killed by his opponent in a boxing bout dulylicensedbythegovernmentwithoutany rning rules and regulations, there is no homicidetospeakof.Ifhehithisopponen ny intention to do so, it is homicide through reckless imprudence if the latte fheintentionallyhithisopponentonthepart ofthebodycausingthedeath,thecrimei otingofapeaceofficerwhowasfullyawareof therisksinpursuingthemalefactorswhen is only homicide. (People v. Porras,G.R.Nos.11426364,Mar.29,1996)

Q: What are the distinctions between physical injuriesandhomicide? A: HOMICIDE PHYSICALINJURIES Thereisnointenttokill. However,ifasaresultofthe phys cted,the victimdied,thecrimewillbe homicide Ratio:Thelawpunishesthe result, Inattemptedor frustratedhomicide, thereisintenttokill.

Q: If mortal wounds are inflicted but those were due to negligence, is frust itted? A: No. The crime committed is serious physical injuries through reckl use the element of intent to kill is incompatible with negligenceorimprudence.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q: Suppose several assailants not acting in conspiracy inflicted wounds on th nnot be determined who inflicted which wounds, which caused the death of the v uiltyforthecrimeofhomicide? A:Allofthemliableforhomicide. Q: If h f an unlicensed firearm, how should the crimebedenominated? A:Thecrimewoul ecasemaybebecausetheuseoffirearmisonly consideredasanaggravatingcircumstance ide? A:Accidentalhomicideisdeathofapersonbrought about by a lawful act pe dskillandwithoutintenttokill. DEATHCAUSEDINATUMULTOUSAFFRAY (Art.251 fray means a commotion in a tumultuous and confused manner, to such an extent letoidentifywho the killer if death results, or who inflicted the seriousphys rsonorpersons whousedviolenceareknown. Note: The participants must be more than three considering the definition of tu Art. 153, third paragraph, that the disturbance or interruption shall be deemed us if caused by more than 3 persons who are armed or providedwiththemeansof ouldbeparticipantoranybodycaughtinthefight.

Note:Thisarticledoesnotapplyifthereisconcerted fightbetweentwoorganizedgroups ar group against another group. The riots in city jails and/or Muntinlupa briga erthisarticlebecausetheparticipantsare membersofdifferentgangs.Ifthereiscons mmitted.

Q: What brings about the crime of tumultuous affray? A:Itistheinability not the tumultuous affray itself, that brings about thecrime.Itisnecessarythat sedthedeathcannotbeknown,andnotthathe cannotbeidentified. Q:Whatisthec he death is known but he cannot be identified? A:Ifheisknownbutonlyhis ed for the crime of homicide or murder under a fictitious name not death in quarrel or rumble involving organized groups resulted in the death of a person dentified who in particular committed thekilling,whatisthecrimecommitted? ide or murder. There willbecollectiveresponsibilityonbothsides. Q:Whomayb timmaybeaparticipantintheaffrayora merepasserby. Illustration: As long as it cannot be determined who killed the victim,allt dseriousphysical injurieswillbecollectivelyanswerableforthedeathof thatfellow. ed the serious physical injuries cannotbeascertainedtoo,thenthosewhoshallhave eceasedshallbepunishedby prision correctional in its medium and maximum periods ticipant only kicked the accused, he will be held liable for the death of the tdidnotresultinthedeathof the victim as those who inflicted the serious phy minable. If those who actually killed the victim can be determined, they will l be held

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Therebeseveralpersons 2. They r the common purpose of assaulting andattackingeachotherreciprocallyand assault n a confused and tumultuousmanner 3. Someone was killed in the course of the be ascertained who actually killedthedeceased 5. The person or persons who in sical injuries or who used violencecanbeidentified 180


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons liable, and those who inflicted the serious or less serious physical injuries s d for said corresponding offenses provided no conspiracy is establishedwiththek

Q: Who may be liable for the death or physical injuryinthetumultuousaffray serious physical injuriesuponthevictim 2. If they could not be known, then a yedviolenceonthat personwillanswerforhisdeath 3. If nobody could still be olence upon the victim, nobodywillanswer.Thecrimescommitted mightbedisturbance articipants are armed, it could be tumultuousdisturbance,orifpropertywas destro ciousmischief PHYSICALINJURIESINATUMULTUOUSAFFRAY (Art.252) Q:Whatar tuousaffrayasreferredto intheprecedingarticle 2. Aparticipantorsomeparticipa hysical injuries of a less serious natureonly 3. Person responsible thereof ca ied 4. All those who appear to have used violence upon the person of the of at kind of injury is contemplated in the crimeofphysicalinjuriesinatumultuous njury should be serious or less serious and resulting from a tumultuous affray. injury sustained is only slight, this is consideredasinherentinatumultuousaffr erArt.252? A:Thevictimmustbeaparticipantintheaffray. Q:Whomaybeli

A:Onlythosewhohaveusedviolencearepunished becauseiftheonewhocausedthephysic ll be liable for physical injuries actuallycommittedandnotunderthisarticle. .253) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Assisting another to commit s summated or not 2. Lending assistance to another to commit suicide to the e ing himself Note: In this crime, the intention must be for the person who asking the assi commit suicide. The penalty of the one assisting is mitigatedifsuicideisnotsu

Q: What is the meaning of giving assistance to suicide? A: Giving assist g arms, poison, etc. or whatever manner of positive and direct cooperation, int suggestion regardingthemodeofcommittingthesuicide,etc. Q:Supposetheintentio henhejustwantedtohaveapicturetakenof him to impress upon the world that he use he is not satisfied of the government, what is the crime committed by the tance to facilitate the said act? A: The crime is inciting to sedition. T ance becomes a coconspirator in the crime of inciting to sedition, but not of o suicide because the assistance must be given the one who is really determine . Q:Whatistheliabilityofthepersonattemptingto commitsuicideshouldhesurv tingsuicideis notpenalizedbytheRPC.However,hemaybeheld liableforthecrimeof deed serious disturbance of public peace occurredduetohisattempttocommitsuicid Illustration: Onewhouponapleaofhisfriendtopullthetriggerof


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 theguntowhichhehimselfpokedonhistempleashe could no longer bear the pain dthesaidtriggercausingthedeathofhislong sufferingfriendisliableunderthisart not materialize, the person giving assistance to suicide is also liable but the ne or twodegrees lower depending onwhetheritisattemptedorfrustratedsuicide.

Q: What is the difference between giving assistance to suicide and mercy kil GIVINGASSISTANCETO SUICIDE Theprincipalactoristhe personcommittingthe suicide. THANASIA Thevictimisnotina positiontocommit suicide.Whoever wouldheedhisadv stancetosuicidebut doingthekillinghimself.

resulted from the discharge, what crime is committed? A: This results to th ous or lessseriousphysicalinjurieswithillegaldischargeof firearm. Q:Suppos uriesresulted from the discharge, what crime/s is/are committed? A: Two crime hat of illegal dischargeoffirearmandslightphysicalinjuries.Itis importantthat okill. Illustration: The firing of a gun at a person even if merely to frightenhi argeoffirearm.If thefirearmisnotdischargedataperson,theactisnot punishedun

Note:Inboth,theintentiontoendthelifecomesfrom thevictimhimself.Thevictimmus fendertoendhislife.

DISCHARGEOFFIREARMS (Art.254) Q:Whataretheelementsofthecrime? A: therperson 2. Offender has no intention to kill the person Q:Canthecrimeof ed throughimprudence? A: No, because it requires that the discharge must be urposeoftheoffenderunderthe article? A:Thepurposeoftheoffenderistomerelyfr dedparty. Q:Ifthefirearmisdirectedatthepersonandthe triggerwaspressedbu hecrimeisfrustrateddischargeoffirearm. Q: If serious or less serious physi

Q:Isthedischargetowardsthehouseofthevictim adischargeoffirearm? A: No ended party, not knowing in what part of the house the peoplewere,isonlyalar Note: It is not applicable to police officers in the performance of their duti is unlicensed,thecrimeofillegalPossessionofFirearmis absorbed and the offender d separatelyforthatoffense.

INFANTICIDE (Art.255) Q:Whatisinfanticide? A:Itisthekillingofany eristheparentor grandparent,anyrelativeofthechild,orastranger. Note:Ifthekilleristhemother,orfather,orlegitimate grandfathers,althoughthecri nd notparricide,thepenaltyhowever,isthatofparricide.

Q:Whataretheelementsofinfanticide? A: 1. Achildwaskilledbytheaccused ssthan72hoursofage 3. Accusedkilledthesaidchild Q:Ifthechildisbornd 182


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons dead,isthereinfanticide? A:No.Infanticideisnotcommitted. Q: Is concealm nfanticide? A:No.Itmerelylowersthepenalty. Note: Only the mother and maternal grandparents of thechildareentitledtothemi ceof concealing dishonor. Mother who claims concealing dishonormustbeofgoodrep son who kills or who cooperates with the mother or maternal grandparent in kil han3daysoldwillsufferthepenaltyofmurder. 2. 3.

pregnantwoman Byadministeringdrugsorbeveragesupon such pregnant woman without nisteringdrugsorbeverageswith theconsentofthepregnantwoman

Q: What are the distinctions between infanticide andparricideiftheoffenderis .parentofthechild? A: INFANTICIDE Theageofthevictimis lessthanthreedaysold. Ifdoneinconspira onspiratorareliablefor infanticide. Concealmentofdishonor inkillingthechildis hevictimisthreedays oldorabove. Thecoconspiratoris liableformurderbecause o p. Concealmentofdishonor inkillingthechildisnota mitigatingcircumstance

Q:Whataretheelementsofintentionalabortion? A: 1. Thereisapregnantwoman rages administered, or that the accused otherwise acts upon such pregnant woman seofviolenceordrugs or beverages upon her, or any other act of the accused, n the womb or after having been expelled therefrom 4. Abortionisintended Q: ble for intentional abortion? A: 1. The person who actually caused the abor regnant woman if she consented underArt.258 Note: Abortion is not a crime against the woman but against the fetus. The of he pregnancybecausetheparticularcriminalintentionis tocauseanabortion. Note:Inboth,thereisintenttokillthechild.

Q: Suppose the child is abandoned without any intent to kill and death resu hatcrimeiscommitted? A: The crime committed is abandonment not infanticide. 6) Q:Whatisabortion? A: Abortion is the willful killing of the fetus in ulsion of the fetus from thematernalwombthatresultsinthedeathofthe fetus. ntentional abortioncommitted? A: 1. Usinganyviolenceuponthepersonofthe

Q:Whatdeterminespersonality? A:UnderArt.40oftheCivilCode,birthdetermine redbornatthetime when the umbilical cord is cut. He then acquires a personal nct from his mother. But even though the umbilical cord has been cut, Art. 41 vides that if the fetus had an intrauterine life of less than 7 months, it ours after the umbilical cordiscutforittobeconsideredborn. Note:Aslongastheasthefetusdiesasaresultofthe violence used or drugs admin nexistsevenifthefetusisoverorless than7 months. If the fetus, having an onths, could sustain an independent life after its separation from the maternal killed, thecrimeisinfanticideandnotabortion.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q:Shouldthefetusdietoconsummateabortion? A: Yes. If it is intentional ie, it is frustrated intentional abortion whenallactsofexecutionhavebeenperfor f the abortion is not intended and the fetus does not die in spite of the v xerted, the crime may only be physical injuries. There is no crime of frustrat abortioninviewoftheabsenceoftheintentionto causeabortion. Q: What is the and infanticide? A: ABORTION Thevictimisnotviable butremainstobea fetus. INFANTICIDE Thevictimis ys oldor72hoursandis viableorcapableofliving separatelyfromthe motherswomb parentsofthechild areentitledtothe mitigatingcircumstanceof concealingthedisho

abortion. UNINTENTIONALABORTION (Art.257) Q: What are the elements of reisapregnantwoman 2. Violence is used upon such pregnant womanwithoutinten enceisintentionallyexerted 4. As a result of the violence exerted, the fetus omb or after havingbeenexpelledtherefrom Illustration: Unintentional abortion requires physical violence inflicteddelibe luntarilybyathirdperson upon the person of the pregnant woman. Hence, if A p nt lady, who became so frightened, causing her abortion, he is not liable for rtion, as there was no violence exerted. If he intended the abortion however, onalabortion. Note:Theforceorviolencemustcomefromanother. Mereintimidationi eof intimidationalreadyapproximatesviolence.

Nomitigationforparents ofpregnantwomaneven ifthepurposeisto concealdishonor.

Q: Suppose the mother as a consequence of abortion suffers death or physical meiscommitted? A:Thecrimeiscomplexcrimeofmurderorphysical injurieswithab ment of sufficient and adequatemeanstoeffectabortion,thefetusthat is expelled omb is viable but unabletosustainlifeoutsidethematernalwomb, whatcrimeiscomm strated abortion because abortionisconsummatedonlyifthefetusisdead. Q:Sup uldsustain life from the mothers womb, what crime is committed? A:Thecrim se the means employed in abortion are inadequate or insufficient, what is the The crime would be an impossible crime of

Q: Is the crime of unintentional abortion committed if the pregnant woman ab idation? A: No. The crime committed is not unintentional abortion because th he crime committedislightthreats. Q: Suppose a quarrel ensued between a h gnant at that time. Violence was resorted to by the husband which resultedtoa fe,whatis thecrimecommitted? A: The crime committed is complex crime of p bortion. Q: Suppose a quarrel ensued between two women, X and Y, who is th has no knowledge that Y is pregnant and being a sports buff that she is, gav mach. As a result, Y had an 184


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons abortion. Is X liable for unintentional abortion despiteherlackofknowledgeofY act of employing physical force or violence upon the woman is already a felony ftheoffenderknewaboutthewoman beingpregnantornot. Q:Supposeapregnantwoma ping out of the window of the buildingbutlandedonapasserby,shedidnotdie bu liable for unintentionalabortion? A: No, because what is contemplated is tha ustcomefromanotherperson. In this case, when the woman tried to commit suicid attempt to commit suicideisnotafelonyundertheRPC. Q: Suppose the pregnant herself specifically calculated to bring aboutabortion,whatcrimeiscommitted? tentionalabortion. Q: If the abortive drug used in abortion is a prohibite A.9165 or the Dangerous Drugs Act, what are the crimes committed? A: The tional abortion andviolationofR.A.9165. Note:Ifgravethreatsweremadetocauseabortion,a complex crime of grave threats ioniscommitted.Iflightthreatsweremade,two separate crimes of light threats an ioniscommitted. evenifforthesamepurpose,unlikeininfanticide.

ABORTIONPRACTICEDBYPHYSICIANMIDWIFE ANDDISPENSINGOFABORTIVES (Art.259) crime as tothe physicianormidwife? A: 1. There is a pregnant woman who sintended 3. The offender must be a physician or midwifewhocausesorassistedi Saidphysicianormidwifetakesadvantage ofhisorherscientificknowledgeorskill. f this crime as to the pharmacists? A: 1. Offenderisapharmacists 2. The m a physician 3. Offenderdispensesanabortive Note:Astothepharmacist,thecrimeisconsummated bydispensinganabortivewithoutpro maphysician.Itisnotnecessarythattheabortiveis actuallyused. It is immate s that the abortive would be used for abortion. Otherwise, he shallbeliableas rtionresult fromtheusethereof.

ABORTIONPRACTICEDBYTHEWOMANHERSELF ORBYHERPARENTS(Art.258) Q:Whatarethe a pregnant woman who has sufferedabortion 2. Abortionisintended 3. Abortionis antwomanherself b. Anyotherperson,withherconsent c. Anyofherparents,withher concealing her dishonor Note:Theliabilityofthepregnantwomanismitigated ifthepurposeforabortionistoc er, in case of parents, there is no mitigation

Q:Supposeabortionisresortedtosavethelifeof the mother, is the physician liab t.259? A:No.Thisisresortedtoasatherapeuticabortion. Inthiscase,thereis t abortion. Simply put, there must be no otherpracticalorlessharmfulmeansofs omaketheabortionjustified. Q: Suppose the abortion was performed by a phy essity to warrant suchabortionandthewomanorherhusbandhad consented. Is the p ortion underArt.259? A:Yes.Theconsentofthewomanorherhusbandis notenough


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 RESPONSIBILITYOFPARTICANTSINADUEL (Art.260) Q:Whatisaduel? A: It sented between two parties in the presence of two or more seconds of lawful a ketheselectionofarmsandfixalltheother conditions of the fight to settle som hatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Killingonesadversaryinaduel 2. Inflicting l injuries 3. Making a combat although no physical injurieshavebeeninflicted Illustration: A mere fight as a result of an agreement is not necessarily a lies an agreement to fight under determined conditions and withtheparticipation nofsecondswho fixedtheconditions. IfthefightisnotaduelasdefinedunderArt y is as homicide, murder or physicalinjuriesasthecasemaybe. Iftheaccused d argument in the bar, left the place at the same time andpursuanttotheirag ght each other to death with knives which they bought on the way, the facts rime of duel since there was no seconds who fixed the conditions of the fight al manner. If one is killed, the crime committed is homicide.

Q:Whoarethepersonsliable? A:Thechallengerandtheinstigators. PHYSICAL lation? A: Mutilation is the lopping or the clipping off of somepartsoft rowthagain. Q:Whatarethekindsofmutilation? A: 1. Intentionally mutilatin either totally or partially, ofsomeessentialorganforreproduction. Elements: ration, that is, mutilation of organs necessary for generation, such as the pen :Inthefirstkindofmutilation,the castration must be made purposely. Otherwise, it will be considered as mutilatio d.

b. The mutilation is caused purposely and deliberately, that is, to deprive th omeessential organforreproduction

2. Intentionally making other mutilation, that is, by lopping or clipping off body of the offended party, other than the essential organ for reproduction,to t ofhisbody.

CHALLENGINGTOADUEL (Art.261) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. C to give or accept a challengetoaduel 3. Scoffing at or decrying another publ d to accept a challenge tofightaduel Note:Thepunishableactistochallengetoaduelnot challengetoafightbecauseifit tthreatsunderArt.285(2).

Q:Mustmutilationbeintentional? A: Yes. Thus, it cannot be committed thro ayhem refers to any other formofmutilation. Note: There must be no intent to kill otherwise the offenseisattemptedorfrust r asthecasemaybe.

Q:Supposethereisnointenttodeprivethevictim of the particular part of the ed? 186


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons A:Thecrimeisonlyseriousphysicalinjury. Note:Cruelty,asunderstoodinArt.14(21)isinherent inmutilationandinfact,thati ircumstance is an integral part and is absorbed therein.Ifthevictimdies,thecr by cruelty but the offender may still claim and prove thathehadnointentionto d.

Becomes ill or incapacitated for the performanceoftheworkinwhichhe was habitu e than90days,inconsequenceofthe physicalinjuriesinflicted

Note:Lossoftheindexandmiddlefingersis eitheradeformityorlossofamember,not r use of the same. If the injury would require medical attendance for more ss of the offended party maybe considered as lasting more than 30 days. Thefa ttendance for that period of time shows that the injuries were not cured for

SERIOUSPHYSICALINJURIES (Art.263) Q: How is the crime of serious physic unding 2. Beating 3. Assaulting 4. Administeringinjurioussubstance Q:Whatares uries? A: 1. Whentheinjuredpersonbecomesinsane, imbecile, impotent, or bli hysical injuries inflicted. Note: Impotence includes inability to copulateandsterility.

4. When the injured person becomes ill or incapacitated for labor for more th t not be more than 90 days), as a result of the physical injuries inflicted.

Note: When the category of the offense of serious physicalinjuriesdependsonthe incapacity for labor, there must be evidence of the length of that period. Oth se will be consideredasslightphysicalinjuries. Indeterminingincapacitythei tion or work at the time of the injury. Work includesstudiesorpreparationfor o incapacity if the injured party could still engage in his work although less before.

Blindness requires loss of vision of both eyes. Mere weakness in vision is not 2.

Whentheinjuredperson: a. Losestheuseofspeechorthepower tohearortosmell, . Loses the use of any such member, or c. Becomes incapacitated for the work abitually engaged in consequence of the physicalinjuriesinflicted. Note: Loss of hearing must involve both ears. Otherwise, it will be considered alinjuriesunderpar.3.Lossof thepowertohearintherightearismerely considered otherpartofthebody.

Q:Whatisthenatureofphysicalinjuries? A: The crime of physical injuries alizedonthebasisofthegravityof the injury sustained. What is punished is the e stage of execution. Hence, it is always consummated. It cannot be committedi stratedstage. Note: There must be no intent to kill otherwise, the crime would be frustrated er, parricide,homicide,asthecasemaybe.Intenttokillis a specific criminal int sively provedincaseofphysicalinjuriesonly. Ratio: When death results, inten tentwhichisconclusivelypresumed.Hence,ifdeath results, even without intent to homicideatleast.

3. Whentheinjured: a. Becomesdeformed b. Losesanyothermemberofhisbody or c

Q: If the offender repeatedly uttered I will kill you but he only keeps o


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 party and injuries resulted, what is the crime committed? A:Thecrimeisonly ted orfrustratedhomicide. Q:Howisintenttokilldetermined? A:Intenttokil notbemanifestedbyoralthreats. Note:Oncephysicalinjuriesresultedtodeformity,itis classifiedasseriousphysicali

Q: What are the qualifying circumstances of seriousphysicalinjuries? A: 1. y of the persons referredtointhecrimeofparricide. 2. If any of the circumst ttendeditscommission. Illustration: Afatherwhoinflictsseriousphysicalinjuriesuponhis sonwillbeli ysicalinjuries.

Q:Whataretherequisitesofdeformity? A: 1. Physicalugliness 2. Permanenta spicuousandvisible Note: If the loss of teeth is visible and impairs the appearance of the injur utes disfigurement. The substitution of the artificial teeth for the natural einjury. A scar produced by an injury can be considered as a deformity.H he bodyofthevictimwhichisusuallycoveredbydressor clothes.

Q: What distinguishes physical injuries from mutilation? A:Themutilationmust ely anddeliberatelytoloporclipoffsomepartofthe body so as to deprive the the body. This special intention is not presentinotherkindsofphysicalinjuries. ences between physical injuriesandattemptedorfrustratedhomicide? A: ATTEMPTEDORFRUSTRATED HOMICIDE Attemptedhomicidemaybe Theoffenderinflicts commit ical physicalinjuries. injuriesareinflicted. Offenderhasno Theoffenderhasintent okillthe theoffendedparty. offendedparty. PHYSICALINJURIES

Illustration: 1. Lossofmolartooththisisnotdeformityas itisnotvisible. his is deformityasitisvisibleandpermanent. 3. Loss of milk front tooth lebutwillnaturallybe replaced.

ADMINISTERINGINJURIOUSSUBSTANCESOR BEVERAGES(Art.264) Q:Whataretheelements der inflicted serious physical injuriesuponanother. 2. Itwasdonebyknowinglyadm ny injurious substances or beverages or by taking advantage of his weaknessofm Hehadnointenttokill. Note: To administer an injurious substance or beverage means to direct or cause or beveragetobetakenorallybytheinjuredperson,who sufferedseriousphysicalinjur be no intent to kill otherwise, frustrated murderwillbecommitted. Itdoes iesthatresult

Q:XthrewacidonthefaceofYandwereitnotfor the timely medical attention, ed on the face of Y. After the plastic surgery, Y became more handsome than ewascommitted?In whatstagewasitcommitted? A: The crime is serious physical blem itself states that the injury would have produced a deformity. The fact t rgery removed the deformity is immaterialbecauseinlaw,whatisconsideredis not tment but the natural healingprocess. 188


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons arelessseriousorlight.TheywillbetreatedunderArt. 265or266,asthecasemaybe.

LESSSERIOUSPHYSICALINJURIES (Art.265) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrim for labor for 10 days or more (but not more than 30 days), or shall require esameperiodoftime. 2. Physical injuries must not be those describedinthep Note: The disjunctive conjunction or above means thatitiseitherincapacityfor necessity of medical attendance for an equal period which will make the crime ysicalinjuries. In the absence of proof as to the period of the offended or required medical attendance, the offense committed is only slightphysicalinju e shall require refers to the period of actualmedicalattendance.

offended party from engaging in his habitual work or which did not require med Note: Slapping the offended party is a form of ill treatmentwhichisaformofs Illtreatment of another by deed without causinganyinjury

Q: What are the qualifying circumstances of less seriousphysicalinjuries? ntenttoinsultor offendtheinjuredperson 2. When there are circumstances adding se 3. Whenthevictimistheoffendersparents, ascendants, guardians, curators, or the victim is a person of rank or personinauthority,providedthecrimeis notd URIESANDMALTREATMENT (Art.266) Q: What are the kinds of slight physical i cal injuries which incapacitated the offendedpartyforlaborfrom1to9days,or re ance during the sameperiod 2. Physical injuries which did not prevent t

Q: A disagreement ensued between Cindy and Carinawhichledtoaslappingincident on Carinas beautiful face. What is the crimecommittedbyCindy? A: 1. Sl e to cast dishonor to the person slapped. 2. Illtreatment if the slapping onofcastingdishonor, ortohumiliateorembarrasstheoffended partyoutofaquarrel A.8353) Q:Howisrapecommitted? A: 1. By a man who shall have carnal kn What are the elements of rape by a man who shallhavecarnalknowledgeofawoman ender had carnal knowledge of the woman 3. Suchactisaccomplishedunderanyofth ces: a. Throughforce,threatorintimidation b. Whentheoffendedpartyisdeprived o ise unconscious c. By means of fraudulent machination orgraveabuseofauthority artyisunder12 years of age or is demented, even though none of the above ci bove be present. Q: What are the elements of rape by sexual assault?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: 1. 2. Offender commits an act of sexual assault Theactofsexualassaultisc ngmeans: a. By inserting his penis into another personsmouthoranalorifice,or mentorobject into the genital or anal orifice of anotherperson The act of ished underanyofthefollowingcircumstances: a. Byusingforceorintimidation,or prived of reasonorotherwiseunconscious,or c. By means of fraudulent machination thority,or d. When the woman is under 12 years ofageordemented. 2. Thereis ause impossible crimes can only be committedagainstpersonsorproperty. 3.

Note:UnderR.A.8353,thecrimeofrapecannowbe committedbyamaleorfemale. ndancy or influence on the offended party, it is not necessary thatthelatterp ance.

Q:Isthereacrimeoffrustratedrape? A:None.Theslightestpenetrationofpenisin consummates the crime of rape. However, mere touching alone of the genitalsand dumcanonly be considered as attempted rape, if not acts of lasciviousness. dconvincingproofthat the penis indeed touched the labia or slid into the fema rokedtheexternal surface thereof, for an accused to be convicted of consummated . Brioso, G.R. No. 182517,March13,2009) Note:Whenthewomanisunder12yearsofageoris demented,sexualintercoursewithher f the sexual intercourse was with her consent,themanisliable.

Q: What are the effects of the reclassification of rapeintoacrimeagainstpe irementofconsentof the offended party to file the case is no longer needed b lic crime, unlike when it was still classifiedasacrimeagainstchastity.

Q:WhatarethekindsofrapeunderR.A.8353? A: 1. The traditional concept u a woman against her will. The offended party is always a womanandtheoffender ssault committed with an instrument or an object or use of the penis with or anal orifice. The offended party or offendercaneitherbeamanorawoman, tha es an instrumentintheanalorificeofmale,she orhecanbeliableforrape. Q ufficient to consummate culprits purpose 2. Considerage,sizeandstrengthofparti ntoeachother Q: Geronimo, a teacher, was tried and convicted for12counts everal occasions, committed on one of his students by inserting his penis in t n appeal, Geronimo contends that the actscomplainedofdonotfallwithinthedefini ed in the RPC, particularly that rape is a crime committed by a man against ntioncorrect? A:No.Rapemaybecommittednotwithstandingthe fact that pers 353 provides that an act of sexual assault can be committedbyanypersonwhoins th or anal orifice, or any instrument or object into the genital or anal orif n. The law, unlike rape under Art. 266A, has not made any distinction on the der or the victim. Neither must the courts makesuchdistinction.(Ordinariov.Peo ,May20,2004) Q: Is the victims reputation considered in the prosecut there being absolutely no nexus between it and the odious deed committed. A wo s could still be a victim of rape, the essence thereof being 190


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons carnalknowledgeofawomanwithoutherconsent. Q:Whenisitconsideredasqualified the following circumstances,rapeispunishablebydeath: 1. When by reason or on ,ahomicideiscommitted 2. Whenthevictimisunder18yearsofage and the offend pparent, guardian, relative by consanguinity or affinity within the third civil onlawspouseof thevictim. Note: A stepbrother or stepsister relationship between the offender and the of ot elevate the crime to qualified rape because they are notrelatedeitherbyblo eration is exclusive. Hence, the common law husband of the victims grandmother

physicalmutilationordisability. 10. When the offender knew of the pregnancy o ty at the timeofthecommissionoftherape. 11. When the offender knew of th al disorder, and/or physicalhandicapoftheoffendedpartyat thetimeofthecommissi Note:Theforegoingcircumstancesareinthenatureof qualifying aggravating circumst t be specifically pleaded or alleged with certainty in the information.

3. When the victim is under the custody of the police or military authorities entorpenalinstitution. When rape is committed in full view of the husband, dren or other relatives within the third civil degreeofconsanguinity. When t in a legitimatereligiousvocationorcallingand is personally known to be such b e or after the commission ofthecrime. When the victim is a child below 7 nows that he is inflicted with HIV/AIDS or any other sexually transmissible dec us or decease is transferred to the victim. When committed by any member of ry units thereof or the PNP or any law enforcement agency or penalinstitution, advantageofhispositiontofacilitatethe commissionofthecrime. When by reason pe, the victim has suffered permanent

Q:Whataretheeffectsofpardononthecriminal liabilityoftheaccusedchargedwith ay pardon the offender through a subsequent valid marriage, the effect of which nctionoftheoffendersliability. 2. Similarly, the legal husband maybe pardoned the wife providedthatthemarriageisnotvoidab initio.(Art.266C) Note: Under thenew law, the husband may be liable for rape, if his wife does h him.Itisenoughthatthereisindicationofanyamount ofresistanceastomakeitra 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Q:Whatisincestuousrape? A: It refers to rape committed by an ascendant ployment of force and intimidation indispensableinincestuousrape? A: No, bec ng and overbearing moralinfluenceoftheascendantoverthedaughter takes the place fer of resistance required in rape cases committed by an accused havingnoblood evictim. Q: Does the absence of signs of external physical injuriessignify he rapevictim? A: No. Resistance from the victim need not be carried to t r sustaining physicalinjuriesatthehandsoftherapist. Note: In rape, the force and intimidation must be viewed in light of the vict 9.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 judgment at the time of commission of the crime. As already settled in the ju l victims react the same way. Moreover, resistance is not an elementofrape.A ove thatshedidallwithinherpowertoresisttheforceor intimidationemployeduponh ntimidation employed upon her. As long as the force or intimidation is present, ore orlessirresistibleisbesidethepoint.(Peoplev.Baldo, G.R.No.175238,Feb.24,

andactsoflasciviousness? A: ATTEMPTEDRAPE Thereisintenttoeffect sexualcohesion, althoughunsuccessful. ACTSOF SS Thereisnointentiontolie withtheoffendedwoman. Theintentionismerelyto sat

Q:Whataretheelementsofstatutoryrape? A: 1. Accused had carnal knowledge rsofage. Note: In statutory rape, the offenders knowledge of thevictimsageisimmateri

Q: Suppose a tenyear old girl consented to the sexualintercourse,willsuchcons cause consent is immaterial in statutory rape.Themerefactofhavingsexualrelatio arsoldconsummatestheoffense andconsentisnotadefense. Ratio:Itisnotnecessarythatthevictimwasintimated or force used against her be e, the law presumes that the victim on account of her tenderagedoesnotandca

Q: Suppose as 31 year old retardate with mental capacity of a 5year old w mmitted? A: Statutory rape. Her mental and not only her chronological age i v. Manalpaz,G.R.No.L41819,Feb.28,1978) Note:Inincestuousrapeofaminor,proofofforceand violence exerted by the offend oralascendancyorparentalauthorityoftheaccused overtheoffendedpartytakesthepla

Q: Is medical examination an indispensable elementintheprosecutionofrape? ical examination is merelycorroborativeinnature. Q: If on the occasion or timdied,whatisthecrimecommitted? A:The special complex crime or rape wi fferencebetweenattemptedrape

Q: What are the three wellknown principles to guidethecourtinrapecases? ith facility, is difficult to prove, but more difficult for person accused, tho isprove 2. Onlytwopersonsareinvolved,testimony of complainant must be scruti ution. 3. The evidence for the prosecution must standorfallonitsownmerits strength from the weaknessoftheevidenceofthedefense. A.AntiViolenceagainst 004(R.A.9262) Q: What does violence against women and their childrenmean? irchildrenrefers to any act or a series of acts committed by any person agai fe, former wife, or against a woman with whom the person has or had a sexual p, or with whomhehasacommonchild, oragainstherchild whether legitimate or i ithoutthefamilyabode,whichresultinorislikely to result in physical, sexual, suffering, or economic abuse including threats of suchacts,battery,assault,coerc ntor arbitrarydeprivationofliberty. Note: The dating relationship that the law contemplates can, therefore, exist ual intercourse taking place between those involved. An "awaybati" or a fighta en two lovers is a common occurrence. Their takingplacedoesnotmeanthattherom hetwoshouldbedeemedbrokenupduring periods of misunderstanding. (Ang v. CA, GR ,JusticeAbad) Q:WhatarethepunishableactsunderRA9262? 192


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons A: The crime of violence against women and their childreniscommittedthroughany : 6. 1. Causing physical harm to the woman or herchild Threatening to cause dphysicalharm Attempting to cause the woman or her childphysicalharm Placi f imminentphysicalharm Attempting to compel or compelling the womanorherchil ch the woman or her child has the right to desist from or desist from conduc child has the right to engage in, or attempting to restrict or restricting the ld s freedom of movement or conduct by force or threat of force, physical or of physical or other harm, or intimidation directedagainstthewomanorchild.This t not limited to, the following acts committed with the purpose or effect of ricting the woman s or her child s movementorconduct: a. Threatening to depriv rivingthewomanor her child of custody to her/his family b. Depriving or thre he woman or her children of financial support legallydueherorherfamily,or de the woman s children insufficient financialsupport c. Depriving or threatening t ewomanorherchild ofalegalright d. Preventing the woman in engaging in any ccupation, business or activity or controlling the victim s own money or propert y controlling the conjugal or commonmoney,orproperties Inflicting or threateni ysical harm on oneself for the purpose of controllingheractionsordecisions C g to cause the woman or her child to engage in any sexual activity which doe yforceorthreatofforce,physical harm, or through intimidation directed againstt r/his immediatefamily Engaging in purposeful, knowing, or reckless conduct, per rough anotherthatalarmsorcausessubstantial emotionalorpsychologicaldistresstoth .Thisshallinclude,but notbelimitedto,thefollowingacts: a. Stalkingorfollowi n public or private places b. Peering in the window or lingering outside the r norherchild c. Entering or remaining in the dwelling or on the property of ainst her/hiswill d. Destroying the property and personalbelongingsorinflicting ls or pets of the womanorherchild e. Engaging in any form of harassmentor r emotional anguish, public ridicule or humiliation to the woman or her child, ot limitedto,repeatedverbalandemotional abuse, and denial of financial support hildrenofaccesstothe woman schild/children.(Sec.5) 2. 7. 3. 4. 8. 5. 9.

B.AntiChildPornographyLaw(R.A.9775) Q:WhoareconsideredchildrenunderR.A.97 onbelow18yearsofage or over, but is unable to fully take care of themselves elty,


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 exploitationordiscriminationbecauseofaphysical ormentaldisabilityorcondition. Note:Achildshallalsoreferto: 1. A person regardless of age who is presented, ild asdefinedherein Computergenerated, digitally or manually craftedimagesorg isrepresentedorwhoismadetoappearto beachildasdefinedherein. b.

Audio representation of a person who is orisrepresentedasbeingachildandwho ented as being engaged in explicit sexual activity, or an audio representation , encouragesorcounselsanysexualactivity with children which is an offense unde Note: Such representation includes audio recordings and live audio transmission c rough whatever medium includingrealtimeinternetcommunications 2. Q:Whatischildpornography? A: Childpornography refers to any public or private

representation, by whatever means, of a child engaged in real or simulated expl ivities or any representation of the sexual parts ofachildforprimarilysexualp ldpornographymaterials? A:Childpornographymaterialsreferstothemeans andmethod raphyiscarried out: 1. Astoform: a. Visualdepictionwhichincludesnot onlyimag igital image, computer image or computergenerated image that is indistinguishable f real children engaging in an explicit sexual activity. Visual depiction shall ndeveloped film and videotapes ii. Dataand/orimagesstoredona computer disk or ns capable of conversion intoavisualimage iii. Photograph,film,video,picture, picture, computer image or picture, whether made or produced by electronic, mech er means iv. Drawings, cartoons, sculptures orpaintingsdepictingchildren v. Ot s visual depiction

c.Writtentextormaterialthatadvocatesor counsels explicit sexual activity wit nant characteristic isthedescription,forasexualpurpose,of anexplicitsexualacti As to content: It includes representation of a person who is, appears to be, being a child, the dominant characteristic of which is the depiction,forasexua Sexualorganortheanalregion, orarepresentationthereof;or b. Breasts, or a re asts,ofafemaleperson.

Q:Whatisexplicitsexualactivity? A: Explicit sexual activity refers to actual exual intercourse or lascivious act including, but not limited to, contact invol enital,oraltogenital, anal to genital or oral to anal, whether betweenpersons x Bestiality Masturbation Sadisticormasochisticabuse Exhibition of the genitals, reast,pubicareaand/oranus Use of any object or instrument for lasciviousacts 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 194


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons Q:Whatisgrooming? 5. A:Groomingreferstotheactofpreparingachildor someone wh o be a child for sexual activity or sexual relationship by communicatinganyfor y. Note: Grooming includes online enticement or enticementthroughanyothermeans. 6.

Q:Whatisluring? A: Luring refers to the act of communicating, by means of a child or someone who the offender believes to be a child for the purpose of ission of sexual activity or production of any form of child pornography. Q:Wh alpurposes? A: It refers to purposes which will fulfill all the followingcondi age person applying contemporary community standards would find the work taken a aling to prurient interest and satisfying only the market for gratuitous sexand k depicts or describes sexual conductinapatentlyoffensiveway Theworktakenas ntext, manner or presentation, intention and culture, lascivious, literary, artist icalandscientificvalue 7.

To publish, post, exhibit, disseminate, distribute, transmit or broadcast child y or child pornography materials To knowingly possess, view, download, purchase ake steps to procure,obtainoraccessforpersonaluse childpornographymaterials child pornography byluringorgroomingachild.

C.AntiHazingLaw(R.A.8049) Q:WhatisHazing? A: Hazing is an initiation rit e for admission into membership in a fraternity, sorority or organization by pl it, neophyte or applicant in some embarrassing or humiliating situations such as o do menial, silly, foolish and other similar tasks or activities or otherwise hysicalorpsychologicalsufferingorinjury. Q:Whataretheallowedinitiationrites? ed by organizations which shall include any club or the AFP, PNP, PMA, or o he Citizen s Military Training and CAT. The physical, mental and psychological t aining procedure and practices to determine and enhance the physical,mentalandp tness of prospective regular members of the AFP and the PNP as approved by th nal Defense and the National Police Commission duly recommended by the Chief of eDirectorGeneralofthePNP. Those conducted by any fraternity, sororityororgan ten noticetotheschoolauthoritiesorheadof organization7daysbeforetheconductof 2. 3.

Q:WhatarepunishableactsunderRA9775? A:Thepunishableactsare: 1. Tohire,empl oerce a child to perform in the creation orproductionofchildpornography Top tureorcreate any form of child pornography and child pornographymaterials To eandpromotechild pornography and child pornography materials To possess, downl reproduce or make available child pornography materials with the intent of selli ingthem 2. 2. 3. Q:Whoareliable? A: 1. Theff.areliableasPRINCIPAL: 4.



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 a. A: The officers and members of the fraternity, sorority or organization who cipated in the inflictionofphysicalharm. The parents of one of the officer y,sororityor organization, when they have actual knowledge of the hazing conduc e but failed to take any action to prevent the same from occurring. The off s or alumni of the organization, group, fraternity or sorority who actually pla although not present when the acts constituting hazingwerecommitted. 1. Whent ompaniedby force, violence, threat, intimidation or deceit on the person of the usestojoin When the recruit, neophyte or applicant initiallyconsentstojoinb ing will be committed on his person,ispreventedfromquitting When the recru t having undergone hazing is prevented from reporting the unlawful act to his s,totheproperschool authorities, or to the police authorities, through force, or intimidation Whenthehazingiscommittedoutsideof theschoolorinstitution fage atthetimeofthehazing. b. 2. 3. c. 4.

Note:Thepresenceofanypersonduringthehazingis prima facie evidence of particip ncipal,UNLESShepreventedthecommissionofthe actspunishabletherein. 5.

Theff.areliableasACCOMPLICE: a. The owner of the place where the hazing is ctual knowledge of the hazing conducted therein but failed to take anyactionto ccurring. b. The school authorities including facultymemberswhoconsenttothe ha actual knowledgethereof,butfailedtotake anyactiontopreventthesamefrom occurri bleacts? A: 1. Hazing or initiation rites in any form or manner by a fra ization without prior written notice to the school authorities or head of organ retheconductof suchinitiation. 2. Infliction of any physical violence during in :Whenwillmaximumpenaltybeimposed? 2.

Note: Any person charged under this provision shall not be entitled to the mit ance that therewasnointentiontocommitsograveawrong.

D.SpecialProtectionofChildrenAgainstChild Abuse,Exploitation,andDiscriminationAc mended) Q:Ingeneral,whatarethepunishableactsunder thisact? A: Childprostitu (Sec.5) 2. Childtrafficking.(Sec.7) Q:Whatischildprostitution? A: Children, male, who for money, profit, or any other consideration or due to the coercion y adult, syndicate or group, indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct nishableactsunderSec.5? A:ThePunishableactsaretheff: 1. Those who engage in or induce child prostitution 1. 196


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Persons whichinclude,butarenotlimitedto,the following: a. Acting as a procurer of a nducingapersontobeaclientofa child prostitute by means of written or oral milarmeans c. Taking advantage of influence or relationship to procure a child . Threatening or using violence towards a child to engage him as a prostitute yconsiderationgoods orotherpecuniarybenefittoachild with intent to engage suc ion Those who commit the act of sexual intercourse of lascivious conduct with in prostitution or subject toothersexualabuse Note: Provided, That when the victims is under12yearsofage,theperpetratorssha rticle335,paragraph 3,forrapeandArticle336ofActNo.3815, asamended,theRPC,f sthecasemaybe. Provided, That the penalty for lascivious conduct when the f age shall be reclusion temporal in its mediumperiod 2.

insidetheroomorcubicleofahouse,an inn, hotel, motel, pension house, apartelle ablishments, vessel, vehicle or any other hidden or secludedareaundercircumstanc lead a reasonable person to believe that the child is about to be exploitedin exual abuse. 2. Any person is receiving services from a child in a sauna par clinic, health club and other similar establishments. Q:Whatischildtrafficking ho shall engage in trading and dealing with children including, but not limited gandsellingofachildformoney,or foranyotherconsideration,orbarter. Q: Whe child trafficking? A: There is an attempt to commit child trafficking when: A ne to a foreign country withoutvalidreasonthereforandwithout clearance issued en permit or justification from the child s parentsorlegalguardian 2. Aperson mentorchild caring institution recruits women or couples to bear children for dtrafficking 3. A doctor, hospital or clinic official or employee, nurse, midw l registrar or any other person simulates birthforthepurposeofchildtrafficking es in the act of finding children among lowincome families, hospitals, clinics, are centers, or other childduring institutions who can be offered for the purp cking. E.JuvenileJusticeandWelfareActof2006 (R.A.9344) Q:Whataretheproh conduct of the proceedings beginning 1. 3.

Those who derive profit or advantage therefrom,whetherasmanagerorowner of th re the prostitution takes place, or of the sauna, disco, bar, resort, place of establishment serving as a cover or which engages in prostitution in addition t or which the license has beenissuedtosaidestablishment.

Q: When is there an attempt to commit Child Prostitution? A:Thereisanattemp ion when: 1. Anypersonwho,notbeingarelativeofa child, is found alone with t


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 from the initial contact with the child, the competentauthoritiesmust: 1. Refr rlabelingchildren as young criminals, juvenile delinquents, prostitutes or attach in any manneranyotherderogatorynames 2. Make no discriminatory remarks partic ct to the child s classorethnicorigin.(Sec.60) Note:Thefollowingandanyothersimilaractsshallbe considered prejudicial and det hological, emotional, social, spiritual, moral and physical health and wellbeing in conflict withthelawandtherefore,prohibited: 1. Employment of threats of w ure 2.Employmentofabusive,coerciveandpunitive measuressuchascursing,beating,st aryconfinement 3. Employment of degrading, inhuman end cruel forms of punishment ng the heads, pouring irritating, corrosive or harmful substances over the body conflict with the law, or forcing him/her to walk around the community wearing rrass, humiliate, and degrade his/her personality and dignity 4. Compelling the orm involuntary servitude in any and all forms under any and all instances.(Se vi. Crimes Involving Destruction (Art. 324) b.

SpecialPenalLaws: i. TheLawonArson(P.D1613) ii. ToxicSubstancesandHazardous rol Act of 1990 (R.A.6969) iii. Atomic Energy Regulatory and LiabilityActof196 ntiHijackingLaw(R.A.6235) v. AntiPiracy and AntiHighway RobberyLawof1974(PD ng the Laws on Illegal and Unlawful Possession, Manufacture, Dealing in, Acquisi sition of Firearms, AmmunitionsorExplosives(PD1866, asamended

Note:Providedthatsuchacts: 1. Sow and create a condition of widespread and ext d panic among the populace 2. Coerce the government to give in to an unlawf

F.HumanSecurityActof2007(R.A.9372) Q:Whatarethepunishableactsofterrorism? an act punishable underanyofthefollowingprovisionsofthe: a. RPC: i. Piracy n the HighSeasorinthePhilippineWaters (Art.122) ii. RebellionorInsurrection(Ar d etat, including acts committed by private persons (Art. 134a) iv. Murder(Art ping and Serious Illegal Detention(Art.267)

2. Persons who conspire to commit the crime of terrorism. Q.Whomaybeliabl e of terrorism is committed by any person who engages in any of the following er the RPC and other special laws. Provided, that such acts sows and creates eadandextraordinaryfearand panic among the populace and to coerce the governme ldemand.(Sec. 3) 198


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security

IX.CRIMESAGAINSTLIBERTYANDSECURITY KIDNAPPINGANDSERIOUSILLEGALDETENTION (Ar tsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisaprivateindividualwhoisnot anyofthepare ins another, or in any other manner deprives the latter of his liberty 3. Act apping must be illegal 4. In the commission of the offense, any of thefollowin esent: a. Kidnapping or detention lasts for morethan3days b. It is committed uthority c. Any serious physical injuries are inflicted upon the person kidnapped rthreatstokillhimare made d. Thepersonkidnappedordetainedis aminor,female nceofthiscrime? A: The essence of this offense is the actual deprivationo he intent of the accused to effect it. There must be indubitable proof that t he malefactor was to deprive the offended party of liberty. The restraint howev rmanent. (People v. Pavillare, G.R. No. 129970, Apr.5,2000) Note:Ifthepersonkilled,torturedorrapedisnotthe same victim of kidnapping or ay be complexed or be considered as separate offenses.

consented to go with the offender to a place but the victim is thereafter pre of force, fromleavingtheplacewherehewasbroughttowith his consent and is det he offender is guilty of kidnapping and serious illegal detention (People v. Pi 20409, Oct. 23, 2003).

Q: What are the distinctions between kidnapping andslightillegaldetention? A KIDNAPPING Itsessenceistransporting theoffendedpartyfrom oneplacetoanother. Th deristoextort ransomeitherfromthe victimorfromanyother person. SLIGHTILLEGAL nedofhis libertywithout necessarilytransporting himfromoneplaceto another. Ap otforransom.

Q: Is it necessary that the victim be placed in an enclosure? A:No.Itm nenclosurebutalsoindetaininghimordepriving himinanymannerofhisliberty. Note: The crime is committed when the offender left thechildinthehouseofanot edomoflocomotionbutnotthefreedomtoleaveit atwillbecauseofhistenderage.(Peo gh the victim may have at the inception

Q: If a person is transported from one place to another,whatcrimesmaybepos ble abduction If a woman is transportedfromoneplacetoanotherby virtueofre hatactiscoupledwithlewddesigns. 2. Kidnappingwithseriousillegaldetention I strain her liberty. There is no lewd design or intent. 3. Grave coercion usttobreakherwill,tocompelher to agree to demand or request by the offender Illustration: Ifthevictimwasnotkidnappedortakenawaybutwas restrainedand depr ke inthe case ofahostageincidentwheretheaccused,whowasone oftheoccupantsof knife on the latters neck, called for media people anddemandedavehiclefromth lduseinescaping,asitturnedoutthattherewas an unserved arrest warrant against sSeriousillegaldetention(withoutkidnapping anymore)butlikewiseunderArt.267ofthe

Q: What are the circumstances which qualify the crimeofkidnappingandserious


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A:Deathpenaltyshallbeimposedinthefollowing: 1. If the purpose of the kidna . When the victim is killed or dies as a consequenceofthedetention. 3. When nthevictimissubjectedtotortureor dehumanizingacts. Note:Ifthevictimisawomanorapublicofficer,the detention is always serious no odofdetentionis.

Q: What is the crime if a 3year old boy was kidnapped, gagged and hidden eraskedforransom? A: The demand for ransom did not convert the offensefro dant was well awarethat the child would be suffocated to death in a few mome demand for ransom is only a part of the diabolic scheme of the defendant to nceal his body and then demand money before the discovery of the cadaver. (Peo o.49430,Mar.30,1982). Q: What is the main distinction between illegal deten ion? A: ILLEGALDETENTION Committedbyaprivate personwhokidnaps,detains orotherwisedepriv berty. Crimeisagainstpersonal libertyandsecurity. ARBITRARY DETENTION Committedb erwhodetainsa personwithoutlegal grounds. Crimeagainstthe fundamentallawof th

Q: What special complex crimes may arise in kidnapping? A: 1. Kidnappingw gwithrape 3. Kidnappingwithphysicalinjuries Q:Howisthetermhomicideinthel d? A: Homicide is used in the generic sense and includesmurderbecausethek ecrimebutaqualifyingcircumstance.

Q: Suppose a group of men kidnapped 3 Chinese childrenforthepurposeofextortin ents. Because the parents of the kidnapped victims were not able to meet the dnappers, they killed the victims.Whatis/arethecrime/scommittedbythe kidnappers pingwithhomicide.Assuch, it is a single indivisible offense and not a complex f the number of persons killed whoarenecessarilythekidnappedvictims,thereis o ngwithhomicide. Illustration: Where after taking the victim with her car, use of the victim asking for ransom but upon going to their safehouse saw sev sing them, prompting them to kill their victim inside the car, there were two dnapping for ransom and murder, not a complex crime of kidnapping with murdera iedawaytobe killed, killing being an afterthought. (People v. Evanoria,209SCRA hhomicide,woulditmakeany difference if the killing was purposely sought or wa ? A: No. Regardless of whether the killing was purposely sought or was mer idnappingandthehomicideormurderarenot treated as separate crimes nor can they .48butshallbepunishedasa specialcomplexcrime. Q: Suppose the persons kill ping are other persons, not the victims themselves,whatis/arethecrime/scommitte mesofmurderorhomicideand kidnapping. The killing would be treated as a separa taking of the victim is only incidentaltothebasicpurposetokill,whatisthe cr ymurdernotthespecialcomplex crime of kidnapping with homicide because the prim o kill the victim and the deprivationoflibertyismerelyincidentalthereto. Q mdisappeared,will such disappearance negative criminal liability of thekidnappers 200


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security A:No,becauseinkidnapping,theessentialelement is deprivation of the victims ent disappearance of the victim will not exonerate the accused from prosecution. dnapperscaneasilyavoidpunishment by the simple expedient of disposing of their at is the effect of the voluntary release of the victim on the criminal liabi rs? A:Qualify. 1. If it is serious illegal detention, the voluntary rele inalliabilityoftheoffenders. 2. If it is slight illegal detention, the volun tigate the criminalliabilityoftheoffenders. 3. In kidnapping for ransom, volu otmitigatethecrime. Q:Whatisaransom? A: A ransom is the money, price edemptionofacaptured person or persons, the payment of which releases themfrom eeventhoughwhat is being demanded is due to the offender such as debtorrent Note:Theransomismerelyaqualifyingcircumstance and no matter how short the det ng is, the crime is still committed because ransomisnotanelementofkidnapping. anecessarymeansto commitonlythefirst rape,thustheotherrape incidentswillbet Ifrapeismerely attempted,thereisonly forcibleabduction,the attempttorapeis d tionoflewd designs.

Ifrapewasmerely attempted,2separate crimesarecommitted kidnappingandserious i ttemptedrape.

Q:Whatdistinguisheskidnappingforransomfrom robbery, insofar as the delivery dersisconcerned? A: KIDNAPPINGFOR RANSOM Ransomispaidin exchangeforthe offendedpartysliberty. ROB fendersisnottorestrain ordeprivethevictimof hislibertybuttodivest himofhis

Q: What sets kidnapping apart from forcible abduction? A: KIDNAPPING Attheoutset,the intentionoftheoffender ismerelytodetainthe victim. Attheoutset,thetaking ofthevictimiscoupled withlewddesigns.

SLIGHTILLEGALDETENTION (Art.268) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? kidnaps or detains another, or in any othermannerdepriveshimofhisliberty 3. ionisillegal 4. Crime is committed without the attendance of any of the circum edinArt.267 Q: In cases of kidnapping, what is the liability of the perso ere the victimisbeingheld? A:Thepersonhasthesameliabilityastheprincipal y acts as an accomplice. Note: When the victim is female the detention is

Q: What are the distinctions between kidnapping withrapeandforcibleabduction KIDNAPPINGWITHRAPE Thecrimeiscompositeor aspecialcomplexcrimeif thewomankidn eisnolewddesign Rapeisnotaseparate crimebutmerelya qualifyingcircumstance. es,thereisonlyone crimeofkidnappingwith rape. FORCIBLEABDUCTION WITHRAPE The .48since forcibleabductionisa necessarymeansto committherape. Thereislewdde ratecrime. Iftherearemultiple rapes,onlyonerapeshall becomplexedwith forcible


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 underArt.267,voluntarilyreleaseisnotmitigating. 2.

UNLAWFULARREST (Art.269) Q:Whataretheelementsofunlawfularrest? A: erson 2. Purpose of the offender is to deliver him totheproperauthorities 3. A n is not authorized by law or there is no reasonable ground thereof Note: A ers to warrantlessarrest. 3. 4.

If the person arrested is not delivered to the authorities, the private individ rrest incurs criminal liability forillegaldetentionunderArt.267or268. If the c officer, the crime is arbitrary detention under Article 124. If the detent legal ground, but the public officer delays delivery of the person arrested to ial authorities, the crime is delay in the delivery of detained persons underA

Note: In unlawful arrest, the detention is only incidental. Generally, this y incriminating innocent persons by the offenders planting evidence tojustifyth eresultsthatis unlawful arrest through incriminatory machinations underArticle

Q:WhatarethedistinctionsbetweenDelayinthe DeliveryofDetainedPersonsandUnla DELAYINTHEDELIVERY OFDETAINEDPERSONS Detentionisforsome legalground Crimeisc iversuch persontotheproper judicialauthoritywithin acertainperiod UNLAWFULARRE uthorizedbylaw Committedbymakingan arrestnotauthorizedby law

Q:Whomaybeheldliableunderthisarticle? A:Offenderisanyperson,whetherapub al. However, the public officer must not be vested with the authority to arres n or must not act in his official capacity. Otherwise, Art.124 is applicable a t is the essence of the crime of unlawful arrest? A: The arrest must be ring the person arrested to the proper authoritiesbutitwasmadewithoutanyreaso ore. Q:Isthereaperiodofdetentionfixedbylaw? A: None. What is control tvariantcrimesarecommittedifaperson isarrestedand/ordetained? A: 1. If t rant and under circumstances not allowing a warrantless arrest, the crime would est.

KIDNAPPINGANDFAILURETORETURNAMINOR (Art.270) Q:Whataretheelementsofthi hthecustodyof aminorperson(whetheroverorunder7 yearsbutlessthan21yearsof o restore the said minortohisparentsorguardians. Note: What is actually punishable is not the kidnapping of the minor but rathe ailure or refusal of the custodian of the minor to restore the latter to his Said failureorrefusalmustnotonlybedeliberatebutmust alsobepersistentastoobl f the child to seek the aid of the courts in order to obtaincustody. I s absent, the kidnappingoftheminorwillthenfallunderArticle267 (kidnappingand on). If the accused is any of the parents, Article 267 does notapply.Ar Q: What is the main distinction between 202


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security kidnapping and serious illegal detention and kidnappingandfailuretoreturnaminor KIDNAPPINGAND SERIOUSILLEGAL DETENTION Offenderisnot entrustedwiththe custodyof PINGAND FAILURETORETURNA MINOR Offenderisentrustedwith thecustodyoftheminor eratefailureofthe offenderhavingthe custodyoftheminorto restorehimtohispare

Q: What is the main distinction between kidnapping and serious illegal detent nortoabandonhishome? A: KIDNAPPINGAND SERIOUSILLEGAL DETENTION(ART.267) Cannotbecommittedby theparents NGAMINORTO ABANDONHISHOME (ART.271) Parentscancommitthis crimeagainsttheiro Illegallydetainingor kidnappingtheminor

SLAVERY (Art.272) Q:WhataretheelementsofSlavery? A: 1. That the of insahumanbeing. 2. That the purpose of the offender is to enslavesuchhumanb ircumstance? A:Yes,suchaswhenthepurposeoftheoffenderis to assign the off affic.E.g.Prostitution Q: Is obliging a person to render service to one who nerationandto remainthereaslongasthedebtispaidconstitutes slavery? A: Ye ned. If the purpose is to enslave the victim, it is slavery; otherwise,itisk ntion. Q: What is the main distinction between slavery andwhiteslavetrade? SLAVERY Theoffenderisnot engagedinprostitution. WHITESLAVE TRADE Theoffenderisen itution.

Note: Kidnapping and failure to return a minor is necessarily included in Kidna us Illegal DetentionofMinor.

INDUCINGAMINORTOABANDONHISHOME (Art.271) Q:Whataretheelementsofthis years ofage)islivinginthehomeofhisparents orguardianorthepersonentrustedwi nduces said minor to abandon suchhome. Note: Inducement must be actual, committed with criminal intent, and determined use damage. The minor should not leave his home of his own free will. It is inor actuallyabandonsthehome.

Q:Whatistherationaleforpenalizingthecrimeof inducingaminortoabandonhishom ourageandprevent disruption of filial relationship and undue interferencewiththe utytothe custodyoftheirminorchildrenandtorearthem. Illustration: Father or mother may commit crimes under Arts.270 and 271 suc d mother are living separately, and the custody of the minor child has been g he other parent who kidnaps such minor child from the one having the lawful c or induces such minor to leavehishomeisliable. Note:Mitigatedifcommittedb .

Q: How is slavery distinguished from illegal detention? A: SLAVERY Thepurposeforthe detentionistoenslave theoffendedparty. ILLEGALDETENTIO eprive orrestraintheoffended partyofhisliberty. Note:Inboth,theoffendedpartyisdetained.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 EXPLOITATIONOFCHILDLABOR (Art.273) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? Itisagainstthewilloftheminor 3. It is under the pretext of reimbursing him an ascendant, guardian or person entrusted withthecustodyofsuchminor. Note:Indebtednessisnotagroundfordetention.

SERVICESRENDEREDUNDERCOMPULSIONIN PAYMENTOFDEBT (Art.274) Q:Whatarethe ompels a debtor to work for him, either as household servant or farm laborer orswill 3. The purpose is to require or enforce the paymentofadebt. Note: If there is no creditordebtor relationship between the offender and the oercioniscommitted.

Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Failingtorenderassistancetoanyperson w inhabited place wounded or in danger of dying when he can render such assistan ent to himself, unless such omission shall constitute a moreseriousoffense. eisnotinhabited b. Accused found there a person woundedorindangerofdying c. istance withoutdetrimenttohimself d. Accusedfailstorenderassistance 2. Failin assistance to another whom the offender has accidentallywoundedorinjured. Note: The character of the place is immaterial.

3. Failing to deliver a child under seven (7) years of age whom the offender otheauthoritiesorto hisfamily,orfailingtotakehimtoasafe place. Note: It is immaterial that the offender did notknowthatthechildisunder7yea

Q:WhatdistinguishesArt.274fromArt.273? A: EXPLOITATIONOFCHILD LABOR(ART.273) SERVICESRENDERED UNDERCOMPULSIONIN PAYMENTOF esnotdistinguish whethervictimisaminor ornot Debtorhimselfistheone compelled itedtohouseholdand farmwork The child under 7 years of age must be foundinanunsafeplace.

Victimisaminor Minoriscompelledto renderservicesforthe supposeddebtofhis pa norisnot limitedtohouseholdand farmwork ABANDONMENTOFPERSONSINDANGERAND ABANDONMENTOFONESOWNVICTIM (Art.275)

Q:Whatisanuninhabitedplace? A:Anuninhabitedplaceisdeterminedbypossibilit cefromanother.Evenif there are many houses around the place may still be uni ty of receiving assistance isremote. Q:Supposetheaccident(underthesecondfo o reckless imprudence or simple negligence, for what crime shall the offenderbe he accident is due to reckless imprudence or simple negligence, Art. 365 will aragraphthereofonabandonmentofonesvictim isaqualifyingcircumstanceandtherefore formation. If the fact of abandonment in the information for recklessorsi heaccused 204


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security willstillbeliableforprosecutionunderArt.275(2). ABANDONINGAMINOR (Art.27 . Offenderhasthecustodyofthechild 2. Childisunder7yearsofage 3. Heabandonss illthechildwhenthe latterisabandoned Q:Whatkindofabandonmentiscontemplated ntemplated by law is not the momentary leaving of a child but the abandonment eprives him of thecareandprotectionfromdangertohisperson. Q:Supposethere nderandthechilddies,whatisthecrime? A: The crime would be murder, parric ybe.Ifthechilddoesnot die, it is attempted or frustrated murder, parricide o ybe. Note: Intent to kill cannot be presumed from the death the child. The ruling s conclusivelypresumedfromthedeathofthevictimis applicable only to crimes aga to crimes against security, particularly the crime of abandoningaminorunderArt. andoningthechildistoloseitscivil status, the crime under Art.347 (concealment itimatechild)iscommitted. A permanent, conscious and deliberate abandonment article. There must be an interruption of the care and protection that a child nderage.

ABANDONMENTOFMINORBYAPERSON ENTRUSTEDWITHHISCUSTODY;INDIFFERENCEOF PARENTS(A lements of the crime of abandonment of minor by one charged with the rearingo ? A: 1. Offender has charge of the rearing of educationofaminor 2. He nstitutionorotherpersons 3. One who entrusted such child to the offender has h act; oriftheonewhoentrustedsuchchildto the offender is absent, the proper tedtoit Q: What are the elements of the crime of IndifferenceofParents? ects his children by not giving themeducation 3. Hisstationinliferequiressuc ncialconditionpermitsit Note: Failure to give education must be due to deliberatedesiretoevadesuchobl

Q: What are the distinctions between Abandonment of Minor by Person Entrusted Indifference of Parents (Art.277) and AbandoningaMinor(Art.276)? A: ABANDONMENTOF MINORBYAPERSON ENTRUSTEDWITHHIS CUSTODY;INDIFFERENCE OFPARENTS(A fthe offenderisspecific,thatis, thecustodyfortherearing oreducationofthemin e. Minorisdeliveredtoa publicinstitutionorother person. ABANDONINGA MINOR(ART

Q:Whatarethequalifyingcircumstances? A: 1. When death of the minor resul Iflifeoftheminorwasindangerbecause oftheabandonment. Note:Iftheoffenderistheparentoftheminorwhois abandoned,heshallbedeprivedof

Thecustodyofthe minorisstatedin general. Minorisunder7years ofage. Minoris ve himofthecareand protectionthathis tenderyearsneed.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 EXPLOITATIONOFMINORS (Art.278) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Caus rmanydangerousfeatofbalancing, physical strength or contortion, the offenderbei mployingchildrenunder16yearsofage who are not the children or descendants of itions of acrobat, gymnast, rope walker, diver, or wild animal tamer, the offen obat,etc.,orcircusmanagerorperson engagedinanyofsaidcallings 3. Employinga f age in dangerous exhibitions enumerated in the next preceding paragraph,theof gedin anyofthesaidcallings. 4. Delivering a child under 16 years of age g f any of the callingsenumeratedinparagraph2,orto any habitual vagrant or beg g an ascendant, guardian, teacher or person entrusted in any capacitywiththeca nducing any child under 16 years of age to abandon the home of its ascendants rs or teachers to follow any person entrusted in any of the callings mentioned o accompany any habitual vagrant or beggar,theoffenderbeinganyperson. Note: Age must be below 16 years. At this age, the minorisstillgrowing. Rat scendant,thelaw regards that he would look after the welfare and protectionof sloweredto12 years.Belowthatage,thecrimeiscommitted.

Q:WhatarethedistinctionsbetweenExploitation ofMinors(Art.278,Par.5)andInduci me(Art.271)? A: EXPLOITATIONOFMINORS (ART.278,PAR.5) Thepurposeofinducingthe minortoabandon nengagedin anyofthecallingsmentioned. Victimisunder16yearsofage. INDUCINGA .271) Nosuchperson. Victimisaminor (under18yearsof age)

Q: Correlate exploitation of minors to R.A. 7610 (Special Protection of Child Abuse,ExploitationandDiscriminationAct). A: EXPLOITATIONMINORS Appliestominorsbelow 16yearsofage Thebusinessisofsuch kin imboftheminor indanger,eventhough workingforhimisnot againstthewillofthe edphysicalinjuries whileworking,the employershallbeliable forsaidphysicalinjur iability forexploitationof minors. R.A.7610 Appliestominorsbelow 18yearsold A sinimical eventhoughthereisno physicalriskand detrimentaltothechilds int hysical,and mentaldevelopmentof theminor. Nosuchsimilarprovision existsunderR.A.7610.

Q:WhatkindofbusinessdoesArt.278speakof? A: Art.278 contemplates a busin ildrensothattheythemselvesmayenjoy workingthereunawareofthedangertotheirown es. Q: Suppose the employer is the parent or ascendant of the child who i ereacrimeofexploitationofminors? A: The crime of exploitation of minors i saparentorascendant unlesstheminorislessthan12yearsold.

Q: Does the criminal liability for neglect of child under Art.59 (4) of P.D. th parents are guilty of neglecting the childs education? A: No. The law mmitted by any of the parents. Liability for the crime does not depend on whe soguiltyofneglect.Thelawintendstopunishthe neglectofanyparent,whichneglectc ivethechildtheeducationwhichthe familys station in life and financial conditi 206


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security permit. The irresponsible parent cannot exculpate himself from the consequences o ct by invokingtheotherparentsfaithfulcompliancewith hisorherownparentaldutie o.156013,July25,2006) Note:TheneglectofchildpunishedunderArt.59(4)of P.D. 603 is also a crime (kn rents) penalized under the second paragraph of Art.277 of the RPC (De Guzman v 56013,July25,2006).Hence,itisexcludedfromthe coverageofR.A.7610.

A: 1. Entering a dwelling of another at late hourofthenight When the entr tintendedforingress The existence of enmity or strained relations between the cupant. 2. 3.

ADDITIONALPENALTIESFOROTHEROFFENSES (Art.279) Note: The offender is not only liable for the abandonment or exploitation but nsequences.Ifasaresult,physicalinjuriesordeath resulted, another crime is comm y of Article279.

QUALIFIEDTRESPASSTODWELLING (Art.280) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrim tersthedwellingofanother 3. Suchentranceisagainstthelatterswill Q:Whatis rsoninhabitsorany building or structure exclusively devoted for rest and comfor lding is a dwelling houseornotdependsupontheuse.Itincludesthe dependencies w munication with the house. It is not necessary that it be a permanentdwelling E.g. 1. 2. Apersonsroominahotel Aroomwhereoneresidesasaboarder

Q:Citeexamplesoftrespassbymeansofviolence. A: 1. Pushing the door viol tsafterentering 2. Cutting of a ribbon string with which the doorlatchofac cutting of the fastenings of the door wasanactofviolence 3. Woundingbemeans mmediatelyafterentrance Q: Give examples of trespass by means of intimidatio er in the air by persons attempting to force their way into a house. 2. Th ainst inmates ofthehouseupongaininganentrance. Note:Theremustbeanoppositiononthepartofthe owner of the house to the entry n is not necessary when violence or intimidationwasemployedbytheoffender.

Note: In general, all members of the household must bepresumedtohaveauthority toenterthehouse.

Q:Whatismeantbythephraseagainstthewill? A:Againstthewillmeansthatt hibited. Q: What are some of the instances where prohibition to enter a dw umed?

Q: What are the various crimes that may be committedwhenapersontrespassesa se in entering the dwelling is notshown,trespassiscommitted. 2. If the purp bsorbed in the crime as in robbery with forceuponthings,thetrespassyieldingto . Butifthepurposeisnotshownandwhile inside the dwelling he was found by the s injured by him,thecrimecommittedwillbetrespass to dwelling and frustrated h juries,oriftherewasnoinjury,


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 unjustvexation. Q:Maytrespasstodwellingbecommittedbythe ownerofthehouse? has allowed the roomsorthehousestoberentedbyotherpersons, trespass to dwelli wner thereof enters the room or house without the knowledge andconsent and aga e boarderortenant. Q:Underwhatcircumstancesthecrimeoftrespass todwellingi rpose of the entrance is to prevent serious harm to himself, the occupantorth he purpose of the offender in entering is to render some service to humanityo ho shall enter cafes, taverns, inns and other public houses while they areopen tinctions between trespass to dwellingandviolationofdomicile? A: TRESPASSTO DWELLING VIOLATIONOFDOMICILE Maybecommittedonlybya publicofficeror ionmayconsist ofanyofthethreeacts mentionedinArticle128: 1. Entering the wner withoutjudicialorder 2.Searchingpapersorother effects found in such dw vious consent of the ownerthereof 3. Refusing to leave the dwelling when so r thereof, after having surreptitiously enteredsuchdwelling.

OTHERFORMSOFTRESPASSTODWELLING (Art.281) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrim premises or thefencedestateofanother. Note: The term premises signifies distinct and definite locality. It may mean dingordefinitearea,butineither case,localityisfixed. 2. 3. 4.

Entrance is made while either of them is uninhabited. Prohibitiontoenteris as not secured the permissionoftheownerorthecaretaker thereof.

Q: What are the distinctions between trespass to dwellingandtrespasstoproper TRESPASSTO DWELLING Offenderisaprivate person. Offenderentersa dwellinghouse. abited. Actconstitutingthe crimeisenteringthe dwellingagainstthe willoftheown er isexpressorimplied. TRESPASSTOPROPERTY Offenderisanyperson. Offenderenters cedestate. Placeenteredisuninhabited. Actconstitutingthecrimeis enteringtheclo ncedestatewithout securingthepermissionofthe ownerorcaretakerthereof. Prohibiti nifest.

Maybecommittedby anyprivateperson whoshallenterthe dwellingofanother against

GRAVETHREATS (Art.282) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Threaten erson, honor or property or thatofhisfamilyofanywrongamounting to a crime a osing any other condition even though not unlawful, and the offender attainedhi aking such threat without the

Note: When there is no overt act of the crime intended to be committed (e.g. respasstodwelling. 208


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security offender attaining his purpose. (Elements for this act are the same with the f urposeisnotattained.) Bythreateninganotherwiththeinfliction upon his person, thatofhisfamilyofanywrongamounting toacrime,thethreatnotbeingsubjectto ac THREAT Essenceofthreatis intimidation Wrongorharm doneisfutureand conditional eofcoercionisviolence orintimidation Thereisnoconditioninvolved; hence,therei rongdone 3.

Q:Whatistheessenceofthiscrime? A:Intimidation.Toconstitutegravethreats,it pon another. It is characterized by moral pressure that produces alarm. Note:Actthreatenedtobecommittedmustbewrong orunlawful.E.g.threateningtosueis edassoonasthethreatscometothe knowledge of the person threatened. It is not ded party was present at the timethethreatsweremade.

Q: What are the distinctions between threat and robbery? A: THREAT Intimidationisfutureand conditional. Intimidationmaybe throughanintermedia rtotheperson, honororproperty. Intenttogainisnot an essentialelement. Thedan ntlyimminent northegainoftheculprit immediate. ROBBERY Intimidationisactualand midationispersonal. Referstopersonal property. Thereisintenttogain. Thedanger mminenttothe victimandthe obtainmentofgain immediate.

Q:Whatisathreat? A: Threat is a declaration of an intention or determ sion uponhisperson,honororpropertyoruponthatof his family of some wrong whi ime. GR: The threats made in connection with the commission of the crime ar r. XPN:Ifthethreatwasmadewiththedeliberate purpose of creating in the min he belief that the threat would be carried into effect. In such a case the c and the minor crime which accompanieditshouldbedisregarded. Q: What is the ve Threats andLightThreats? A: GRAVETHREATS Whenthewrong threatenedtobeinflicted amountstoacrime. LIGHTTHREA tenedtobeinflicted doesnotamounttoa crime.

LIGHTTHREATS (Art.283) Q: What are the elements of this crime of Light reat to commit a wrong 2. Thewrongdoesnotconstituteacrime 3. There is a erconditioniscomposed,eventhough lawful 4. Offenderhasattainedorhasnotattain Note:Lightthreatisinthenatureofblackmailing.The wrong threatened does not amo edwithademandformoneyorotherconditions, eventhoughlawful.

Q: What are the two possible crimes involving blackmailing? A: 1. Light thr t to publish any libelous or slanderous matter againsttheoffendedparty. Q: What are the distinctions between threat and coercion?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 2. Threatening to publish a libel If there is such a threat to make a sl cation against the offended party. rightorwrong Q:Whataretheelementsofgra d another from doing something not prohibited by law, or that he compelled him ainsthiswill,beitrightorwrong. 2. Prevention or compulsion be effected by dation. 3. Personthatrestrainedthewillandliberty ofanotherhasnoauthorityofl Note: Coercion is consummated even if the offended party did not accede to the rcion. The essence of coercion is an attack on individual liberty.

E.g. A person threatens to expose the affairs of a marriedmanifthelatterdoes midationdoneunderademand.

BONDSFORGOODBEHAVIOR (Art.284) Note: The person making the threats under the precedingarticles(graveandlightt quiredbythecourttogivebailconditioneduponthe promisenottomolestthepersonthr

OTHERLIGHTTHREATS (Art.285) Q:WhatarethepunishableactsunderArt.285? rawingsuchweaponinaquarrel,unless it be in lawful selfdefense. Here, the wea . Orallythreateninganother,intheheatof anger, with some harm constituting a cr isting in the idea involvedinhisthreat 3. Anythreatmadeinajestorinthehea tonly 4. Orally threatening to do another any harmnotconstitutingafelony tthreats? A: It is not subject to a demand for money or any material con atened doesnotamounttoacrime. GRAVECOERCIONS (Art.286) Q:Whatareth ansofviolence, threat or intimidation, from doing somethingnotprohibitedbylaw other, by means of violence, threat or intimidation, to do something against hi it be

Q:Whencantherebegravecoercion? A: Grave coercion arises only if the ac thertodoisnotprohibited bylaworordinance. Q:Whatarethekindsofgravecoerc es violence topreventthevictimfromdoingwhathe wants to do. Here, the act pr ylaw. 2. Compulsive The offender uses violence tocompeltheoffendedpartyto . The act compelledmayormaynotbeprohibited bylaw. Q: What kind of viole cion? A: The violence employed must be immediate, actual or imminent. Otherw committed.Theessenceofcoercionisanattackon individualliberty. Q: Suppose a r to do an act because the act done is a crime, and violence and intimidatio grave coercion? A: No, because the act from which a person is prevented fr only give rise to threat or physical injuries, if some injuries areinflicted. 210


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security However, in case of grave coercion where the offendedpartyisbeingcompelled s will, whether it be wrong or not, the crimeofgravecoercioniscommittedifvi ployedinordertocompelhimto dotheact. Q: What distinguishes grave coercion GRAVECOERCION Theactofpreventingbyforce mustbemadeatthetimethe offendedpart prevented. UNJUST VEXATION Theactwas alreadydone whenviolenceis exerted.

part of the offended party but was only feigned.Thereisestafabecausedeceitis CHASEOFMERCHANDISEAND PAYMENTOFWAGESBYMEANSOFTOKENS (Art.288) Q:Whatare ompelling, directly or indirectly or knowingly permitting the forcing or compelli borer or employee of the offender to purchase merchandise or commodities of any ents: a. Offender is any person, agent or officer of any association or corpor h firm or corporation has employedlaborersoremployees c. He forces or compels ctly,orknowinglypermitstobe forcedorcompelled,anyofhisorits laborers or emp andise or commodities of any kind from him or said firm or corporation 2. P laborer or employee by means of tokens or objects other than the legal tender lippines, unless expressly requestedbysuchlaboreroremployee. Elements: a. Of s due a laborer or employee employed by himbymeansoftokensorobject b. Those her than the legal currency of the Philippines c. Such employee or laborer doe uestthathebepaidby meansoftokensorobjects Note: The use of tokens, promissory notes, vouchers, coupons,oranyotherformall al tender is absolutely prohibited even when expressly requestedbytheemployee. etogiveupanypartofhiswages by force, stealth, intimidation, threat or by an under Art. 116 of the Labor Code, andnotundertheRPC.

LIGHTCOERCION (Art.287) Q:Whataretheelementsoflightcoercion? A: ngbelongingtohisdebtor 3. Seizure of the thing cannot be accomplished by means splay of material force producing intimidation 4. Purpose of the offender is to othepaymentofthedebt Note:Lightcoercionunderthe1stpar.ofArt.287will be unjust vexation if the 3rd olenceorintimidation)isabsent.

Q: What is the purpose of the law for penalizing coercionandunjustvexation? tnopersonmaytake the law into his hands and that our government is oneofla of a debtor is seized, what variantcrimesmayresult? A: 1. Light coercion ropertyisappliedtothedebt. 2. Robbery If the value of the property seize debt (intenttogainispresentinthiscase)and violenceandintimidationareemployed. o obligation on the


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 FORMATION,MAINTENANCE,ANDPROHIBITION ORCOMBINATIONOFCAPITALORLABOR THROUGHVIOL 89) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderemploysviolenceort borers oremployeesinthefreelegalexerciseof theirindustryorwork. 2. Purpose n or prevent coalitions of capital or labor, strikeoflaborersorlockoutofemplo Note: The act should not be more serious offense. Preventingemployeefromjoining or organization is punished under the Labor Code, not undertheRPC.

A: ART.230 Publicofficercomesto knowthesecretofany privateindividualby reasonof t necessarilycontainedin papersorletters. Revealsthesecret withoutjustifiable r ffenderisaprivate individualorevenapublic officernotintheexercise ofhisoffi ythatthe offenderseizesthepapers orlettersofanotherto discoverthesecretsoft discovered,itisnot necessarythatitbe revealed.

REVEALINGSECRETSWITHABUSEOFOFFICE (Art.291) Q:Whataretheelementsof ee or servant 2. He learns the secrets of his principal or masterinsuchcapa crets Q:Whatistheessenceofthiscrime? A: The essence of this crime ourseofemployment. He is enjoying a confidential relation with the employer or ld respect the privacyofmatterspersonaltothelatter. REVELATIONOFINDUSTRIAL ementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisapersonincharge,employee or workman o alestablishment 2. Manufacturingorindustrialestablishment has a secret of the the offenderhaslearned 3. Offenderrevealssuchsecrets 4. Prejudiceiscausedto Note:Thebusinesssecretmustnotbeknowntoother business entities or persons. It vered, known and used by and must belong to

DISCOVERINGSECRETSTHROUGHSEIZUREOF CORRESPONDENCE(Art.290) Q:Whatareth is a private individual or even a public officer not in the exercise of his eseizesthepapersorlettersofanother 3. Purposeistodiscoverthesecretsofsuch r is informed of the contents of thepapersorlettersseized Q:Whatisthenatu e against the security of ones papers and effects. The purpose must be to di e act violates the privacy of communication. It is necessary that the offender scoverthecontentsoftheletter. Note: Contents of the correspondence need not be secret.Thepurposeoftheoffende ce totheoffendedpartyisnotanelementoftheoffense. It is not applicable ns entrusted with the custody of minors with respect to papers or letters of rs placed underthecareorcustody,ortospouseswithrespect tothepapersorletters

Q:Correlatearticles230(publicofficerrevealing secretsofprivateindividual)and2 212


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security onepersonofentityexclusively.Secretsmustrelateto manufacturingprocess. The et might be made after the employee or workman has ceased to be connected wit . Damage or prejudice to the ownerisanecessaryelement.

A.AntiWireTappingAct(R.A.4200) Q:WhataretheactspunishableunderR.A.4200? : 1. Notbeingauthorizedbyallthepartiesto any private communication or spoken e,orbyusing any other device or arrangement, to secretly overhear, intercept, munication or spoken word by using a device commonly known as a dictaphone or ctaphone or walkietalkie or tape recorder,orhoweverotherwisedescribed 2. Be h not in the act or acts penalized in the next preceding sentence, to knowingly cord, wire record, disc record, or any other such record, or copies thereof, o on or spoken word secured either before or after the effective date of this A ibited by this law; or to replay the sameforanyotherpersonorpersons;or to hereof, eitherverballyorinwriting,ortofurnish transcriptions thereof, whether c al,toanyotherperson. Note: That the use of such record or any copies thereof as evidence in any c igation or trial of offenses mentioned in Sec. 3 hereof, shall not be covered

Q: Is listening to a conversation in an extension lineofatelephonewiretapping phonecannotbeplacedin the same category as a dictaphone, dictagraph or the ot A. No. 4200 as the use thereofcannotbeconsideredas"tapping"thewire or cable anan v. IAC, G.R. No.L69809,Oct.16,1986) Q: Are cassette tapes obtained fr onversationsadmissibleasevidence? A: No. Under the law, absent a clear showin othetelephoneconversationallowed therecordingofthesame,theinadmissibilityofthe andatory under RA 4200. (SalcedoOrtanez v. CA, G.R. No. 110662, Aug. 4, 1994) 007(R.A.9372) (1)Surveillanceofsuspectsandinterceptionand recordingofcommunic

Q:Canapoliceofficerorlawenforcementofficial listen or record any communication anizationofgroupofpersons? A: GR: Yes. A police or police or law enforcemen fhisteammay,upon a written order of the CA, listen to, intercept and record form , kind or type of electronic or other surveillance equipmentorintercepting es, orwiththeuseofanysuitablewaysandmeans forthatpurpose,anycommunication,m iscussion, or spoken or written words between members of a judicially declared rrorist organization, association, or group of persons or of any person charged ted of the crime ofterrorismorconspiracytocommitterrorism. Notwithstanding R pping Law) XPN: He cannot conduct surveillance, interception and recording of s between: 1. Lawyersandclients 2. Doctorsandpatients 3. Journalistsandtheirsour dential business correspondence.(Sec.7)

Q:Whataretheexceptionstotheprohibition? A:Ifthewiretappingisdonebyapubl tenorderofthecourtincases involving the crimes of treason, espionage, provokin aseofwar,piracy, mutiny in the high seas, rebellion, conspiracy and proposal t n, inciting to rebellion, sedition, conspiracy to commit sedition, inciting to s napping as defined by the RPC, and violationsofC.A.No.616,punishingespionagea nstnationalsecurity.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 (2)Restrictionontravel Q:Whenisthererestrictionontherighttotravel? A: T the prosecutor, shall limit the right of travel of the accused to within the y where he resides or where the case is pending, in the interest of national y. 1. In cases where evidence of guilt is not strong. 2. The person charged orism or conspiracy to commit terrorismisentitledtobailandisgranted thesame. Note: Travel outside of said municipality or city, without the authorization of ll be deemedaviolationofthetermsandconditionsofhis bail, which shall then b nder theRulesofCourt.(Sec.26)

Q:Whenwilltherestrictionsbeterminated? A:Therestrictionsshallbeterminated: heaccused;or 2. Upon the dismissal of the case filed againsthim;or 3. Earlie urton motion of the prosecutor or of the accused. (3)ExaminationofBankDepo ization required to examine bankdeposits,accountsandrecord? A: Yes. Notwithsta (Bank Secrecy Law),thejusticesoftheCAdesignatedasaspecial courttohandleanti fying themselvesoftheexistenceofprobablecauseina hearingcalledforthatpurpose ed with or suspected of the crime of terrorism or, conspiracy to committerrori lly declared and outlawed terrorist organization, association, or groupofpersons onisamemberofsuchjudicially declared and outlawed organization, association, or s, may authorize in writing any police or law enforcement officer and the memb

his/herteamdulyauthorizedinwritingby theantiterrorismcouncilto: a. Examine, ion of, the deposits, placements, trust accounts, assets and records in a bank ution;and b. Gatherorcausethegatheringofany relevant information about such ,trustaccounts, assets, and records from a bank or financial institution. The institution concerned, shall notrefusetoallowsuchexamination or to provide the tion, when so, ordered by andservedwiththewrittenorderof theCA.(Sec.27) Q r the application to examinebankdeposits,accountsandrecords? A: 1. Ex parte by the policeorlawenforcementofficial 2. The police of law enforcement offici dinwritingbytheAnti TerrorismCounciltofilesuchapplication 3. Examinationunde he applicant and the witnesses he may produce to establish the facts that will gencyofexamining and freezing the bank deposits, placements, trust accounts, ass ds.(Sec.28) Q: How long shall the court authorization to examineandobtainin s, accountsandrecordsbeeffective? A: 1. Thetimespecifiedinthewrittenordero xceed 30 days from the date of receipt of the written orderbytheapplicantp ded for another period which shall not exceed 30 days from the expiration of , provided: a. The authorizing division of the CA is satisfiedthatsuchextension rest b. The application for extension or renewal must have been authorized 214


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Liberty and Security in writing by the AntiTerrorism Council Such must be filed by the original ap rmation, data, excerpts, summaries, notes, memoranda, work sheets, reports, or do quired from the examination of the bank deposits, placements, trust accounts, as rds shall absolutely not be admissible or usable asevidence against anybody in asijudicial, legislative, or administrative investigation, inquiry, proceeding or . (Sec. 35) (4)Unauthorizedrevelationofclassifiedmaterials Q:Whatareclassif efollowingareclassifiedinformation: 1. Written order granted by the authorizing ourtofAppeals 2. Order of the Court of Appeals, if any to extendorrenewthes rte application of the applicant 4. Applicationtoextendorrenew,ifany 5. The wr ions of the Anti TerrorismCouncil. 6. The sealed envelope or sealed package and ereof, which are depositedwiththeauthorizingdivisionof theCourtofAppeals Q: r the unauthorized revelationofclassifiedmaterials? A:Thepenaltyof10yearsan ent shall be imposed upon any person, policeorlawenforcementagent,judicialoffi ho,notbeingauthorizedbytheCourt ofAppealstodoso,revealsinanymannerorform rthisAct. C.AntiTraffickinginPersonsActof2003 (R.A.9208) Q:Whatarethepun shall be unlawful for any person, natural or juridical,tocommitanyofthefollow it, transport, transfer; harbor, provide, or receive a person by any means, inc ne under the pretext of domestic or overseas employment or training or apprenti purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, taryservitudeordebtbondage c.

Q: In case of death or disability of the original applicant who should file xaminationofbankdeposits? A: The one next in rank to the original applicant is team shall file the applicationforextension. The applicant shall have 30 nationoftheperiodgrantedbytheCAwithin which to file the appropriated case be utors Office for any violation of R.A. 9372. If no case is filed within the ant shall immediately notify in writing the person subject of the bank examinat gofaccounts. Q: What shall be done after the expiration of the periodofau ation, data, excerpts, summaries and otherdocumentsobtainedfromtheexaminationof its, shall within 48 hours after the expiration of the period fixed in the wr tedwiththeauthorizingdivisionoftheCA inasealedenvelopeofpackage.(Sec.31) age shall not be opened and its contents shall not be used as evidenceunless erofthe authorizingdivisionofCA.(Sec.33) Q: What are the requisites inapply rization to open the sealed envelope containingrecordsofbankaccount: A: 1. Wr n of DOJ filed before theauthorizingdivisionofCA 2. Authorization in writing smCounciltofilesuchapplication 3. Notice in writing to the party concerned n efore the scheduledopening 4. The application and notice must clearly statethe rusingthe information. Q:Whatistheevidentiaryvalueofdepositedbank materials?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 2. To introduce or match for money, profit, or material, economic or other cons rsonor,asprovided for under Republic Act No. 6955, any Filipino woman to a f arriage for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading him/h n prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntar itude or debtbondage To offer or contract marriage, real or simulated, for the ing, buying, offering, selling, or trading them to engage in prostitution, porno al exploitation, forced labor or slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage rganizetoursandtravel plans consisting of tourism packages or activities for th lizing and offering persons for prostitution, pornographyorsexualexploitation To eapersontoengagein prostitutionorpornography To adopt or facilitate the adopt e purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery ntary servitude or debtbondage To recruit, hire, adopt, transport or abduct a f threat or use of force, fraud, deceit, violence, coercion, or intimidation fo removal or sale of organs of said person To recruit, transport or adopt a chi activities in the Philippinesorabroad.(Sec.4) 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 216


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property X.CRIMESAGAINSTPROPERTY(293332) ROBBERY (Art.293) Q:Whatisrobbery? o another, with intent to gain, by means of violence againstorintimidationofa ponanything. Q:Whataretheclassesofrobbery? A: 1. Robbery with violence ns(Art.294,297and 298) 2. Robbery by the use of force upon things (Art.29 beryingeneral? A: 1. There is personal property belonging to another 2. Th operty 3. Takingmustbewithintenttogain 4. There is violence against or intim ceuponanything Note: Where violence or intimidation and force upon things are both present in f the robbery,theviolenceorintimidationisthecontrolling element. Ratio: Robbery by violence or intimidation against the person is evidently graver than ordinary itted by force upon things. Violence or intimidation upon persons may result rrapeorseriousphysicalinjuries. Robberies committed in different houses const imes of robbery. But if the robberies are committed upon different victims on and in the same place only one robbery is committed as the robberies are mere ecriminalintent.

propertytakendoesnotbelongtotheaccused. XPN:IfthecrimeisRobberywithHomic aking? A: It means appropriating a thing belonging to another and placing i possession. Q:Whenisunlawfultakingcomplete? A: 1. As to robbery with vi on of persons from the momenttheoffendergainspossessionof the thing even i portunity to dispose of the same, the unlawfultakingiscomplete 2. Astorobbe ing must be taken out of the building/premises to consummate the crime Note: There must be incontrovertible proof that propertywastakenfromthevictim.

Q:Whatisthepresumptionofintenttogain? A:Unlawfultakingofpersonalproperty. Note: The element of personal property belonging to anotherandthatofintenttog

Q:Whenshouldviolenceandintimidationoccur? A:Violenceorintimidationmustbe ersonal property is complete. But whenviolenceresultsinhomicide,rapeintentional any of the serious physical injuries penalizedunderPars.1and2ofArt263,theta yisrobberycomplexedwith any of those crimes under Art. 294, even if the taki ntheviolencewas usedbytheoffender. Note: Article 294 applies only where robbery with violenceagainstorintimidation ace without entering an inhabited house under the circumstances in Article 299. umstances are present, the offense shall be considered as complex crime under A naltyshallbeforthegraveroffenseinthemaximum period.(Napolisv.CA,G.R.No.L288

Q: Should the person from whom the property wastakenbetheownerofsuch? A: :Istheidentityofrealowneressential? A: GR: It is not essential so long Q:Whatdistinguishesrobberywithviolencefrom gravethreatsandgravecoercion?


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: ROBBERY WITH VIOLENCE Thereisintent togain Intimidation; Immediate harm GRAVE T o gain Promises somefuture harmor injury GRAVECOERCION Nointenttogain Intimid offendedpartyis compelledtodo somethingagainst hiswill. 5. 6.

Q:Distinguishrobberyfrombribery. A: ROBBERY Thevictimisdeprivedofhis money,propertybyforceor intimidation BRIBERY ,inasense, voluntarily

ROBBERYWITHVIOLENCEAGAINSTOR INTIMIDATIONOFPERSONS (Art.294) Q:Whatare . When by reason or on occasion of the robbery the crime of homicide is commi ryisaccompaniedby: a. Rape b. Intentionalmutilation c. Arson 3. When by reason of such robbery, any of the physical injuries resultingin: a. Insanity b. Imbec ency d. Blindnessisinflicted 4. When by reason or on occasion of robbery, any juries resultinginthe: a. Lossoftheuseofspeech b. Lossofthepowertohearorto narm oraleg d. Loss of the use of any of such member e. Incapacity for the rson is theretofore habituallyengagedisinflicted 7.

If the violence or intimidation employed in the commission of the robbery is c clearly unnecessary forthecommissionofthecrime. When in the course of its e r shall have inflicted upon any person not responsible for the commission of t he physicalinjuriesinconsequenceofwhich thepersoninjured: a. Becomesdeformed b. mberofhisbody c. Losestheusethereof d. Becomes ill or incapacitated for the ichhe is habitually engaged for more than 90days e. Becomesillorincapacitated ays If the violence employed by the offender doesnotcauseanyoftheseriousph in Art.263, or if the offenderemploysintimidationonly. ROBBERYWITHHOMICIDE

Q:Whatisrobberywithhomicide? A:Ifdeathresultsorevenaccompaniesarobbery, h homicide provided that the robbery and the homicide are consummated. The c homicide is a special complex crime or a single indivisible crime. All the kil n the composite integrated whole that is, robbery with homicide. The killings m rpetrated by reason or on the occasionofrobbery. As long as the homicide re ause of the robbery, even if the killing is by mere accident, robbery with ho . Ifasidefromhomicide,rapeorphysicalinjuriesare alsocommittedbyreasonoron e rape or physical injuries are considered aggravating circumstances in the crim hhomicide. Whenever a homicide has been made a consequenceoforontheoccasion kpartasprincipalsinthecommission of the crime will also be guilty as princip 218


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property special complex crime of robbery with homicide although they did not actually t omicide unless it clearly appeared that they endeavoredtopreventthehomicide. Note:Thetermhomicideisusedinthegenericsense; itembracesallformsofkilling.

Q:Shouldtherebeintenttokill? A: In robbery with homicide, the law does mittedwithintent to kill, the crime exists even though there is no intentiont hould intent to commit robbery precede the killing? A: Yes. The offender mus ake personalpropertybeforethekilling. Q: Suppose the victims were killed, not committing robbery and the idea of taking the money and other personal property as conceived by the culprits only after killing; is this a case of robbery ausetheintentionoftheperpetratorsis reallytokillthevictimandrobberycameonly rpetrators are liable for two separate crimes of robbery and homicide or murder Note: There is no crime of robbery in band with murder or robbery with homici withmultiplehomicides. If on the occasion of the robbery with homicide, rob ings was also committed, youwillnothaveonlyonerobberybutyouwillhavea comple micide androbbery withforceuponthings Ratio: Robbery with violence or intimid s is a separate crime from robbery with force uponthings. In robbery with h inhabited placeisonlyagenericaggravatingcircumstance.Itwill notqualifythecrim ty.

Q:A,ahiredassassin,shotB,andwhenaboutto leave the scene, saw the watch o , with a gun in his hand, shot to death B, who was trying to get back the ? A:Robberywithhomicide.

Q:IfwhatAdidintheaboveexamplewastofire his gun upward to scare B from pu verthewatch,andfatally hitCwhowaswatchingfromhiswindow.Whatis thecrimecomm lyincidental,thecrime isstillrobberywithhomicide.Thecrimeofrobbery with homic f the following elements: 1. The taking of personal property with violenceor tpersons 2. Thepropertytakenbelongstoanother 3. Thetakingwasdonewithanimolucr on of the robbery or by reasonthereof,homicidewascommitted. Wellentrenched i he doctrine that when homicide takes place as a consequence orontheoccasionof k part in the robbery are guilty as principals in the complex crime of robber n if theydidnotactuallytakepartinthehomicide.The exception is when it is c edendeavoredtopreventtheunlawfulkilling. In the case at bar, the lack of d homicides were committed matters little. The circumstantial evidence leaves scant he part and participation of the appellants. The wellsettledruleisthataslong ing, or because of, the robbery, even if the killing is by mere accident, the hhomicideiscommitted. As we repeatedly explain, it is enough that death resu ionoftherobbery inasmuch as it is only the result obtained that is necessary, r distinction as to the circumstances, causes, modes, or persons interveningint ecrime.(People v.Bolinget,G.R.Nos.13794952,Dec.11,2003) Q: Is there a cri homicide? A: There is no crime of robbery with multiple homicideundertheRPC. micidenotwithstandingthenumberofhomicides committedontheoccasionoftherobberyan ysical injuries and rape were also committedonthesameoccasion.(Peoplev.Hijada, 1,2004) Q:JervisandMarlonaskedtheirfriend,Jonathan, to help them rob a ban insidethebank,butwereunabletogetanymoney


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 fromthevaultbecausethesamewasprotectedby a timedelay mechanism. They contente e customers cellphones and a total of P5,000 in cash. After they dashed out othecar,Jonathanpulled thecaroutofthecurb,hittingapedestrianwhich resulted at crime or crimesdidJervis,MarlonandJonathancommit? A: Assuming the acts f force and intimidation in robbing the bank, Jonathan,MarlonandJerviscommitted ex crime of attempted robbery with homi cide. The subsequent running over of t he course of their escape was by reason or on occasion of the robbery, thereb me as attempted robbery with homicide. Having acted in conspiracy with Jervis a than should also be charged with attemptedrobberywithhomicide. Ontheotherhan onesand P5,000.00fromthecustomersaretheseparateacts of Jervis and Marlon, and han asitwasnotpartoftheiroriginalagreement.Jervis andMarlonshouldbechargedf THRAPE (PAR.2) Q:Whatisthecrimeofrobberywithrape? A:Thecrimeofrobbe s a single indivisible offense. The rapeaccompaniestherobbery.Inthiscasewhere mmitted,thereisonlya crimeofrobberywithrapeifboththerobberyand therapeare bbery, attempted rape were committed, two separate crimes of robbery and attempt mmitted. Q: Does the criminal intent to gain precede the intenttorape? A: tinguish whether rape wascommittedbefore,duringoraftertherobbery. It is enoug companied the rape. Robbery must not be a mere accident or afterthought. Illustration: Where 6 accused entered the house of the offended party, brandi d knives and after ransackingthehouseformoneyandjewelry,brought theoffendedpa yplace where she was ordered to undress and although she was able to run awa t, and thereafter raped by all of the accused, the latter committed robbery wi . Villagracia, 226SCRA374) However,ifthe2crimeswereseparatedbothbytime and fRobberywith Rape.

Q: Together XA, YB and ZC planned to rob Miss OD. They entered her house b ows in her house. After taking her personal properties and as they were about d on impulse to rape OD. As XA was molesting her, YB and ZC stood outside t did nothing to prevent XAfromrapingOD.WhatcrimeorcrimesdidXA, YB and ZC co al liabilityofeach? A: The crime committed by XA, YB and ZC is the composi ape, a single, indivisibleoffenseunderArt.294(1)oftheRPC. Although the cons ders was onlytocommitrobberyandonlyXArapedCD,the otherrobbers,YBandZC,were ing committed by their co conspirator. Having done nothing to stop XA from com dZCtherebyconcurred in the commission of the rape by their co conspiratorXA. ty of all, XA, YB and ZC, shall be thesame,asprincipalsinthespecialcomplex hich is a single, indivisible offensewheretherapeaccompanyingtherobbery isjust uestion) ROBBERYWITHPHYSICALINJURIES Q:Shouldthephysicalinjuriesbeserious s such, the physical injuriesmustalwaysbeserious. Ifthephysicalinjuriesare ey are absorbed in the robbery. The crime becomes merely robbery. But if the alinjurieswerecommittedaftertherobbery was already consummated, there would be e for the less serious physical injuries.Itwillonlybeabsorbedintherobberyif rse of the execution of the robbery. The same is true in the case of sligh 220


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property Q: Suppose a gang robbed a mansion in Forbes Park. On the occasion of the ro ieswereinflictedonthehouseholdmembers. The robbers also detained the children rents to come out with the money. What crime/sis/arecommittedbytherobbers? ecessary means to facilitate the robbery. Thus, the offenders will be held liab ex crimes of robbery with serious physical injuries and serious illegal detentio tims were detained because of the timelyarrivalofthepolice,suchthattheoffende inthevictimsashostages inexchangefortheirsafepassage,thedetentionis absorbed ttreated asaseparatecrime. ROBBERYWITHARSON (R.A.7659) Q:Howisthis ybecommittedif the primordial intent of the offender is to commit robbery and rape, or intentional mutilation committed by the offender during the robbery. crime would be robbery with homicide, or robbery with rape, or robbery with in tion, in that order and the arsonwouldonlybeanaggravatingcircumstance. Q:S ? A: Yes, it is essential that robbery precedes the arson, as in the case tilation,becausetheamendmentincludedarson among the rape and intentional mutilat eaccompaniedtherobbery. Note: Arson has been made a component only of robbery with violence against or ersons but not of robbery by the use of force upon things. Hence, if the ce upon things and therewith arson was committed, two distinctcrimesarecommitte re there is no violence exerted to accomplishthesnatching,thecrimecommittedis heft. There is sufficient intimidation where the acts of the offender inspired ctim although the accusedwasnotarmed. Illustration: 1. Snatching money from th ctim and pushing her as a result of which her skirt was torn and she fell o g a pawnshop ticket and intimidatingthevictimwitharevolver

OTHERCASESOFSIMPLEROBBERY (Par.5) Q:Howisthiscrimecommitted? A: An ical injuries or slight physical injuries fall under this specieofrobbery.

ROBBERYWITHPHYSICALINJURIES,COMMITTED INANUNINHABITEDPLACEANDBYABAND,OR W D ORALLEY(ART.295) Q: What are the qualifying circumstances of this crime? inhabitedplace 2. Byaband 3. By attacking a moving train, street car, motor By entering the passengers compartments in a train, or in any manner taking t of by surpriseintherespectiveconveyances 5. On a street, road, highway, or a dation is made with the use of firearms, the offender shall be punished by th the proper penaltiesprescribedinArt.294 ROBBERYCOMMITTEDBYABAND (Art.296) ? A: When at least 4 armed malefactors take part in the commission of a r tedbyaband. Note: If any arm used be unlicensed firearm, the penaltyimposeduponallthemale imum of the corresponding penalty provided by law, without prejudice to the cri y for illegal possession of such firearms. This is a special aggravating circum ble only in a case of robberyinband.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Any member of the band who was present at the commission of a robbery by the dasprincipalofanyoftheassaultscommitted bytheband,unlessitbeshownthatheat bbery by a band, proof of conspiracy is n not required.

A: Offender entered an inhabited house, or public building, or edifice devoted ship. 2. Entrance was effected by any of the followingmeans: a. Throughanope tranceoregress; b. Bybreakinganywall,roof,orflooror breakinganydoororwindow; , picklocks or similartools,or d. By using any fictitious name or pretending t lic authority. 3. Once inside the building, the offender took personal property anotherwithintenttogain. Q:Definethefollowing: 1. Forceuponthings 2. Inhabite ilding 4. Dependencies 5. Falsekeys A: 1. Forceuponthingsrequiressomeelement he establishment where the robbery was committed; e.g. the offendermusthaveente heretherobberywascommitted. Note:Ifnoentrywaseffected,eventhough force may have been employed actually in perty from within the premises,thecrimewillonlybetheft. 1.

ATTEMPTEDANDFRUSTRATEDROBBERY COMMITTEDUNDERCERTAINCIRCUMSTANCES (Art.297) ply? A: It applies when homicide is committed on the occasionofanattempted Note:Thetermhomicideisusedinagenericsense.It includesmurder,parricideandinfa

EXECUTIONOFDEEDSBYMEANSOFVIOLENCE ORINTIMIDATION(Art.298) Q:Whatarethe erhasintenttodefraudanother 2. Offendercompelshimtosign,execute,or deliver an or document 3. Compulsion is by means of violence or intimidation Note: Applies even if the document signed, executed ordeliveredisaprivateorco

Q: What distinguishes execution of deeds by meansofviolenceorintimidationandco EXECUTIONOF DEEDS Thereisanintentto gain Fearisproducedby threateningto caus mediate GRAVECOERCION Nointenttogain Fearisproducedinthemindof theoffendedp ingfromhimby threateningtocausehiman evilordamagewhichisnot immediatebutre

2. Inhabited house refers to any shelter, shiporvesselconstitutingthedwelli ns even though the inhabitants thereof are temporarily absent therefrom when the mmitted. Publicbuildingeverybuildingownedby theGovernmentorbelongingtoapri nted by the Government, although temporarily unoccupiedbythesame. Dependencies ,corrals, warehouses, granaries, barns, coach houses,stables,orotherdepartments, nterior entrance connected therewith and which form part of the whole.Orchards r 3.

ROBBERYINANINHABITEDHOUSEORPUBLIC BUILDINGOREDIFICEDEVOTEDTOWORSHIP (Art ts of the 1 kind of robberywithforceuponthingsunderArt.299? 4. 222


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property cultivation or production are not included,evenifclosed,contiguoustothe buildin rect connection therewith. Requisites: a. Itmustbecontiguoustothebuilding b. It must have an interior ent erewith c. Itmustformpartofthewhole Illustration: Asmallstorelocatedonth ncyofthehouse,there being no partition between the store and the house, and irway, one has to enter the store which hasadoor.(U.S.vs.Ventura,39Phil.523 ROBBERYINANUNINHABITEDPLACEANDBYA BAND(Art.300) Note: Robbery with force upon things (Art. 299), in n uninhabited place and by a band (Art. 300) while n of personsmustbecommittedinanuninhabitedplaceor

order to be qualified, mus robbery with violence again byaband(Art.295).

5. Falsekeysgenuinekeysstolenfromthe owner or any keys other than those i k forciblyopenedbytheoffender. Note:Falsekeyorpicklockmustbeusedto enterthebuilding.Itisonlytheftwhenthe cked receptacleordrawerorinsidedoor.

Q: What are the elements of the 2nd kind of robberywithforceuponthingsunde sideadwellinghouse,public building or edifice devoted to religious worship, reg umstances underwhichheenteredit 2. Offender takes personal property belongingt enttogain, underanyofthefollowingcircumstances: a. Bythebreakingofdoors,war erkindoflockedor sealed furniture or receptacle, or door. Note: Door refers only to doors, lids or opening sheets of furniture or othe s, not to insidedoorsofhouseorbuilding.

Q:Whatisanuninhabitedplace? A: Uninhabited place is one where there are n ledistancefromtown, or where the houses are scattered at a great distance fro means uninhabitedhouseorbuilding. ROBBERYINANUNINHABITEDPLACEORINA PRIVATE heelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offenderenteredanuninhabitedplaceor a building ng house, not a public building, or not an edificedevotedtoreligiousworship. ing circumstances was present: a. Entrance was effected through an openingnotint nceor egress Note: If the entrance was made through the door which was open, or closed but rough the window, the person who took personalpropertyfromthehousewith intent ftand not robbery. Where an opening createdbytheaccidentalbumpingofa vehicle ade the entrance of the malefactor, the taking of the personal property inside ery and not theft because the hole is not intended for entranceoregress. b. b.

By taking such furniture or objects away to be broken or forced open outside

Wall, roof, floor, or outside door or windowwasbroken, Note: Like Robbery in an inhabited house,thebreakingshouldbemadein order to to the place.Soifthewall,roof,flooretc.was broken in the course of escaping ery.

Note: It is estafa or theft, if the locked or sealed receptacleisnotforcedop eptortakentherefromtobebrokenoutside.



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 c. Entrance was effected through the use of false keys, picklocks or other simi rdrobe,chest,oranysealed orclosedfurnitureorreceptaclewas broken Closed or removed,evenifthesamebebroken openelsewhere Note:Underlettersdande,therobber did not enter through a window or effected e floor, door, wall, etc., otherwise these circumstances by themselves already m that of robbery. In these 2 letters, the robbers entered through the door, and e wardrobe, sealed or close receptaclesetc.,ortookawayclosedor sealed receptac ewhere. It must be taken note of, that the entrance by using any fictitious e exercise of public authority is not among those mentioned in Art. 302 becaus habited and therefore without person present. Likewise, in the class of Robbery, epends on the amount taken disregarding the circumstance of whethertherobbersar he case of Robbery in Inhabited Place. 2. 3. d.

Such picklocks or similar tools are specially adopted to the commission of robb oes not have lawful cause for suchpossession. FALSEKEYS (Art.305) e.

Q:Whatdofalsekeysinclude? A:Falsekeysinclude: 1. Picklocksorsimilartool ner 3. Anykeyotherthanthoseintendedbythe ownerforuseinthelockforciblyopened Note: Possession of false keys in pars. 2 and 3 above are not punishable. If to the offenderandheusedittosteal,crimeisnotrobbery buttheft.

BRIGANDAGE (Art.306) Q:Whatisbrigandage? A:Brigandageiscommittedbymor robbers for the purpose of committing robbery in the highway or kidnappingperso xtortionor to obtain ransom, or for any other purpose to be attainedbymeanso tistheessenceofbrigandage? A: Brigandage is a crime of depredation wherein rected not only against specific, intended or preconceived victims, but againsta ctivevictimsanywhereon thehighwayandwhoevertheymaypotentiallybe. Q: What a een robbery in bandandbrigandageunderArt.306? A: ROBBERYBYA BAND Purposeisto commitrobbery notnecessarilyin highways. Actualco necessary. BRIGANDAGEUNDER ART.306 Purposeistocommitrobberyin highway;ortokid nyother purposeattainedbyforceand violence Mereformationispunished.

3. With intent to gain, the offender took therefrompersonalpropertybelongingto

ROBBERYOFCEREALS,FRUITS,ORFIREWOODIN ANUNINHABITEDPLACEORPRIVATEBUILDING Note: The palay must be kept by the owner as seedlingortakenforthatpurpose

POSSESSIONOFPICKLOCKSORSIMILARTOOLS (Art.304) Q:Whataretheelementsoft possession picklocks orsimilartools. 224


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property PD532MODIFIEDARTICLES306AND307 Q:WhatishighwayrobberyunderP.D.532? A efor ransom, extortion or other unlawful purposes or thetakingawayofpropertyo ence against or other unlawful means, committed by any person on any Philippine son who aids or protects highway robbers or abets the commission of highway ro geshallbeconsideredasanaccomplice. Note: Philippine highway shall refer to any road, street, passage, highway an parts thereof, or railway or railroad within the Philippines used by persons, o ocomotives or trains for the movement or circulation of persons or transportatio les,orpropertyorboth. 2.

Thosewhohavingfoundlostproperty,fail to deliver the same to the local autho Note:Lostpropertyincludesstolenproperty so that the accused who found a stolen lstodeliverthesame totheownerortotheauthoritiessincethe term lost is gen tealingorbyanyactofa person other than the owner as well as by the act of e casual occurrence. (People v. Rodrigo, G.R. No.L18507,Mar.31,1966) 3.

AIDINGANDABETTINGABANDOFBRIGANDS (Art.307) Q:Whataretheelementsofth Offender knows the band to be of brigands. 3. Offenderdoesanyofthefollowingac er aids, abets or protectssuchbandofbrigands b. He gives them information of police or other peaceofficersofthegovernment c. Heacquiresorreceivesthepropert ds THEFT (Art.308) Q:Whatistheft? A: Theft is committed by any pers t violence against or intimidationofpersonsnorforceuponthings,shall take perso other without the lattersconsent. Q:Whoarethepersonsliablefortheft? A: 1 gain, but without violence against or intimidation of persons nor force upon th onalpropertyofanotherwithoutthe lattersconsent. 4.

Those who after having maliciously damaged the property of another, remove or uits or objectofthedamagecausedbythem. Those who enter an enclosed estate rbiddenorwhich belongs to another and, without the consent of its owner, hunt rgatherfruits,cerealsorother forestorfarmproducts.

Q:Whataretheelementsoftheft? A: 1. Thereistakingofpersonalproperty Note: It may be a stolen property but as long as it does not belong to the jectofthecrime. 2. 3.

Propertytakenbelongstoanother Takingwasdonewithintenttogain Note: Intent to gain is presumed in malicious taking of personal property of a 4.

Taking was done without the consent of theowner Illustration: Whileprayinginachurch,Afeltandsawhis walletbeingtakenbyB,b ceedings,didnotmake any move; while the taking was with his knowledge, it was , and Theftiscommitted. 5.

Takingisaccomplishedwithouttheuseof violence against or intimidation of perso .



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q:Whatisthemeaningoftakinginlaw? A: It means the act of depriving ano ovableproperty.The taking must be accompanied by the intention, at thetimeoft ngthethingwith somecharacterofpermanency. Q: Can incorporeal property be the Yes. Personal property does not only mean corporeal things but also includes in erty like electricity which can be stolen by usingajumper.(U.S.v.Carlos,21Ph ropersubjectoflarcenyseemstobe notwhetherthesubjectiscorporealbutwhetherit yanother. Illustration: In case of theft of checks, the argument that checks cannot be f larceny because the paper itself has no intrinsic value and is merely an ev e existence of money or propertyelsewhere,whiletenableunderthecommon lawrule, rjurisdictionforthe Supreme Court of Spain has repeatedly ruled that checks an l papers are subject of larceny.(U.S.v.Wickersham,20Phil.440)

statutory definition of theft, which is the taking, withintenttogain,ofpersona withoutthelattersconsent. Q:Whenisthecrimeoftheftproduced? A: Theft ion of personal property due to its taking by one with intenttogain. Q:In eableto carryawaythethingtakenfromtheowner? A:No,theconsummationofthisc y and malicious taking of the property which is realized upon the material occ ing, that is, when he had full possession thereof even if he did not have th fthesame. Note: Proof that the accused is in possession of a recently stolen property gi presumptionthathestoletheproperty.

Q:Cantherebeacrimeoffrustratedtheft? A: No. Unlawful taking, which is the al property, is the element which produces the felony in its consummated stage. thoutunlawfultakingasanactof execution, the offense could only be attempted t econsiderations,underArticle308ofthe RPC,theftcannothaveafrustratedstage.Thef onsummated. Q:Forthecrimeofthefttobeconsummated,isit necessary that the of itted all the acts of execution for theft, is able or unable to freely dispos len? A:No.Sincethedeprivationfromtheowneralone has already ensued from suc r Article 308 of the RPC, there is only one operative act of execution by th ftthe taking of personal property of another. The ability of the offender to propertystolenisnotaconstitutiveelementofthe crime of theft. Such factor runs

Q:Whenisunlawfultakingcomplete? A: Unlawful taking is deemed complete fro ainspossessionofthething, even if he has no opportunity to dispose of the sa tion between theft and estafa? A: THEFT Thecrimeisqualified theftifonlythe physicalormaterial possessionofthe t STAFA Whereboththematerialand juridicalpossessionare transferred,misappropriation tywould constituteestafa.

Note: In theft, qualified with grave abuse of confidence and estafa with abuse he offenderreceivesthethingfromtheoffendedparty.

Q: Mario found a watch in a jeep he was riding, andsinceitdidnotbelongto d delivered the watch with instructiontoreturnthesametowhoevermaybe found to o return the watch to the owner and, instead, sold it and appropriatedforhims e. Chargedwiththeft,Preasonedoutthathecannot be found guilty because it was ndmoreover,thewatchturnedoutto bestolenproperty.IsP sdefensevalid? 226


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property A:No,P sdefenseisnotvalid.Inachargefortheft, it is enough that the persona elongstoanotherandnottotheoffender (P). It is irrelevant whether the person sion of the watch has or has no right to the watch. Theft is committed by o n, appropriates property of another withouttheconsentofitsowner.Andthecrimeis the offender receives property of another but acquires only physical possessiont 998BarQuestion) Illustration: Where the finder of the lost or mislaid property entrusts it t ry to a designated owner, the person to whom it is thus confided, assumes by ion, as to both the property and the owner, the same relation as was occupied isappropriates it, he is guilty of Theft as if he were the actual finder of ,44Phil.720[1923]) Illustration: An Assistant Agent in Charge and Accounting trusted with and accountable for all its collections and deposits including equi plies, was accused of having taken P126,190.00 foundinhisdrawer.Itwasheldthat ified by the relation of trust between the accused and the PNB creating higher nce which the former gravely abused. He willfullytookadvantageofhisposition,hi ecombinationsandhisphysicalpossessionof themoneytocarryoutandconsummatetheTh

QUALIFIEDTHEFT (Art.310) Q:Whenistheftqualified? A: 1. If theft is hetheftiscommittedwithgraveabuse ofconfidence 3. If the property stolen is tterorlargecattle 4. Ifthepropertystolenconsistofcoconuts takenfromthepremi epropertystolenisfishtakenfroma fishpondorfishery 6. If property is taken arthquake, typhoon, volcanic eruption,oranyothercalamity,vehicular accidentorciv e. Note: If the offense is to be qualified by abuse of confidence, the abuse mus cused who was offered food and allowed to sleep in the house of the complaina ity and charity,butstolethelattersmoneyinhishousewhen helefttheplace.

Q: What is novation theory and when does this apply? A: Novation theory c wherein the victims acceptance of payment converted the offenders liability to on. It applies only if there is a contractual relationship between the accused ant. THEFTOFTHEPROPERTYOFTHENATIONAL LIBRARYANDNATIONALMUSEUM(Art.311) Note: Theft of property of National Library and NationalMuseumhasafixedpenalty ue,butifthecrimeiscommittedwithgraveabuse of confidence, the penalty for qua mposed.

OCCUPATIONOFREALPROPERTYOR USURPATIONOFREALRIGHTSINPROPERTY (Art.312) Taking possession of any real property belongingtoanother. 2. Usurping any rea erty belongingtoanother. Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offender eal property or usurps any real rights in property. 2. Real property or real other. 3. Violence against or intimidation of persons is used by the offender


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 occupying real property or usurping real rightsinproperty. Thereisintenttoga Y FRAUDULENTINSOLVENCY (Art.314) Q: What are the elements of fraudulent i s a debtor, that is, he has obligationsdueandpayable. 2. Heabscondswithhispr udicetohiscreditors. Q:Whatistheessenceofthiscrime? A:Theessenceofthec adetodisappearforthepurposeof evading the fulfillment of the obligations and cted with one or more creditors to theprejudiceofthelatter. Note: To abscond does not mean that the debtor shoulddepartandphysicallyconcea audmustresulttotheprejudiceofhiscreditors. Iftheaccusedconcealedhispropertyf ed out that he has some other property with which to satisfy his obligation, r thisarticle. Beingamerchantqualifiesthecrimeasthepenaltyis increased. d after the institution of insolvencyproceeding,theInsolvencyLawshallapply. 4.

Note:Thereisonlycivilliabilityifthereisnoviolence orintimidationintakingposs surpationunderArticle312iscommittedinthesame way as robbery with violence or ons. The main difference is that in robbery, personal property is involved; w n of realrights,itisrealproperty. If the accused is the owner of the pr possessor, he cannot be held liable forusurpation. Consideringthatthisisacr re mustbeintenttogain.Intheabsenceoftheintentto gain,theactmayconstitutec

Q:WhatispunishedbyR.A.947? A: Entering or occupying public agricultural antedtoprivateindividuals. Q:Whoaresquatters? A: 1. Thosewhohavethecapacit timatehousingbutare squattinganyway. 2. Also the persons who were awarded lot ut. 3. Intruders of lands reserved for socialized housing, preempting possessio gthesame.(UrbanDevelopment andHousingAct) ALTERINGBOUNDERIESORLANDMARKS ( fthiscrime? A: 1. Thereareboundarymarksormonuments of towns, provinces, or arks intended to designate the boundariesofthesame. 2. Offenderalterssaidboun Note: Intent to gain is not necessary. Mere act of altering or destruction of is sufficient.

SWINDLINGANDOTHERDECEIT SWINDLING(Estafa) (Art.315) Q:Whatarethee frauded another by abuse of confidence or by means of deceit This covers th of committing estafa under Article 315; thus,estafaiscommitted: a. With unfait se of confidence b. By means of false pretenses or fraudulentacts;or c. Through 2. Damageorprejudicecapableofpecuniary estimationiscausedtotheoffendedparty or 228


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property Illustration: When the accused deceived the complainants into believingthatthe aitingforthem in Taiwan, and the latter sold their carabaos, mortgaged or sold and and even contracted loans to raise the P40,000.00 placement fee required of sed, the assurances given by the latter made the complainants part with whateve y had, clearly establishing deceit and damage which constitute the elements of autista,214SCRA216). UnderP.D.115(TrustReceiptsLaw),thefailureofthe entrust hesaleofthe goods, documents, or instruments covered by a trust receipt, to t nt owing to the entruster, or as appearing in the trust receipt; or the failu ds, documents, or instruments if they were not sold or disposed of in accordan f the trust receipt constituteestafa. c. d.

property by the offender, or denial onhispartofsuchreceipt Suchmisappropriatio nial is to the prejudice of another;and There is a demand made by the offend

Note: The fourth element is not necessary whenthereisevidenceofmisappropriation endant.

Illustration: Failure to return a dump truck which was deliveredtotheaccused after the expiration of the lease contract and despite demands would constitute ppropriation or conversionbytheaccusedofthesubjectof theobligation. The accu t the money from the complainants for the particular purpose of investing the trust Investment Corp. with the obligation to make delivery thereof upon demand eturn the same despite demands. It was admitted that she usedthemoneyforherb ty of Estafa through Misappropriation. (Fontanillav.People,258SCRA460)

Q: What are the elements of estafa with unfaithfulness of abuse of confidence )? A: 1. Underparagraph(a): a. Offender has an onerous obligation todelivers e alters its substance, quantity, or quality c. Damage or prejudice is caused t Illustration: Where the accused is bound by virtue of a contract of sale, p eived to deliver first class of rice (e.g. milagrosa)butdeliveredaninferiorkin elftodeliver1000sacks but delivered less than 1000 because the other sacks we rent materials, he is guilty of estafa with unfaithfulness or abuse of confiden he quantity or quality of anything ofvaluebyvirtueofanobligationtodoso.

A money market transaction however partakesofthenatureofaloan,andnon paymen e rise to criminal liability for Estafa through misappropriationorconversion.In acements, the unpaid investor shouldinstituteagainstthemiddlemanor dealer, befor y courts, a simpleactionforrecoveryoftheamount he had invested, and if there he proper forum would be the SEC.(Sesbrenov.CA,240SCRA606) 3. Underparagrap the signature of the offendedpartyisinblank; b. Offended party delivered it to Abovethesignatureoftheoffended party, a document is written by the offenderwi d. The document so written creates a liabilityof,orcausesdamageto,the offended n.

2. Underparagraph(b): a. Money, goods, or other personal property is received in trust, or on commission, or for administration, or under any other obligatio ytomake deliveryof,ortoreturn,thesame b. There is misappropriation or convers



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Q: What are the elements of estafa by means of false pretenses or fraudulent 15(2)? A: 1. Underparagraph(a) a. Usingfictitiousname b. Falselypretendingt ce, qualifications, property, credit,agency,businessorimaginary transactions;or c thersimilardeceits 2. Under paragraph (b) Altering the quality, fineness, or g pertainingtohisartorbusiness. 3. Underparagraph(c)Pretendingtohave bribe e, without prejudice to the action for calumny which the offended party may de against the offender. 4. Underparagraph(d) a. Offender postdated a check, or ment of an obligation; b. Such postdating or issuing a check wasdonewhentheof he bank, or his funds depositedthereinwerenotsufficient tocovertheamountofth Note: Art. 315 (2) (d) is also referred to as Issuingorpostdatingcheckwithout eckinfavorofBforadebthehas incurredamonthorsoago,thedishonorofthecheck nk does not constitute Estafa. But if A told B to deliver to him P10,000and ckin thesumofP11,000asitwasaSundayandAneeded the cash urgently, and B ga ofitofP1,000whenheencashesthecheck onMondayandthecheckbouncedwhendeposited, nsuchcase,itwasclear thatBwouldhavenotpartedwithhisP10,000wereit notfort ssorynotes,orguaranties.

Q:Isgoodfaithadefense? A:Yes.Thepayeesknowledgethatthedrawerhas nosuf ksat thetimeoftheirissuancenegatesestafa. Note: It is necessary that the offender knew that his checkhadnosufficientfun o cover the amount of the check within 3 days from noticecreatesaprimafacie checks were issued by the defendant and he receivedmoneyforthem,thenstoppedpa hemoney,andhehadanintentionto stop payment when he issued the check, there umed if the drawer fails to deposit the amountnecessarytocoverthecheckwithin of notice of dishonor or insufficiency of fundsinthebank.

Q:WhendoesArt.315(2)(d)apply? A:Onlywhen: 1. Obligationisnotpreexisting igation 3. Doesnotcovercheckswherethepurpose of drawing the check is to guara Note: The check must be genuine. If the check is falsifiedandiscashedwiththe the crime is estafa thru falsification of a commercialdocument. The check mus ent of a simultaneousobligation,notonewhichispreexisting. Illustration: The to obtain something from the offended party by means of the check he issued a

Q:Canthefactthattheaccusedwasnottheactual makerofthecheckbeputupasade .(61Phil. 332), and reiterated in the case of Zalgado v. CA (178SCRA146) it nly negotiated directly and personally the check drawnbyanotherisguiltyofestaf knowledge that at the time he negotiated thecheck,thedrawerhasnosufficientfun ether the accused was charged undereitherparagraph2(a)or2(d)ofArticle315of t e guilty of estafa because damageanddeceit,whichareessentialelementsof theoff shedwithsatisfactory proof. The fraudulent act was committed prior to or simul ssuance of the bad check. The guarantee and the simultaneous delivery of the d were the enticement and the efficient cause of the defraudation committed aga ho 230


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property suffered damage amounting to P87,000.00 as a result of the fraud committed by im underfunded checks drawn by three different persons. (Garcia v. People, G.R. pt. 11,2003) Q: Is the accuseds mere failure to turn over the thingdeliver nd thedutytodoso,constituteestafaunderArt.315 par1(b)? A:No.Theessenceo is the appropriation or conversion of moneyorpropertyreceived,totheprejudiceof It takes place when a person actually appropriates the property of another for ndenjoyment.Thefailureto account, upon demand, for funds or property held in mstantial evidence of misappropriation. In other words, the demand for the retur delivered in trust and the failure of the accused to account for it are circu of misappropriation. However, this presumption is rebuttable. If the accusedisab orilyexplainhisfailureto producethethingdeliveredintrust,hemaynotbe held li se at bar, however, since the medrep failed to explain his inability to prod ohimintrust,therule that the failure to account, upon demand, for funds or ircumstantial evidence of misappropriation applies without doubt. (Filadams Pharma CA, G.R. No. 132422,Mar.30,2004) Q: What are the elements of Estafa through ticle315(3)? A: 1. Underparagraph(a) a. Offenderinducedtheoffendedparty to as employed to make him signthedocument. c. Offendedpartypersonallysignedthe d udicewascaused. Illustration: A induced an illiterate owner who was desirou rtyfora certainamount,tosignadocumentwhich hebelievedwasonlyapowerofattorn f sale. A is guilty of Estafa under par.3(a) and the damage could consist at nce in property rights. (U.S. vs. Malong,GR.No.L12597,Aug.30,1917) 2. Under e fraudulent practice to insure success in a gamblinggame; Underparagraph(c) concealed or destroyed. b. Any court record, office files, documentsoranyotherp ntenttodefraudanother. Illustration: When a lawyer, pretending to verify a certain pleading in a ca ourt, borrows the folder of the case, and removes or destroys a document which ence in the said case, said lawyerisguiltyofestafaunderpar.3(c). In partner able for estafaofmoneyorpropertyreceivedforthe partnership when the business saccrued. 3.

Q: What are the distinctions between robbery, theftandestafa? A: ROBBERY Onlypersonal propisinvolved. Takingisby meansofforce uponthingsor vio idationof persons. Penaltydoesnot necessarily dependonthe amountinvolved. Offen erty withoutthe consentofthe ownerbyusing threats, intimidationor violence THE p isinvolved. ESTAFA Subject matter maybe real property Notso Notso

Penaltydepends ontheamount involved Offendertakesthe propertywithout theconsent out usingthreats, intimidationor violence Penalty depends onthe amount involved Offender receives the property

Note: The crime is theft even if the property was deliveredtotheoffenderbyth atterexpectsanimmediatereturnoftheproperty



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 delivered, that is, he delivered only the physical or material possession of th S. v. De Vera, 43 Phil. 1000) However, if what was delivered was juridicalpos ,thatis,asituation wherethepersontowhomitwasdeliveredcansetoff hisrightto he lattershouldnotbeexpectingtheimmediatereturnof the property, the misappropr f that propertyisEstafa.(U.S.v.Figueroa,22Phil.270)

Q:Whatarethedistinctionsbetweenestafawith abuseofconfidenceandmalversation? ESTAFAWITHABUSEOF CONFIDENCE Fundsorpropertyare alwaysprivate. Offenderisapri na publicofficerwhoisnot accountableforpublic fundsorproperty. Crimeiscommit g, convertingordenying havingreceivedmoney, goodsorotherpersonal property. MALV vespublicfundsor property. Offenderwhoisusuallya publicofficeris accountablef rty.

Crimeiscommittedby appropriating,takingor misappropriatingor consenting,or,throu ntor negligence,permittingany otherpersontotakethe publicfundsorproperty. Off thfundsorproperty Continuingoffenses

Note:Estafathroughfalsepretensemadeinwritingis onlyasimplecrimeofestafa,not ughfalsification.

Q: Alfredo is the corporate treasurer of Multimillion Insurance Company. As co rer, he would have in his possession an average of P5,000,000 at any given ti oney market rate of interest ranged from 35% to 50%, Alfredo placed P1,000,000 funds in the money marketinhisnamewithouttheknowledgeofany other corporate o . Upon maturityofthemoneymarketplacement,Alfredo returned the amount of P1,000 ation, but kept to himself the interest income of P250,000. At the end of 198 ations of his accounts were undertaken,theauditorsfoundnoshortageinhis account edocommitanycrime? A:Yes,Alfredocommittedthecrimeofestafathru abuseofconf o permanently misappropriate the corporate funds forhimself.Thelawonestafaiscl ny distinctions between permanent and

temporary misappropriations, for as long as damageissufferedbytheoffendedparty. red by the corporation in this case because if the P1 million pesos had not rporatecoffersitwouldhave earned interest for the benefit of the company. E ed theft, is committed because as corporate treasurer, Alfredo has juridicalposs llioninhiscustody. Thiswasinthenatureofatrustfundentrustedto him for co eneral principle that misappropriation of trust funds for shortperiodsdoesnotal fa,it has been held that this principle cannot extend to cases where officers nverted corporatefundstotheirownuse,(U.S.vs.Sevilla, 43 Phil. 190). Fraudulen ecessary in such cases because the breach of confidence involved in the misappr nversion of trust funds takes the place of fraudulent intent and is in itself BarQuestion) Q:AureliaintroducedRosatoVictoria,adealerin jewelrywhodoesbusi Rosa, a resident of Cebu City, agreed to sell a diamond ring and bracelet to ionbasis,onconditionthat,iftheseitems cannotbesold,theymaybereturnedtoVict ell the ring and bracelet, Rosa delivered both items to Aurelia in Cebu City gthatAureliashall,inturn, returntheitemstoVictoriainTimog,QuezonCity. Aureli he bracelet to Victoria but sold the ring, kept the cash proceeds thereof to a check to Victoria which bounced. Victoria sued Rosa for estafa under Article sistingthatdeliveryto a third person of the thing held in trust is not a de riminally liable for estafaunderthecircumstances? A: No, Rosa cannot be hel r estafa. Although she received the jewelry from Victoria under an obligation t e or deliver the proceeds thereof, she did not misappropriateit.Infact,shegav ically to be returned to Victoria. The misappropriation was done by Aurelia, an ingofanyconspiracybetweenAureliaand Rosa,thelattercannotbeheldcriminallyliabl Furthermore, as explained above, Rosa s negligence which may have allowed Aurelia opriate the jewelry does not make her criminallyliableforestafa.(1999BarQuesti



BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property Q: Distinguish estafa and infidelity in the custody ofdocument. A: ESTAFA Privateindividual wasentrusted Intenttodefraud INFIDELITYINTHECUSTODY OF cofficerentrusted Nointenttodefraud d. 3.

the real property is free from encumbrance Actofdisposingoftherealproperty be r

Q: Is demand a condition precedent to the existenceofEstafa? A: GR: Th offendertocomplywithhisobligationbeforehe canbechargedwithestafa. XPN: 1. W ontocomply issubjecttoaperiod,and 2. When the accused cannot be located des FSWINDLING (Art.316) Q:Whataretheotherformsofswindling? A: 1. Conveyin tgaginganyrealproperty,pretending tobetheownerofthesame Elements: a. Thingb r who is not the owner of said property should represent that heistheownert ld have executed an act of ownership (selling, leasing, encumbering or mortgagin perty) d. Act is made to the prejudice of the ownerorofathirdperson. 2. D wing it to be encumberedeveniftheencumbrancebe notrecorded. Elements: a. T erty; b. Offenderknewthattherealproperty was encumbered, whether the encumbrance must be express c. There representation by the offender that

Wrongful taking of personal property fromitslawfulpossessortotheprejudice ofth n; Elements: a. Offender is the owner of personal property b. Said personal pr lawfulpossessionofanother c. Offenderwrongfullytakesitfromits lawfulpossessor d thereby caused to the possessororthirdperson Executing any fictitious contract eofanother. Acceptinganycompensationgiventohim under the belief it was in rwhenhedidnotactually perform such services or labor. Selling, mortgaging or ering real property while being a surety in bond without express authority from ore being relieved fromtheobligation. Elements: a. Offender is a surety in a b alorcivilaction b. He guaranteed the fulfillment of suchobligationwithhisreal es c. He sells, mortgages, or, in any other manner encumbers said real property tgageorencumbrance iswithoutexpressauthorityfromthe court, or made before the s bond, or before being relieved from the obligation contractedbyhim SWINDLIN 4. 5.

Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offender takes advantage of the in lingsofa minor.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 2. He induces such minor to assume an obligation, or to give release, or to e opertyright. Consideration is some loan of money, creditorotherpersonalproperty s to the detriment of such minor. Note:Anypersoncanbetheoffender. 3. 4. d. e.

was located at the time of the executionofthemortgage Removalispermanent Ther nt of the mortgagee or his executors, administrators or assigns to such removal

Q: Is actual proof of deceit or misrepresentation essential? A: No. It is ender takes advantage of the inexperience or emotions of the minor. OTHERDE e the other kinds of deceit under Art. 318? A: 1. Defrauding or damaging ano eit not mentioned in the precedingarticles. 2. Interpreting dreams, making foreca ng fortunes, or taking advantage of the credulity of the public in any other fitorgain. Note:Deceitsinthisarticleincludefalsepretensesand fraudulentacts. 2.

CHATTELMORTGAGE REMOVAL,SALEORPLEDGEOFMORTGAGED PROPERTY(Art.319) Q:Wha Knowingly removing any personal property mortgaged under the Chattel Mortgage Law ince or city otherthantheoneinwhichitwaslocated atthetimeofexecutionofthe consent of the mortgagee or his executors, administratorsorassigns. Elements: operty is mortgaged undertheChattelMortgageLaw b. Offenderknowsthatsuchproperty Offender removes such mortgaged personalpropertytoanyprovinceor city other tha h it

Selling or pledging personal property already pledged, or any part thereof, un attel Mortgage Law, without the consent of the mortgagee written on the back o noted on the record thereof in the office of the register of deeds of the pr ertyislocated. Elements: a. Personalpropertyisalreadypledged under the terms tgageLaw b. Offender, who is the mortgagor of such property, sells or pledges reof c. There is no consent of the mortgagee written on the back of the mortg ecord thereof in the office of the registerofdeeds. Note: Chattel mortgage must be valid and subsisting. Removal of the mortgaged p ty must be coupled with intenttodefraud.

Q:Distinguishchattelmortgagefromestafa A: CHATTELMORTGAGE Thepropertyinvolvedis personalproperty Sellingorpledgingof perso ready pledgedormortgagedis committedbythemere failuretoobtaintheconsent ofth niftheoffendershould informthepurchaserthat thethingsoldismortgaged Thepurpo rtgagee ESTAFA Thepropertyinvolved isrealproperty Toconstituteestafa,it issuff roperty mortgagedbesoldas free,eventhoughthe vendormayhave obtainedtheconsent ing Thepurposeisto protectthepurchaser, whetherthefirstor thesecond 234


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property ARSONANDOTHERCRIMESINVOLVING DESTRUCTION Q:Whatisarson? A:Arsonisthema ire. Note: Laws on arson in force are P.D. 1613 and Art. 320,asamendedbyR.A.7659

violation of law, or for purpose of concealingbankruptcyordefrauding creditors om insurance. 2. Two or more persons or by a group of persons, regardless of se is merely to burn or destroy the buildingortheburningmerelyconstitutes an fanother violationoflaw. Anypersonwhoshallburn: a. Anyarsenal,shipyard,stor rorfireworksfactory, ordinance, storehouse, archives or generalmuseumoftheGover nhabited place, any storehouseorfactoryofinflammable orexplosivematerials.

Q:Whatarethekindsofarson? A: 1. Arson,underSec.1ofP.D.1613. 2. Destructiv endedbyR.A.7659. 3. Othercasesofarson,underSec.3ofP.D. 1613. DESTRUCTIVE :HowisDestructiveArsoncommitted? A: 1. Anypersonwhoshallburn: a. One or mor s, consequent to one single act of burning, or as a result of simultaneous bu d on several or different occasions b. Any building of public or private owne the public in general or where people usually gather or congregate for a defin dless of whether the offender had knowledge that there arepersonsinsaidbuildin me it is set on fire and regardless also of whether the buildingisactuallyin in or locomotive, ship or vessel, airship or airplane, devoted to transportation e, or for public use, entertainment or leisure d. Any building, factory, wareh ion and any appurtenances thereto, which are devoted to the serviceofpublicuti lding the burning of which is for the purpose of concealing or destroying evid 3.

Q:Whataretheotherkindsofarson? A:Thepropertyburnedisanyofthefollowing: s of the Governmentoranyofitsagencies; 2. Anyinhabitedhouseordwelling; 3. Any ment,shipyard,oil wellormineshaft,platformortunnel; 4. Any plantation, farm, p ing crop, grain field, orchard, bamboogroveorforest; 5. Any rice mill, sugar m ill central;and 6. Anyrailwayorbusstation,airport,wharf orwarehouse.(Sec.3P.D. cialaggravatingcircumstances inarson?(Sec.4,P.D.1613): A: 1. Ifcommittedwith mittedforthebenefitofanother. 3. If the offender is motivated by spite or hat cupantof thepropertyburned. 4. If committed by a syndicate. (Sec.4 PD 1613) Note:Offenseiscommittedbyasyndicateif it is planned or carried out by a gro llustration: WheretheaccusedwaschargedwithviolationofP.D. 613 without specif provision breachedandtheinformationfailingtoallegewhether


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 or not the burnt house is inhabited, and not having established that it was s ed or congested area, he should be deemed to have been chargedonlywithplainA Peoplev.Gutierrez,G.R.No.100699,July5,1996) Malicious mischief does not nece al turpitude. Malicious mischief being a deliberate act cannot be committedthr

Q: Nestor was had an argument with his livein partner, Honey concerning thei eated discussion, Nestor intimated to Honey his desire to have sex with her bu rted.Frustratedandincensed,Nestorsetfire on both the plastic partition of the esinthecabinet.Afterrealizingwhat hedid,Nestorattemptedtoputouttheflamesbut lted to the burning of their home and the other neighboring houses. Nestor wa ed of destructive arson. Was Nestors conviction for the crime of destructivear e crime committed by Nestor is simple arson penalized under Sec.3 par.2 of P.D rties burned by him are specifically described as houses, contemplating inhabited llingsundertheaforesaidlaw.Simple Arson contemplates crimes with less significan nomic, political and national security implications than Destructive Arson. Dest son under Article 320 of the RPC, on the other hand, contemplates the burning ifices. (People v. Soriano, G.R. No. 142565. July 29,2003) MALICIOUSMISCHIEF usmischief? A: Malicious mischief is the willful damaging of anothers propert stituting arsonorcrimesofdestructionduetohate,revenge ormerepleasureofdestroy ntsofmaliciousmischief? A: 1. Offender deliberately caused damage to theproper uch act does not constitute arson or othercrimesinvolvingdestruction 3. Act of rs property be committed merely for the sake of damagingit Note:Thepropertymustbepersonalproperty. There is destruction of the property e is no misappropriation. Otherwise, it would be theftifhegatherstheeffects

Q:MariowashiredbythePNBascaretakerofits lot situated in Balanga, Bataan. on the said lot a sign which reads "No Trespassing, PNB Property" to ward off the sign, Julita, believing that the said lot was owned by her grandparents, c hut thereon. Hence, Mario, together with four others, tore down and demolished he thus filed with the MTC a criminal complaint for malicious mischief. Mario onvicted of malicious mischief. Mario admitted that he deliberately demolished a hut but he, however, contends that the third element of the crime of malici that the act of damaging another s property be committed merely for the sake o ot present in this case. He maintainsthatthedemolitionofthenipahutisfor the the interest of his employer. Was the court correct in convicting Marioofmalic es, Marios conviction for malicious mischief must be sustained. As to the thir as not justified in summarily and extrajudicially demolishing Julitas nipa hut. proceedednotsomuchtosafeguardthelotasitis the vent to his anger and disgus n he placed thereon. Indeed, his act of summarily demolishing the house smacks n causing damageto it. (Valeroso v. People,G.R.No.149718.Sept.29,2003) FAND QUALIFIEDMALICIOUSMISCHIEF (Art.328) Q:Whatarethepunishableactsunder amage to obstruct the performanceofpublicfunctions. 2. Using any poisonous or ance. 3. Spreadinganyinfectionsamongcattle. 4. Causing damage to the property Museum or National Library, or 236


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property to any archive or registry, waterworks, road,promenade,oranyotherthingused in GEOROBSTRUCTIONTOMEANSOF COMMUNICATION(Art.330) Q:Howisthiscrimecommitted? ging any railway, telegraphortelephonelines. Q:Whatwouldqualifythiscrime? s in any derailment of cars, collision,orotheraccident. DESTROYINGORDAMAGIN ENTSORPAINTINGS(Art.331) Q:Whoarepersonsliableforthiscrime? A: 1. Any ge statutes or any other useful or ornamentalpublicmonuments 2. Any person who amage any useful or ornamental painting of a publicnature. EXEMPTIONFROMCRI AGAINSTPROPERTY PERSONSEXEMPTFROMCRIMINALLIABILITY (Art.332) Q:Whatare : 1. Theft 2. Swindling(estafa) 3. Maliciousmischief Q:Whoarethepersonsexempte The following persons are exempted from criminalliability: 1. Spouses,ascendantsa nts,or relativesbyaffinityinthesameline. 2. The widowed spouse with respect t longedtothedeceased spouse before the same passed into the possessionofanother sisters and brothersinlaw andsistersinlaw,iflivingtogether. Q:Whoareinclu uded are stepfather, adopted children, naturalchildren,concubine,andparamour. Note:Art.332alsoappliestocommonlawspouses. Exemptiondoesnotapplytostrangers issionofthecrime. Estafashouldnotbecomplexedwithanyothercrime inorderfore

A.AntiFencingLaw(P.D.No.1612) Q:Whatisfencing? A:Fencingistheactofan forforanother,shallbuy,receive, possess, keep, acquire, conceal, sell or dispo ell,orinanyothermannerdealin anyarticle,item,objectoranythingofvaluewhich avebeen derivedfromtheproceedsofthecrimeofrobbery ortheft.(Sec.2[a]) Q:W e liable for fencing, the offender buys or otherwiseacquiresandthensellsordis uewhichheknowsorshouldbeknown to him to havebeen derived from the proceeds Caoitiv.CA,G.R.No. 128369,Dec.22,1997) Q:Whatisthenatureofthecrimeoffen ralturpitude. Ratio:Infencing,actualknowledgeofthefenceofthe fact that the property receive s the samedegreeofmaliciousdeprivationofonesrightful propertyasthatwhichanim ich by their very nature are crimes of moral turpitude. (Dela Torre v. COMELEC July5,1996)

Q:Whoisafence? A: A fence includes any person, firm, association, corporat ther organization who/whichcommitstheactoffencing.(Sec.2[b]) Q:Whatarethee crime of robbery or theft has been committed. 2. Accused who is not a princi the crime, buys, receives,


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 possesses, keeps, acquires, conceals, or disposes, or buys and sells, or in any any article, item, object or anything of value, which has been derivedfromthe obberyortheft. Theaccusedknowsorshouldhaveknown that said article, item, ob ue has been derived from the proceedsofthecrimeofrobberyortheft. There is, , intenttogainforhimselforforanother. consummated. (People v. De Guzman, G.R. 93) Q:Whatisthesimilarityoffenceandaccessoryin thecrimesofrobberyortheft? hatalltheacts ofonewhoisanaccessorytothecrimesofrobbery ortheftareinclude ct, the accessory in the crimes of robbery or theftcouldbeprosecutedassuchun er P.D. 1612. (DizonPamintuan v. People,G.R.No.111426,July11,1994) Q: What tween P.D. 1612 andArt.19par.1oftheRPC? A: FENCING Fencingislimitedto theftandrobbery.The termstheftandrobbery areusedas ykind ofunlawfultaking,not justtheftorrobbery Merepossessionof stolenitemscr cing. Fencingisaprincipal crimeinitself.Assuch,it canstandonitsown. Therei ftheftorrobbery. Thepenaltyishigher thanthepenaltyofan accessory. Malumprohi ereisno needtoprovecriminal intent. Thefenceneednotbea naturalpersonbutmay ationor partnershiporother organization ACCESSORY 3. 4.

Note: Fencing under PD 1612 is a distinct crime from theftandrobbery. If th ited is being prosecuted with the robber, the participant is prosecuted as an s being prosecuted separately, the person who partook of the proceeds is liable

Q:Isfencingacontinuingoffense? A:Fencingisnotacontinuingoffense.Jurisdicti e place where the personal property subject of the robbery or theft was posses , or dealt with. The place where the theft or robbery was committed was incon esthepresumptionoffencingarise? A: The mere possession of any good, article, thing of value which has been the subject of robbery or thievery shall be pri ncing. Thepresumptiondoesnotoffendthepresumption of innocence enshrined in th . It only shifted the burden of proof to the defense. Burdenofproofisuponth ption. E.g.Whenthepriceofanarticleiswaybelowordinary prices, this fact may serve a the article was derived from the proceeds of theft or robbery. Notlimitedinscope

Thereisnopresumption ofviolation. Itisnecessarytoprove thattheprincipal commi eforean accessorycouldbeheld liable,theprincipalmust havebeenconvictedfirst o ltyislessthanthat imposedinfencing. Maluminseandtherefore thereisaneedtop Naturalpersononly

Q:Whatdistinguishesfencingfromrobbery? A:Thelawonfencingdoesnotrequirethea ted in the criminal design to commit,ortohavebeeninanywiseinvolvedinthe co bbery or theft. Neither is the crime of robbery or theft made to dependonan e

Q:Mayonewhoischargedasanaccessoryunder Art.19par.1belikewisechargedunder sprohibitedundertheConstitutionis the prosecution of the accused twice for the 238



BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property Note:TheStatemaychoosetoprosecutetheoffender eitherundertheRPCorPD1612altho ter would seem inevitable considering that fencing is a crime malum prohibitum, ates a presumption of fencing and prescribes a higher penalty based on the val . (DizonPamintuanv.People,G.R.No.111426,July11, 1994)

Q: When does obtaining a clearance/permit to sell/used second hand articles exem ombeingliableunderantifencinglaw? A: All stores, establishments or entities de llofanygood,articleitem,objectof anything of value obtained from an unlicense reof,shallbeforeofferingthe same for sale to the public, secure the necessary omthestationcommanderof the Integrated National Police in the town or city wh blishment or entity is located. The Chief of Constabulary/Director General, Integ onal Police shall promulgatesuchrulesandregulationstocarryout theprovisionsof nwhofails to secure the clearance or permit required by this sectionorwhovio fthe rulesandregulationspromulgatedthereundershall uponconvictionbepunishedasa ncingChecksLaw(B.P.Blg.22) Q:WhoareliableunderB.P.22? A: 1. Any person who y check to apply on account or for value, knowing at the time of issue that ent funds in or credit with the drawee bank for the payment of such check in ent, which check is subsequently dishonored by the drawee bankforinsufficiencyo ould have been dishonored for the samereasonhadnotthedrawer,without any valid bank to stoppayment. Having sufficient funds in or credit with the drawee ban ws and issues a check, shall fail to keep sufficient funds or to maintain a l amount of the check if presented within a period of 90 daysfromthedateapp eason it is dishonored by the draweebank.(Sec.1)

Q: When is there prima facie evidence of knowledgeofinsufficientfunds? A: G e evidence of knowledgeofinsufficientfundswhenthecheck was presented within 90 appearingonthecheckandwasdishonored. XPN: 1. When the check was presented a Whenthemakerordrawer: a. Pays the holder of the check the amountduewithin ingnoticethatsuchcheck hasnotbeenpaidbythedrawee b. Makesarrangementsforpa of such check withinfivebankingdaysafternotice ofnonpayment. Q:Whatpenalty olationofB.P.22? A:SCACNo.122000,asclarifiedbySCACNo.13 2001,establish alties. When the circumstances of the case clearly indicate good faith or clear alone may be considered as the preferred penalty. The determination of the circ warranttheimpositionoffinerestsupontrialjudge only. Should the judge deem tha propriate,suchpenaltymaybeimposed. Q:Isbeingafirsttimeoffenderthesolefacto tyoffinealone? A: No. This circumstance is however not the sole factor in eserves the preferred penalty of fine alone. The penalty to be imposeddependso stancesof each case. It is the trial courts decision to impose any penalty w he law. (SCAC No.132001) Note: In the case of Eduardo Vaca v. CA, G.R. No. 131714, Nov. 16, 1998, and . No. 130038, Sept. 18, 2000, as well as in Administrative Circular No. 122 e sentence imposed for violation of B.P. 22 by deleting the penalty of impriso g only the penalty of fine in an amount double the amount of the check. Howe ssageofAdministrativeCircularNo.132001,theSC explained that the clear tenor o 2.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 CircularNo.122000isnottoremoveimprisonmentas an alternative penalty but to l enceintheapplicationofthepenaltiesprovided forinB.P.22. Thus,Administrative ishesa rule of preference in the application of the penal provisions of B.P. e circumstances of both the offense and the offender clearly indicates good fai take of fact without taint of negligence, the imposition of fine alone should he more appropriate penalty. Needless to say, the determination of whether the warrant the imposition of fine alone rests solely upon the judge. Should the j mprisonment is the more appropriate penalty, Administrative Circular No. 12 2000 medahindrance. The discretion lies on the Court whether or not they will im risonment in cases of violationofBP22.

C.AntiCarnappingActof1972(R.A.6539) (1)Definitionofterms Q:Whatiscarna ,withintenttogain,ofa motor vehicle belonging to another without the latters ceagainstor intimidation of person, or by using force upon things. Note:Theovertactwhichisbeingpunishedunderthis lawascarnappingisalsothetakin mstancesoftheftorrobbery.

Q:Whatisamotorvehicle? A: Motor vehicle" is any vehicle propelled by any p rusingthepublic highways, but excepting road rollers, trolley cars, streetsweep s, lawn mowers, bulldozers,graders,forklifts,amphibiantrucks,and cranes if not ghways, vehicles, which run only on rails or tracks, and tractors, trailers and es of all kinds used exclusivelyforagriculturalpurposes.Trailershaving anynumbe pelledorintended to be propelled by attachment to a motor vehicle, shallbecla orvehiclewithno powerrating.lawphi1 Q: What do you mean by defacing or tam A:"Defacingor tamperingwith"aserialnumberis the erasing, scratching, altering

original factoryinscribed serial number on the motorvehicleengine,engineblockor r vehicle. Whenever any motor vehicle is foundtohaveaserialnumberonitsmotor siswhichisdifferentfromthat which is listed in the records of the Bureau of les imported into the Philippines, that motor vehicle shall be considered tohav edwithserialnumber. Q:Whatisrepainting? A: Repainting is changing the colo eans of painting. There is repainting whenever the new color of a motor vehicl m its color as registered in the Land TransportationCommission. Q:Whatisbody lding" is a job undertaken on a motor vehicle in order to replace its entire hatisremodeling? A: "Remodeling" is the introduction of some changes in the ody of the motorvehicle.lawphi1 Q:Whatisdismantling? A:"Dismantling"isthe orpartbypart,ofamotorvehicle. Q:Whatisoverhauling? A: Overhauling" is th he whole engine of a motor vehicle by separating the motor engine and its par e motorvehicle.

Q:Howiscarnappingcommitted? A:Itcanbecommittedintwoways: 1. When the sub le and the motor vehicle is unlawfullytakenthroughviolence,threat orintimidatio Illustration: Pedro is about to leave from UST. Upon boarding his car, he w ubsequently,tookPedroscar. 2. Inanyotherunlawfulmeans. 240


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property Illustration: Pedro, a law student parked his car somewhere. While attending ss,Pedroscarwastaken. Note: It shall be confiscated in favor of the Governme motor vehicles in all cities and municipalities are required to register their alpolicewithoutpayinganycharges. Note:Ineithercase,thetakingisalwaysunlawfulfrom thebeginning.

2. Registrationofsale,transfer,conveyance, substitution or replacement of a motor ine,engineblockorchassis.

Q:SupposePedrosdriverdroveawayhiscar,isit carnapping? A:No.Thetakingof inningbecausethedriverwasauthorizedto use the vehicle. The crime is qualified cleunderArticle310oftheRPC. Note: If the motor vehicle was not taken by the offenderbutwasdeliveredbythe ffender, who thereafter misappropriated the same,thecrimeiseitherqualifiedtheft fied theft of a motor vehicle is the crime if only thematerialorphysicalposs fender; otherwise, if juridical possession was also yielded,thecrimeisestafa.

Note: It shall be made with the Land Transportation Commission. Motor vehicle built or repaired by replacementwithmotorvehicleengines,engineblocks and chassi d with the Land Transportation Commission shall not be issued certificates of r d shall be considered as untaxed imported motor vehicles or motor vehicles carn ngfromillegalsources.

(3)Whoareliable (a)Dutyofcollectorofcustoms Q:Whatisthedutyofcollector stoms of a principal port of entry where an imported motor vehicle, motor vehi e block chassis or body is unloaded, shall, within 7 days after the arrival o vehicle or any of its parts enumeratedherein,makeareportoftheshipment to the ommission, specifying the make, type and serial numbers, if any, of the motor ngine block and chassis or body, and stating the names and addresses of the o of. Note:Ifthemotorvehicleengine,engineblock,chassis orbodydoesnotbearanyserial stoms concerned shall hold the motor vehicle engine, engine block, chassis or b umberedbytheLandTransportationCommission.

(2)Registration Q:Inwhatinstancesisregistrationrequired? A: 1. Registrat gine, engineblockandchassis Note: Within one year after the approval of this Act, every owner or possess otor vehicleorpartsthereofinknockdownconditionshall registerwiththeLandTransp he following: 1. Motorvehicleengine 2. Engineblock 3. Chassis

Q:Whoshallregister? A:Theownerinhisnameorinthenameofthereal ownerwhos m over the registered motor vehicle engine, engineblockorchassis.

(b)Dutyofimporters,distributorsandsellers Q:Whatisthedutyofimporters,dist ny person engaged in the importation, distribution, and buying and selling of m motor vehicle engines, engine blocks, chassisorbody,shall: 1. Keep a permanent ocks, statingtherein: a. Their type, make and serial numbers, and the names and

Q: What is the effect if motor vehicle engines, engineblocksandchassisarenot onsideredas: 1. Untaxedimportation 2. Comingfromanillegalsource 3. Carnapped



UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 addresses of the persons from whomtheywereacquiredand b. Thenamesandaddresses they were sold,and Renderanaccuratemonthlyreportofhis transactionsinmotorvehi rtationCommission. A: 1. Defacing or tampering with serial numbersofmotorvehicle e blocksandchassis. Carnapping 2. 2.

(c)Clearanceandpermit Q:Whenisclearanceandpermitrequired? A: 1. For asse or vehicles. - Any person who shall undertaketoassembleorrebuildorcause the as ing of a motor vehicle shall first secure a certificate of clearance from the bulary Note: That no such permit shall be issued unless the applicant shall present a ath containing the type, make and serial numbers of the engine, chassis and bo complete listofthesparepartsofthemotorvehicleto be assembled or rebuilt toge addresses of the sources thereof. Note: In the case of motor vehicle engines or boats, motor bancas and other lightwatervessels,theapplicantshallsecureape pine Coast Guard, which office shall in turn furnish the Land Transportation Co rtinent data concerning the motor vehicle engines includingtheirtype,makeandser

Clearancerequiredforshipmentofmotor vehicles, motor vehicle engines, engine bl r body Any person who owns or operates interisland shipping or any water t ches, boats,vesselsorshipsshallwithin7days submit a report to the Philippine otor vehicle, motor vehicle engines, engine blocks, chassis or bodies transported e motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, engine block, chassis or body to be loa ch,boatvesselorship. (4)Punishableacts Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? 2.

D.HumanSecurityActof2007(R.A.9372) Q:Whatarethepunishableactsofterrorism? an act punishable underanyofthefollowingprovisionsofthe: a.RPC: i. Piracy he HighSeasorinthePhilippineWaters ii. RebellionorInsurrection iii. Coup d etat s committed byprivatepersons iv. Murder v. Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detenti mesInvolvingDestruction;or b.SpecialPenalLaws: i. TheLawonArson ii. Toxic S us and NuclearWasteControlActof1990 iii. Atomic Energy Regulatory and Liability tiHijackingLaw v. AntiPiracy and AntiHighway Robbery Lawof1974and vi. Decree n Illegal andUnlawfulPossession,Manufacture, DealingIn,AcquisitionorDispositiono munitionsorExplosives Note:Theabovementionedactmust: 1. Sow and create a condition of widespread and randpanicamongthe populace 2. Coerce the government to give in to an unlawful

2. Persons who conspire to commit the crime of terrorism. E.AntiArsonLaw(P. derP.D.1613 A:Anypersonwho: 1. Burnsorsetsfiretothepropertyof another 242


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Property 2. Any person who person sets fire to his ownpropertyundercircumstanceswhich e e life or property of another.(Sec.1) 4.Anyplantation,farm,pastureland,growin orchard, bamboo grove orforest 5. Any rice mill, sugar mill, cane mill or sstation,airport,wharf orwarehouse.(Sec.3) Q: What are the aggravating circumsta .1613? A: 1.Ifcommittedwithintenttogain 2.Ifcommittedforthebenefitofanoth ted by spite or hatred towards the owner or occupant of the propertyburned 4. e Note:Theoffenseiscommittedbyasyndicateifitsis plannedorcarriedoutbyagroup foregoing circumstance(s) are present, the penalty shall be imposed to its maxim ec.4)

Q:Whenistheredestructivearson? A:Whenthepropertyburnedis: 1. Any ammunition blishment where explosives, inflammableorcombustiblematerialsare stored. 2. Any eum, whether public or private,oranyedificedevotedtoculture, educationorsocial urch or place of worship or other buildingwherepeopleusuallyassemble. 4.Any t,vesselor or conveyance for watercraft, transportationofpersonsorproperty 5. nceiskeptforuse in any legislative, judicial, administrative orotherofficialpr hospital, hotel, dormitory, lodging house, housing tenement, shopping center, publ vate market, theater or movie house or any similar place or building. 7.Any llingor not,situatedinapopulatedorcongested area.(Sec.2) Q:Whataretheotherca ertyburnedis: 1. Any building used as offices of the governmentoranyofitsag lling 3. Any industrial establishment, shipyard, oil wellormineshaft,platformor


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 XI.CRIMESAGAINSTCHASTITY Q:Whatareprivatecrimes? A: The crimes of adulter on, abduction and acts of lasciviousness are the so called private crimes. They cuted except upon the complaint initiated by the offendedparty. Ratio: The law regards the privacy of the offended partyhereasmoreimportantth eorderofsociety.Thelawgivestheoffendedparty thepreferencewhethertosueornot ed party has initiated the criminalcomplaint,thepublicprosecutorwilltakeover a ecutionoftheoffender.Thisis so because when the prosecution starts, the crime ditisbeyondtheoffended partytopardontheoffender.

ADULTERYANDCONCUBINAGE ADULTERY (Art.333) Q:Whataretheelementsofad xualintercoursewithamannot herhusband 3. As regards the man with whom she ha he must know her to bemarried Note: For adultery toexist, there must be a marriage althoughitbesubsequentl enif the marriage of a guilty woman with the offended party be subsequently d is still adultery because until the marriage is declared to be null and void ity in a final judgment, the offense to the vows taken and the attacktothef n instantaneous crime which is consummated and completed at the moment of the gle intercourse consummates the crime of adultery. Each sexual intercourse consti me ofadultery,evenifitinvolvesthesameman. There is no frustrated adultery eoffense. Abandonment without justification is not exempting, butonlymitigating .

Q: Is acquittal of one of the defendants operates asacauseofacquittaloftheo owingreasons: 1. There may not be a joint criminal intent, althoughthereisjoin neofthepartiesmaybeinsaneandthe other sane, in which case, only the sane c 3. Themanmaynotknowthatthewomanis married, in which case, the man is innoce ngthependency of the action cannot defeat the trial and convictionoftheman. eft the country and could not be apprehended, the woman canbetriedandconvicte onale of the law for penalizing adultery? A: The violation of the marriage v damental ground for the punishment of adultery and not the possibility of intro ringintothefamily. Note:Evenamarriedwomanwhoduetoherage,can nolongerconceive,isliableforadult the institution of the criminal prosecution. Both the offenders must be pardoned rty. Q: How is prostitution? A: ADULTERY adultery distinguished from

Itisaprivateoffense. Committedbyawoman whethermarriedornot, whoformoneyorp n sexualintercourseor lasciviousconduct.

PROSTITUTION Itisacrimeagainstpublic morals. Committedbyamarried womanwhoshal haman notherhusband.

CONCUBINAGE (Art.334) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Keepingamist 244


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Chastity 2. Having sexual intercourse, under scandalous circumstances, with a woman whois habitingwithherinanyotherplace. Illustration: If the charge is cohabiting in any other place, proof of actual sexual intercoursemaynotbenecessarytoo.Bu ntercourse together as husband orwifeorlivingtogetherashusbandandwife.The coh eperiodoftimewhich may be a week, a year or longer as distinguished from oc etings for unlawful sexualintercourse. Q: May a husband be liable for concubi tthesametimeforthesameactofillicit intercoursewiththewifeofanotherman? A s concubinage with a married woman and provided that the two offended parties, d the husband of hismistressfileseparatecasesagainsthim. ACTSOFLASCIVIOUSNE ds of acts of lasciviousness? A:Actsoflasciviousness: 1. UnderArticle336(Act Under Article 339 (Acts of lasciviousness withtheconsentoftheoffendedparty) rt.336) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offender commits any act s. 2. Actoflasciviousnessiscommittedagainst apersonofeithersex. 3. It is done owing circumstances: a. Byusingforceorintimidation; b. Whentheoffendedpartyisd therwiseunconscious; c. By means of fraudulent machination orgraveabuseofauthori ffendedpartyisunder12 yearsofageorisdemented. Note: Under Art. 336, acts of lasciviousness is committed when the actperformed as perpetrated under circumstances which would have brought about the crime of ntercoursewaseffected. 3. Note: Unlike in adultery where a single sexual intercourse may constitute such ubinage, a married man is liable only when he doestheaboveacts.

Q:Whataretheelementsofconcubinage? A: 1. Manmustbemarried. 2. Hecommitt eeping a mistress in the conjugal dwelling;or b. Having sexual intercourse, unde circumstances, with a womanwhoisnothiswife;or c. Cohabiting with her in any ards the woman, she must know himtobemarried. Q:Whoisincludedinthecomplai lude both parties if they are both alive. In case of pardon or when the offe esameshallbarthe prosecution of the offenses, provided it be done beforethei minalcomplaint. Only the offended spouse can bring the prosecution. Thisi dman,the husband.Similarly,itincludesthewomanwhohad arelationshipwiththemar Note: Concubinage involves moral turpitude. Concubinageisacontinuingcrime. Illu he charges consist in keeping a mistress in the conjugal dwelling, there isno intercourse.Theconjugaldwellingisthehouseofthe spouses even if the wife happe absent therefrom. The woman however must be brought to the conjugal house by t ubine to fall under this article. Thus, if the co accused was voluntarily take the spouses in their house, and treated as an adopted childbeingarelativeoft licit relationswiththeaccusedhusbanddoesnotmakeher amistress.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 Illustration: When the accused not only kissed and embraced the complainant b r breast with particular design to independently derive vicarious pleasuretherefr ntoflewddesignexists. Iflewddesigncannotbeprovenaswheretheaccused merely plainant either outofpassionorothermotive,touchingherbreastas a mere incident egorized as unjustvexation.(Peoplev.Climaco,46O.G.3186) Illustration: Thus, ted the dress of the offended party, and placed himself on top of her but th rhelpanddespite that,theaccusedpersistedinhispurpose,tearingthe drawers,kissi ts,thecrimeis not only acts of lasciviousness but that of attempted rape.

Q:Whomaybetheoffendedparty? A:Theoffendedpartymaybeamanorawoman: 1. fage,thelascivious acts were committed on him or her throughviolenceorintimid nder party was deprived of reason,orotherwiseunconscious. Q:Whatisrequiredin ion foractsoflasciviousness? A: It is essential that the acts complained of ewd designs and that the victimdidnotconsentorencouragesuchacts. Q:Isinten :Intenttorapeisnotanecessaryelementofthe crime of acts of lasciviousness; o rimeofattemptedrape. Note: There can be no frustration of acts of lasciviousness,orrapeorofadulter ment the offender performs all elementsnecessaryfortheexistenceofthefelony,he urposeand,fromthatmoment,all the essential elements of the offense have been

Q: What are the distinctions between acts of lasciviousnessandattemptedrape? ACTSOF LASCIVIOUSNESS Purposeisonlyto commitactsof lewdness. Lasciviousactsare l objectivesoughtby theoffender. ATTEMPTEDRAPE Purposeistoliewiththe offend sarebutthe preparatoryactstothe commissionofrape.

SEDUCTION,CORRUPTIONOFMINORSAND WHITESLAVETRADE SEDUCTION Q:Howissedu ittedbyenticingawomanto unlawfulsexualintercoursebypromiseofmarriage orother utuseofforce. QUALIFIEDSEDUCTION (Art.337) Q: What are the acts that A: 1. Seduction of a virgin over 12 years and under18yearsofagebycertainper authority, priest, teacher,etc.;and Elements: a. Offended party is a virgin wh fsheisunmarriedandof goodreputation b. fSheisover12andunder18yearsof age ourse withher d. There is abuse of authority, confidence or relationship on the r 2. Seduction of a sister by her brother, or descendant by her ascendant, r putation. Note: In this case, it is not necessary that theoffendedpartyisstillavirgin.

Q: Who are the persons liable for qualified seduction? A: 1. Thosewhoabused ersoninpublicauthority b. Guardian 246


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Chastity c. d. Teacher Person who, in any capacity, is entrusted with the education or c educed Thosewhoabusedconfidencereposedin them: a. Priest b. Houseservant c. Do relations with other men, there can be no crime of Seductionassheisnotavirg

SIMPLESEDUCTION (Art.338) Q:Whataretheelementsofsimpleseduction? A: r 18 yearsofage. 2. Shemustbeofgoodreputation,singleor widow. 3. Offenderh 4. Itiscommittedbymeansofdeceit. Note:Virginityofoffendedpartyisnotrequired. The deceit generally takes form omise to marry, and this promise need not immediatelyprecedethesexualact. 2.

Illustration: Wherethecomplainantwhois16yearsold livesinthesamehousewhere lives, the latter is guilty of Qualified Seduction when he had sexual intercour entsinceheis considered a domestic. (People v. Subingsubing, G.R. Nos. 1049424 omestic is applied to a person usually livingunderthesameroof,pertainingtothe utinginthissensea partthereof,distinguishingitfromtheterm servant.(Peoplevs. 3.

Thosewhoabusedtheirrelationship: a. Brotherwhoseducedhissister b. Ascendant wh scendant

Note: Qualified seduction involves sexual intercourse which was done with the co oman; otherwise, the crime is rape. The offended woman mustbeover12butbelow ified seduction, the age of the offendedwomanisconsidered,iftheoffendedpartyi ster of the offender no matter how old she is or whether she is a prostit tioniscommitted. Deceitisnotnecessaryinqualifiedseduction.

ACTSOFLASCIVIOUSNESSWITHTHECONSENTOF THEOFFENDEDPARTY(Art.339) Q:Whata fender commits acts of lasciviousness orlewdness. 2. Actsarecommitteduponawom ngle or widow of good reputation, under 18 years of age but over 12 years, o t regardlessofherreputationorage. 3. Offender accomplishes the acts by abuse idence, relationship, or deceit. 4. Malecannotbetheoffendedpartyinthis crime. Note: In other words, where the acts of the offender werelimitedtoactsoflewd nd no carnal knowledge was had, but had there been sexual intercourse, the off en seduction,he isguilty of Acts ofLasciviousnessunder thisarticle.

Q:Whatisthemeaningofvirginityforpurposesof qualifiedseduction? A: Virginit l virginity. It refers to a woman of chaste character or virtuous womanofgo Note:Virginityisnottobeunderstoodinsoamaterial senseastoexcludetheideaofa eputation.Thus,whentheaccused claims he had prior sexual intercourse with the tterisstilltobeconsideredavirgin. But if it was established that the girl h Q:DistinguishActsoflasciviousnessunderArt.336 fromArt.339. A: ARTICLE336 Theactsarecommitted undercircumstances whichhadtherebeen ARTICLE339 ousness arecommittedunderthe circumstanceswhichhad


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 carnalknowledge,would amounttorape. therebeencarnal knowledge,would amounttoei uctionor simpleseduction. Theoffendedparty shouldonlybefemale Maynotnecessaril ttedbyasingle act Generallyforprofit Generally,committed habitually

ABDUCTION Q:Whatisabduction? A: Abduction is the taking away of a woma ere she may be for the purposeofcarryinghertoanotherplacewithintent tomarry ndsofabduction? A: 1. Forcibleabduction(Art.342) 2. Consentedabduction(Art343) sofforcibleabduction? A: 1. Person abducted is any woman, regardless of her r reputation 2. Abductionisagainstherwill 3. Abductioniswithlewddesigns Note:Ifthefemaleabductedisunder12yearsofage, thecrimeisforcibleabduction,ev hherabductor. Wherelewddesignwasnotprovedorshown,andthe victim was deprive e is kidnapping with serious illegal detention under Art. 267. Illustration: ried or took away the victim by means of force and with lewd design and ther rime is forcible abduction with rape, the former being a necessary means to co he subsequent 2 other sexual intercourses committed against the will of the com be treated as independent separate crimes of Rape. (Peoplev.Bacalso,G.R.No.945 Theoffendedparty isafemaleormale

CORRUPTIONOFMINORS (Art.340,asamendedbyB.P.92) Q:Whoarethepersonsli hall promote or facilitate the prostitution or corruption of persons under age tofanother. Q:Isitnecessarythatunchasteactsaredone? A:No.Mereproposal Note: Victim must be of good reputation, not a prostituteorcorruptedperson. ngsofthelaw,asingleactof promotingorfacilitatingthecorruptionorprostitution to constitute violation of this article. Illustration: Thisisusuallytheact e seekers, women for the satisfaction of their lustful desires. A mere proposal te the crime.Butitmustbetosatisfythelustofanother,not his(proponents).The

WHITESLAVETRADE (Art.341) Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? A: 1. Engaging fitingbyprostitution 3. Enlisting the service of women for the purposeofprost e the distinctions between corruption ofminorsandwhiteslavetrade? A: CORRUPTIONOF MINORS Itisessentialthat victimsareminors Victimsareofeithersex itynotneednotbe established Victimsarefemales

Q:Issexualintercoursenecessary? A: Sexual intercourse is not necessary in heintenttoseduceagirlissufficient. Note:Thereisnocomplexcrimeofforcibleabduction with attempted rape because the bsorbedbytheabduction. 248


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Chastity Q: What are the elements of consented abduction? A: 1. Offendedpartymustbea over 12 and under 18 years ofage. 3. Taking away of the offended party must ter solicitation or cajoleryfromtheoffender. 4. Taking away of the offended p ddesigns. Illustration: If the offended party is under 12 years of age, crime committe ,evenifthegirlagrees totheelopement. In consented abduction, it is not nec tim (a virgin over twelve and under 18) be personally taken from her parents t is sufficient that he was instrumental in leaving the house. He must however , cajoleryordeceit,orhoneyedpromisesofmarriageto inducethegirltoescapefromh epurposeofthelawisnottopunish thewrongdonetoher,becausesheconsentedthereto t for the disgrace of her family and the alarm caused to the parents by the ewho by her age and sex, is susceptibleofdeceit,cajoleryandevenperdition.(U. medabove. Pardon Anexpresspardonbythe offendedpartyorother personsnamedinthe semay be,barsprosecution. GR:Parentcannotvalidly Mustbemadebythe grantpard rtyto withouttheexpresspardon boththeoffenders. ofthegirl. Maybeabarto ade otherwiseincapacitatedto beforetheinstitution grantit,thatherparents, ofth randparentsorguardian maydosoforher. Maybeexpressor implied. GR:Pardonby t havetheconcurrenceof parents. XPN:Whentheoffendedgirl hasnoparentswhoco

Note: Both the guilty parties, if both alive must be includedinthecomplaintfo ge. GR:Offendedparty,evenifaminor,hastheright to institute the prosecution ffenses,independentlyofherparents, grandparentsorguardian. XPN:Ifsheisincomp ngso upongroundsotherthanherminority. Iftheoffendedwomanisofage,sheshoul

PROVISIONSRELATIVETOTHEPRECEDING CHAPTERSOFTITLEELEVEN PROSECUTIONOFTHE E,SEDUCTION,ABDUCTION,RAPE, ANDACTSOFLASCIVIOUSNESS Q: Distinguish adultery a svis seduction, abduction, rape and acts of lasciviousness. A: SEDUCTION,ABDUCTION, ADULTERYAND RAPEORACTSOF CONCUBINAGE LASCIVIOUSNESS Prosecut osecutedupon complaintsignedby: Mustbeprosecuted 1. Offendedparty uponcomplaint signedbythe 3. Grandparents,or offendedspouse 4. Guardiansintheorder

Q: Who may file the complaint where offended minorfailstofilethesame? A: 1 ts 3. Guardian Note: Right to file the action granted to the parents, grandparentsorguardiani ssivein theorderprovided.

Q: What is the legal effect of the marriage of the offenderandtheoffendedpar ffender with the offended partyinseduction,abduction,actsoflasciviousness andra scriminalactionorremitsthe penaltyalreadyimposed.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 CIVILLIABILITYOFPERSONSGUILTYOFCRIMES AGAINSTCHASTITY Q: What is the civil lty of rape,seductionorabduction? A: 1. Toindemnifytheoffendedwoman 2. To ac ring, unless the lawshouldpreventhimfromdoingso 3. Ineverycasetosupporttheo vil liability of the adulterer and theconcubine? A: To indemnify for damages dedspouse. Note: No civil liability is incurred for acts of lasciviousness. 3. 4.

similar activity with or without consideration Tosellordistribute,orcausetobe such photo or video or recordingofsexualact,whetheritbethe originalcopyorre blish or broadcast, or cause to be published or broadcast, whether in print or or show or exhibit thephotoorvideocoverageorrecordings of such sexual act or hrough VCD/DVD, internet, cellular phones and other similar means or device.

Q: What is the liability of ascendants, guardians, teachers or other persons e custodyoftheoffendedparty? A: Persons who cooperate as accomplices but ar nrape,seduction,abduction etc.Theyare: 1. Ascendants 2. Guardians 3. Curators 4. . Any other person who cooperates as accomplice with abuse of authority or conf onship A.AntiPhotoandVideoVoyeurismActof2009 (R.A.9995) Q:Whatarethepro To take photo or video coverage of a person or group of persons performing se ar activity or to captureanimageoftheprivateareaofa person/s such as the n enitals, public area, buttocks or female breast without the consent of the pers nd under circumstances in which the person/s has/have a reasonable expectationof y or reproduce, or to cause to be copied or reproduced, such photo or video act or any

Note:Theprohibitionunderparagraphs(2),(3)and(4) shall apply notwithstanding tha ord or takephotoorvideocoverageofthesamewasgivenby suchperson/s.Anypersonw llbeliableforphotoorvideovoyeurismasdefined herein.

B.SpecialProtectionofChildrenAgainstChild Abuse,Exploitation,andDiscriminationA nded) (1)ChildProstitutionandotheractsofabuse Q:Whatarethepunishableacts? : 1. Those who engage in or promote, facilitate or induce child prostitution wh enotlimitedto,the following: a. Acting as a procurer of a child prostitute ientofa child prostitute by means of written or oral advertisements or other ing advantage of influence or relationship to procure a child as prostitute d using violence towards a child to engage him as a prostitute e. Givingmonetar ds orotherpecuniarybenefittoachild with intent to engage such child in prost 2. 250


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Chastity 2. Those who commit the act of sexual intercourse of lascivious conduct with a in prostitution or subject toothersexualabuse Note: Provided, That when the victims is under12yearsofage,theperpetratorssha rticle335,paragraph 3,forrapeandArticle336ofActNo.3815, asamended,theRPC,f sthecasemaybe. Provided, That the penalty for lascivious conduct when the f age shall be reclusion temporal in its mediumperiod whenthevictimisunder 1 alty for lascivious conduct when the victim is below 12 years old shall be re its medium period. (Sec. 5, RA7610)

(2)Obscenepublicationsandindecentshows Q: How are obscene publications and tted? A: Any person who shall hire, employ, use, persuade, induce or coerce obscene exhibitions and indecent shows, whether liveorinvideo,ormodelinobscene nographic materials or to sell or distribute the saidmaterials. If the child , subject or seller/distributor is below 12 years of age, the penalty shall be imum period. (Sec.9) C.AntiTraffickinginPersonsActof2003 (R.A.9208) Note:Traffickedpersonsshallberecognizedasvictims oftheactoractsoftrafficking ized for crimes directly related to the acts of trafficking enumerated in this ce to theordermadebythetraffickerinrelationthereto.In this regard, the conse on to the intended exploitation set forth in this Act shall be irrelevant.(Sec 3.

Those who derive profit or advantage therefrom,whetherasmanagerorowner of th re the prostitution takes place, or of the sauna, disco, bar, resort, place of establishment serving as a cover or which engages in prostitution in addition t or which the license has beenissuedtosaidestablishment.

Q: When is there an attempt to commit Child Prostitution? A:Thereisanattemp ion when: Anypersonwho,notbeingarelativeofa child, is found alone with the bicleofahouse,an inn, hotel, motel, pension house, apartelle or other similar essel, vehicle or any other hidden or secludedareaundercircumstanceswhich would le person to believe that the child is about to be exploitedinprostitutionand Any person is receiving services from a child in a sauna parlor or bath, mas club and other similar establishments. Q:Whatisthedifferencebetweenprosecution viousness under Art. 336, RPC and RA 7610? A: Art.336RPC Shallbepunishedby prisioncorreccional RA7610 Thepenaltyshallbe1 d altyimposedbylaw 1.

Q:WhatarethepunishableactsunderR.A.9208? A: It shall be unlawful for any pe al,tocommitanyofthefollowingacts: 1. To recruit, transport, transfer; harbor, ve a person by any means, including those done under the pretext of domestic ent or training or apprenticeship, for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, oitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage Tointroduceo ofit, or material, economic or other consideration,anypersonor,asprovided foru pinowomanto 2.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 a foreign national, for marriage for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, ading him/her to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced avery, involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage To offer or contract marriage, real or the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling, or trading them to engage n, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor or slavery, involuntary servitud bondage Toundertakeororganizetoursandtravel plans consisting of tourism package for the purpose of utilizing and offering persons for prostitution, pornographyo tation Tomaintainorhireapersontoengagein prostitutionorpornography To adopt tion of persons for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation bor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debtbondage To recruit, hire, adopt, tran ct a person, by means of threat or use of force, fraud, deceit, violence, coe ion for the purpose of removal or sale of organs of said person To recruit, ild to engage in armed activities in the Philippinesorabroad.(Sec.4) which the has the right to desist from or desist from conduct which the woman or her c gage in, or attempting to restrict or restricting the woman s or her child s f t or conduct by force or threat of force, physical or other harm or threat o m, or intimidation directedagainstthewomanorchild.This shall include, but not lowing acts committed with the purpose or effect of controlling or restricting er child s movementorconduct: a. Threatening to deprive or actually depriving child of custodytoher/hisfamily b. Depriving or threatening to deprive the wo n of financial support legally due her or her family, or deliberately providing ldren insufficient financialsupport c. Depriving or threatening to deprive the hild of a legal right d. Preventingthewomaninengagingin any legitimate profe business or activity or controlling the victim s own money or properties, or so ng the conjugal or common money, or properties Inflicting or threatening to i arm on oneself for the purpose of controllingheractionsordecisions Causing o e the woman or her child to engage in any sexual activity which does not con reatofforce,physical harm, or through intimidation directed againstthewomanorh mediatefamily Engaging in purposeful, knowing, or reckless conduct, personally other,thatalarmsorcausessubstantial emotionalorpsychologicaldistresstothe woman llinclude,but notbelimitedto,thefollowingacts: 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

D.AntiViolenceagainstWomenandtheir ChildrenActof2004(R.A.9262) Q:Whataret e of violence against women and their childreniscommittedthroughanyofthefollo ng physical harm to the woman or herchild Threatening to cause the woman or ttempting to cause the woman or her childphysicalharm Placingthewomanorher calharm Attempting to compel or compelling the womanorherchildtoengageinco 6. 7. 2. 3. 8.

4. 5. 252


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Chastity a. Stalking or following the woman or herchildinpublicorprivateplaces Peerin gering outside the residenceof the woman orherchild Enteringorremaininginth yofthewomanor herchildagainsther/hiswill Destroying the property and person cting harm to animals or pets of the womanorherchild Engaging in any form c. The above acts would result in an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environ oyee. b. 2.

Inaneducationortrainingenvironment, sexualharassmentiscommitted: a. Against one care, custody or supervision of the offender Against one whose education, traini ceship or tutorship isentrustedtotheoffender When the sexual favor is made a ng of a passing grade,orthegrantingofhonorsand scholarships, or the payment rotherbenefits, privileges,orconsiderations;or When the sexual advances result ing, hostile or offensive environmentforthestudent,trainee orapprentice. c. d. b. c. e.

Causing mental or emotional anguish, public ridicule or humiliation to the wom including, but not limitedto,repeatedverbalandemotional abuse, and denial of f or custodyofminorchildrenofaccesstothe woman schild/children.(Sec.5) E.Anti 5 (R.A.7877) Q.WhatarethepunishableactsunderRA7887? 9. A. 1. In a work t, sexual harassment is committedwhen: a. The sexual favor is made as a condit r in the employment, reemployment or continued employment of said individual, o id individual favorable compensation, terms, conditions, promotions, or privileges; usaltograntthe sexual favor results in limiting, segregating or classifying the in a way would discriminate, deprive or diminish employment opportunities or oth sely affect said employee The above acts would impair the employeesrightsorpr inglaborlaws;or d.

Note: Any person who directs or induces another to commit any act of sexual h defined,orwhocooperatesinthecommissionthereof by another without which it woul mitted, shall also be held liable under this Act. (Sec.3) b.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 XII.CRIMESAGAINSTCIVILSTATUS SIMULATIONOFBIRTHSANDUSURPATIONOF CIVILSTATU TIONOFONE CHILDFORANOTHERANDCONCEALMENTOR ABANDONMENTOFALEGITIMATECHILD (A eacts? A: 1. Simulationofbirths 2. Substitutionofonechildforanother 3. Concea g any legitimate child with intent to cause such child to loseitscivilstatus. imulationofbirths? A: 1. The child is baptized or registered in the registr hechildlosesitsrestatusandacquiresa newone 3. The offenders spouse was to s to the childs true filiation Q: What are the elements of concealing or a e child with intent to causesuchchildtoloseitscivilstatus? A: 1. Thechild nder conceals or abandons such child 3. The offender has the intent to cause t ilstatus Note: The fact that child will be benefited by simulation of birth is not a es a false status detriment of members of the family to whichthechildisintro t liableunder this article since there is no abandonment. The object of the c the creation or the causing of thelossofcivilstatus. The woman who has gi nishesthechildarebothliableasprincipals.

andonthedayofthesupposeddelivery,takesthe childofanotherasherown. Note: Simulation which is a crime is that which alters thecivilstatusofapers rpublicofficerwhocooperates intheexecutionofthecrimeisalsoliable.

USURPATIONOFCIVILSTATUS (Art.348) Q:Howisthiscrimecommitted? A: It s himself to be another and assumes the filiation or the parental or conjugal her person. Q:Whatdoescivilstatusinclude? A: Civil status includes ones p ts, duties, capacities and incapacities which determineapersontoagivenclass. Note:Theremustbeintenttoenjoytherightsarising fromthecivilstatusofanother.

Q:Whatwouldqualifythiscrime? A:Ifthepurposeistodefraudoffendedpartiesan Y (Art.349) Q:Whataretheelementsofbigamy? A: 1. Offenderhasbeenlegall egally dissolved or,incasehisorherspouseisabsent,the absentspousecouldnotye otheNewCivilCode 3. He contracts a second or subsequent marriage 4. Second or ge has all theessentialrequisitesforvalidity Note: Validity of second marriage is a prejudicial questiontoliabilityforbigamy

Q:Whendoessimulationofbirthtakeplace? A:Simulationofbirthtakesplacewhen nt when in fact she is not, Nullityofthefirstmarriageisnotadefenseinbigamy Bigamyisnotaprivatecrime 254


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Civil Status Apersonconvictedforbigamymaystillbeprosecuted forconcubinage.

Q: Is a judicial declaration of nullity of marriage necessary? A: GR:Ajudi tyofaprevious marriage is necessarybeforeasubsequent one canbelegallycontract bsequent marriage without first obtaining suchjudicialdeclarationisguiltyofbigam ple applies even if the earlier union is characterizedbystatutesas"void."(Merc 110,Aug.1,2000) XPN: Where no marriage ceremony at all was performed by a zing officer.(Morigov.PeopleG.R.No.145226,Feb. 6,2004) Illustration: The mere private act of signing a marriage contract bears no s arriage and thus, needsnojudicialdeclarationofnullity.Suchactalone, without mo ed to constitute an ostensiblyvalidmarriageforwhichpetitionermightbe heldliabl rstsecuresajudicial declarationofnullitybeforehecontractsasubsequent marriage. e, G.R. No. 145226, Feb. 6, 2004)

Q:Whatwouldqualifythiscrime? A: If either of the contracting parties obtains her by means of violence, intimidationorfraud. Note:Offendermustnotbeguiltyofbigamy. Conviction of a violation of Art. de.

PREMATUREMARRIAGES (Art.351) Q:Whoarethepersonsliable? A: 1. Widowwho f thedeath of her husband, or beforehavingdeliveredifsheispregnant atthetim e marriage having been annulledordissolved,marriedbeforeher delivery or before f the period of 301 days after the date of the legalseparation. Note: Period of 301 days may be disregarded if the first husband was impotent of 301 days,or10months,isonlyforcaseswherethewoman isnot,ordoesnotknowye omes a widow. If she is pregnant at the time she becomes a widow, the prohib elivery.

Note: The death of the first spouse during the pendency of the case does no , because when the offender married the second spouse, the first marriage was . The second spouse who knew of the first marriage is an accompliceaswellas apacityofeitherofthecontractingparties.

Q:Whendoestheprescriptiveperiodcommence? A: Does not commence from the co m the time of its discovery by the complainantspouse. MARRIAGECONTRACTEDAG t.350) Q:Whataretheelementsofthiscrime? A: 1. Offendercontractedmarriage . Requirements of the law were not compliedwith;or b. Marriage was in disregard iment.

Q:Whatisthepurposeofthearticle? A:Topreventdoubtfulpaternity Note:Womanwillnotbeliableifshehas: 1. Alreadydelivered 2. Conclusiveprooftha tspousesincehewaspermanently sterile.(Peoplev.Masinsin,CA49OG3908)

PERFORMANCEOFILLEGALMARRIAGE CEREMONY(Art.352) Q:Whoarethepersonsliableu punishes priests or ministers of any religious denomination or sect, or civil a hallperformorauthorizeanyillegalmarriage ceremony. Note:Art.352presupposesthatthepriestorminister orcivilauthorityisauthorizedto Otherwise,heisliableunderArt.177.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 XIII.CRIMESAGAINSTHONOR(353364) LIBEL (Art.353) Q:Whatislibel? A: on of a crime, or of a vice or defect, real or imaginary, or any act, omiss or circumstance tending to cause the dishonor, discredit, or contempt of a natu l person, or to blacken the memory of one who is dead. Q:Howislibelcommit n committed by means of writing, printing, lithography, engraving, radio, phonogr ing or theatrical or cinematographicexhibition,oranysimilarmeans. Note:Nodistinctionbetweencalumny,insultandlibel.

and speaks not in response to duty but merely to injurethereputationoftheper Note:Inlibelcases,thequestionisnotwhatthevictim meansbutwhatthewordsusedby 15,Mar.29,1996)

Q:Whoareliableforlibel? A: 1. Any person who shall publish, exhibit or c ionofany defamationinwritingorbysimilarmeans. 2. The author or editor of a ditor or business manager of a daily newspaper, magazine or serial publication, n containedthereintothesameextentasif heweretheauthorthereof. Q:Whatare here must be an imputation of a crime, orofaviceordefect,realorimaginary,o ion, status or circumstance. 2. Imputationmustbemadepublicly. 3. Itmustbemalici irectedatanaturalorjuridical person,oronewhoisdead(identification oftheoffen It must tend to cause the dishonor, discredit or contempt of the person defam A:Maliceisatermusedtoindicatethefactthatthe offender is prompted by persona

Q:Whatarethetwokindsofmalice? A: 1. Malice in fact maybe shown by proof ure. 2. Malice in law is presumed from a defamatory imputation. However, presu ted if it is shown by theaccusedthat: a. Defamatory imputation is true, in ca of of the truthoftheimputation; b. It is published with good intention; and c emotiveformaking it. Q:Whenismalicenotpresumed? A:Maliceisnotpresumedin unication made by any person to another in the performance of anylegal,moralo ites: a. Person who made the communication had a legal moral or social duty to ationoratleast,hehadan interesttobeupheld; b. Communication is addressed to or superior, having some interest or duty in the matter; c. Statements in the e made in good faith without malice(infact). 2. Fair and true report, made nycommentsorremarks,ofany judicial, legislative, or other official proceedingsw dential nature, or of any statement, report, or speech delivered in the exercis ions. Q:Inwhatwaymaylibelbecommitted? A:Libelmaybecommittedby: 1. Writing 256


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Honor 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Printing Lithography Engraving Radio Phonograph Painting heatricalexhibition Cinematographicexhibition Anysimilarmean Q: Dolores Magno was d convicted of libel for the writings on the wall and for the unsigned letter jandro spouses, containing invectives directed against Cerelito Alejandro. Dolores ds that the prosecutionfailedtoestablishthepresenceofthe elements of authorshi of the malicious writings on the wall, as well as the unsigned letter addresse spouses. She argues that since the letter was addressedtothespouses,Fe(Cerelit sCerelitoisconcerned,notathirdperson forpurposesofpublication.Issheliable? ticle353oftheRPC, thefollowingelementsmustbeshowntoexist: 1. The allegation r conditionconcerninganother 2. Publicationofthecharge 3. Identityofthepersonde enceofmalice. Publication,inthelawoflibel,meansthemakingof the defamatory ritten, knowntosomeoneotherthanthepersontowhom ithasbeenwritten.Ifthestatem on for whom it is written there is no publication of it. The reason for this of the defamatory matter to the person defamed cannot injure his reputation tho his selfesteem. A mans reputation is not the good opinion he has of himself, hich others hold him. In this case, there is no dispute that the unsealed elousletterwashanded by Dolores to Evelyn (Cerelitos sister). Contextually, the ble probability that the contents thereof, particularly the libelous letter, coul exposed to be read by Evelyn before delivering the same to Cerelito. However,E lyadmittednotreading theletteratthefirstinstance,readingitonlyafter securing asmuch,therefore, as Cerelito voluntarily disclosed the contents of Dolores libe o Evelyn, the act of publicationcannotbeascribedtoDoloresinsofaras Evelynisc be said, however, that there was no publication with respect to Fe. While the was addressed to Mr. Cerelito & Fe Alejandro, the invectives contained therein inst Cerelito only. Writing to a person other than the person defamed is suffi tepublication,forthepersontowhomthe letterisaddressedisathirdpersoninrelati

Q: Must there be a publication of the libelous article? A:Yes.Theremustb efamatorymattertosome3 persons. Illustration: Thedeliveryofthearticletothetypesetterissufficient publication. 135) The sending to the wife of a letter which maligns the husbandwasconsid tion,forthe spouseisathirdpersontothevictimdefamed.(U.S.v. Urbinana,1Phil.

Q: Rima and Alegre exposed various alleged complaints from students, teachers inst Ago Medical and Educational CenterBicol Christian College of Medicine (AME strators. Rima and Allegre remarked that AMECisadumpingground,garbageofxxxmo ts; and AMEC students who graduate will be liabilities rather than assets of that the broadcasts were defamatory, AMEC filed a complaint for damages against Alegre. Are the aforementionedremarksorbroadcastslibelous? A: There is no que adcasts were made public and imputed to AMEC defects or circumstances tending t nor, discreditandcontempt.RimaandAlegresremarks are libelous per se. Taken as sts suggest that AMEC is a moneymaking institution where physically and morally bound. Every defamatory imputation is presumed malicious. Rima and Alegre faile uately their good intention and justifiable motive in airing the supposed gripes ts. As hosts of a documentary or public affairs program, Rima and Alegre shoul he public issues free from inaccurate andmisleadinginformation.(FilipinasBroadcas rk, Inc. v. Ago Medical and Educational CenterBicolChristianCollegeofMedicine, 7,2005)


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 writer and the person defamed therein. Fe, the wife, is contextually a third p ublicationwasmade.(DoloresMagnov.Peopleof thePhilippines,G.R.No.133896,Jan.27 ndefenseinlibel? A:Thatitiscoveredbyprivilegedcommunication. 1. Absolute f the author has acted in bad faith like the statements made by members of C ge of their official functions; 2. Conditional or qualified like a private y any person to another in the performance of any legal, moral, or social dut report, made in good faith, without any comments or remarks, of any judicial, her official proceedings which are not of confidential nature. Here, even if th e defamatory, there is no presumption of malice. The prosecution must prove mal ttheaccused. Q: Do defamatory remarks and comments on the conductoractsof ed to the discharge of their official duties constitute libel? A: No, it wi l if the accused proves the truth of the imputation. But any attack uponthep licofficerson matters which are not related to the discharge of theirofficial uteLibel. Moreover, a written letter containing libelous matter cannot be clas leged when publicly published and circulated. (Sazon vs. CA, G.R.No.120715,Mar. INGTOPUBLISHANDOFFERTO PREVENTSUCHPUBLICATIONFORA COMPENSATION(Art.356) Q: : 1. Threatening another to publish a libel concerning him, or his parents, sp rmembersofhisfamily. 2. Offering to prevent the publication of such libel fo oney consideration. Note: Known as blackmail in its metaphorical sense, may be defined as any eybythreatsofaccusationorexposure.

Q:Inwhatfeloniesisblackmailcommitted? A: 1. Lightthreats 2. Threatening to g to prevent the publication of, a libel for compensation Q:Whoaretheperson erson who publishes, exhibits or causes the publication or exhibition of any de ngorsimilarmeans. 2. Authororeditorofabookorpamphlet. 3. Editor or busine papermagazineorserialpublication. 4. Owner of the printing plant which publish ticle with his consentandallotherpersonswhoinany way participate in or have cation. Q:Whereshouldacomplaintforlibelbefiled? A:Criminalandcivilactions famationsshallbefiledsimultaneouslyor separately with the court of first instan ceorcity: 1. Where the libelous article is printed and firstpublished;or 2. nded parties actually resides at the time of the commissionoftheoffense. Note: The court where the criminal action or civil action for damages is first re jurisdictiontotheexclusionofothercourts. Offended party must file complain mputing a crime which cannot be prosecuted de oficio.

PROOFOFTRUTH (Art.361) Q:Whenisproofoftruthadmissible? A: Proof of wing: 258


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Honor 1. When the act or omission imputed constitutesacrimeregardlessofwhether the private individual orapublicofficer. Whentheoffendedpartyisagovernment emplo r omission imputed does not constitute a crime, provided, it is related to the ficialduties. administrative proceedings wherein such facts have beenmentioned. 2.

Note:Proofoftruthmustrestuponpositive,direct evidence upon which a definite ecourt.Butprobablecauseforbeliefin thetruthofthestatementissufficient. Q: sorequiredthatthematterchargedas libelous was published with good motives and s. Q:Whatarethepossibledefensesinthecrimeof libel? A: 1. It appears tha ousistrue 2. Itwaspublishedwithgoodmotives 3. Andforajustifiableend LIBEL Note: Libelous remarks or comments on matters privileged,ifmadewithmaliceinfac horandeditor.

Q:WhatisthesocalledGagLaw? A: Newspaper reports on cases pertaining to out the legitimacy of children, etc., will necessarily be barred from publicatio ews report may not be revealed. SLANDER(ORALDEFAMATION) (Art.358) Q:Wha . Simpleslander 2. Grave slander, when it is of a serious and insultingnature. stinctions between oral defamationandcriminalconversation? A: ORALDEFAMATION Maliciousimputationofany act,omission,conditionor circumstanceaga oneorallyinpublic, tendingtocausedishonor, discredit,contemptand embarrassmento tter. Acrimeagainsthonor penalizedinArt.358,RPC. CRIMINAL CONVERSATION Usedin nceto sexualintercourseas incertaincrimes,like rape,seductionand adultery. Has sacrime.

PROHIBITEDPUBLICATIONOFACTSREFERREDTO INTHECOURSEOFOFFICIALPROCEEDINGS (A hiscrime? A: 1. Offenderisareporter,editorormanager ofanewspaperdailyormag acts connected with the privatelifeofanother. 3. Such facts are offensive to dreputationofsaidperson. Note:Prohibitionapplieseventhoughsaidpublication bemadeinconnectionwithorunder necessary in the narration of any judicial or

Q:Whatarethefactorsthatdeterminethegravity oforaldefamation? A: 1. 2. 3. Note:Socialstandingandthepositionoftheoffended partyarealsotakenintoaccount. heoffendedparty.

Expressionsused Personalrelationsoftheaccusedandthe offendedparty Circumstances ase

Q: Lando and Marco are candidates in the local elections. In his speeches La onent Marco alleging that he is the son of Nanding, a robber and a thief who ughshadydeals.MayMarcofileacase against Lando for grave oral defamation? Stat


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 A: Marco cannot file a case for grave oral defamation. If at all, he may f er. In the case of People v. Laroga (40 O.G. 123). It was held that defamati gwhenfeelingsarerunninghighandpeople could not think clearly, only amount to rQuestion) SLANDERBYDEED (Art.359) Q:Whatisslanderbydeed? A:Slander ed by performing any act which casts dishonor, discredit, or contempt upon anot ataretheelementsofslanderbydeed? A: 1. Offenderperformsanyactnotincludedin 2. Such act is performed in the presence of otherpersonorpersons 3. Such act credit or contemptupontheoffendedparty Q:Whatarethekindsofslanderbydeed? d performance of anact,notuseofwords. 2. Grave slander by deed which inesifanactisslanderbydeedor not? A: Whether a certain slanderous act co usnatureornot,depends on the social standing of the offended party, the circu eactwascommitted, theoccasion,etc. Illustration: Thus, slapping a lady in a dance not for purpose of hurtinghe liationfor refusingtodancewiththeaccusedisslanderbydeed.

INCRIMINATORYMACHINATIONS INCRMINATINGINNOCENTPERSON (Art.363) Q:Whatare Offenderperformsanact 2. By such act he directly incriminates or imputes to the commissionofacrime 3. Suchactdoesnotconstituteperjury Note: The crime of incriminatory machinations is limited to planting evidence an ich tend directlytocausefalseprosecution.

Q: What are the distinctions between incriminating an innocent person and perj seaccusation? A: INCRIMINATINGAN INNOCENTPERSON Committedbyperforming anactbywhichthe offenderd atesorimputesto aninnocentpersonthe commissionofacrime. Limitedtotheactof ,inordertoincriminate aninnocentperson. PERJURYBYMAKING FALSEACCUSATION Thegr he imputationitself, falselymade,beforean officer. Givingoffalse statementund alse affidavit,imputingtoa personthecommission ofacrime.

Q: What are the distinctions between incriminatorymachinationanddefamation? A INCRIMINATORY MACHINATION Offenderperformsactsto directlyimputetoan innocentpers ionofthecrime. DEFAMATION Offenderavailshimself ofwrittenorspoken wordsinbesm utation. INTRIGUINGAGAINSTHONOR (Art.364) Q:Whatisintriguingagainsthonor? A: nsist of sometrickery. 260


BOOK 2: Crimes Against Honor Q:Whoisliable? A: Any person who shall make any intrigue which hasforits noror reputationofanotherperson. Q: What is the distinction between intriguin ander? A: INTRIGUING AGAINSTHONOR Thesourceofthe defamatory utteranceisunknown andtheoff tsor passesthesame, withoutsubscribing tothetruththereof. SLANDER Offendermade ethesourceofthe defamatorynatureofthe utteranceisknown,and offendermakesa r n thoughherepeatsthe libelousstatementascoming fromanother,aslongasthe sourc ncy, in each of the (5) cases of libel, on the ground that the intensely fev duringtheelectionperiodin1988musthaveagitated petitioner into writing his open ncomplete privileged communication should be appreciated in favor of petitioner, y considering the wide latitude traditionally given to defamatory utterances agai officials in connection with or relevant to their performance of official duties blic figures in relation to mattersofpublicinterestinvolvingthem. In Buatis, Court opted to impose uponpetitioner,alawyer,thepenaltyoffineonlyfor the cri g that it was his first offenseandhewasmotivatedpurelybyhisbeliefthat he w c or moral duty to his client when wrote the defamatory letter to private com oing cases indicate an emergent rule of preferencefortheimpositionoffineonlyr ent in libel cases under the circumstances thereinspecified.

a.AdministrativeCircular082008Re:Guidelines intheObservanceofaRuleofPrefere altiesinLibelCases 1.Preferenceofimpositionoffine Note:Article355oftheRPCpenalizeslibelwith prision correctional in its minimum a ds or fine ranging from 200 to 6,000 pesos, or both, in addition to the civil e broughtbytheoffendedparty. Inthefollowingcases,theCourtoptedtoimposeonly hecrimeoflibel: In Sazon v. CA, the Court modified the penalty imposeduponpe omeowners association, for the crime of libel from imprisonment and fine in th 0, to fine only of P3,000.00, with subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvenc n that he wrote the libelous article merely to defend his honor against the m hat earlier circulated around the subdivision, which he thought was the handiwor ecomplainant. In Mariv.CA, wherethecrimeinvolvedisslanderby deed,theCourtm nthe petitioner, an ordinary government employee, from imprisonment to fine of h subsidiary imprisonmentincaseofinsolvency,onthegroundthat thelattercommitted nger andinreactiontoaperceivedprovocation. In Brillante v. CA, the Court dele imprisonment imposed upon petitioner, a local politician, but maintained the pena of P4,0000.00, with subsidiary imprisonment in case of

Q: What are the guidelines in the observace of a ruleofpreferenceintheimpo ases? A: All courts and judges concerned should henceforth take note of the eferencesetbytheSupremeCourtonthematter oftheimpositionofpenaltiesforthecri llowingprinciples: 1. This Administrative Circular does not remove imprisonment native penalty for the crime libel under Article 355oftheRPC 2. The Judges xercise of sound discretion, and taking into consideration the peculiar circumsta h case, determine whether the imposition of a fine alone would best serve the ce or whether forbearing to impose imprisonment would depreciate the seriousness orkviolence on the social order, or otherwise be contrarytotheimperativeofjus a fine be imposed and the accusedbeunabletopaythefine,thereis no legal obs the RPC provision on subsidiary imprisonment.


UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011 XIV.CRIMINALNEGLIGENCE CRIMINALNEGLIGENCEIMPRUDENCEAND NEGLIGENCE(Art.365) Q leacts? A: 1. Committing through reckless imprudence any act which, had it be ould constitute a grave or less grave felonyorlightfelony 2. Committing throu nce or negligence an act which would otherwise constitute a grave or a less s sing damage to the property of another through reckless imprudence or simpleimp ence 4. Causing through simple imprudence or negligence some wrong which, if d y, would have constituted a lightfelony Note:Imprudenceornegligenceisnotacrimeitself.It issimplyawayofcommittinga

A: 1. Thereislackofprecautiononthepartof theoffender. Damage impending to e nor the danger clearly manifested. 2.

Note: Art. 64, relative to mitigating and aggravating circumstances, is not ap mes committed throughnegligence.

GR: Failing to lend help is a qualifying circumstance; it raises the penalty N: The driver can leave his vehicle without aidingthevictimsifhe: 1. Is in i g harmed 2. Wants to report to the nearest officerofthelaw,or 3. Desires to urse for medical assistance to the injured.(Sec.55ofR.A.4136) Q:Whatisthe : The last clear chance doctrine states that the contributorynegligenceofthepa efeat the action if it be shown that the accused might, by the exercise of r dence, have avoided the consequences of the negligenceoftheinjuredparty. Q:W :Theemergencyruleprovidesthatanautomobile driverwho,bythenegligenceofanother nce, is suddenly placed in an emergencyandcompelledtoactinstantlytoavoid aco tyofnegligenceifhe makes such a choice which a person of ordinary prudence p n might make eventhoughhedidnotmakethewisestchoice. Q:Whatarethedistincti ligence? A: NEGLIGENCE Deficiencyof perception Failureinadvertence Avoidedbypayingproper attenti dusingthe diligenceinforeseeingthem IMPRUDENCE Deficiencyofaction Failureinpre essary precautiononce foreseen

Imprudenceindicates adeficiency of action; failure in precaution. Negligenceind encyofperception;failure inadvertence.

RECKLESSIMPRUDENCE Q:Whataretheelementsofrecklessimprudence? A: 1. Offe edoingoforthefailuretodothatactis voluntary. 3. Itbewithoutmalice. 4. Mater reisaninexcusablelackofprecaution on the part of the person performing or fa ct taken into consideration: a. Employmentoroccupation b. Degreeofintelligence c. ondition d. Other circumstances regarding persons,timeandplace SIMPLEIMPRUDEN tsofsimpleimprudence? 262