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Pradeep Apte




"I've been p1-eased to read the book"

Double Noble laureate "Amusing and instructive _-_'...4G_ ---s'+*mtrsrr



Professor Emiritus # Unj-versitY of OXFORD
a lr



The rePublic of celt was facing its greatest crisis of alltimes""
A split of the nation was imminent.... DNA's',rePulation for being the alltime master was at stake""




"Unti1 philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and Power of philosophy,and pol itical greaLness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner natures ptlrsr-1e either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from their evils nor nor the human racer ds f believeand then only will this our state have a possibility of life and behold the light of the day"

/ 375 B"C.


@ PradeeP APte 1993

Dedicated to all the scientists who have contributed to any aspect related to the double helix.



bY :


Contents tr Trouble tr The Republic tr The Republic ll o lnveStigdting:thetrouble n Antithesis n Analysing the trouble tr Ordered chaos. evil designs tr Assasination rr The M-Alternative tr Preparing for action tr Armageddon tr Glossary I 3 7 13 18 28 34 40 44 50 55 59 67 .

These organs are arranged on the skeletal framework to give rise to the final assembly. when Watson and Crick presented their model structure of Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA (which lateron won them the Nobel prize along with Wilkins in 1961. no longer a mystery. It must be said to the credit of the large nurmber of scientists involved in these studies that to-day the cell is. orginally conceived as a single cell the zygote. The structure and functioning of a cell is probably one of tilt. the human body. Life exists in nature from unicellular organisms to the more complicated multicellular ones. trest for the (1) . DNA is the master molecule residing in the nucleus of a cell and governs the entire activities in it. anything living thal we perceivd is composed of cells. may it be plants or animals. One of the greatest wonders of nature is. that althoulh the individual components of a cell when isolated arJ quite inanate. Several cells of similar type when grouped together form a tissue and these tissues combine to form an organ like the liver or heart. This zygote undergoes a series of divisions and a complicated procedure termed as 'differentiation' to form the ultimate human being. in fact. lt was'rh4r-remarkable paper published in 'Nature' (a prestigious scientific journal) that has brought us so close to day to the understanding of the functioning of a cell. We all are.).PREFACE A cell is the basic unit of living organisms. The study of the structrue and function of a cell has been carried out for centuries and is still going on. life is created. a fusion product of the male and femile sex cells. A landmark in the histdry of cell biology came in the year 1953. but when composed into a single unit.

No single nation in the world can claim to be functioning with perfection and without problems within. The entire human race to day is scattered. Many cancer cells are known to produce large arirounts of lactic acid. PRADEEP APTE INDORE APRIL 1993 is a I (2) . for which remain to be forgiven. the student of classical biochemistry may. a process commonly termed as 'metastasis' leading to complete destruction. Lastly. as the find bbjective in addition to highlighting the analogy stated above is to entertain. but I doubt country totally devoid of whether there antinationalisE. HoweveL the most coirmon denominator in allthe cases is an uncontrolled division of cells. Anti nationalist activities in a country and the cell cancer relationship is the essence off the analogy drawn in this story. we have learnt nothing from our cells. however has been that although we human beings are composed of such perfect units in our body. Although quite unavoidable in the present context. Anti-nationalists exist inside the countries itsef.organized systems known to man. Cancer is no single disease. traitors or defectors. integration and brotherhood have almost vanished. each country living for its own selfish motives. A cell also faces similar problems inthe form of the most dreaded disease Cancer. tend to behave in an unorganized manner and lack integration. both its etiology and effects are very diverse and complex. These deviations have onlv been resorted to maintain the narrative. The greatest tragedy. places find some fundamentals not conforming to the at norm. but every attempt has been made to keep the technical words ih a low key and understandable to a wider audience. The magnitude may vary.

TROUBLE lnspector Steroid was on the vigil in h.DtoC" "C to D. He Sarked his car at his usua[dloted space and walked biiir. 'must be something serious'' he Quickly he swung his car and sped steadily towards the Gene building.is car wher' .w.ry towards the main entrance of the building' The Gene building had a mammoth multistoried double nenca structurel I was one of the architectural I"r"[ *onou'softimeandwhenviewedfromadistance arroii loox"O like a spiral staircase' lt was.beep beep' of his transmitter. rrr". in".towards the building'.to thought. quite impossible to make out the main entrance. lts ipirif ioof. too wondered as to what brought him back.|.* nim right now. made it appear peculiar. The Lipid and Lipoprotein guards at the check oost outsidb tne Gen'e building-had anticipated his uJ they had heard the progressive decline and increase in th6 volume of a shriil silen they so wetl kne. I hear You well go on chief" "Come here right away Ster" "UrgenP" "Yes" "l'll be right there in a short while" He switched off the transmitter and wondered brieflv ls to what could be the reason for DNA. which was indented some where within the spirals at the base. but all the twists and (3) . he switched he heard the it on "DtoC. as he hadlust left on his usual round' As soon as the inspector came they opened the gate and atlowed him through.

lnspector Steroid moved towards the man on duty at the reception desk and asked "Where is the chief?" "ln the scanning room and awaiting you sir" He thanked his informer and walked towards the lift that would lead him to the upper floors where the scanning room and the research and analysis division was located. I have been waiting for you.turns were deliberately built in order to fox intruders . Anybody who had no idea of its geometry was.if and get caught ultimately as each nook and corner of the building were displayed on televised screens in the security room at the base. He waited for a few seconds as the door slid open. he uttered his name onto a small square microphone on the side of the door that identified his vocal frequency.. DNA sat on a chair in front of the display unit with his arms folded behind his head.. but I have not sent in a 02 order' Normally when we wish to shut down for maintenence or to reduce excess power we run the stations on 02. On reaching the door of the scanning room. Each screen except the first one showed the digits "36" while the first one was showing there were any. you know that.. he walked in and the door slid close behind him. They both walked into 16s adiacent room where the computer of the research and analysis division was installed. He was staring in a reverie at the unit. DNA moved towards the console of a display screen and pressed a button on it and this was whatthe computer had to saY : REPORT ON POWER STATION ONE UNITS AVA]LABLE ON FULL CAPACITY 36 UNITS AVAILABLE ON SHUT OFF ORDER 02 UNITS AVAIIABLE AT PRESENT 02 STATION NOT FUCTIONING TO FULL CAPACITY (5) "02". (4) .. while the rest are functioning to full capacity" said the inspector. "Come dear Ster.. Moreover the screens displaying the activrties at Power station One have completely blackened out' On one of my routine checks I observed this and began to investigate for cause.bound to get lost in the maze of spirals "Ah! power station one is running on low out put. take a look at this . the inspectors arrival brought him to his feet. lnside the scanning room was a giant display unit that showed about hundred screens arranged in rows of ten that constantly gave a view of the various working points in Cell. After considering allthe possibilities I prepared my questionnaire and fed it in o the comPuter and ." He pressed a switch on the console in front of him and suddenly the lower line of ten screens displayed glowing red numbers. which was manned round the clock. "Right Ster." "And what?" "Come let us see". so this shut down is unexplained.

.What?" THE REPUBLIC I When one tries to analyse the factors that enable a country or a nation to be successful..follow as we proceed. "He is dead. This is of course a very broad classification. three most obvious ones emerge. Yet we know of a country that exists and has achieved this not only in modern times.' "Precisely my friend. Next comes the calibre and potentialof the leaders orthe ruling party that has been elected by a unanimous verdict or at least by a majority of the citizens vote. To achieve perfection in all these three aspects of nation building may seem quite incomprehensible in modern times and such proceeding from Pyruvate to citrate as the old man was dead" "l just received reports from a highly shaken up Repressor in that area to send in a new pDH to move a utopic state would seem to be non-existent. Firstly. and.CONVERSTIONS GLUCOSE FROM START POINT OPTION I. "yes but he is doing it and at a very rapid pace.. the name of the country is Cell. The most remarkable feature of Cell was the high levelof diversity that existed in it. "And what is pDH doing there?.. the citizens of the country itself. reckon with. how hard working and comrnitted are they to their work and have the ability to think and correctly select their leaders whom they consider could run the country best. we find that it was quite primitive in the begining but as centuries elapsed it developed and developed and its whole ultrastructure grewto gigantic proportionstilltothis day ithad become a force tr. The people of Cellwere (7) (6) .. if we probe deeper innumerable number of factors could emerge and would depend on ones individualconcepts and thinking as to which he would put to the fore. The inspector was the first to speak after a "weil LDH who normaily contrors the pyruvate to Lactate shift does not do so unless ordered. but has done so for centuries and will continue to do so onto eternity. And lastly. ". Who were the people who built this nation? Who were their leaders? and how they interacted to make Cellallso powerfuland pedect? This is what would.t[ want you to investigate" Tracing back the history of Cell.ACTATE AS UNDER SFIUT OFF ORDER SPEED OF MOVEMENT RATHER HIGH TO SS PYRUVATE TO SHUT OFF AND SS CITRATE DATA INSUFFICIENT TO ANALYSE CAUSE BLOCK POSSIBLE BETVVEEN SS PYRUVATE prolonged silence. "This is serious chief. and which most vital of all comes the interaction between the citizens and their elected leaders for a common cause and that is the welfare of the country..

the that made them play a vital role in the of Cell.. Secondly I would be very fair in my distribution of work. Although the Proteins were strong contenders for tnis position at one stage. highly versatile in nature and size ariO naO probably the most diverse roles to play in Cell.. conceeded to the superiority of the Nucleic Acids and thus the fate of Cellfell into the hands of the Gene party. no job would rnean nonexistence in Cell. and which is most important of all I wish to make you understand the concept of integration. DNA thus gave his first nationwicle address in Nucleus. their ability to rule that gave them an edge over the Proteins. more. "Citizens of Cell. the prot6in" *iin 9arbohydrates to form Glycoproteins and . I want to see you all integrated'along with me as well. Severat sub-classes had emerged from these. yeS integration.All the classes of Cell were so different in their appearence. nobody shall ever remain unemployed in our country. To a mammoth gathering that included almost the entire population of Cell and was covered on Radio and Television bv the National Network. thdy were a secretive class that did riot mix easily with oth6r people workino machinery of cell.iti.o on. . feople of the sub-classes follbwdd both their o"r"nt"i. Firstly. religions and customs that one could almost wonder that how could they all work in unision towalds. Proteins to form the Lipoproteini. Thirdly. fs. all our efforts would be collaborative for oie single cause and that is the welfare of Cell. but your co-operation in achieving this is efiremely essential. The proteins were the intelligentsii of Cell..ivided in four classes the Carbohydrates. with the Lipids to" toim tne iht aip. the massive majority by which you people have elected me leader of this country shows the amount of faith that you have in me and mv party. How this wouldbe brought about is my bother. The Carbohydrates were the workei ctads ofihe C. The potential of each individual would be screened thoroughly and work would be alloted accordingly. he never wasted any words. each citizen however small he nnay be would have a job to do.one goat and that was th6 prosparity of Cell. largely Oue to intercaste marriages. on the other hqld were very cieticately built bui strong and had a highly reserve nature. they were born rulers though not as versatile as the proteins. but as time elapsed they too lqrqgty d. yet it was this trait of theirs as we would sde laier. DNA was the head of the Gene party and he came onto become the leader of Cell. (e) . the capital of Cell.Lipids.ii. rike the carbohydiateicrbsi nn"a -eiyioripi6i. Th6 Lipids. They existed from midgets to giants and theii work too wai relative to their size. (8) . DNA had a brilliant mind and was always very precise and to the point in his statements. Finally the Nucleic Acids. faiths. but they differed only in their size andafi converged upon one ultimate faith. but il *1. We shall stand united into one single iorce. I shalltryto the best of my ability to live upto youi expectations. . job satisfaction would always be borne in mind. There arethree main objectivesthat twisn to convey you. the Proteins and the Nucleic Acids. as it is you citizens of Cellthat are going to be participants in this integrative system.personal potential than destiny would have it the Nucleic Acids that formed the Gene'party of Cell were elected unanimously to govern the country. being very simple and sturdy in built they had a very conestve nature and thus were mosily liked by all. several sub-classes also existed withirithe four major classes.

-Jr-J.nJ. Proteins were mainly compo3ed of Amino Acicl lgquences (AA sequences) and these AAs being about 22or so in number.large lggdquarters cafled the Gene buitding inside Nucleus. Thank you" This was a historic speech that DNA had made.. There were ge number of factories and these il.that he. tn fact security in the entii'e buirding. where U could also be substituted by T."al"J il. Cell.r. where the proteins were manufactured.-the biggest ad-vantage he intended to take was that of the veisatility of thd proteins."ry rewarding.s a very arduous task and DNA had undertaken it with.. Thus for example:combinations TRIPLET CODON a basically consisted of four letters A.equence. r[e^f!reg. the three pronged ideology that he had conveyeO *as to make a lastino impression in the minds of th6 peope rovi 'codon'. Thes.? plA wished to make a particutar type of roDor protein. Msequence J. r"tt"i.-*"i" arranged in groups of three.fgL:.. . DNA devised a process by which robot Proteins could be made.^^^.. The Codon sequence . Thus 'with the help of. s.i (1 1) Nuqeus.erolejl type he required and the computer woutd print out the codon sequence for it. DNA was supported by a very able team of leutenants.-"ool w3.*" around it was thorough. They resembled the pre-existing proteins to such an extent that it was almost lmpossible to make out in a protein population as to which was a pre-existing one or a robot.So the time to act has come and we begin right v" with the word 'go' for a prosperitive tom o.fy tng. he would summon a mhNR to hid bmce and hand him over the codon sequence tor tnai type .U.great care. tt was the. this tripret *aJieimeo as of Cell. the ultimate resutii *er. in Protein J. D_NA was the o_nly one who had an access to it room where the computer was placed *rJ and the neirii. DNA first devised a code. oevising th. Iles:age to the sites or factories located o. These iobot prot6ins could be precisely controlled and served specific roles. Al his. . The function and identity of a protein was t6us governed bv its AA.G and C.rhi 6r mRNAs.J.. While DNA was conceiving his ideas for the functioning of.had spent over it.itn. dome-shaped structures and tne-entiie'i"o. The reasons aS to why they were so called would emerge as we discuss tnbir rcltes ln tne working machinery of Cell.itsiOe . The RibosomeJ--.and the entire code became permenant. could bb arranged into innurierable number of sequences to form isingte protein. who werd other mehbers oitne eene pirty. "iilt! .le1ding grolps werethe Messenger nr. the Transfer RNAs ortRNAs and thd nibosomil RNAs or rRNAs.i"irY.duty of the hRruRs-to . ]or*eO -'-corresponding to the 22 Ms. guarded. this cod6 (10) the lF Ribosomes.AUG_AUC_GM-UGU_bGA J-.:t protein. A large computer was installed and it was so programmed that all DNA had to do was to just spec. Thus by ditferent permutations anO a tota[ of 64 codbns *o. pre-existing Proteins and free AAs that were available in lellol imported. Despite of number ot sieepbss .the RNAs. .e .

(13) (12l. the Ribosomal RNAs or rRNAs took over. After one AA had been placed the assembly line moved ahead and space was vacant for another codon and corresponding AA. where these codes were destroyed. One was the synthesis of food stuffs that required energy or power and the second was the breakdown or a utilization process that liberated energy. . ' II out this activity DNA had divised a group of robot M The entire exercise involved the trapping of energy and its liberation in accordance to the requirments of Cell. They were ten in number and almost evenly distributed all over the area of Cell. After coding for a Protein the codon sequence that had served its purpose. where all the conversion processes in that area invariably ended. To carry Proteins called the "enzymes" that brought aboutthese conversions. once the next had been placed on the assembly line Protein assemblors who were not robots welded the two Ms and the line moved ahead for another codon and M. fs sss that this juxtaposition was correctly maintained was another job of the rRNAs. The arrival of a nonsense codon marked the end of the process and the assembly stopped and a robot Protein. The careful maintenence of a balance between these two activities was of prime importance in Cell and it was largely in this activity that DNA integrated allthe Cellclasses. They fed the message into a computer that controlled an assembly line. The sub-station Citrate was the major inflow point in the cycle. was removed from the computer and sealed in bags. Thus the prooess of codon arrival. helped in the build up and break dowh with the help of enzymes. Mainly the Carbohydrates and to a lesser extent the Lipids. were the central grand stations or the main junctions. this was called the citric acid cycle or the Kreb's Cycle. Located near the mitochondria. lnside the mitochondria were built a series of generators that were computer controlled and liberated a large amount of power that was more than adequate for the entire Cell population. These bags were sent to an area in Cell called the Sink. followed by M placement and subsequent welding continued on the assembly line till the entire message on the codon sequence had boen read and the robot Protein with the corresponding AA-sequence had been formed. Once the mRNAs had delivered the message inside the factories. For this to function efficiently one of the most sophisticated type of power stations were built that were called the mitochondria. in addition to this there were g other sub-stations constituting a total of 10 that made up the entire Cycle. The job of the transfer RNAs or tRNAs was to bring the AAs to the ribosomes and place them exactly corresponding on a specific codon appearing on the assembly line for a specific A{. which displayed the codons on a horizontal surJace. was ready. As the name implies the processes at these junctions were cyclic and constantly kept feeding the generators of the mitochondria with electrons. THE REPUBLIC There were two fundamental activities in Cell.complex where these Ribosomes were clustered was called the Endoplasmic Reticulum or simply ER. DNA had very cleverly devised chain terminating or "nonsense codons" that did not code for any AA and these were placed at the end of the codon sequence.

That Cell ha. goods. Usually the last of end product of the series would move back io tothe enzyme mediating the first step and signal it to stop the proc-ess. DNA. The su'pply of this important substance was controlled by a bigj btirly man called Glycogen. ln addition to this the other itom that had to be imported were the Vitamins that formed an integral part of structures called co-enzymes that were most vitat 99lponents of the series of generators places in the ETC of mitochondria. Horrnones had a tremendous value in the international market as they were putto specialized functions by other countries th# were unable to manufacture them. This liberated a large amount 9f . some of them had to be imported and these were collectively called the Essential AAs (fen) or "MATTVILPHLY" each letter representing the first letter with which the M begins e. There were mainly two types of controls involved in the working system.operqted within the networ k. The Lipids as mentioned earlier were very secretive and did not mix easily with other citizens of Cell. He was a very powdrful uirion leader a bit rustic in his approach but'always delivered tlre T-he Allthe amino acids that formed the proteins were not available in Cell.taking part in the breakdown pro-cesses that entered the citric acid cycle.utilized his protein synthesizing factories for the manufacture of a group of Small roboi Proteins ealled the hormones. The whole proiess was required to be carefully controlled and was very vast and mammothly distributed almost all over C6ll and thus required an enormous amount of man power. The onei reporting directly to DNA were a group of proteins catt'eO tn5 Repressors. (15) Thus the import of Cell was largely centered around the EAAs and the Vitamins. ln order to counterbalance this import and maintain a stable . This complicated network was thus a majoi source of employment for the citizens of Cell. (r4) economy in Cell. The feeder iomponent that was extensively used was glucose. Tlle job of the Repressors was to keep the DNA informed as to which type of robot protein was required and where. A precise controtmechariismwli essential in this complicated network. Almost the entire ISD was composed of Lipid members who in collaboration with robot Proteins called the structurals and the cross-breeds the Lipoproteins formed the security network within as well on the borders of Cell. in addition to this they also conveyed a shut-off wherever needed. The Lipids formed the lnternal Security Department known as the ISD of Cell. DNA gave them a job that not only suited their nature but was to probably play a most vital role in the history of Cell. The secoid type of control mechanism was an automatic feed b-a'ck control existing within a single series of conversions brought about by the enzymes. Thus.91ergy or power that was subsequentry ltilized for building up processes. oneS'which dirgqtly reported to DNA in the G-en6 building and ones which.fid stanO-s for l/ethionine.g.: become a hormone producer was a big boon to ttre country and highly boosted its economy. The electrons primarily liberated through the Kreb's cycle and to a lesser-extent directly frori other conversions moved through a series of generators inside the mitochondria thbt was called th6 Hectron Transport Chain or ETC.lajor duty alloted to the Carbohydrates was that of .

These Proteins were highly trained in all form of warfare right from man to man combat to the commandos. where the main computer programmed to deliver codon sequences was installed. scanning section and RNA offices followed. The Gene building in Nucleus. On top of allwas the meeting room and the office of DNA. fought the enemies and destroyed them. the specialized hormones that were of export value and the structurals integrated with the Lipids in the lSD. Regardless of the fact that whether the proteins were the pre-existing ones or the robots the main types we have come across so far are-the assemblors in the factories. the lmmunoglobins took over. Their checks were always thorough and rarely anybody without proper papers or identification was allowed through the check posts. The ISD and control room where the repressors reported were at the base.promoted conversions. adjacent to it was a catolog room and reference library. where files containing a detailed record of each person working in Cell was kept. he was a man of strength. the concept of integration had precipitated automatically in the whole working system of Cell. DNA had justified his proclamation on coming to power. Although ISD personnel were placed on the borders. The most vital points where you would invariably find ISD personnel was the borders of Cell. Above all. Then came the code room. The defence forces were completely under the command of general lgG and they never mixed with the (16) lSD. The research and analysis department. the boundries of Nucleus. but they only maintained a constant vigil and checked the in and outflow of traffic. the enzymes that. all roads leading to and away from Nucleus. Every citizen of Cell had a job to do which was in accordance to his potential and liking. When it came to aggression. the capital of Cell was the controlcentre of allactivities. The lmmunoglobins were led by a very tough veteren of many wars and a total discliplinarian and soldier to the core general lgG. The immunoglobins formed one of the most formidable defences of Cell. Lastly we come to one more specialized class called the immunoglobins. Their job was to solely counteract foreign interference and even taketo war if necessary. Prominently. the industrial complex ER and around the power stations. extreme intelligence and astute judgement and stood out very prominently among the Lipid class. . The defence division and the foreign exchange I department were next.lnspector Steroid was the chief of lSD. Security was strictest in these areas and the way in which the Lipids handled their job was remarkable .the mitochondria. in and around the Gene building. (17). Thus summing up. because he had the typical steroidal features that he had inherited from his family tree the Steroids. lt was divided into five main units.

pathway Normally pDH wourd bring about tne conversion'Jr Pyruvate to citrate via an i-ntermeoiate .. Under the shut off conditions LDH would act and convert pyruvate to Lactate thus rendering the Krebs. The robot enzymes either passed electrons to the circuit or withdrew them from the circuit rt.t hand concrusions aboulthe snJt oown power at one.is ot the glycolytic pathway only. . Parmitate and sub-inspector Lecithin... The first thing the three of them noticed was the large number of trucks standing outside the entrance and Glycogen was supervising the unloading of glucose cartons that were being carried inside." Both tne iteps *eie controlled by two giant robot enzymes called FOn to. unitsof power would b-e available from the electro. cycle n6n+unctionar anJbnd'O. rn the whore exercise.INVESTIGATING THE TROUBLE After reaving_DNA in the research and anarvsis division inspector-steroid oescenolo io*riil of the Gene buitding. th6 g[colyticpdinway. His oioeiJ.capacity option. each sub-station chamber where the conversion products would accumulate.atn. He was .... we still have many truckloads to empty" he bawled at the workers..:r.. The inspectors and his two deputies a:'rived in quick succession at the take off point glucose of power station one. "Why dlthis rush Glyco?" "Ah! there you are I ask you the same" "Since when have you been at it?"asked Lecithin. go*rnrJ oy-a series ot.il -ddi.gaqryjlv opiion and LDH f6r the toiOiOoen onL All the pathways and the cycle were tubular structures almost resembling atunnel.ps tn"t . depending upon the nature of the conversion i.carbohydrates was a major entrant into it.iOirirGJ.e.rri*o 'manning routes' through which security personnel and other visitors could move around the entire network.. and the option"or the "forbidben 6ptibn.ilr" within the pathway was a . and the.no in" riiro-. respectively.. the major reason " Qling rris inioitity to d..6-ililcTor.?iry.compleiion. the inspector briefed his deputies about the recent happenings. Within the tubular structures and encircling the chambers were continuous passages called the *. contributedinto by the.nivri". the full.li.aw lnv iir. "Move faster you lazy oafs.ttirrtely ended-ip sub-station pyruvate. Circuits carrying the electrons to the mitochondrial generators existed on the tubular structures. The whole conversion network looked like beads placed wide apart on a string... starting from take off point gtucose gging tnrorgn tii" tirv. . the "full .of orie t<re6d electrons liberated in the process wourd oe reolntJne mitochondriar generators that wourd producJg6'. involving solne ten ste. The chambers appeared like bulbous structures on the tubular pathway. Now hereonwardsihere "t options. brief "Report at once at the take ott point grrcoie oiihe glycolytic pathway at power station one. (18) cycle wourd be initiated. As they approached the entrance. oT energy or power. The robot enzymes functioned between the chambers and brought about the conversions. which was nence called the take off point and thereaft. The inspector approached him.. whether it was a breakdown or a buildup one. -Although many conversion pathways entered the Kreb's cycle. He went into the contror room at the base station and out in two cals to summon nis twooepriili.snut-oft . rt started at-the glucose point. (1e) .

it puzzled us."All night.. whilethe investigative trio entered take off point glucose and started moving along the manning route. ''Well what goes on? and Captain I want the complete photo" The captain began his story." lnside sub-station Pyruvate there was a bifurcation. the only noticeable feature they observed was the abnormal speed of the glycolytic pathway. "Bah investigate! that's all you ISD blokes do. At first we thought it was one of the routine shut off orders operating. but then we noticed that the guards in this area were missing.. The inspector and his deputies were quite (21) . completely melted or rather dissolved in the mist and another one of them who went to rescue him lies here." "Serious trouble inside there. please follow me" They all moved inside the tunnel leading to Citrate. we noticed the movement of the path towards the forbidden option. ''lgnore him and now hereonwards both of you keep an eye on anything unusual you see. we have a long way to go" During their entire journey from the take off point to sub-station Pyruvate. go ahead and do your.of the group confroted him with a perplexed look on his face (20) The group moved and formed a circle around a stretcher on which lay a guard covered with a sheet. There was a hushed up silence inside as allthe security guards stood aggregated neartne Citrate entrance. ''More Captain?" "Still more Sir. they seemed to have completely vanished. one leading to Lactate and the other to Citrate. "Who is that?"' "lt is PDH Sir and I am afraid a very gruesome sight to watch" "Go ahead and uncover him" What they saw made everybodies heart stop momentarily. the captain .iob" He went back to supervising his workers. well buddies I hope you've had your share of lotuses" "Cut the comedy Glyco" snapped the inspector "wish to join us in?" "Nah. but very soon the cause became evident. while you fellas were enjoying your sleep. lf you will observe closely there seems to be a sort of mist or fog on the entrance of Lactate. no physical labour like us Carbos. ihey were talking in low whrspers to each other. lwas sweating it out here.. The captain slowly removed the sheet and what they saw stunned them. lhspector Steroid and his two deputies approached the group. he was very much dead.. some portions of his body were missing completely and some looked like they had been eaten away by acid. "When we arrived here. we have come to investigate" said Palmitate. One of our men who attempted to enter. there on the manning route lay another stretcher which too was covered by a sheet. man l'd love a nap. He was a Lipoprotein guard. 'The nerve of him to call us lotus eaters"said Lecithin gravely.

want the sampte_of tnis r(uroiffin."^. the entr'ance as well as the Lactate exit. Palmitate.lmitat" *"Jin nts way towards the take off point and st r"ciinini^irl'opening his kit bag.rrned Krebs cycle back to SS Pyruvate.r. he took ori nii trinsmitter and made (22) . ipp.. A. ^.iJ' .'il.and the captain got busy ordering nts men.Jor.:.i of wavs .t.I. ._^ ^9_nglhing rnar rne onty way LDH could be approached would be from the both ends. and said .'i . body. . "Where to?" (23l. these are orders.".constanfly approach LDH.e.' . firstty you patmis?. *". you would have understood had you come arong *iir-i ui inside.and eated away and tiquid exuding out of tne OoOV ii"'Itlroy pace. while Sl pa. tnai ai we. So he moved out of the glycolytic pJinwav an. "yes Sir. .hard men and.ff d. thinx. Ever since he had entered sub. acid and taken out. wasjlear to the inspector and that was.iruHtfiJl.."Do you approve of it chief?.__ _ !hl.d. "Good.rf'. make arrangements for both these oooi* to be sent to the analysis department.lr. His body was corhirt. go on. wher. be cautious of anything ydilniir. good and meanwhile I shall begin my analysis as soon as the sampres and the boo-iJilrrive.io"p drv*gen at once from feeding any more glucose ai tnitat e off point. Seai Iffi'. a heated argument going on -between OfVLog. gtLJ Sterl" "Thank you chief.seen a lot of violence in their lives. the and confirmino itj. men to herp Sr Lecithin ih tre [io... nri.cfosure. i.glrty and the process was 'still rjnl f.d came to the take otf point grucos-e.il. I am. so do as you are told.says.# .. roor..sending your requirements right away. you riustI nave observed some or that-rioli"o' ti suard..' irti lXlr.?i. "Irr.."..aii.' The inspector gave him a complete account of the events that had occured and finariy he presenteo an outline of a plan that he had divisea'to captui" fOi. . wa6 stil Quickty . I hear you well.. Leci I hope you have brolght voriiii'6rgz.oqnirtril.-station pyruvate.'Now . After making a qui6f srrvey'of the inspector was "Right away Sir'. Use your suction OoT!g.il j.fl sent to the analyslg . you have seen that the stuff is qnaffrie inTiiiii"g captain..ilr. "come palmi lets make a short trip" Both sat in the inspectors car and began to drive out Palmitate took to the wheet.o"sure "C to D..ptiiri.. *"i .nl!r9e things to b€ done immediately.J'ti?u gn pDH had been oipipJ in l-t..il. but this was so meth in g tnri'o-rri' Ihl. "r put in ail my efforts to bring these truckroads of glucose and this fella tells me to laly off!.Jtll..i. C to D'... "You will do as he. n-.?ry ...iri-. Glycogen turned away mumbling curses and stopped the untoading of gtuiose into thdtake.p..ng to re. he was very r<ei.il*Ill .r and genilemen. a contact with DNA. srirro and turned around towaros ni.n io at at him.. "D to C. on two things.

they ca-me to a halt ne".Sir. Collect the exhaust in steel cylinders. but may try to come out of the exit and morever his supply ot inai lethal stuff is noi goinb to last forever. so he wiil either move orJi or wage a oattie.. got down and approached the inspector. our friends seemed to have arrived. I want you to split up your unit into two."1 want you to put in an evacuatisn oBeration. and came th? big tubular structure joiningand stood near the bulbous sub-stations. one -They was from the defence department of cell and the other from the maintenence unit.. on their journey the rnspector toio ." "The suction process should exhaust it earlier.. first tho maintenence job"he addressed the foreman . Palmitate about his plan. "Well sarge. both greeted the arrival of the two trucks. Move" The sergeant ran briskly towards his men. "Yes and I have called the commandos who would cover both the ends.connection" After a short drive along the outside road of the glycolytic pathway. in" connection. I hope your men are all geared up for this?" "We are prepared Sir" "Right then. There ar6 several outlet points on that. Both groups will charge in at my signal and sargo instruct your men not to kill. '. probability.' "To the outside of SS pyruvate-Lactate A sergeant and a foreman. Go ahead and begin the assembly and wait for my signalto begin exhaust. "Welcome friends.. who were obvious heads of the two units. that you will lead goes inside the glycolytic pathway and waits outside the Lactate entrance. from wneie usually Lactate was eliminated. now that the inspector . while the foreman returned to the inspector.LDH is alone inside he wourd have no *oik to do as we have stopped the feeding. . taking care that there are no lcaks. "We are all set sir." They got out of the car.' said . say when" . "You wait here palmiand call me when the parlies arrive" The inspector moved towards the bulbous Lactate exit and began examining its outer side. Just then Palmitate came running around . while the inspector then addressed the sergeant. an exhaust operation to be exact. He won't go inside. There was something on the ground around the exit thet drew his attention] he bent down and looked at it curiously. keep a distance mind you and transmit me your arrival immediately." The foreman left and began his work.ln all there. The first group. The second group should be ready at thc Lactate exit out here. (24') "Be ready and keep the exhaust capacity to full" (25) . he witt t<now that we know. you know them" ha said pointing towards the tubular structure connecting the two sub-stations "fix your hoses onto them in such a manner that they are evenly distributed and connect them to a vaccum pump. lwant our adversary alive and also approach with caution.

Just tlrt. l. tlrl lot. lnspector went towards the second group and toldthem to fix their detonators.." Iirst group of commandos drove away in their truck while the second took its position outiide the Lactate exit. Minutes rolled by as the inspectorwaited. tto clrd the inevitatrle ancnhe iISpecl. it away out of the chamber.. the inspector and his deputy entered SS Lactate.t rcsort and that was the only thing that could kuu. But the spray gradually slowed down and stop. of no avail as the exhaust pumps v't ) "We are here Sir" spoke the sergeant "The mist is still there?" "Yes" "Hold on" He turned towards the forenran who was standing behind hirn "Begin exhaust" Gra:iually the whole atmosphere vibrated in the noise of the vacuum pumps. He kept :iwrr{lrrrlllr(! (lr. justthen he heard the'beep-beep'of his transmittel he 6witched it on .rs tlrcy irll observed him swallow and collapse irlrrro:. He could see that he was being charged in from both ends. (26) the commandos.rl ort the gun that was now no longer ernrttrnr. he keJlt his spray gun on.rr from end to end. "surrender LDH.rrntlrl irtttl hts last hopes of taking LDH alive had (fonlr . llLrt tIrtrrr. keep the exhausts on while we we charge in" Both took out their guns and joined group iwo at the exit "Ok Boys blast the exit open" A loud explosion followed and while the smoke oon:. The whole attack on LDH had been executed with such precise timing that it came quite suddenly on him. that goes along as well. well its almost gone and the entrance looks clear" "Then approach with caution and charge in" "Right Sir" "Come Palmi lets move. tr. "l)ilrnn . from the explosion was still dying away.poctor'. as they woutd-navb to blast in and then he eagerly awaited thdarrivalof the transrnit from group one.r rlt. The inspector allowed a few minutes to elapse and then contacted the sergeant again "Any change?" "The mist is disapparing. capsule" He muttered irr despair and then shouted an order to all the men "Do not approach him at once as the liquid is still around.' He shook the cylinder attached to the gun vigorously but nothing happened. cover up the floor with steel planks and and have his body sent to the analysis department and men do not forget his weapon. his stock had exhausted and he knew he was licked. he has taken the (27].:ed with a'phut. attackers at bay.iriuttly drirrleyirrt.rrrtarteously on the floor.l rrrst.r:.lr had Iorrll lc. Irtrl rt lormed a spray of liquid. you have done your lot" shouted llto ln:." rt. as he knew itwas Irr:. it was emitting a foggy substance Brrt rl wir:.n hu rotittut I .r ltr:. fn.

The act may involve a 6ig O'ant< robbery. The act may be committed by a lone6p#ator or in. but the indulgent is in nb way insane. all his ideas were very much converse to those put forth by DNA in his manifesto.motive. all that he deserves is a padded loek up or exile forever. us so we should reason with him" "Reason? dammit DNA. this state may be permenant or intermittent. you very well know that fanaticism never conforms to reason and AND is a 3-D fanatic" argued the RNAs. was a member of the group. smuggliig and what not. The effect can be very devastating if all these three categories are blended in to one single personality. "But lf we at least try he can be put to excellent ugeg ln eell" "lt is futile DNA. For centuries. he is one of . A stage had come when he became an ostracisized member. when the Nucleic acids lead by DNA were forming the Gene party. Even a law abiding citized is unable t6 comprehend ag to which is more important the ideology or the crime. AND was one such character. the only trouble was that he lacRed B substantral support from the other members. During the early stages of Cell..dragged into a criminal act matters become very delicate. Not only the Nucleic Acids but oven other classes of Cell datagtad hls very presonce. totally isolated and ahunnad by all. murdeq swindling. Not only minds. his ideas are harmful and the 3-D concept will someday wreck us all" Had DNA at that stage heeded to the words of other members of the Gene party. Destroy and Dlvtdc and that is what AND used to always propose. their involvement in crime is pur6ty'for an ideology or belief or even religion. psychorogists and scieritists liave m3dg attempts to analyse criminal minds. But DNA was a very open hearted and considerate man. When'such matters are. lpetty theft. The trouble with such people is a highly physiological one. a majoiity ot them fallin this category. AND had always made attempts to break up the party and form his own group. iG d Oisdase. (2s) . "We should try and make him like us. Such people mostly indulge in violence or assault without a . depending upon the d-egred or nature of the Aisor&. AND (28) ANTITHESIS The study of criminal behaviour is a very cornplex issue. tre wanted the Gone party to rule like tyrants. the catastrophe that followed in Cell would have never occured.groups. Next come the criminals who indulge in organized crime for a personal benefit. Lastly comes the catejory of the fanatics. But he had always been a menace to the party. Looking through all the studies we find that criminal behaviourLan be-grouped broadly into three cate-gories. AND was bestowed with a brilliant mind and lt was probably only DNA who understood this and always prevented others from mocking at him. By 3-D they meant Disintegrate. His being alone also made him a target for rldleula and lt w6s this approach of the other people of csllthat sowed tho seeds of wrath in his mind. in fact they have brilliant minds and the whol6 job is well planned or organized. he always believed in giving a fair chance to everybody. related to their nervous system. but even attempts have been made to look for biochemical differences. the theory of the extra y chromosome is a result of this. Despite of all his defects. First are the psyiopitns or people who are suffering from a totally wrect<6d up psyche.

The disposal r-rnit consisted of a big hall where the sorting out used to be done and from the hall several outlets containing conveyor belts led to the destruction charnbers. to be done. But this decision that was reached unanimously only glrve more fuelto the fire of hatred already in AND's head. Divide. sent back to other parts of Cr. Attached to the hallwas a smalloffice where AND used to sit. would be dumped in the sink. wns to gain n totnlfnith of the people working under him and in thls began s proeess of gradual indoctrination. he took it as a rebuke and f'elt highl! humiliated. The Sink was a very large area in Cell. At the base of the valley was built the disposal unit. Truckloads ofdiscardedmaterial would arrive here and then a process of manual classification would begin. But a .g "The baggars" was allthat he said and then fell silent. The gestatlon perriod involved in the building up process was n v6r. He never uttered a word thereafter and once he had moved to his premises the people of Cell saw less of him.i for re-utilization.'The essence of his ideology had been the 3-D concept. as he could give vent to-his lust for destruction in the process. The people who worked in sink came from alnrost all classes of cell and they too. This he said would give birth to a new nation that would be called 'Neoplasia' and the party that would govern the country would be (31) il. Allthe junk from Cell may it be outdated non-functional robots or used up codori sequences or unwanted material of any sort. They mostly did the work of sorting out and feeding the chambers with the trash. and AND lived with them. the first two Ds i. 'obliterated in the litter' was allthat they thought of him. It was hera in Sink that AND built his empire. The destruction was always total leaving no debris at all.. lt was like a giant garbage can and AND was made the head of this unit. very deep down. towards AND and the total silence that AND-had forgoften entity in Cell. The Sink was an area in Cell quite far away from Nucleus and was the junkyard of cell.y lnng orre. his duty was to see to it that all the waste was destroyed and if any useful materials could be still isolated.Ultimately the day arrived when duties to all the members of cell had to be ailotted and finalry the most dreaded question arose as to what was to be done of AND? What work should be given to him? After a heated debate in the party it was decided that AND would be in charge of the Sink. The entire 'trash'would be sorted out and depending upon the nature of the material it would be fed into specialized chambers that contained all the requirements to destroy a particular type of substance. it was actually a big depression or a gigantic valley that went (30) DNA had never liked the approach of his collegues as the years rolled by AND had almost become observed on his departure worried him allthe more. At flrst ll were only small groups that he would address rn tho settlement but gradually these groups grew larger and a day had arrived when everybody dwelling in sink began to look upon AND as their almiEhty master. were mostly the discards or criminals who were serving a sentence.e. All the members of the pirty thought that this job would suit him. Disintegrate and Destroy would be used to achieve the third D i"e. Ihe first thing AND realized. These workers were never kept like conventional prisoners they formed a small settlement in the valley near the disposal unit.

1. get converted to nyruvaG-using iori 99u. glycolytic pitn*ay succeeded in functional. tt was dfmosi as thoughminiature he had established celr within cerr.. iffi "Let him pay the price for disobedience" "They would kill him!" "Come man freedom cannot be achieved without sacrifices.i'#io*. ln addition to its being put to usc in Neoplasia.ld fr.pl=q of the pathway yvag the only alternative.'tL llcked only one thing anOinat *as r ot siucls.."*rrii"6. at times frustrating at timei .. All discarded bv cbrr was riot d"iii6veo.ri*'i. nf.fO-"rurted a replica of Cell. this is only our first move we still have a long way to go. Moreover he nao iiio "rdTgBS'3i. Pllly"y Atthough the units ol nowl. [r...l.. the disposar unit an underground'areb.. eui in ail ffre F.99veqif yeais of work AND had cracked the code buitt be or. insteiO -he rntended Lactate as a feeder.sequences and tn" aa_rrqil"im of the.iitrp. fl{t_enging o. but where is that blasted LDH?" "Well I am afraid master that he could'nt make it" said the driver.il. I hope those Cell guys dont take hirir alive. Krebs cycte coutd be stiit iil..proteins. Be'iowbeen estabtished.u1. the Lactate suck from Ce'ii would render its Krebs cycle non-funtional. painstaking but a1ter.:. where AND set up his taOoritori'- . bu-t they wourd'nt be ress that 30 eithlr. " so if Lacdi.A mitochondrion.t which consisted of several rooms jo-ined ov tunierJ. For this reason he'decid"e6 thii.:'?ll not getting a complete. who was once a Lipid guard. woutd not be 36. concentrated on the eodon sequences r. Once the the peopre working uhoei nim nlo absolute faith of AND began him. Bit by bit. 69 Jeo in his The task that AND had undertaken was This Lactate AND intended to pilfer from Cell. that gave him a ctear cut' ioea'ot tne -reiaiionlilip between the codon. preparations. briliance. fignl fieb* inere deep down in Sink from the discards-of Cell."ryti. he had it could convert pyruvateto Lactate and vice-versi." "The fool. ihe-. From f.was oug.ne and it was OV nis sheer rngenuity and skill that he succeeded. Lactate did arrive in the Sink but it was in very minute quantities." "But what about the LDH over there?.'..irji-U":ng out iitei . "Well done boys and get the stuff below fast. He needed more amounts..riments to use discovered that LDH was Orul.enzyme. thus wcakenlng its power resources.ithodi tn" gty. H.rA.called the Oncoggne pqrty. nri'*iii. "why?" "The drivel of the last tanker that was loaded said thal he wanted one more refil to be sent and then he would quit and come along with that tanker. He felt delighted at the whole idea as it would serve a dualpurpose. he should have come with you as planned. AND approached tnJfirst tanker. which wourd stiil sutfice for Neoplasia to thrive.ffi "o!ir#." (33) (32) .norify and the discraded robot proteins thii rr"O to arrive. nu . not oniy to run his power station but to also have a substantih stock for the near future.il i#.g throush the destruglion . The tankers carrying the first consignment of the pllfered Lactata from Cell was me[ with great anthusiasm in thc Sink. anyway we are not going to send any more refils forthe time being.

general lgG.s humour quite undigestable. . chloroform. The substance was stored originally in liquid form in a cylinder which was attached to a spray gun.' asked the At that moment DNA entered the room. Again nobody laughed and sensing "Do you know why we are here?. Thus the gun can eigher emit the liquid in its original state or in a more activated or vapourized state. I begin wlth reports I have on the two bodies and the cause of their death. there are three aspects of these deaths. thJt they all assembled. he too curbed himself with a tremendous effort and settled down in his customary chair. The liquid state is usefulfor a direct hit on say one or two targets and the vapourized state renders the whole atmospherefoggy. "These RNAs remind me of dumb cows'. lf you all will observe. The reason for this pattern will be clear once we look into the chemical nature of the substance.-not only worried him but startled him as well. thus covering a larger surface "Oh yes. he continued "Well. "Hah[ pokingl that's a good word" and he burst (34) area. "Come Glyco. inspector. The entire molecular status of the substance can be controlled by rotating a dial on the spray gun. The group consisted of the RNAs. lnspector Steroid and Glycogen. he looks like a pregnant sow. look at our general.ANALYSING THE TROUBLE It did not take DNA very long to complete his analysis of the samples and bodles received from power station one.'said Glycogen. you seem to have found a bomb down there. I hope you sit on it when it goes -bang. its high time you did something about that" and pointed towards the general's belly. well. The results of the analysis however. He felt that t6 assess the whole situation a meeting of all the Cell heads was necessary. First. ' Wcll gclttkrrrron by now you must be aware of the Ital)lrerrrngg at power station one. The highly equipped laboratory in the research and analysis division made things eaSier for him. Our analysis shows that it consist of three organic solvents. ether and ethyl alcohol and another component called a protease." (35) is . Nobody laughed. poking atnow. The reason for my calllng you all ts. The effect of the substance in either state unaltered. TWo the Lipoprotein guard partly dissolved and was partly eaten away and thirdly PDH was almost completely eaten away by the substance. "Sit down friends" Once everybody had settled. yet they got on with it and by now had got used to it. so that you understand the serloucness of the sitution and to devise counter mea5uf6s by common agreement amongst us. which resembled a miniature auditorium. DNA began. He started right away. they all stood up in respect he waved his hand as he moved towards the dias on the stage. into a fit of laughter. said thebe serious for a change and quit us" general. the lipid guard dissolved competely in the foggy substance. It was on top of the Gene building in the meeting room.. the atmosphere. All the members of the group found Glycogen.

but this one was not our LDH" DNA reptied. "Werll I and Ster studied all the LDH files before eomrrlg hore.ge1 "They all look identical and can never be rltffcrnnlrrtod outwardly.. becaupe. But crippte our power resources if hedoes it repeatedty ano tniils wnai makes this a serious issue." . said the "lndeed lgG. onty when the capsute touchei th. All of them rusrrally consist of four sulr-units. Normally we only send in an LDH when a shut off is required" . . "But what happened to our LDH at power station one?" again it was the general. wr+ found that the M subunit was missing and re.rlaced by an H sub-unit. pty9o. *d. his tifilo portions were missing as they were completely dissolved in the organic solvents and his protein portions got eaten away by the prdtease.trte to whatever be his "yseq. for he who could devise such a'tantastii w. spoke for the first time rin. knew that lipids completely dissolve in organic solvents and Proteins are split apart by proteases. "All our LDHs functioning at all power stations are under my control. but irller :itrrtiyrrrg. no LDH was on duty over there as the station was functioning to full capacity. for whoever '1. "When the attack on the station occured. also have the ingenuity to pri lr.b. (36) _ "Bah! who would need that useless stuff.. IJilili ]{ iurtl M llrus.i.has made this substance. "Any counter measures against that stuff?" said an RNA. ttrere are five types of LDHs that can be trrntltl" l)NA rrrovocj towards the blackboard behind him itnrlwrote.I i.lr. ln urrr :iyslerrr trere we have always used the type 2. "But who should do it? and why?. i1 the original liquid the protease is in an immobirized state or rrtfiri it ir encapsurated and thus th. (37) . and the creator a mastermind.. they also function similarly.. "No. the discusrion. "But why should our LDH indulge in the crime? he is always under your control chief" said another RNA. spoke the general "How come?" asked the general.e organic sotvents oo not ettect ii.t".l the body of the dead LDIi that we roeorvctl.nay cail it. That also explains the Lipoproteins condition.. LDH type I Sub-unit compositiol HHHI.. which are of two types tFi.inrt"ty use..'ne witi O. I would like my friend Ster to say ' something" "Obviouslv whoever has indulged in the act was after only q1e tfiing and that is t_ictic acid or Lactate as we r.. their record is impeccable.pr.... _-__ must say it is an ingenious weapon..t.... so he was type 1". it ruptures and bdgins its lethiietfect.'. had started "lt is not useless for our party in concern here. "But wont the organic solvents inactivate the protease?" asked one oithe RNAs." "Here 2 3 4 5 HHHM HHMM HMMM MMMM "riiiii tak. r observed tyre marks ortin[ers the Lactate exit and it rooi<eo al inougn not one but many tanker loads seemed to have bden there.

.nt be far off. that your rrrnrr woulclutilize to embalm themselves. the "io protease "First of all Glyco... "We are coming to that my friend. u -pioi.but rs onty tne.. Because. behind this. the oossibility of. Ster keep ynut l:il) rnr)n on the second line after the uninurrot..as. The only thing that we are quite unabTe to unoeistano is his motive oinino .. Although I would rnaintain a constant vigil on each station on our display trnit. " "AND!" said many in unision "Yes. Secondly. "So."For the organic solvents we cannot do much except to use polyethene or teflon suits i. "Dernands! to blackmarl...norli ' . (38) (3e) . any r 1t te=lloIr:r'l" "Wlrirl rkr wo llNAs do?" one of the RNAs asked llra lrrrre lrerng I do not think you would have rnrrr:lr to clo except to keep our factories running as Lrsu."i all over cell and found that nowhere-have theilir.lirlron:. . Thus if a. But for tnr we have an antagonist and these substanies are cailed pioGu* inhibitors.rl.' "But who the hell has done all this?. I wrll rnake the protease inhibitors available.t'*.' dose is substantiallv targe . inteaecieO'if[general "Whatever they are but I am afraid they would. ".lobins and ISD members have to work in cu ordrnation.the piot. Glyco..s effect.use physicar shierd.begining.ri. Of course it would only ir!rlir:nln ir lroutlle shooting. " said DNA. ln fact all three of you.rken our power Jor w_lrat?. but if ihe screens blacken out as they did earlier I woulrl'nt know what is going on. l wnnl you lo prut in extra commando and other units at nrrr:lr :. ovnrywtrrlre to keep me informed. As to what has to be done now our chief would tell us.' us for them? what godammened demands can he have?. nor have they been transported out of Cell so the only obvious plac-e they have gone is thesin[.ln all probablity I can only assume that AND is .[tn inhibitors. Knnp yurrr supplies ample but be very cautious whrlo llrn 1lhrt:osc is being fed. without which it would be quite difficult to refute any furthers attacks from AND. "l rr The meeting was adjourned.niuu." this time.krtrrns.. general lgG and inspector Steroid. gentlemen we shall all be on our toes and keep our fingers crossed" r "rOit* ' i.. At present we can only prepare ourselves and wait for him to make the next move. beel seen. our work at present mostly involves these three" DNA said pointing towards Glycogen... w" cnecr..r is pirelafl. but l'll put in more rtrlrtriieurf. I wish Ster that you takL over'. the unnrlroi. he will strike again an6 use this ploy to pur forth his demands. . You.ol untess or course..l. as you would form the first line of defence...i personaily feet tn'iitnis l::yi::_=lye?.person nimseit v..rgn him is less or almost hririii.e. eating tn. general we wur rlr I ltkn yt ltr ttre help us in some internal work as well. you would have to be very tilscr'cet irt yottr distribution of glucose at all power .rtion. all the pointers are towards him and the Lactic acid removai confirms our doubts. it was Glycogen overcome the inhibitor.

for they too were Is bfiiteO ih warfare as the immunoglobins-or the ISD members.. lnarle DNA an extremely worried man.r1. Forthe time being Cell had severed all its links with the Sink and a make shift disposal unit had been built.won rtrttl Itc(lirtr ilr. lr. In allthe confrontations that took place it was invariably the Oncogen" qrorp that-had an upper hand. .' (41) . ISO vory lrttle :ipitco for body movement. perrod.ru!i(l rr cnsos of prolonged exposure to llr' prrln.The kiluo urrrourrl ol I .cr. quite difficurt.arbage. The strategy that he had qlopted was very clear. by tne time tney had just managed to save one station.. celr at any cos[ could not shut off all its power stations as that w5uld be suiiidai So this gave him an ample number of choices as to where and when to attack. pilfer Lactaill. he would be seon running from station to st. one thing er. two of them are Lipid guards in the Gene building and one of them a RepresSor. specially suited for terrorist activities ahd mass sabotage. (ilycogen was one porson who suffered most in Itri:.tt rrr' whore power supply of c6n.'.rr:lale thst had been stoleh from cell wrr:i lroirr1..lsOhad their llrrrllaltur rli.rr* yrHrty I he participants inclu'ded a varietv oi rl'l. The greatest probrems aioi.but before we put forward our demand I want'two thingrs to b6 done. thus it was very difficurt for the security personner to make out as to who was who. including some discards wirotwere "Our boys have done well" said AND. EVIL DESIGNS . Even if thby did manage to detect their enemies.rorcrl cruefully.-r'"Yes.. task was. members made ev_ery attempt to defy the invader=.*. l)n(:. the outcome *ou[d be a viore"nt fight between both the parties. lnspector steroic and his two deputies sl Lecithin and Sl Palmitate along with generil lgG had also lre rcpeated attacks by the Oncogene group had I rli::rurlr. Matters became more complicated as the Oncogeno members were none otherthan defectors from the cell population itself. you said thatthere were some more peopre readv do defect?" he asked one ex-commando. lethal effeet. Mecrrr wlrrr* rrr the sink the activity was hectic.rn cell. il w. The protease hrltllrllnr!i u:ic(l lry ttro imrnunoglobins a. Firstly the suits worn by the ISD members were very cumbersome and this highly slowed down their movements as there was 1+o) Although both the immilnoglobins and the Whatfollowed hereafterwas aseries of moves and counter moves by both the sides. as come what may there is no e"O io r.at any cost. At this time AND called for a rrrflcllrrl. yhg! multiple attacks were taunched.ro n'ao realized and that was that.ORDERED CHAOS.r:. The counter measures adopted by the Cell soldiers worked to a very meagre extent. Above allthey possessed that lethalweapon which was coupled by excellent training that AND h'ad imparted to thern. This unit too was quite active. a Lactate sucft would begin at another and another. To comply the repeated orders of feed and hold back over an area of ten stations was a horrendous task.rs the prote:rse which ultimately. irt llrG rrnderground headquarters of the ( )rr.r:. :.tion supplying glucose at some and hording it back at others.. rnTs suiooen urrfur-qotlr r:n!irl:. G becom_e quite weary in the whorebperatiori.

He took out a.. '. No. He acJdressed the ex-commando again. the impact would be trernendous and the ingredi..co. "They should the they will. oone. our side?" . "But master it is a very risky operation. The dovice shall be only put to use in case they do not concede to our demand.suspic. lwant itto be implanteil rnto the main computer and that is where the Repressor cornes into the plan. "l hope you can arrange it through the captain to have the other guard to be r]nder himlor some'timez. "Tellthem to hord their positions forthe time being they He opened the drawer of the table and extracted a small metallic device and placed it on the table. can both of them m. sheet of paper and placed it on a . He told them. Let the pilfer of Lactate continue for: the time being. one of them is posted inside the building and the other one is i1 tg-ct a captain at the *uin bri the duties keep shuffling'.rlant lhe device at B point which I would specify" All tlre defectors and discards including the Ex.Rntando looked at AND in sheer disbelief and adrnlratiorr.. than this is what they will have to do.. "Yes it can be done'. I hav6 specially designed it for him... others crcwbeb arouncj the table..anage or should we renObr sor*'n"lp tro. it would create quite a commotion. oi-rv weapon make him most suited for the purpose.hi. Rre both the grarOs . moreover thev are 'i. rnrliist 3q thing that I want to be cione is this.. "What is that?" "Cell's epitaph" "What?" "As I said Cell's epitaph.After they alt had heard thd plan the ex-commando spoke.nd stared at the paper.' "Because he is an imponant Cellhead... rts his job to do it" . ''lt is your Job to brief these three men on the entire operation. cant you see the obvious? while the two guurds are doing their job. any questions?" There were none. "Good...would have very im$ortant jobs to oo.. It is during this shofi period that the Represeor would gal arr oppurtunity to slip into the computer room and Inr. "This is a birds eye-view of the Gene building and the entire area arounci it. and .".ion for I time-being and once tne ii is done.table pefole him.rnt io be done is.duiy at the check post on the main gate?. (43) .:O above.. The secon'O tfiing i.. I cell it the M-alternative initiator. as when the guards would have finished our target.. the Repressor does his.. then I do not think the Cell guyi can "But why tl-iis particular target?. dd "lIrt wlrlrr wrll he do it? the computer room is so Irnnvtly grrrutkrd" "l eiolsl." (42l. Iake this device and the weapon along with you and also don't forget to tell them that there is no place in Neoplasia for persens who have failed. lt has to be well timed.

The guard confronted himwith the spray gun.That blasted "Ah! come'' Both of them moved towards the Repressor who had arrived. Although the geneYal had sensed the danger. (44).. he always thought that if ever the situation arose he would fight it out rather that depend on a protective agent like the inhibitor. As the Repressor entered the Gene building. general lgG came out. People working around the area adjusted their watches 6n seeing -him. The captain managed to corner his ' accomplice alone for a short white . At that moment. age and body bulk hacl highly slowad down hls reflexes. The captain too moved his hand on his gun. Ever.ASSASINATION General lgC was q very punctual man. the general had never gl?. lt was a ghasily sight. he did try to duck and sprang al the guard holdlng his neck.. Theotherguards did not bother as they took it as the usual routine.. who had now been transfered under him. his daily moVements withrn the Gene building and around Ceil were like ctockwork. The operators came out (45) .. The Repressor had reached the floor on which the main computer was installed and was looking through one of the windows in the spirals at what was to happen below. lt spliced his body into three pieces. The general began moving in long strides towards the main gate. as he used to say that it allowed his some distance to walk and hence served as an excersise. and straight away gave him afull blast of that lethal liquid specially formulated for this target. as the hiding of an accessory cylinder would have been conspicuous. A eplll aaeond latot the captain shotthe guard from bghind. the soldier in him evoked his danger instincts. As the Repressor moved past the captain whispered he "l am on my way" "Make it snappy we have'nt much time'. lt was pre-planned that th'e guard had to be shot after he had served his purpose. the old man would be here _any moment" he said in a low tone''-ll hope you are all set for the. They were looking at both sides Repressor has not arrived yet. the guard took on the task of frisking him and then allowed him through. button which rang a bellinside." "There he is" said the guard of the gate. The etfect of the liquid on the General was instantaneous. As the general was approaching the gate. but the liquid had begun Ita aotlun. waited anxiously. He didthis deliberately. Then he ran towards the pair and heJd the rlaad puard and quickly slipped a piece of folded paper into the breast poeket of the dead guard.nged his routine. The general had an odd habit of parking his car outside the main gate rather than the usualcar park nearthe building. as the general had come very noar the gate. Al the main gate the captain of the guards and the other Lipid guard. lt was somehow alainst his principles. nor did he evJr use the protease inhibitor to embalm himself. the guard unfastened his holster which contained a spray gun and was loaded for one blast only. . the head slid away from the neck and the remaining torso split right through the middle into two. since trouble had started in Cell. The Repressor who had witnessed all this ran towards the door of the computer room snfl presseda.

the substance this time used was nothing but a mixture of two specific types of. a (46) (471 .. Their demand is to have a separate nation that they would call.the atmosphere was extremely tense.ll the workers including the secu-rity staff had f"ft ihJ. how do you know of its existence?') : Thereafter. leaving the securityloom unmanned. Th6 RNAs looked confused while Glycogen bore a hagqard look on his face and for once he tEn totally oev6io ot humour." th-e "IChief.guessed earlier.. . on the dead guard is signed by AND and he calls himself the leader of the Oncogene party. As we had all. Once Cell is divided it would initiate successive divisions process called.. in silence.. The captain at the gate who is absconding. Quietly DNA began the proceedings . this note recovered "Neoplasia? but this is preposterous chief!" the inspector spoke for the first time. along with this dead guard had conspired with Oncogene group in this assasination .g ario as you hav'e atiseen inEi nivJ onri three aims in life . sorry to interrupt." 'Why not glv6 hlm the wlth lt" said Glycogen 1.others and sat staring at theioof. "l can understand your feelings...proteases Trypsi.txtarnn nation and be done "Gome my friend you do not realize the implications of conceding. Every new country would be governed by the oncogqne... Jhey all assembled again in the meeting room of the Gene building. and I am not going to concede to this tlernand at any lost. disintegrate and biviOe. lnspector Steroid. He opened the printout unit with a screw driver and placed the small metallic device inside in a position specified to him and again ctosed up the unit. the effect of the killing waJso. fn6 net outcome of the process woutd mean tgtal destruction and death to all" There was an aching silence in the room. They all satwith their heads down. the generals chair was empW and-evervbodv felt very bad about it. "Oh my gosh!" fhe loss that we have suffered is irrepairable for the time being.strong that . the assasination of the general is indeed a tremendous blow to our c9u1try. positions and were }ushing towirds tn". who usuafy wai a. 'metastasis'. but a more serious question arises now and that were printed out.and papain. this is the doing of AND and the members of his so called Oncogen6 party. but."tvhat is it?" "The general has been killed at the main gate!. AND had been right. he joined the crowds outside. *ain trt.. but you have mentioned the Oncogene party twice. very active participant in these meetings wds as gloomy as the. but it worked. computer and located the portion from where the codes Allthe operators started running down. The general was in fact infallible.. Neoplasia" "l am coming to that. The Repressor'ran towards the "Demands? when did they arrive?" asked an RNA "lt is only one demand which was found on the dead guard..'saw. rtwas a calcurited risk.destroy. that can split immunoglobins into threb parts as you all. "True Ster.

rf he does not stop or even launches the M-alternative. As the words penetrated AND. as I have been considerate long enough. Firsity tei.". grew up here an_d.. concede to to thls unreasonable demand of a separate nation byAND and his Oncogene Lastly lwould say only one thing... He had so wellplanned the first two stages of his operation and had also met with success. he will be only digging his own grave.ho nao so werr run the defence depdrtment of cdtt ih tne past. Hs loft thom and went inside his laboratory. ceil cannot be destroyed that easily. .. continu.great rirartyr _ generalige ." your work and face all the onslaughts bravely. o*.. They were born her6..io-day they are bbnt upon destroyiig inei-. He moved his hands over the contror paner as if unabre to decide which button . He frett6d and fumed in anger. We ln the Sink.s plI gyr lgfage. catastrophic M-alternative (4e) had been (48) ... Thank you.His brutal assasination by these madmen has rgldelqd a serious btow to ail of ris and the siOOJsi oJn of it all is that we have been let down br-o* people." "What now master?. My only humble appeal to you all is to remain you..to press first. they have not. and finally his fingers pressed one of the infernal buttons. motherland. you all have nothing to do now but to sit and watch the show. These defectors who have nbw loine'O the gfgyq are traitors.r'ffi.s head they created a turmoil. Let AND think thbt he holds allthe aces right now but he is quite unaware of a finaltrump that r stiil hold. for quite a show it is going to be'.be aware of th_e happenings in our iountry. The launched. He wont to hls working table on which was arranged a control panel consisting of two coloured buttons.have iri the pa6t. DNA gave a nationwide address : "Citizens of Cell..d . we wiil face the situation whateverfoilows. oi 9l1og^r1p mem to. AND and his group also heard the speech made by DNA. "Shut up! the fools. tt is hishty o..grve this in return for the country that has done so much for them. by now you a[ must. I repeat not. they have no idea of my power. for theiet result would mean total destruction to all oi us. lt was in fact a remote control for the device implanted in the print-out unit of the mdn computer in the Gene building. that ho had never anticipated that the Cell people would not concede to his demand. *iin group shall not. the defence and security people are always with you."So what do we do?.as erements that would try to break us up. Let him do what he rikes but we wifl not concede.bioiror. have faith in rne.lo that.asked the inspector "AND has given us 24 hours to reply and if we do not concede he wiil raunch a finar assaurt that he cails the M-alternative which he claims would destroy cellfor all times. gentelmen go on and continue with your duties but we shail at no cost ailow cellto split" They alrdispersed lmmediately after the meeting.r.. so. Do not give in-io '1l?gl"pq.

.. The primary structure coilsisted glty o. blow came wheTr tn6 nlrmo. The . rne-entire active conformation of a protein depended on the o.bin-tn. more devastating.up with .t}. d. EMs and Vitamins to Cell.axrin'}oispoiiiuniiri* cope.iJr. standstilr...-ln6i.tirJ"ilo i"ro.le [id?i:{ff J:ls. *-or[ maintained some.rfri're Ori ontyio. Glycogen. this chain folded upon itself to form a secondary siiJctui.iJ:xT.il. or tertiary structure lnd finally sereral tertiary structural units combined to form tne tirnctionJi or active quatenary structure of the protein. t.untry'wouro hormones and they woutd s6on iiop tnei. This too." to . What puzzeled them most was the sudden appearenc6 of a nonsense codon signalling the abrupt end of a sequence.THE M-ALTERNATIVE The sudden cessation of all powerstations oave a momentary the attacks on the rerief to irr-tni J"oor" of ceil. it was the turn of the ylab.began to . was not going to iast tor ev-er."o. at first there were only few.. as every robot protein manufactured by them was either non-functional or incomplete.ili RNAs. knew... th6 raBeareh and analysis department wit6 the ever felthfullnspector Stqroid as his lone assistant. . (51) (50) .n being manufactured in the Ribosor"i. as sutside *:f::1!93 Several mRNAs could be seen running frantically from factory to factory.in DNA to waver hls reputation for being the all time maste.A sequence in the primary structure. ' ' And then it began. lhe "onr"oiondepended on the robot . dd .rppty .r. Every robot Ir.. Thev ev-en. as all prffi.. 1 The overall effect on Cell was even . Some of them did manag. The moit .came to berierie inrii[Jirlr#rJyrlo been evaded.activity.."s.-A -the lurller fgldi!9 took ptace to give' rise to 3-dimensional.S'lt Only one question hammered in evervbodies head . onry the ord ones siiil managing-thei. while' rt was indeed a pitheticJghiio watch. but g1aoryily besan io incr.. rrLrJJI ..n=v*r. The tRNAs kept bringing AAs to the facJories at an abnormal pace and they knew that very soon their stock of the EAAs would exhaust and what then? The rRNAs laboured like horses in the ninosomes but alltheir efforts were useless. Steroid and the late generat lgG had highly suffered in the initial assaufts Ly the oncogene group.ti-f. he began a rn€Bi seale post mortem session on the dead prote-ins and mtnd you rl was no easy task. DNA took onthe task to unfathom the mystery behind tlrrs'sudden catacyclsm that C"ll *ar tading.*JJ-" totally non-functionar one ano tay in". No otherlo...fisi. This time."#: onty to seccumb rater.Odi. ?G.t . ilrat were such prized products of Ce. !g non-functionar robots.i.}.rch farge-nu.:".uj *r.what had suddenly gone wrong? Why th'is great rntegrative system that they had formeO ahO hal so much faith in. The entire area around the factories had suddenly been tiansformed into a graveyard with unattend-ed corpses. aff ti"-Crii.ad iI l[" graveyards. i.fa straightforward chain of amino acids. was falling apart? For the first time in the history of Cell the people felt their faith. Thc structure of qvery protein went through four levels of organization. gut-it *rJonry 6iiia *no rearized that this was only a lull before the stirrr.yr'iH":.ol9. lnspector.

. Hethen checked the printouts.. sequencing courd be done from either terminal.g.g.Normal Now what was the principle behind AUG. Cause a 'insertion' or 'deletion' of letter e.. 3..9 theaprimary structure of every protein had been obtained everrmore raborious pro6edere 2.. no evidence of tampering either. These were classified as follows : (52) AUG-AUC-GAA-UGA-CGA . chanse ot'"n"i.. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation...AUC-GAA-UGA-CGA Delete A from nucleotide 4 AUG-UCG-MU. This involved the amino aciO sequencil!.GAC-GA. Their effects could be visualized to occur as follows: Normal codon sequence - AUG-AUC-GAA-UGA-CGA.task.codon sequences that he obtained from the computer were incorrect.g.. then where lay the error? For the first time in his life DNA was totally baffled. Every primary structurar unit consisted of a c+erminir and a N-terminal. The amino acid sequence in all the proteins was either totally incorrect or was wrong only at certain portions..o-AUc-AGG-uGA-cGA . to finally get the pri*iry structrue of each and this was a very time con'suming began 1. As soon as DNA had discovered this . incorrect sequence hence incorrect AAs (53) . his suspicion turned to belief. 9n. So DNA had to go backwards in the above scheme for every protein. to" h"n"" incorrect AAs he ran to the computer room and checked the programme. the M-alternative? During the days AND had been studying the code he did a large amount of experimental work.. they were also correct. DNA had long suspected the cause. Cause a 'distortion' e. lnsert A betwen nucleotide'3 and 4 AUG-AAU-CGA-AUG-ACG. ln these studies he had had discovered a set of agents that could alter the codon sequences in different ways. Acridine which is a flavin dye. Of these he chose the first two type to cause the havoc. Ethyl Ethane Sulphonate (EES) thereafter. incorrect sequence hence incorrect AAs AcrrrJrrre deletion ..'insertion . no mistakes at all.. Cause a 'transversion' or change in letter e. "rror= Acridine. The programme was perfectly alright..Normal . but after his analysis. Hence a mass mlsreading of the code had occured and the resuli of which was the dead robots.. Allthis pointed to only one thing .

nence aini"r""Oinj.in.O in. Since the robot proteins formed were all ..'u-atternatil.e Gene buildinq and came to a sudden halt. Even thegeneral. ' PREPARING FOR ACTION ' --A bio black car approached the main gate of th."r"i.The net result would be a wrong sequence either in portions or compeletely... "l do not wish to cr:itisize our ISD or the defence bovs.1ne cnang. . woutd bgOln a bit tate i. in the sequence AND called " the 'mutant arternative'or simpry ti.d.. lhe car had a'lone passenqer who was driving it. AND had very cleverly manipulat. lnJact inspector Steroid has done a tremendous io-d wiin nii deijartment and has always been a close hide of mine in this grim situation. *orfO rnJr[ producing an incomplete proteinThei two chemicals EES and Acridine.(they had beeriore-instructed about the visitors arrival).tle gurrrrirls ehiiir. "S.had been compounded into one singre substance in the oJri.in the p_rint out unit 5no ineii effects differentiailv controtted by the two butrons on 9rl.rt(eglhq Caiin the pbrkinq ldt and came out.has oaid the price of this maniacal onslaught. which was totally devoid of anv exoression.o*a-rOs-. immediatelv waved him through .questioned him. caused by a 'mutation.But this time I-teet tnli we-aie up aoainst an enemy-whose strength and resources are'belong the grasp-of the ISD or.rry tnrt tn"i. concentrations of the chemicals in such . tney were the only two present there' "Please sit down" Tho man surveved the chairs and selectqd..ng the transit from the C"ne nrifOing to tne ticioriJs by the mRNAs. The heavy foll In terris of man power that (55) (54) .tri panel. sequence also occasionally led to the formation?" nonsense codon_and. The man crinfronted DNA in the me5t.the defence. ni tndt was the biggest and sat in it in trn ete(it slttncn "l)o yott itirvrt ttrty icltltl of what had been going rrror rrrl'1" "A bit" "So tirst I will give you the complete story" "Go on" DNA related the entire happenings that had occured so far in detail.. " 9f9cts sequence would'nt be immediate but" *orfJ "od. i.He pa.nglooni. The guards it tne oate m"oved towards it and on seeing the person iittino Tn it.Even the entlre stafi bi t.mutants..r'il" factory to produc.i..'.* placed. The'scramble in completely G . rt was this trick tniipi"*nted DNA fronr detecting the device in the print oLI unit..J oiito'rrig inctuoing th"e gul?!'ds wondered who he waiT fnere Were two ffiost s-triking features about the min wno fiaO Just arrived.wa6 his enormous built un? tne other ivas his face.lircIeo to'allow him through' Every eye that oie--intimated watcneO him go was awe struck bt the sheer fear that ni= oeisondinTexuded. Many p-egplg of Cell who had clusterEd around the periphery of the bulldlng in small qroups were staring at him. all or. He moved in powerful strldes towaros tnd iriirince of the building and then ascended .tiatty tuctional or non-functional protein.hence the proces.it AND.towards the mebting room' Nobody -as they were ..e. q na. one.

Under him the entire Retrovector unit was placed.-. ri.J..i-'{&"Bl'"%'iilS.V.qrtments_have suffered make this evident.Gide obiect and g.*ni left...33.. lt was this second propefi that imparted them a fearJul look.J. rhe entire u.rsi.'.g Lgrn.'bilit wiiiiah iiililnt.Jx!: n destroy.[i#" Gli. So commander Tor yo. DNA studied the class and decided to build robot replicas that were quite identical to the original Retrovectors. iiil very strong and poweful and secondly.v sgvv vr rrv .:ffi d'"lr3.ei oi'ceil. DNA had isolated lar{e amdunt5 ot tne lethal liquid used in their spray guns.E?nha.*.^.. pocketed the bullet .rl#.LiB E:i. After DNA had told commander Tor what he wanted.".'fJ%?.rru.t}{'.b { ty h Ifi #liliqd all #: lj . The schedulo was so tough that occasionally a Retrovector would lose hls life in the training.s belongiiO-to J JpJ.8. These enzymes were called the Fleverse transcriptase and Restriction endonucleases which were specifically adapted to bring about the manufacture of the Retrovectors.id 6 b'e usilil'o"njv in a hopelEss situation iitie tne prE#ifi. ngffie#flgil.i. !v vr rrrr v .#[?'9all3ts.n.i"f ctass of n u c e c a c d s . The secluded area from where they came was cordoned off and converted to a manufacture cum training centre.lll=tggp. This stuff he had sent to the Retrovector' training centre to be tested on the Retrovectors themselves. firstlv tneii immeft.V. These Retrovectors were perfected in the art of killing. The objective behind DNAs effort was to exploit the properties of the Retrovectors for a specific purpose that would suit them. saiit commander ^Y8E"fiyl'ml3lil[ii:]h otl= c?o ilB fx t R."ffhE.r. ' Retrovectors' n o r nao e[e r tF e Siiu atiori'ards?' id util'i'zE them.x?sx{*il:f'[. on "iir trt othd-n oboiri' .?1.d' sii.iion oT Drux[iHdEit and he kept the unit as a tin-ai reZigi..'fJT..'#J these were. An altogether separate special synthesizing unit was set up here.ur any range SprgaOS B ii over 1.i#1' . except that the Enzymes involved were different. ?y..ve. in them t6ii' oiH'iot. we have never used vour rinit in-in! flisT6li'io. Ihe Retroveuor.i-D NA"h. ff[g:. Tor the S mine.i1 [:g]L?lgT:. which functioned just like the other Cell factories. The re-sults were (57) (56) .fflr5i The Commander got up.. The target may be one. two or many a single Retrovector was skilled enough to kill as many as they come before calling it a day.. As the attacks of the Oncogene group were taking place.}.to act' but before vou so I p^* h is breist pocket an d P.Thii"'"*li. but it was the peculiar emotional absence that made the others continue.u1 time to ict'h'as come. R. which Was a rather odd trait.fi3.cray the situation o E'i: s'"ff u."?.y#ft.??ts#sigsft .^i:^3 "Whv?" whv? Itur.f.i.s-' -r-' revvr\ and Nobody in Cell except for DNA knew about the thjs spebiaiil'eJ" uriii -'.iP.i "rn.Wejn any of your jlrn'eiiirr. they totally lacked any emotion.."""1'.gggtgtidnrion-arul rrrs.rii walq ihd d."ffili remarkabte properties.'it "What is that?'1 idiffi'.lqtjr*tgy c_al..=n. o ri g n a riy t[ e-re-iSre"tevriin-ririm #i it was by sheer cHanc6 ih. of I i i i ili ."* t I *. i 33$tr l"tf "lt will be ct_one'. Torwas an originalRetroveetorfound by DNA and he was made the commander of the unit.. "" = . ."' iii...in-a secruoe. them . a process of rigourous training began.r rlr.llAI extracted a'smallif I'glg _.'il existence .

"Frorn here onwards.ltltti :io nlnllrurlrt:irl.. wlrnl nirr:lr oR.. that was AND' a About a rnile or so from the Sink.rl. that when he had this specialized unit o{ the Retrovectors why opt for the Carbohydrates? Despite of theirnot being putto any use atallsofarin Cell. Most of his followers sat watching the drama and their master in admiration.rrt tlrntt rlrt:. thefitness of the unit was never allowed to slacken for all these years. The disaster caused in Cell by the M-alternative was received with great joy in the Sink. Crtttttnander Tor got out and the Retrovectors filrrtl on orre side awaiting further instructions. we make it on foot" said tlre cornrnander "As we reach near the Sink we split into two etroups forming two semi-circles aroud the Sink rrrrrl tlren we descend from the periphery. My life times dream Neoplasia!" AFMAGEDDON Wlrrln ANt)'s group in the Sink was celebrating arrrl llrn rlll/cllli of Cell were facing the brunt of the M allnrnirlrvc ir truckful of Retrovectors headed by r r ln ln r. but their being totally unskilled in any form of warfare went against them.V.r lr. On watching the effects caused he used to shudder in glee.tet I I tttw ltlttvtt! " ttttc. The time is'nt :far off when they would concede and then we all would be free and have a world of our own.rlkrus indifference. the truck came Io . The Ilctrovectors killed whatever came their way with r. commander Now the day had dawned when the entire future of Cell depended on the Retrovectors. At one time DNA had even contemplated on the idea to use the Carbohydrates against the Oncogenes.tlrt their brisk march lnwrtrrl:i lltntt (ltxrl Ortr:c tlley had encircled the Sink llrey lrel.rll. Small groups could be seen huddled around televisions watching the reports that were coming in. Thereafter. DNA thought. t=verything about them was llre llnlrttvnt. the Retrovectors wuukl krll any thing that came their way and he himself woulcl go for the main prey.attack on the Sink. "You saw all that boys? I hold their bloody neck and its upto me as to how hard I squeeze.excellentasthe liquid wasfoundto have littleeffect on the nucleic acid characterestics in them as they were nucleic acids and this inrparted a naturalprotectiv'e sheild to the Retrovectors. AND was dancing around in his lab.rn divised by the commander was a very .uclclenly and they were taken by surprise.nlrl)k! onc-a direct. laughing hysterically and pressing the two buttons at frequent intervals. Each bad news was cheered and loud slogans like 'Long live AND' 'Long live the Oncogene party' and 'Come Neoplasia' could be heard everywhere. rlf yotr has to do has already been lr rrrlt t tr. t. The attack on the Oncogenes came quite :.cortt.o well ttmed that it seemed as though llroy trlrl urtdergone such operations severaltirnes. To train them at such a short notice was also not possible and moreover.rr rr krr tl. DNA had taken a personal interest in the unit and had maintained constant follow-up with the aboutthe activities in the centre. Tor was speeding steadily towards the iirrrh llrrr .. Sheer massacre was all that they (5e) ' (58) .

he himself resistance the oncogenes offered was infinitismar compared to the brute force of the Retrovectors. At long last after some labour he made out the outlines of a possible opening. (60) 'Where the hell had AND . the commander ran all aroud desperately searching for AND. A loud explosion followed that shook the entire tunnel as bits of rock fell all over and a cloud of smoke prevailed. except a dimly lit overhead tamp anI darkness all aroud.. he knew ltrat if there was a door concealed somewhere in the walls he would make it out by the sound difference. Once inside the disposal unit. he just connot vanish. whire the The chase continued for some time till the commander reached a dead end. Whatever As time was ticking by he slowly began tapping thc walls of the tunnels with the butt of his gun.r there. there was nothing ove. Waving aside the smoke and particles in the atmosphore the commander entered the opening. Allfour spoke in unision and the entire room reasonated with AND's voice .indulged in as they moved downwards. They were frightened because none of their weaponery seemed to have any effect on the Retrovectors and moreoverthe total absence of any expression on the face of their attackers scared them ait the more. A powerful beam of light was enmanating from the lamps in which the bodies seemed to be bathed. commander allowed his boys to do their job. Once he had done this he quickly fixed small detonators on the wall and moved away to avoid the blast.There . but soon he realized that ll war a herd reallty that eonfronted him.He onry heard his footfafis at a distance indicating that his target was on the run. (61) He ran after him. On top of thelr heads was a circurlar lamp slightly lesser in dlamerter than the platforms below.. He could not bellcve his eyes for a moment. What tre found inside was a large room with all sorts gadgetery arranged all over and rightthere in the middle of thc room he saw the sight of his life. wondered the commander is got be an'opening somewhere around here. By the time they had reached the base.. The four figures looked identical and made a very prominent sight as the rest of the room was in total darknes. The tunnels were dug in a zig-zag fashion and although the commander raR vary fast he courd not see AND. The years of training grinded into the Retrovectors had at last proved useful and too overwhelming for the oncogenes as they seccumbed to the attack. disappeared?. had reached ANDs laboratory and just saw him slip through one of the side doors into the tunners below. ln the mlddle ol the room were four large circular platforma on top of which stood four exactly similar replleae ol AND which wore completely naked.. that would have probably shocked others but not him. panic had arready struck and the oncogenes courd been seen running herter and skerter below the disposar unit.

ur targets over here and you have onry one bu[et. AND would emerge again in a probably more diabolicalway. "The most obvious question. This problem had to end once and for all. Natural deprivation of these traits interested him all the more in the subject and it had come to become one of his favourite topics of study. quite sometime. His Eludles in this field ultimately gave him the answer he wac looking for. -spares are out ofquestion. So say a cou."Ah! so you have made it in. i t<now att about that goddamned bullet that DNA may have given you to destroy me. DNA had given him the rneans and had placed his entirefaith onto him.a. But are.. i[i. dispersal would only be temporary. tiut mind ior. but mind you do not make any attempts to come near me or should I say us?" and Etoud taughter followed.. and a good one. ii6 ?1.. but how? The commander held his head in his hands and thought hard.nt you in a fix? We are fo. . 3fl9rd lo followed.ple of years all of them woiltO r. tnrt you are aware that1e the present situatioh you cannot in gamble either !. failure was out of question. lguess ourtelevision boys must be having video films of all the happenings ever since trouble had. he had about an Irour to somehow identify the true AND in the four rcplicas and destroy him.started?" (63) .get fully activateO. he must succeed. you see these rays falling on bur bodies? tt riitt tat<e dntri an hour or so for them to. psychology and behaviour of the mind."I AND would be reborn only to continue nis tite tono ambition of dividing celr and establishing l.in my Sody would ipfit +ai and then nothing woutd remain.. OnL" tn"V do so. like allthe R€trovectors wns totally devoid of emotion. when t dmergijgJn i may find a way to dearwith you as weil and thtn r-sniri reign supreme. so inail probabirity you hlve onry one builet.reopLs. For the first time alnce the oporatlon had begun he put in a contact to DNA.. "R to D" "D to R. impossible.e_org"nii. identify the correct gnd yoJ win. he knew it had to work.a television. If he did fail.' another 6r'd lrughi. I hear you well go on" "Chief lneed your help. h+r quietly settled down in one corner. but to isolate large 116rrl. i saw theway you baggars kiiled. Commander Tor had thought about this the moment he had seen the four replicas of AND. t am quitJ rri. As the words permeated the commanders mind.. all the molecules. He looked around thc room and thare in front of the four figures hr lound what he sought . but during his life time he trad done a lot of reading on emotions. "There is a comprete high energy barrieraroundus tld yilt disintegrate anybody"comin!'near. Oecause ine molecules wourd never forget ineir attinity toi-eacn othet their memory is infallidle and permenint." (62) Although commander Tor. r had worked on that srosian& to. oi it'i. "Wellwhat happens if I do gamble and lose?.

moved towards the terevision set and switchro it on. right from the first attack The trick employed by the commander worked with fantastic results. Quite ironically."Yes.s eyes had to betray him. architect. his own creation betrayed him and proved to be his undoing...iil. Bit by bit his body started falling apart like bits that come apart from lepers except that in AND's case the agony was unbearable. but I want you to instruct our television centre to begin a replay oithr* films right from the beginrng.. artist. (M) . Had AND been a normal person he would have probably succeeded in maintaining a steady expression.. with his ultimate victory in the end as the creation beholds him. (6s) The bullet contained a substance show is unmistakabre. on power station one.ll answer your question later. When a creator looks at his own creation may it be a sculptor. looking at his watch.. it is a glint of satisfaction. but he was not. the screen began to display the disasters caused by AND and his oncogenes in detair. especiaily those firms that show a maximum amount of disaster and chief do this right away I am running out of time.' "l. his frustrations. just as the protease had eaten through the Proteins.. The commander had quite early spotted AND to be the second from left in the quartret. rt is for adrniration of his own work. Streptodornase has the property of breaking down Nucleic acids to completion. but he made himself doubly sure before he took careful aim and fired the fateful bullet. the faces of the four figures. his defeats. it is a glint that cannot be grouped into a single expression. playwrite or any creator of any sort. After exa&it fi* . it is a glint of pride. as the non-responders were only dummies. l. The effect of the ingredients in the bullet on AND was remarkable. but why?.ll wait for about five minutes" be done in less than five miiutei. The television boys of Coll had done a wonderful job. n" lgo[ a position behind the set and sat gazing ilt*iry . but his entire body made him stand out in the lot. he was moaning and writhing in pain. The results of the compound were evident as AND lay there on the platform as an unidentifyable mass. As the descriptions and the film were coming to an end he quivered in glee. called 'Streptodornase' isolated from certain bacteria called Streptococci. sat . he was a fanatical genius with a warped mind which only served in catalyzing his end. The commander's logic was very straightforward . which even he had never expected. As the foam exuded a perpetual stench spread over the entire room. The glint embodies a sum total of his entire toil and sweat. Not only the eyes of AND. that peculiar glintthat his eyes They broke contact and the commander . As the commentator began his descriptions.on seeing his own creation AND.

lt was a clean swipe.V. Codon. commander Tor had coilected ail thl literature stored in AND's laboratory and had it sent to the Gene building. the units of information stored in it are referred to as 'genes' 6. there are 22 Amino Acids lrroteins of which some 10 are called the Essential Arnino Acids as they have to be obtained from an oxternal source. Maltose a disaccharide and Glycogen a polysaccharide. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) these are membranous structures on which the Ribosomes are attached. the scars left painful. Mopping up operations would take a very long time and restoration to normalacy.'recovery is the rule. that the division of Cell had been averted and above all Cell was still viable. a triplet that codes for a single arnino acid. Uracil.form the lturretie cods. Although AND and his Oncogenes had been destroyed.llcr had done a complete job. 5. Carbohydrates are the simplest type of molecules found in the Cell e.The Retrovectors led by commander R. all the Oncogenes along with their leader had been destroyed.g. Glucose a monosaccharide. along with phosphate molecules. For as long as a system the causal agents eliminated. There are a total of 64 codons that. The genetic code has found to be univcrsal for all living organisms. G. Amino Acid . is viable.From this riterature DNA rocated the position of that disasterous device that had triggered the M-alternativerlt had caused severe damage to the Proteins and he had it removed at once. M for Methionine any Ly for Lysine. The Carbohydrates are readily soluble in water and largely meet up to the : The only thing. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) : a Nucleic acid composed of the nucleotides A. which was of great respite to DNA was. 4.e. & C. The entire biological fate of an individual is governed by the DNA.U. by their activities were still very deep and Cytosine and Thymine that form the building blocks of the Nucleic acids.g. lt is a double standard molecule. of which two codons initiate a chain for . GLOSSARY 1. Guanine. These Essential Amino Acids are collectively called 'MATVILPHLY' where each letter stands for an amino acid e.troterirt syntlresis while three terminate a chain and are callerJ 'nonsclnse codons'. that resembles spiral staircase. code : A codon is a unit composed of three nucleotides i. It was a cleansing operation in Cell that was to be long remembered. 3.C & T : these letters stand for the five found in nucleotides or bases Adenine. however severe may be the damage and once energy requirements of the Cell. the ER and the Ribosomes are sites for Protein I a a : sYnthesis' (66) (67) .was stillfar away and DNA was quiet aware of these facts. the strands entwine on each other forming double helix. 2. A.G.

irr.Krebs cycre-pl6orcriJ .ductles= _#ri-0.converge upon. under anaerobic conoitions. .Hormones : These compounds are produced by the endocrine gr.r..reyirp. Metastasis : The uncontrolled division of cancer cells leading to its proliferation is called metastasis. Lipids : This class of molecules are characterized by their non-solubility in water.to the. Cell.ihey are required in very mrnute quantities and usuaily act a't a site duite from the Ce[ producing acid. ot oui OoOy. wheTrl. _ 10. 14.iHiry . ' 12.nJui'r-"roBi. Krebs cycle: This is a Central grand station in rL the metaboric network of the ceil. fn.f Lipoproteins form an important component of the Ce I membrane and other membranous structures within th.i 18.u. 9nerg. the Kiebi..Energy Qount : The breakdown of one glucose motecute.or". L. 13... The energy is stored in these m6bcures in the torm oi r. Mitochondria : they are also called the 'Power houses' of the Cell.3. Enzymes: These are protein molecules that catalyze the various metabolic rrrction. Citric acid ite$.o ir. through which electrons deriv6d from the chemical conversions involved in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are passed and ATP molocules are produced at three points.iVini serve as a defence mechanisril against i"fr1ii". tmmunoglobins": protein molecules .' ario . Lipids in conjunction with proteins in the form r. _. f. l l..lgn phosphate bonds..: lmmunoglobin G it i1r-9 mijor Ertiorov J..roi". phosphilipids like Lecithin and the steroids are members of this class. mediated Oy tne .*il.riir. 15....l. also known as the Rntib6dies .n rrlrru.[!33t il J : 3J3t1? iS'iSHJf i.rr6i. * n?.. 7. They are only soluble in organic solvents.l. Since the conversion of Pyruvate to citrate oegins'tne cycte it is ' -'. L3ffi.. _ cycle growth. like ethyl alcohol or ether. . The enzyme acts under anaerobic conditions thus only 2 molecules of ATP are produced from the Glycolytic pathway..y conditions.iiiid SL lgg ' # il.re protein in nature... 17.rrriiliv'rri jfre pathways. Within the mitochondria is present an Electron transport chain. Fatty acids like palmitate. 16. This occur. 19.o.. does not function and ontye produced. lI:T the five that are known to exist. Lecithin : is a phospholipid molecule belonging to the Lipids. Mutations : Alterations in the genetic code or DNA that lead to the production of incorrect proteins or traits are called mutations.rres of Adenosine Triph_osphate (AIp) through tnen4itochondria. Glycolysis : The process of breakdown of glucose to_pyruvic termed as Glycolysis. Cell. Lactate Dehydrogenese (LDH): This enzyme brings aboutthe conversion of Pyruvateto Lactate and vice-versa. Acridine or Ultraviolet radiations. is commonly used to refer to a cancerous lesion or t (6e) 20.ip?.l? Glycogen in the Cett and wneneveigtucose Glycogen is broken down totineratb it. Neoplasia : the term means'new growth'and (68) . lt is known to exist in five different forms which are called the LDH isozymes.. through glycotysis ano suoseil". o. o""uriiglnil. These may be natural or induced by chemical mutagens like ethyl ethane sulphonate (EES)..

" an liitrosomos its functions are unclear but is postulated to lrold the IRNA carrying the AA correctly on the codons on the mRNA attached to the Ribosomes. 25.G. Ribosomes : are sites of protein synthesis rrllirr:lrnrl to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 33.rilrst cancer. (!.& C nucleotides and are of 26.iei are rr" Oncogenic viruses. Palmitate: This is a fatty acid belong to the Lipid class. composed of Amino acids.ystems are nowadays being used in gene therapy rr11. Thev aie-nionl. The presence of a repressor on Itrr: DNA usually negates protein synthesis. 22. the Ribosomes on the In (3) rRNA or ribosomal RNA resides in the 29.. The entire scheme is as follows : (71) (70) . The formation of proteins on the ribosomes rlirnded by the codon sequences on mRNA is termed ari lranslation.21.ls.rne uncogenes and their location in Celi are pure fiction. 31.. Enzymes. versatrre in nature a.nO Papain are proteases tlrat can sprit immunogrboins into three portions. the Soyabean Trypsin innibitor. RNA Ribonucleic acids: These are Nucleic nciels composed of A. immunoglobihs and some otine normones 27. 28.Pyruvate Dehydrogenese (pDH) :Thisisinfact enzyme complex that brings about the conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl co-enzyme A. Oncooenes : This is a term usually used to refer to Nucreic"acid nrateriailil. tf" L"rO :?lpq or.nd. these :. in viruses that know to cause cancer in animits. r 30^ Repressors: These are small protein rrrolecules involved in the control mechanisms of the ri . Nucreus : is a structure present in ail the ceils except the red blood Cells. lluce types : like lnsulin are examples. 23. Which is then converted to Citrate by another enzyme.U. DNA is present inside the nucleus. AND and tne Sinr<.yrrllress of proteins. Protease : is a common term used to refer to enzymes known to split protein moleicules frypsin . rhese ui.yt'ttho:.trttlttttt :. acttvtty of proteases e.perform a variety-of functidns.) lltNA rtr ltttnstttr llNA brings the Amino acids ln lltrr nlle ttf . 24. Retrovectors : This is a word coined from the rotroviralvector system which consists of viral DNA into wlrich a genomic DNA has been insefted. Their finar-s-dim"nlionir conformation is governed by the amino s"qrenc" present in the primary stru-cture. Nucleic acids : DNA and RNA are the Nucleic acids. Protease lnnibitors : are a group of gompoylds protein or non-protein in nature tiat ihniOit rne. Proteins : These are large molecules (1) rnRNA or messenger RNA is formed on the llNA lly H llro(le:ls torrrled as transcription. 32.g. Protein Synthesis : See RNAs.

a external source. 34. 35. Steroids: They are a class of compounds gr6uped in the lipids and have characterestic Perhydrocycloplentane phenanthrene ring.Transcription DNA mRNA Transtation Proteins + AA. Streptodornase: this is mixture of lytic enzymes isolated from the bacteria called Streptococci that completely break down the nucleic acids.IRNA on Ribosomes. s66lssterol testosterone are some exqmples. \rftamins: They are a group of compounds termeC as additional grourth factors obtained tro. an (721 . The B-complex series form the co-enzymes that are integral components of the 36.