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SBI4U0: Examination and Course Review

Disclaimer: Although this review seems comprehensive, it does not cover everything from the course. As you study for summatives, use this review as a STUDY GUIDE and be sure to review all course notes, assignments, labs, and activities. Using this guide in combination with your other course work will be the most beneficial to your success on summatives. Good Luck. Unit 1: Biochemistry 1. In what type of substance would you expect fat to dissolve? Why? 2. In a condensation reaction, two molecules combine and a molecule of ______ is produced. 3. True or False? The angle shape of water contributes to its polarity. 4. For the following 3 molecules, NAME the molecule shown AND name each of the circled functional groups:

5. Identify the INTRAmolecular AND forces in the following:

INTERmolecular

6. Match the organelles with their functions (not all organelles will be used).

Chloroplast Nucleus Cytoplasm Golgi Bodies Lysosomes ribosomes Centrioles Cell membrane Mitochondria Cell wall Endoplasmic Reticulum

___________Organelle that controls directs the functions within the cell and contains DNA. ___________Organelle that breaks down materials and releases energy into the cell. ___________Organelle made of gel-like material that contains water and nutrients for the cell. ___________Organelle found in cells that contain chlorophyll and use light energy to make food for the cell. ___________ Modifies and packages proteins and that are sent to it from the rough ER. ___________ Digest worn-out or non usable proteins, structures, and foreign substances __________ Organelle that store nutrients, waste and other substances used by the cell. ___________Organelle that forms the boundary of the cell and controls what comes in and goes out of the cell. Composed of double layer of phospholipids.

7. Using chemical structures, show the production of sucrose. State the type of bond formed and the type of reaction. 8. List some functions of carbohydrates. 9. Compare and contrast between glycogen and cellulose. 10. List some functions of lipids. 11. Sketch the formation of a triglyceride. Use fatty acids with the formula CH3(CH2)5COOH. Classify your triglyceride as being saturated or unsaturated. 12. Describe the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins. 13. Using chemical structures, show the production of a dipeptide using the amino acids leucine and glycine. State the type of bond formed and the type of reaction. 14. List different functions of proteins. 15. Explain what an enzyme-substrate complex is. 16. How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions? 17. Sketch a simple structure of a nucleotide. 18. Explain how acid denatures the structure of a protein. 19. Define the following terms: endocytosis, exocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis. 20. Describe the fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane. 21. Use the diagram to answer the questions:
Using figure 1 below, answer the questions given a. Identify the following labels: Label D: Label E b. c. d. e. f. Label F: Label G:

Which of the arrows (A, B or C) shows simple diffusion? Which of the arrows (A, B or C) shows facilitated diffusion?______ Which of the arrows (A, B or C) shows active transport? ______

Which of the arrows (A, B or C) shows a substance going against its concentration gradient? _____ Which of the arrows (A, B or C) would represent the movement of oxygen (an uncharged small molecule) into the capillaries of the lungs?

g.

Which of the arrows (A, B or C) requires energy?

_____

Figure 1 F D G E

C A B

Unit 2: Metabolism 1. Explain what is meant by the terms: metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism. 2. State the first law and second law of thermodynamics. 3. Define the following terms: aerobic, anaerobic, heterotroph, autotroph, facultative, obligate 4. Which graph (endergonic or exergonic) requires a higher activation energy to initiate the reaction?

5. Why does glucose need to be phosphorylated at the beginning of glycolysis? 6. State the net reaction of glycolysis. 7. What happens to glucose in the absence of oxygen? State at least 2 different organisms which can metabolize glucose in the absence of oxygen. 8. Sketch a diagram of the mitochondrion. Label the following: outer mitochondrial membrane, inner mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial matrix, cristae. 9. What is pyruvate? What is meant by pyruvate oxidation? 10. State the net reaction of pyruvate oxidation. 11. State the net reaction of the krebs cycle. 12. During pyruvate oxidation, what is being oxidized, and what is being reduced? How do you know? 13. What is the role of NADH and FADH2 in cellular respiration? 14. Explain how ATP Synthase is able to synthesize ATP? Make an analogy of water passing through a dam and the conversion of potential energy.

15. What is the difference between oxidative and substrate-level phosphorylation? 16.Draw a diagram of a chloroplast and label: thylakoids, grana, stroma. 17. Label the 2 blanks following cross-section of a leaf:

18. How do light, water, and carbon dioxide get into a plant for photosynthesis? 19. What is a pigment? What is a photosystem? What is an antennae complex? 20. Explain how the light reactions and calvin cycle are dependent upon each other. Unit 3: Molecular Genetics 1. The following is a list of discoveries made to help our understanding of the molecular basis of DNA. Associate which scientist(s) was/were associated with each of the ideas listed and explain why their ideas were significant: Transforming Factor, Evidence that DNA is the Genetic Material of Cells, and X-Ray crystallography (state ALL the things about DNA that were discovered through X-Ray crystallography). 2. E.coli cells grown in a 15N medium were transferred to a 14N medium and allowed to grow for 2 generations. DNA extracted from these cells is centrifuged. What density distribution would you expect to see from this experiment? Explain your answer. 3. A biochemist isolated and purified molecules needed for DNA replication. When she added some DNA, she noticed that phosphodiester bonds were not forming between nucleotides. What had she probably left out of the mixture? Explain. 4. Why is a primer needed to initiate synthesis of DNA? 5. What is meant by the term parental DNA? 6. Explain the importance of DNA proofreading. 7. What is meant by central dogma of molecular biology? 8. The synthesis of an RNA molecule from DNA is known as? 9. What is RNA polymerase? 10. What is a codon? What is an anticodon? 11. Explain the relationship between TATA boxes and promoter regions of DNA. What is their significance? 12. Which parental DNA strand is used as the template for RNA transcription? 13. Sketch a simple diagram to show transcription initiation. 14. Summarize the functions of: mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA. 15. Why does mRNA have to go through processing before translation can occur? What is a poly-A tail? 16. What is the function of amino-acyl tRNA synthase? 17. What initiates translation? What terminates transcription? 18. What is a mutagen? What are some examples of mutagens? 19. Differentiate between silent, missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations. 20. Use the following DNA template 3 CTA CGC TAG GCG ATT ATC 5 to transcribe the mRNA transcript and translate into the corresponding amino acids. 21. Explain what is meant by the terms: transcriptional control, translational control, and posttranslational control of gene expression. 22. What is the function of the enzymes: beta-galactosidase and galactoside permease? What genes in the lac operon are responsible for their transcription? 23. Explain why lactose is called an inducer? 24. What is the function of the operator region of DNA? 25. If you wanted to study an important gene (e.g. a gene that causes a disease), explain a DNA technology that could allow you to make multiple copies of these gene, and why doing this would be advantageous. 26. What is a restriction enzyme? What is a plasmid? 27. DNA technologies can be seen as helping to advance society, but many of these technologies also come with controversies. Discuss. Unit 4: Homeostasis 1. What is thermoregulation? Explain how thermoregulation would differ between endotherms (warm blooded animals) and ectotherms (cold blooded animals).

2. What is a hormone? Differentiate between lipid hormones vs. peptide hormones. 3. What hormones are secreted by the anterior and posterior pituitary? Briefly describe the actions of these hormones. 4. Using your knowledge of blood sugar homeostasis, explain what type I diabetes is. 5. Using your knowledge of metabolism homeostasis, explain what hyperthyroidism is. 6. Discuss a positive feedback mechanism that occurs in the human body. 7. Compare and contrast the regulation of the male reproductive system vs. the female reproductive system. 8. Explain why the endometrial tissue in the uterus thickens during a females reproductive cycle. 9. What is a follicle? What do you think is meant by the term follicular development? 10. What is a corpus luteum and what does it secrete? What does progesterone do for the female reproductive system? 11. On what day of the menstrual cycle (approximately) does ovulation occur? 12. What is meant by the phrase: depolarization of a neurons membrane? 13. Anaesthetics reduce pain by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. Based on your knowledge of nerve impulses, hypothesize as to what chemicals or mechanisms may contribute to the function of anaesthetics. 14. The receivers of information on a neuron are the: _______. 15. Which part of the brain coordinates movement and balance? 16. What parts of the brain make up the brain stem? 17. What is meant by the flight or fight response? 18. Draw a flow chart to classify the components that make up the CNS and PNS. 19. What effect do caffeine and alcohol have on the excretory system? 20. Sketch & label a diagram of a nephron, focusing on the steps of urine formation. Also use arrows in your diagram to indicate where active and passive transport are occurring. 21. List and explain one disorder of the excretory system. Explain what the disorder is, what causes it, and how it may be treated. Unit 5: Population Dynamics 1. What is the difference between population size and population density? 2. Differentiate between a type I, type II, and type III survivorship curve. Provide an example of an organism that would exhibit each type of survivorship pattern & explain why. 3. A researcher captures 24 geese and places a special leg band on each one before releasing them. One week later, the researcher captures 30 geese in the same area and finds the special leg band on 9 of them. What is the best estimate for the population of geese in that area? 4. What is the significance of each of these distribution patterns: clumped, uniform, and random. 5. Wolves travel in packs and are territorial. Make a hypothesis concerning the distribution patterns you would expect to find in wolf populations and the reasons these types of distributions would occur. 6. What is the difference between logistic vs. exponential growth? What types of limiting factors would change the growth of a population from exponential to logistic? What type of growth are human beings currently exhibiting? Can this carry on indefinitely? 7. Differentiate between r-selected vs. k-selected strategies. 8. In a population of 5000 individuals, 600 newborns are produced annually, and 800 individuals die annually. Determine the per capita growth rate of this population. 9. What is carrying capacity? 10. Differentiate between a density dependent vs. density independent factor. 11. What defense mechanisms are exhibited by organisms? 12. Explain the predator-prey relationship between the lynx and hare. 13. What kinds of symbiotic relationships exist in populations?