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has two OES, model ARL-3460 & ARL-36000. Write the full forms of ARL & OES. 2. The name OES is derived from the fact that it uses the _________ emitted by the sample. 3. For chemical analysis in OES, a spark is created between the sample and an electrode which is made of ________. 4. 5. 6. At the sparking spot, the sample material is subjected to the atomic _________ process. Name the four major parts of OES. The purpose of the source of OES is to produce __________ which is required to vaporise a part of the sample surface and create a plasma. 7. 8. 9. Use of Argon gas in OES helps to increase the ____________ of sparking. Name the five parts of Optic assembly of OES. The Roland circle is an _________ circle on which the primary slits, the secondary slits and _______ are located. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Write the basic principle used to calibrate OES. Write the full form of CRM used for calibration. What is use of Magnesium furnace put before OES? What is steel? What is maximum C % in steel? Steel making is a process of reduction, true or false? A hot metal sample contains Si- 1.0%, Mn- 0.5%, S- 0.03%, P-0.2% and C- 4.0%. What is the % of the balance element and what is that element? 17. 18. 19. What is a chemical reaction? The internal energy of a system has two parts, name them. The possibility of a chemical reaction is thermodynamically expressed as ________ of _______ energy. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Every chemical reaction is accompanied by _________ or _________ of heat. The heat content of a system is known as what? If heat is generated in a chemical reaction, it is termed as __________ reaction. If enthalpy change is negative, the reaction is called __________ reaction. Endothermic reactions are favoured by low temperature, true or false? Kinetics deals with __________ of a reaction. In steel making, the rate of a reaction mainly depends on __________ and __________. Equilibrium in a chemical reaction is the state when the rates of forward and backward reactions are _________.

28. 29.

The value the equilibrium constant depends mainly on ___________. For an exothermic reaction the value of the equilibrium constant increases with ____________.


Higher the value of equilibrium constant at a particular temperature, nearer the reaction is towards its __________.


If a change is made in temperature or concentration during a reaction then the system ___________ the change by altering its direction.

32. 33.

Entropy of a system expresses the disorderliness of the system, true or false? What drawback in cast iron makes its use very limited as against the versatile use of steel?

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

Which one is harder, steel or glass? Sulphur has a bad effect on strength of steel, name it. S & P are present in hot metal as __________ & ____________. Mn has a strong affinity for _________ in hot metal. Maximum solubility of C in Iron is ___________. Supply of Oxygen during steelmaking is made through ___________ and ___________. What is the range of temperature of hot metal at which it is received at SMS-1? Name the three types of diffusion processes that may be at work during steel making. Higher contact surface between slag & metal enhances the ______________ of reactions.


Higher value of equilibrium constant indicates __________ degree of completion of a chemical reaction.


Removal of the products of a reaction from the system helps in increasing the _______reaction rate.

45. 46. 47. 48.

The main two purposes of Argon rinsing are homogenisation of __________ & _________. Name two acid components of slag. Name four basic components of slag. A steel making process in which S & P are not removed is called an ______________ process.

49. 50. 51. i) ii) iii) iv)

Name one function of slag. In general basicity of slag is expressed as_____________. Write the chemical formulae of the following components of slag: Calcium Sulphide _____________, Calcium Ferrite ______________, Calcium aluminate ______________, Iron bi-silicate ____________________,

v) vi) vii) 52. 53. 54.

Manganese mono-silicate _______________, Iron tri-phosphate ________________________, Calcium tetra- phosphate _____________________, Which element in hot metal gives maximum heat during steel making after oxidation? What is the level of C & P in BSP hot metal? Write the chemical reaction indicating the reduction of iron ore to FeO when added to metal bath during refining.

55. 56. 57.

Write the equation governing the feasibility of a steel making reaction. Which oxidation reaction has a positive entropy change during steel making? Which oxidation reaction has the highest heat producing capacity per molecule of the element during steel making?

58. 59.

An exothermic reaction with negative entropy change will be feasible at lower temperature. True or false? Name the two parameters that influence the equilibrium constant of a steel making reaction.

60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

The position of equilibrium is changed with change in temperature. True or false? _____________ is the first element to be oxidized completely during steel making. CaO has a higher affinity for SiO2 than MnO or FeO has. True or false? Mn hump occurs during refining of steel when C removal rate is ____________. P removal requires lower ____________ of metal bath. S removal requires low ____________ content of slag. Oppm of metal bath is directly proportional to bath C. True or false? Liquidus temperature of metal is inversely proportional to C. True or false? High Oppm leads to ____________ recovery of ladle addition. De-oxidation of steel results in reduced _____________ in steel. The range of dissolved oxygen in semi-killed steel varies from ___________ to _________ ppm.

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78.

The level of Si in finished steel of killed grade is kept at more than ________%. Mn is a poor deoxidizer than Si. True or false? The products of de-oxidation reaction contribute to __________. A liquid de-oxidation product is preferred to a solid de-oxidation product. True or false? A complex de-oxidizer is a better option than simple de-oxidizer. True or false? The ratio of Si is to Mn required is 4.0 minimum for complex de-oxidation. True or false? Al is the strongest de-oxidizer amongst the common ones. True or false? 0.02% of soluble Al in finished steel can bring down the Oppm level to _______ and below.


Name the factors which dictate the tapping temperature of steel?

80. 81.

Write the formula for the liquidus temperature of steel. Write down the average steel temperature drop in degree C/ min during tapping and during holding after tapping.


The drop in temp. in steel due to ladle additions expressed as Degree C/Kg/Ton of steel is known as __________.


A positive value of chill factor indicates temperature drop whereas a negative value indicates temperature rise. True or False?

84. 85. 86.

The chill factor of FeSi is more strongly negative than Al. What does it signify? Variation in chemical composition within a cast steel ingot is known as __________. Micro-segregation results from __________ of liquid & free crystals in an ingot during solidification.

87. 88.

Micro-segregation is a consequence of rejection of solutes by a solid during solidification in an ingot. True or False? Cast structure of Rimming steel ingot shows higher segregation than killed steel ingot. True or False?

89. 90.

The outer layer of a cast ingot consists of small crystals known as ______________. Three types of crystals/grains are present in the cross section of a killed steel ingot. Name them.


The positive segregations in a killed steel ingot are named as ___________ & _________. A zone of negative segregation is found in a killed steel ingot at a depth of 1/3rd of its height from _____.


93. 94. 95.

A shrinkage cavity is normally not found in _________ steel ingot. Out of the three types of ingot i.e. killed semi-killed & rimming, degree of segregation is most severe in ________ steel ingot. Because of its high current carrying capacity through the outer most layer, rimming steel is used for manufacture of ____________.

96. 97. 98.

High teeming temperature aggravates degree of segregation. True or False? Honeycomb blow holes are found ______________ steel ingots. Absence of cushioning during ingot teeming results in ingot surface defect known as __________.


Non-metallic inclusions result from reaction between ladle additions & _________ in steel.


Cleaning & coating of moulds improve the quality of ________ of ingot.