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Geographical Names Database for Disaster Management of Mount Semeru, East Java, Indonesia

Widodo Edi Santoso1 , Sukendra Martha1 Aji Putra Perdana2


2Staf 1Peneliti-BAKOSURTANAL Pusat Pemetaan Dasar RupabumiBAKOSURTANAL

BAKOSURTANAL Jln. Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong 16911. INDONESIA

Outline 1 2 3

Geographical Names Database for Disaster Management of Mt. Semeru

Background
Aims

Why Geo-Names and Disaster?

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Methodology
How is the process?

The purposes of building Geo-Names database

Result and Discussion


Geo-Names, Gazetteer

Study Area

Where is the location?

Conclusion

We may conclude that

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Background

Geographical Names is fundamental element of communication and direct access and intuitive to another relevant informations. Toponym is one of fundamental dataset that is needed in disaster management.

In recent period, disaster in Indonesia such as floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides and cyclones have a significant impact. The uniqueness of natural and artificial geographical names as human way in identifying environment and makes it important as a reference in communication for disaster or regional management (Santoso, 2006a; Santoso, 2006b; Perdana et.al, 2011a). Presidential Regulation Number 112 Year 2006 regarding National Team for Topographic Name Standardization mentioned that one of the goals of this National Team is realizing the national gazetteer so that there is a common understanding of the topographical names in Indonesia. Geographical names or topographic name is part of basic geospatial information (fundamental dataset) according to Act Number 4 of Geospatial Information; they have important roles for mapping, good governance, planning, research, etc.

Aims This paper describes the use of geographic names database for natural disaster management
application.

A natural disaster highlighted in this study is Mount Semeru volcano disaster. The aims of this research are building geographical names database in study area and providing important locations or geospatial information in GIS format based on spatial analysis for pre-disaster and post-disaster.

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Study Area
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Disaster and GeoNames ?

Mount Semeru was selected as research area

Mt. Semeru located between Malang District and Lumajang District in East Java Province, Indonesia. Its Volcanic Strato and has the same characteristic like Mt. Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia. Geographically, Lumajang located between longitude 112o5-113o22 E and latitude 7o52-8o23 S. While, Malang located between longitude 12 17 11 - 112 57 00 E and latitude 7 44 55 8 26 34 S.

Study Area

The selected sub-districts for study area are Tirtoyudo, Ampelgading sub-districts of Malang District and also Pronojiwo and Candipuro sub-districts of Lumajang District, East Java Province.

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Methodology
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Preparation Digital Topographic Base Map or Rupabumi Indonesia

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Literature study (previous study, government laws, etc), Data collection (primer and secondary data), and Spatial data analysis then Building geographical names database. Field work (to understand the study area and access to location, geographical names verification and observation of strategic locations.) Topographic base map scale 1:25.000 (sheet numbers: 1607-423, 1607-424, 1607-441, 1607-442, 1607-443, 1607-444, 1607-513, 1607-531, 1607-533) Disaster Prone Area Map of Mount Semeru from BNPB as supporting data for spatial analysis.

Editing and Reposition Geographical Names

Adding Elevation Value for Geographical Names Text KRB Map, Fieldwork, etc Coordinate Transformation Conversion into GIS format Spatial Analysis and Data Join Integration into Geographical Names Database

Book of Gazetteer or Gazetteer Web

Spatial Database
.dbf or geodatabase

GIS format Shapefile (*.shp)

Result and Discussion


Geographical Names Database of Lumajang District

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Result and Discussion


Geographical Names Database of Lumajang District

Result and Discussion


Geo-visualization of geographical names is also an important part to see distribution of geographical names spatially.

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Result and Discussion

Result and Discussion

Disaster Prone Area and Geographical Names of Administrative Area

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Result and Discussion


Evacuation distribution in Mt. Semeru

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Result and Discussion

Distribution of Toponym in Disaster Prone Area and Buffer 5km+8Km from Mt. Semeru

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Result and Discussion


Table 1. Buffer Distance Analysis of Village Geographical Names
VILLAGE Sumbermujur Orooroombo Pronojiwo Argoyuwono Tamansari Ngadas Orooroombo Supiturang Pasrujambe Argoyuwono Tamansari SUB-DISTRICT Candipuro Pronojiwo Pronojiwo Ampelgading Ampelgading Poncokusumo Pronojiwo Pronojiwo Senduro Ampelgading Ampelgading DISTRICT Lumajang Lumajang Lumajang Malang Malang Malang Lumajang Lumajang Lumajang Malang Malang PROVINCE Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur Jawa Timur BUFFER DISTANCE 0-5000 meter 0-5000 meter 0-5000 meter 0-5000 meter 0-5000 meter 0-5000 meter 5000-8000 meter 5000-8000 meter 5000-8000 meter 5000-8000 meter 5000-8000 meter AREA (Km2) 47890.87 4689799.40 5689013.92 1423644.79 16740602.97 15029588.44 3553247.48 6613433.60 39624312.86 7204241.52 14674171.92

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Result and Discussion

Geoparsing of Villages and Location of Evacuation

Geoparsing is process of defining identity or geographical identifier (such as code or geographic coordinate in latitude longitude) of non-structured object, for example five kilometers northeast of Mt. Semeru.

Population number in Pronojiwo is the smallest, but located in the most dangerous area of Mt. Semeru eruption. Based on map analysis and location of evacuation in Pronojiwo, we can see that this area is the most prepared facing the possibility of Mt. Semeru eruption.

Table 2. Number of Villages and Population in Disaster Prone Area


District, Sub-District Tirtoyudo,Malang Ampelgading, Malang Pronojiwo, Lumajang Candipuro, Lumajang TOTALS Villages 13 13 6 10 42 Kampung /Dusun 33 39 24 57 153 Population 64,330 59,261 36,621 69,527 229,379

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Result and Discussion


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The results above are not as simple as we can see. Verification or validation of topographical names or geographical names before it can be processed into spatial database, gazetteer or GIS format. Geographical names should be consistence and accurate in order to help effective communication in disaster management or regional planning, nationally or internationally. As an example: Names of mountains, such as Gunung Semeru (written by two separate words, as "gunung" is a generic element of the form of topographical and "Semeru" the name itself, or specific elements).

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Result and Discussion


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In other side, there is city use word gunung in its name and wrote it in Indonesia (correctly): Gunungsitoli City (written as one word Gunungsitoli because of its generic element is not the mountain but the "City"). In this study, administrative names for village level such as Sumbermujur, Orooroombo, Pronojiwo, Sidomulyo, Sumberurip, Supiturang, Argoyuwono, Tamansari, Pasrujambe, Ngadas, all names have been validated included their location in geographic coordinate (latitude and longitude). Geographical names that have been verify and compiled in database can be use for disaster management such as identification location, spatial analysis, evacuation of the victims, distribution of resources, recovery, community, etc.

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Conclusion

Geographical names as part of basic geospatial information (fundamental dataset) according to Act Number 4 about Geospatial Information have an important role in disaster management. Verification and/or validation of geographical names (natural and cultural phenomena, such as the names of mountains, islands, village, sub district, district, provincial, buildings, roads, etc) should be done before geographical names database is distributed for disaster management or many other purposes. Spatial analysis can be use for enhancing information that could be tied with geographical names. Geographical names database with the final output in gazetteer format that can be accessed through web is challenging and can be part of an effort to realizing the national gazetteer so that there is a common understanding of the topographical names in Indonesia. The key of gazetteer is accurate and consistence geospatial information as fundamental element of communication for planning and management.

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Acknowledgments
Thanks to
This paper derived from research Development of Geographical Names Database Application for Natural Disaster Management. We would like to express our sincere thanks to The Head and colleagues of Center for Topographic Base MappingBAKOSURTANAL for supporting this research by providing basic geospatial information. Thanks also to National Team for the Standardization of Topographical Names.

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Terima Kasih Thank You


Geographical Names is the key word of understanding Location or Place on Earth with Geographical Approach

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