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Population ecology

Population of organisms: a group of individuals of a species that inhabit an area


reliance on the same resources in the area influenced by similar environmental conditions in the area high likelihood of inter-breeding

Population of organisms: characteristics

1. Density of organisms
clumped (=aggregated) uniform (=regular) random

Population of organisms: characteristics


1. Demography
Decline mortalities immigration Growth birth emigration

Survival patterns: Type I (convex): K-selected organisms: larger, fewer, protected Type III (concave): r-selected organisms: smaller, more, on their own

Population of organisms: characteristics: life history Life history:


the pattern of reproduction and survival of organisms

in a population (e.g., age of sexual maturity, age of death, growth rates, number of offsprings, etc.) that influences how a population grows. Natural selection favors life history traits that will lead to survival and reproductive success of species in a population.

Population of organisms: characteristics: life history


Trade-offs are common between survival, reproductive success and life history traits of a species due to limitations in available resources.

Population of organisms: life history: reproductive modes


Variations in reproductive modes result from trade-offs between survival and reproductive success

semelparity

iteroparity

Population of organisms: predicting exponential growth

dN/dt = r.N

Population of organisms: predicting logistic growth

dN/dt = r.N [(K N)/K]

Population of organisms: population growth: reproductive strategies

r-selected (opportunistic, density-independent, smaller, more, on their own) K-selected (equilibrial, density-dependent selection, larger, fewer, protected)

What limits population growth? negative feedback

Human population growth: history

Human population growth

Human population growth: age structure

zero

rapid

slow

Human population growth: demographic transition

Demographic transition: a shift from an unstable population with high birth (fertility) and death rates to a stable population with low birth and death rates.

Human population growth: demographic transition: Thailand vs Philippines

Human population growth: demographic transition: aqggressive vs.


weak reproductive health policies

Thailand, Malaysia Philippines

Human population growth: ecological footprint

Ecological footprint: measures how much of the Earths area is required to support the human population to produce the resources we consume and to absorb our waste products under prevailing technology; expressed as global hectares.

Human population growth: ecological footprint: rich vs. poor countries

Human population growth: ecological footprint

It now takes more than one year and two months for the Earth to regenerate what we use in a single year!

Human population growth: is there a carrying capacity for Homo sapiens?