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PARA 7230 Studies in the Upanishads Jim Ryan Shrii Shrii Anandamurtis view on Onm, Turiiya and Kosa

in the Upanishads by Chien Hui Liu

Vedas is the oldest scripture of India that was first composed about 15,000 years ago1. Upanishads can be considered as the philosophical part of Vedas that provided human beings with meaning to the sacrificial rituals and hymns.Upanisad represents mens continuous search for God (Brahman), the meaning of life and creation and discusses ways to attain final goal of salvation. There are more than 200 known Upanisads. But only 14 or so are held to be orthodox and Vedic. They are all passed down from oral tradition and attributed to several authors (seers). The term Upaniad derives from upa- (nearby), ni- (at the proper place, down) and ad (to sit) thus: "sitting down near". The literal meaning of Upaniad implies sitting near a teacher to receive instruction. Anandamurti also gives his interpretation of the term Upaniad. According to Anandamurti, upa means near, ni means closely and sad means to sit. So Upanisad means that which leads us close to the Supreme Entity, the bow takes human beings to Parama Purusa2. Although Anandamurti himself did not write a complete commentary on Upanisad, he referred to selected parts of Upanisad in various speeches, and also spoke on some of important terms that have been widely discussed in Upanisad. In this paper, I will focus on three main terms the divine sound Aum, Turriya and lastly I will talk about Kosa in brief. I will discuss Anandamurtis description on these terms with reference to different Upanisad.

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Sadvipra, Taraka Brahma, Sadashiva and Shrii Krsna in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 8 Religious dogma in Prout in a Nutshell Part 16

The sound Aum

The sound aum has been commonly used in Indian scriptures or mantras. Aum can be seen in the example of Vedic hymns and Bhagavad Gita as the beginning sound of a line. Upanisad is also not an exception to this usage. The sound aum has been attributed with Divine significance in Indian philosophy. Aum Namah Shivaya is a panchakshara (five- syllable mantra) commonly used in Shaivism from the Lord Shiva and Hari Aum Tatsat from the Lord Krsna. Not only limited in India, the sound aum has its Divine power on a universal level across culture. We can find other cultures which use the sound aum as well. It is found in Tibetan script written in Tanrii script - Onm mane padme hum3 and this mantra is also used in Vajrayanii Buddhism4. Several Upanishads have extolled the power of aum to reach the state of Brahma and sometimes aum is equated to Brahman or the self. Shrii Shrii Anandamurti has several discourses speaking about the sound aum. Here, I will talk about the aum sound from the Ananda Marga Tantra Yoga point of view in relation to selected passages of Upanishads and other scriptures. In Ananda Marga philosophy, the Supreme Subjectivity creates the sound aum while creating the universe. Therefore, aum is the acoustic root of entire creation. Anandamurti indicates that this is the reason that the aum sound is placed preceding

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The fundamental of language in A Few Problems Solved Part 4 Shiva Throughout the Ages in Namah Shivaya Shantaya

many Vaedika hymns5. Anandamurti discusses different acoustic roots of the Sanskrit alphabet in relation to the creation of the universe. Since the sound aum is considered the acoustic root of creation, I will include the meaning of some other Sanskrit acoustic roots here. While the Supreme Subjectivity creates the universe, He is Aum. Aum is referred as Karana Brahma (Causal Brahma)6. The Supreme Witnessing Entity creates the sound aum when the objectivized world is created. The objectivated world means the expressed universe, the paincabhaotika jagat, and is referred to as Karya Brahma (Effect Brahma). Ka is the acoustic root of this objectivated world (the expressed universe). Anandamurti noted that this is why ka7 is the first letter of the IndoAryan consonantal alphabetical order. We can find that in Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, Aum is referred to as Brahman, which reflects Anandamurtis notion that the Supreme Entity is Aum. V. 1 1. Aum is Brahman, the ether, the primeval ether, the ether that blows.8. In Chandogya Upanisad, we can see that aum sound was created while Prajapati

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Devotion and the realm of Intellectuality in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 5 Cause means seed, root or origin. Hence, aum is called the acoustic root of creation. Mantra and Incantation in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 5/ Discourses on Tantra Volume I 7 Anandamurti explains that there are three meanings to the acoustic root ka. The first is that it is the first consonant. The second is that this is the objectivated world and the third meaning is water. in Mantra and Incantation in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 5 8 The Principal Upanisads by S. Radhakrishnan, p. 289

brooded/created the world. II. 23. 2. Prajapati brooded on the worlds. From them, thus brooded upon, issued forth the threefold knowledge. He brooded on this. From it, thus brooded upon, issued forth these syllables, bhuh, bhuvah, svah. 3. He brooded on them and on them, thus brooded upon, issued forth the syllable Aum. As all leaves are held together by a stalk, so is all speech held together by Aum. Verily, the syllable Aum, is all this, yea, the syllable Aum is all this9. Every syllable of aum carries distinct acoustic meaning. A + u + ma = Aum. A is the acoustic root of the generating faculty, u is the acoustic root of retaining faculty, and ma is the acoustic root of the destroying faculty10Anandamurti noted that this is why that a is the first letter of the Indo-Aryan alphabetical order. This leads to an interesting theory of the word Brahma and Brahma from Anandamurti. The Supreme Brahma creates the sound a while creating the entire universe Therefore, Brahma plus a becomes Brahma (as per Sanskrit grammatical rule a + a = a). Supreme Consciousness is called Brahma as the progenitor in the creation phase of universe, It is called Visnu while performing the function of maintenance and

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The Principal Upanisads by S. Radhakrishnan, p. 375 Mantra and Incantation in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 5

Maheshvara while it destroys11. This notion also reflects the inherent meaning of the sound aum. A-u-ma represents creation, preservation and destruction. Thus, the meaning of G-O-D, G is Generator, O as Operator and D as Destroyer12. While a means the first phase of creation, u means the faculty to maintain, nourish and sustain the created beings. In turn, ma as the last latter, signifies the final phase of destruction. Anandamurti links the meaning of ma to the Sanskrit alphabet order and states that this is the reason ma is placed as the last letter of the vargiiya varnamala. As the last varga is pa-pha-ba-bha-ma and ma is the last letter of the group13 In the above paragraphs, we can see Anandamurti correlates the meaning of the sound aum to the entire Cosmological order - creation, maintenance, and destruction exist within the Sanskrit alphabet order. To summarize from his view, A is the first letter of Indo-Aryan Sanskrit order, which indicates the creation of universe. Ka is the first letter of Sanskrit consonantal order, which indicates the acoustic root of the objectivized world. Ma is the last letter of vargiiya varnamala , which indicates destruction. Anandamurti states that every sound in the Sanskrit alphabetical order is an acoustic root of the cosmic manifestation. This is also in line with the common notion in Tantra.
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Pranava in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 34 The Glory of Pranava and Savitr in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 1 Mantra and Incantation in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 5

There are fifty controlling acoustic roots in Sanskrit, and this creates many complex combinations of word roots. Aum is the controlling word of the entire universe according to Anandamurti.14 Behind every action there is a supporting sound in the universe, the supporting sound is called the acoustic root. For the entire universe, the acoustic root sound (biija mantra) is aum, which includes work in all the spheres of the expressed universe. Aum is the collection of all sounds, and all the work of the world. Therefore, aum represents the mundane expression of Parama Purusa15 In Ananda Marga philosophy, aum represents the manifested aspect of Brahma- Saguna Brahma. The commentators often interchange the usage of aum, onm or om in the Upanishads. As a + u = o (per sandhi rule) and (a) + (u = oo) + (ma) = om ()16. According to Anandmurti, onm () consists of five symbols: a, the acoustic root of creation; u, the acoustic root of preservation; ma, the acoustic root of destruction; the sonic dot, symbol of the unmanifested universe; and the Bengali crescent symbol or candrabindhu which signifies the process of manifestation17.

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Pranava and Sanskrit Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 5 Acoustic root in Baba in Taiwan/ Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 14 16 Desire and detachment in Subhasita Samgraha Part 3 and 19 17 The Acoustic Roots of the Indo-Aryan Alphabet in Ananda Marga Philosophy in a Nutshell Part 8/ Tantra Volume I

From the Ananda Marga point of view, the sonic dot18 signifies Nirguna Brahma and the first three letters a, u, m signify Saguna Brahma. A indicates the predominance of Sattvaguna (the sentient principle), the state of wakefulness. U (oo) indicates the predominance of Rajaguna (the mutative principle), the state of dream, and Ma indicates Tamoguna (the static principle), the sleep state19. The dot indicates the fourth state or the state of non-duality Nirguna Brahma (Pure Consciousness)20. The Bengali crescent symbol represents the process of manifestation. Therefore, onm is the acoustic root of creation, preservation and destruction, plus the principle of transmutation from the unmanifested (Nirguna) to the manifested (Saguna). Onmkara denotes both Saguna and Nirguna Brahma. It is a unifying link between Nirguna and Saguna Brahma as a term of expression21. In Mandukya Upanisad, the sound aum indicates the manifested world and the unmanifested Brahma. 1. Aum, this syllable is all this. An explanation of that (is the following). All that is the past, the present and the future, all this is only the syllable aum. And whatever else there is beyond the threefold time, that too is only the syllable aum.

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Anandamurti explained the reason to use a sonic dot to indicate Nirguna Brahma- A dot cannot be described properly; it has a position but no magnitude: and that is why it has been used to represent Nirguna Brahma. from The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 19 Anandamurti further described that the letters A, U, Ma, in Saguna Brahma indicate respectively Ksiirabdhi, Garbhodaka and Karanarnava. 20 The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 4 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 21 Desire and detachment in Subhasita Samgraha Part 3 and 19

There are four states that described in the Mandukya Upanisad that are similar to the description given above from Anandamurti. In Mandukya Upanisad, the first state is a as Vaisvanara, the waking state; the second is u as Taijasa, the dream state; the third is ma, Prajna, the sleep state. And the last one is a non-dual aspect, often refereed as Turiiya, which reflects the meaning of the sonic dot as Nirguna Brahma, the non-dual state described previously. Mandukya Upanisad II. 9. Vaisvanara, whose sphere is the waking state, is the letter a, the first element 10. Taijasa, whose sphere is the dream state, is the letter u, the second element 11. Prajna, whose sphere is the state of deep sleep is the letter m, the third element 12. The fourth is that which has no elements, which cannot be spoken of, into which the world is resolved, benign, non-dual. Thus the syllable aum is the very self. He who knows it thus enters the self with his self22. In Anandamurtis speech, Onm can also be called by other names- pranava or Shabda-Brahma as commonly used in scriptures. The word pranava signifies zealous devotion (nu means to worship). By Anandamurits definition, pranava (pra + nu + al) means the entity that guides you unto the supreme status, unto the supreme

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The Principal Upanisads by S. Radhakrishnan, p. 695- 701

rank23. Anandamurti gives an example in Tripadavibhutinarayana Shruti to demonstrate this view. In Pranavatmakam Brahma: [Brahma is in the form of pranava]24 In Mundaka Upanisad: Pranavo dhanuh sharohyatma Brahma tallaksyamucyate; Apramattena veddhavyam sharavattanmayo bhavet. [The pranava is like a bow, ones unit consciousness is like an arrow, and Brahma is the target. One must aim without any inaccuracy and must oneself be like an arrow25.] Mundaka Upanisad II. 2 3. Taking as a bow the great weapon of the Upanishad, One should put upon it an arrow sharpened by meditation. Stretching it with a thought directed to the essence of That, Penetrate that Imperishable as the mark, my friend. 4. The mystic syllable Om (pranava) is the bow. The arrow is the soul (atman). Brahma is said to be the mark (laksya). By the undistracted man is It to be penetrated. One should come to be in It, as the arrow (in the mark). From the previous discussion, we can see that onmkara is the combined acoustic
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Onmkara and Ista Mantra from Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 23 Elsewhere it has been said, Etaddhyevaksaram Brahma etadevaksaram param Etadevaksaram jinatva Brahmaloke mahiiyate. [This is the immutable Brahma, this is the supreme sound. After knowing this supreme sound, one attains the divine realm of Brahma.] (The Acoustic Roots of the Indo-Aryan Alphabet in Ananda Marga Philosophy in a Nutshell Part 8/ Tantra Volume I) 25 Pranava in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 34

sound of the entire process of creation, preservation and destruction26 as the initial phase of manifestation. Onm is the seed of all alphabets, and can be identified as Brahma. Therefore it is also called Shabda-Brahma or Sonic Consciousness27 Anandamurti proposed in different developmental stages of sadhana, one is able to hear the divine sound of onm by the physical ear, also known as the sound of silence28. In the first phase, one will hear a hissing sound similar to the sounds of crickets. In the second stage, one will hear the sound similar to ankle bells (ghunghur). Next, one will hear the sound of flutes, as if someone is playing a flute. Therefore, onmkara is also called the flute sound of Vraja Krsna, continuation of eternal flow without break or pause. Then, it is sound of the ocean. The fifth phase is tam, tam, like the sound of bells. And finally, the sound is like oonnn the onmkara in pure form. In the course of sadhana, one will hear this divine sound emanating from the Cosmos in different developmental stages both internally and externally. After the last sound, there is silence, with no sound; this is the end of the expression of Saguna Brahma. Then, it gets to the realm of Nirguna, which is formless and soundless29. Adyapi sei kalacand bansharii bajay; Kona kona bhagyaban shunibare pay.30 [Even to this day Lord Krsna plays His flute.

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Questions and answers on meditation from Yoga Psychology Vibration, Form and Color in Subhasita Samgraha Part 3 The sound of God in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 30 The sound of God in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 30 Krsna Imparts Six Stages of Realization from Namami Krsnasundaram

Only the blessed few can hear that holy sound.] In a different phase of sadhana, one hears the sound of onm. Anandamurti holds that onmkara is not a sound for utterance but for hearing. He maintains that human voice cannot produce the proper form for this mystic sound. One with ceaseless effort in sadhana hears the divine sound of onm in different phases and realizes the inherent meaning of a, u and ma from direct knowing. At final stage, one goes beyond Saguna and reaches the objectless Nirguna Brahma (represented by the sonic dot)31. In Ananda Marga philosophy, the divine sound, onm, is not the Supreme Brahma. In Anandamurtis point of view, onm signifies Saguna Brahma, the qualified Brahma, which is constrained within time, place and person. It is the sound seed of manifestation- creation, preservation and destruction- as a, u and ma32. Onm is a sonic manifestation of Brahma, Vak Brahma (an expression of Brahma in a sound form), but, Brahma cannot be limited as a sonic expression. (As noted here, in Ananda Marga philosophy, Saguna Brahma and Nirguna Brahma are merely two states of the same Brahma, so which Brahma as a single entity is superior than the other does not arise here.) From the scripture, Yacchrotena na shrnoti yena shrottramidam shrutam

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The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2

Tadeva Brahma tvam viddhi nedam yadidamupasate. [You should know as Brahma that Entity whom the ears cannot hear, yet from whom the ears acquire the capacity to hear.33] Anandamurti quotes several Vedas and scriptures to further explicate the functions of Saguna Brahma denoted in Onmkara that beautifully illustrate the inherent meaning of the three syllables- a, u and ma. I will list a few of them here for reference. From Rg Veda: Yato va imani bhutani yayante Yena jatani jiivanti Yat prayantyabhisamvishanti Tad vijijinasasva tad Brahma. [The entity from whom all created beings emerged, By whom they are sustained And in whom all are finally dissolved.34] From Mahanirvana Tantra: Yato vishvam samudbhutam Yena jatainca tishati
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The Supreme Question 1 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 6 The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2

Yasmin sarvani liiyante Jineyam tad brahma laksanaeh [The entity from whom the entire universe has been created By whom all created beings are maintained And in whom all entities finally dissolved These are the characteristics of Brahma.35]

Turiiya In Mandukya Upanishad36, the verses denote to the power of the divine syllable Omn, and describe the four states/quarters of consciousness designated to each syllable, a, u, ma and the sonic dot- Vaisvanara, Taijasa, Prajna and Turiiya. The state of Turiiya has a special importance beyond the other three states. It is described as a non-dual state which cannot be spoken of. The description can be seen in the following verse of Mandukya. 7. (Turiiya is) not that which cognizes the internal (objects) not that which cognizes the external (objects), not what cognizes both of them, not a mass of cognition, not cognitive, not non- cognitive. (It is) unseen, incapable of being spoken of, ungraspable, without any distinctive marks, unthinkable, unnamable, the essence of

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The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 The Principal Upanisads, p. 698-701, S. Radhakrishnan

the knowledge of the one self, that into which the world is resolved, the peaceful, the benign, the non-dual, such, they think, is the fourth quarter. He is the self; He is to be known. Mandukya discussed the four quarters, namely Vaisvanara, Taijasa, Prajna and the last one Turiiya in the following verses. 9. Vaisvanara, whose sphere is the waking state 10. Taijasa, whose sphere is the dream state 11. Prajna, whose sphere is the state of deep sleep 12. The fourth is that which has no elements, which cannot be spoken of, into which the world is resolved, benign, non-dual The three quarters of consciousness are not separate from the fourth state of Turiiya. In Anandamurtis view, the three states are referred as purusas and are contained within Turiiya. Anandamurti has discussed the four states/quarters of consciousness in his speech. I will describe each state from his point of view in the following paragraphs. The first quarter Vaisvanara The first state is Vaisvanara, the waking state. In this waking state, the mind deals mainly with the external world, apprehending tanmatras (sensible and supersensible inferences), desiring things and materializes them. The material world is

its pabulum, its food. The thought-wave is primarily materialistic/crude in nature. However, the source of its materialistic acts/longings is from the subtle mind, the mental sphere. The mind experiences the pleasure and pain (bhaga) of the outer world internally. In this waking state, the other states of dream, sleep and turiiya are latent (exist simultaneously, merely not expressed). Therefore, the Atma or soul is called catuspada (four-phasic)37. In psychological terms, during this waking state, both the conscious and the sub-conscious38 minds are functioning. Thought-waves originate in the sub-conscious mind and are translated into action through the medium of the conscious mind. This state is also called jagrata, which means the state when the conscious mind is predominant39. The function of the state is concerned with the cognizance of the external world. Its manifestation are in nineteen directions ten sensory and motor organs, five vayus, citta (mental plate), Mahatattva (knower I), and Ahamtattva (doer I) and Mula Prakrti (the primordial Prakrti in equilibrium). In this waking state, all objects are food for the mind. It is the first pada or phase of the soul. In Microcosm, the witnessing Purusa of the waking state is called Vishva. In Macrocosm, the Purusa is
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The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 According to Anandamurti, The conscious mind controls external actions, such as drinking, eating, etc.; and the basic desires. The subconscious controls the functions of thought and memory. The unconscious mind is omniscient, all-knowing. It only needs to be developed by dint of our sadhana. Everything Is Vibrational in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 31 39 Mind and Cognitive Faculty in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 2

called Vaeshvanara or Virata40. A is the seed or primary cause of Vishya or Virata in this state41. The second quarter Taijasa The second phase is called taijasa, the dream state. In the dream state, the objects of enjoyment and endurance exit at the domain of psyche and thought. The ten organs and limbs are not disturbed by the external world. The mental objects do not depend on tammatras received from the senses at the time but remain the reactive momenta (or seeds) previously acquired tammatras from the waking state. In psychological terms, in this dream state, the subconscious mind is vigilant and playing the witnessing role whereas the conscious and unconscious minds are at a dormant stage. It is called svapna. At this state, the other three states- waking, sleep and turiiya are latent. The unit soul witnessing its dream state is termed Taejasa and the Supreme Consciousness is termed Hiranyagarbha or Visnu42. U is the sound seed of Taejasa and Hiranyagarbha43 The third quarter Prajna In this third state, sleep state, the conscious and sub-conscious minds do not function and remain dormant. There is not any action or movement externally (actions
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The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 4 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 42 According to Anandamurti, it is important to note that the word Hiranyagarbha, is also comprehensively used for Saguna Brahma. The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 43 The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 4 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2

in the world) and internally (thoughts, imagery or desires in the mental plate). The subconscious mental activity in the dream state has become inactive as well as the physical body. There only remains the unconscious or casual mind termed by Anandamurti44. The third state is also called susupti In prajna, conceptual or external expressions are absent. It is a type of absolute cognition. In the absence of conscious or subconscious functions of the mind, one does not experience happiness or sorrow in this state. As a result, one enjoys a special kind of bliss in this state due to this absolute cognition. In the state of sleep, since the functions of the mind (external or internal) are absent, material divisions are also non-existent. All worldly objects become one, thus the subject enjoys a special type of joy in sleep. However, this state of unison is not the same as absolute identity with the Divine Essence45. The unit soul at this state is called prajna and the Macrocosm Purusa is called Iishvara in this state. M is the sound seed or primary cause of Prajina and Iishvara46 The fourth quarter Turiiya The forth state is turiiya, when conscious, subconscious and unconscious- all

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The causal mind consists of Atimanas Kosa, Vijinanamaya kosa and Hiranyamaya Kosa. Mind has five layers (kosas) of existence kamamaya, manomaya, atimanas, vijinanamaya and hiranmaya. The expression of mind, whether crude or subtle, depends upon the different kosas. Our Philosophical Treatise in Tattva Kaomudii Part 2 45 The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 5 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 46 The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 4 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2

three states of mind remain inactive and take shelter in Macrocosmic mind47. According to Anandamurti, the state of turiiya is neither omniscient nor the Lord of all (Ishvaratva) since the act of knowing (or controlling) requires the presence of knowledge (control), knower (controller) and the knowable (the controlled). One can become all knowing only when the sense of I am remains, when one endowed with omniscient ability is called prajina instead of turiiya. The state of turiiya is a non-dual state while one completely loses/surrenders the self and merges with the Cosmic Consciousness. Only one entity remains in this state, that is the Supreme, therefore, the state of turiiya, can be also called kevala. There remains no distinction between Brahma and the individual unit consciousness. The I-feeling is absolutely nil in this state. There is no seed or acoustic root in this state. Anandamurti maintains that seed represents the cause of origination, since there is no distinction of origination or non-origination, creation, preservation or destruction in the state of turiiya, the presence of seed does not arise. The knowledge, knower and known, the contemplator, contemplated and contemplation all become one in the state of Turiiya. Therefore, in this final beatitude, it is represented by the sonic dotNirguna Brahma. It is called Iishvaragrasa, which means the state even Ishvara (the Lord of the universe) is devoured. The other three states also merge in the Nirguna

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Mind and Cognitive Faculty in Ananda Vacanamrtam Part 2

Brahma (the Supreme Non-attributional Entity)48Turiiya is the state of eternal bliss without any external expression49.

Kosa in brief In the section of Turiiya, we have looked on different states/consciousness of a person. I find it interesting to take further investigation into different sheaths of a person as presented in the Upanishad. In Taittiriiya Upanishad, it talked about the five bodily sheaths (panca-kosas). II. 2-5 Within this physical body which is made of food, there is another body composed of the vital force; the former is filled with the latter which is like the form of a person. Within the vital body there is another body consists of mind; the former is filled with the latter, which is like the form of a person. Within the mental body there is another body which consists of intelligence; the former is filled with the latter, which is like the form of a person. Finally within this intellectual body there is another body consists of bliss; the former is filled with the latter, which is like the form of a person.50 There are five bodily sheaths described in Taittiriiya annamaya kosa, the
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The Intuitional Science of the Vedas 4 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2 Shiva's Teachings 2 in Namah Shivaya Shantaya Indian Psychology, p. 2, Jadunath Sinha

physical sheath, pranamaya kosa, the vital force sheath, manomaya kosa, the mental sheath, vijnanamaya kosa, the intelligence sheath, and finally ananadamaya kosa, the blissful sheath. In Ananda Marga philosophy, there are also five sheath have been talked about which have some similarities and differences of that described in Taittiriiya. The five sheaths in Ananda Marga are: annamaya kosa, the physical body; kamamaya kosa, the crude mind; manomaya kosa, the pure mental sphere; atimanas kosa, the supramental sphere; vijinanamaya kosa, that beyond the supramental sphere which does not have English equivalent for translation; and hiranmaya kosa, that state without the I feeling and beyond comprehension (hiranmaya means made of gold the state as pure and radiant as gold). According to Anandamurti, kosa means Adhara or base. The base is bigger than that which is based upon it. Therefore, the Kamamaya Kosa is bigger than the Annamaya Kosa. Then the Manomaya Kosa is bigger than the Kamamaya Kosa. The Atimanas Kosa is bigger than even the Manomaya Kosa. The Vijinanamaya Kosa is larger than this. The Hiranmaya Kosa is bigger than the Vijinanmaya Kosa and the biggest of all is the Satyaloka.51 This description reflects the description in Taittiriiya. Atman is situated in the five kosas. At the same time, It is the aggregate of all the kosas. Below, I will do a brief

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The Call of the Supreme in Subhasita Samgraha Part 1

comparison between the two systems. Annamaya kosa (the physical sheath) Anandamurti described this as the realm of physicality, the layer that is composed of food, which represents the physical body. This is similar to Taittiriiya. Pranamaya kosa (the vital force sheath) This consists of the five vital breaths that have talked about more in depth in Chandogya Upanishad52 Anandamurti also gives explanation to the functions of each breath. Vital energy53 is generated in the unit body through the media of five Vayus (airs). The five vayus are- Prana, Apana, Samana, Ud ana and Vyana. According to Anandamurti, Prana is situated between the navel and the throat. It controls the functions of lungs, heart etc. Apana is situated below the navel (between the navel and the anus). It controls the excretion of stool, urine etc. Samana is situated within the navel. It maintains the equilibrium between Prana and Apana. Udana is situated in the throat which controls the vocal cord (power of speech). Vyana is permeating the entire body, which controls the circulation of the blood, vital secretions etc54. Manomaya kosa (the mental sheath) Anandnamurti describe this as the pure mental sphere where pleasure and pain

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The Principal Upanishad, p. 441-444, S. Radhakrishna According Anandamurti, the word Prana or life, when used in singular number, means functional energy, and when used in plural, means vital energy. 54 The intuitional science of the Vedas 4 in Subhasita Samgraha Part 2

are experienced. The corresponding state is the subconscious of the human mind. Vijnanamaya kosa (the intelligence sheath) Anandamurti thinks that this is a state beyond the supramental realm and hence there is no equivalent word in English to translate the state. In this realm, viveka and vaeragya are dominant. It is translated as the sheath of intelligence in Taittiriiya. Ananadamaya kosa, the blissful sheath.This may relate to Satya Loka (of the Cosmic Mind) that described by Anandamurti. In this loka only Parama Purusa exists. In conclusion, the notion of Brahma and Atma has been extensively discussed in the entire Upanisad. The phrases, "I am Brahma" (aham brahmsmi) and "thou art that" (tat tvam asi) are the essential themes that the Upanisad conveys to its readers. The concepts of Aum, Turiiya and Kosa in this paper are also closely associated to the notion of Brahma and Atma. Aum is the divine syllable represents the entire creation (Saguna Brahma). Turiiya is the final state, the transcendental Brahma. The understanding of kosa leads men on the path of sadhana towards liberation. Upanisad is not only a philosophical treatise but contains practical means brings men to the state of Brahma.

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