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TROUBLESHOOTING INDEX 11-2 SECTION7:CLlMATECONTR(IL II-16

SECTION1: ENGINE 11-2 AIR CONDITIONER ll- -16


SECTION2: DRIVETRAIN 11-3 HEATER II-16
SECTION3:BRAKESYSTEM 11-3
SECTION4:WHEELS,TIRES,STEERING,
AND SUSPENSION II-4
SECTION5: ELECTRICAL
ACCESSORIES II-4
SECTION6:lNSTRUMENTSAND
GAUGES II-5
SECTION7:CLlMATE CONTROL II-5
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES II-6
SECTION1: ENGINE II-6
ENGINESTARTINGPROBLEMS II-6
ENGINERUNNINGCONDITIONS II-7
ENGINENOISES,ODORSAND
VIBRATIONS II-8
ENGINEELECTRICALSYSTEM 11-8
ENGINECOOLINGSYSTEM II-8
ENGINEEXHAUSTSYSTEM II-9
SECTION2: DRIVETRAIN II-9
AUTOMATICTRANSMISSION II-9
MANUALTRANSMISSION II-10
CLUTCH II-10
DIFFERENTIALAND FINAL
DRIVE II-10
TRANSFERASSEMBLY II-10
DRIVESHAFT II-10
AXLES II-II
OTHERDRIVETRAIN
CONDITIONS II-II
SECTION3:BRAKESYSTEM II-II
BRAKESYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTINGII-II
SECTION4:WHEELS,TIRES,STEERING
AND SUSPENSION II-12
WHEELSANDWHEEL
BEARINGS II-12
TIRES II-12
STEERING II-12
SUSPENSION II-12
DRIVINGNOISESAND
VIBRATIONS II-13
SECTION5:ELECTRlCAL
ACCESSORIES II-13 -
HEADLIGHTS II-13
TAIL, RUNNINGAND SIDEMARKER
LIGHTS II-13
INTERIORLIGHTS II-14
BRAKELIGHTS II-14
WARNINGLIGHTS II-14
TURNSlGNALAND4-WAYHAZARD
LIGHTS II-15
WINDSHIELDWIPERS II-15
SECTION6:lNSTRUMENTSAND
GAUGUES II-15 I
SPEEDOMETER(CABLE
OPERATED) II-15
SPEEDOMETER(ELECTRONICALLY
OPERATED) II-16
FUEL,TEMPERATUREAkJD OIL
PRESSURE GAUGES II-16
11-2 TROUBLESHOOTING
Condition Section/Item Number
Thefollowingtroubleshooting chartsaredividedinto7 sectionscoveringengine,drivetrain,brakes,wheels/tires/steering/suspension,
electricalaccessories,instrumentsandgauges,
andclimatecontrol.Thefirst portion(or index)consistsof a list of symptoms,alongwithsectionanditemnumbers.Afterselectingtheappropriatecondition,referto thecorresponding
diagnosticprocedurein thesecondportion’sspecifiedlocation.
INDEX

Gasoline Engines
Engineturnsover,but will not start I-A, 1
Enginedoesnotturnoverwhenattemptingto start l-A, 2
Enginestallsimmediatelywhenstarted I-A, 3
Startermotorspins,butdoesnotengage I-A, 4
Engineis difficultto startwhencold I-A, 5
Engineis difficultto startwhenhot I-A, 6

Diesel Engines
Engineturnsoverbutwon’tstart I-A, 1
Enginedoesnotturn overwhenattemptingto start l-A, 2
Enginestallsafterstarting I-A, 3
Startermotorspins,butdoesnotengage I-A, 4
Engineis difficultto start l-A, 5

Gasoline Engines
Enginerunspoorly,hesitates l-B, 1
Enginelackspower I-B, 2
Enginehaspoorfueleconomy l-B, 3
Enginerunson (diesels)whenturnedoff I-B, 4
Engineknocksandpingsduringheavyacceleration,andon steephills l-B, 5
Engineaccelerates
butvehicledoesnot gainspeed I-B, 6

Diesel Engines
Enginerunspoorly l-B,-1
Enginelackspower l-B, 2

Enginemakesa knockingor pingingnoisewhenaccelerating l-C, 1


Startermotorgrindswhenused l-C, 2
Enginemakesa screechingnoise l-C, 3
Enginemakesa growlingnoise I-C, 4
Enginemakesa tickingor tappingnoise l-C, 5
Enginemakesa heavyknockingnoise I-C, 6
Vehiclehasa fuelodorwhendriven l-C, 7
Vehiclehasa rotteneggodorwhendriven l-C, 8
Vehiclehasa sweetodorwhendriven I-C, 9
Enginevibrateswhenidling I-C, 10
Enginevibratesduringacceleration l-C, 11

Batterygoesdeadwhiledriving l-C, 1
Batterygoesdeadovernight I-C, 2

Engineoverheats I-D, 1
Enginelosescoolant I-D, 2
Enginetemperature
remainscoldwhendriving I-D, 3
Enginerunshot I-D, 4

Exhaustrattlesat idle speed l-F, 1


Exhaustsystemvibrateswhendriving l-F, 2
Exhaustsystemseemstoo low I-F, 3
Exhaustseemsloud I-F, 4
I TROUBLESHOOTING
II-3
Condition Section/hem Number

Transmissionshiftserratically 2-A, 1
Transmissionwill notengage 2-A, 2
Transmissionwill not downshiftduringheavyacceleration 2-A, 3

Transmissiongrindsgoingintoforwardgearswhiledriving 2-B, 1 2-C, 2


Transmissionjumpsout of gear 2-B,2
Transmissiondifficultto shift 2-B,3 2-C, 2
Transmissionleaksfluid 2-B,4

Clutchslips on hills or duringsuddenacceleration 2-C,l


Clutchwill notdisengage,difficultto shift 2-c,2
Clutchis noisywhentheclutchpedalis pressed 2-c,3
Clutchpedalextremelydifficultto press 2-c,4
Clutchpedalremainsdownwhenpressed 2-c,5
Clutchchatterswhenengaging 2-C,6

Differentialmakesa lowpitchedrumblingnoise 2-D, 1


Differentialmakesa howlingnoise 2-D, 2

All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles


Leaksfluid fromsealsor ventafterbeingdriven 2-E,1
Makesexcessivenoisewhiledriving 2-E,2
Jumpsout of gear 2-E,3

Rear Wheel, All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles


Clunkingnoisefromcenterof vehicleshiftingfromforwardto reverse 2-F, l
,Excessive
vibrationfromcenterof vehiclewhenaccelerating 2-F,2

All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles


, Frontor rearwheelmakesa clickingnoise 2-G,l
Frontor Rearwheelvibrateswith increasedspeed 2-G,2

Front Wheel Drive Vehicles


Frontwheelmakesa clickingnoise 2-G,3
Rearwheelmakesa clickingnoise 2-G,4

Rear Wheel Drive Vehicles


Frontor rearwheelmakesa clickingnoise 2-G,5
Rearwheelshuddersor vibrates 2-G,6

Burningodorfromcenterof vehiclewhenaccelerating 2-H, 1; 2-C, 1; 3-A, 9


Engineaccelerates,
butvehicledoesnotgainspeed 2-H, 2; 2-C, 1; 3-A, 9

Brakespedalpulsatesor shimmieswhenpressed 3-A-l


Brakesmakea squealingnoise CI 3-A, 2
Brakesmakea grindingnoise 3-A, 3
Vehiclepullsto onesideduring.braking 3-A, 4
Brakepedalfeelsspongyor hasexcessivebrakepedaltravel 3-A, 5
Brakepedalfeelis firm, butbrakeslacksufficientstoppingpoweror fade 3-A, 6
11-4 TROUBLESHOOTING
Condition 2 Section/Item Number
^i Vehiclehasexcessivefrontenddiveor locksrearbrakestoo easily 3-A, 7
Brakepedalgoesto floorwhenpressedandwill not pumpup 3-A, 8
Brakesmakea burningodor 3-A, 9

All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles


Frontwheelor wheelbearingloose 4-A. 1
Rearwheelor wheelbearingloose 4-A: 1

Front Wheel Drive Vehicles


Frontwheelor wheelbearingloose 4-A, 1
Rearwheelor wheelbearingloose 4-A, 2

Rear Wheel Drive Vehicles


Frontwheelor wheelbearingloose 4-A, 2
Rearwheelor wheelbearingloose 4-A, 1

Tireswornon insidetread 4-B, 1


Tireswornon outsidetread 4-B, 2
s Tireswornunevenly 4-B, 3

Excessiveplayin steeringwheel 4-c, 1


Steeringwheelshakesat cruisingspeeds 4-c, 2
Steeringwheelshakeswhenbraking 3-A, 1
Steeringwheelbecomesstiffwhenturned 4-c, 4

Vehiclepullsto oneside 4-D 1


Vehicleis verybouncyoverbumps 4-D, 2
Vehicleseemsto leanexcessivelyin turns 4-D, 3
Vehicleridequalityseemsexcessivelyharsh 4-D, 4
Vehicleseemslowor leansto oneside 4-D, 5

Noises
Vehiclemakesa clickingnoisewhendriven 4-E,1
Vehiclemakesa clunkingor knockingnoiseoverbumps 4-E,2
Vehiclemakesa lowpitchedrumblingnoisewhendriven 4-E,3
Vehiclemakesa squeakingnoiseoverbumps 4-E,4
\
Vibrations
Vehiclevibrateswhendriven 4-E,5

Oneheadlightonlyworkson highor lowbeam 5-A, 1


Headlightdoesnotworkon highor lowbeam 5-A, 2
Headlight(s)verydim 5-A, 3
/ .

Tail light,runninglightor sidemarkerlight inoperative 5-B, 1


Tail light,runninglightor sidemarkerlightworksintermittently 5-B, 2
Tail light,runninglightor sidemarkerlightverydim 5-B, 3

Interiorlightinoperative 5-c, 1
Interiorlightworksintermittently 5-c, 2
Interiorlightverydim 5-c, 3
.
TROUBLESHOOTING
II-5
Condition Section/Item Number

Onebrakelightinoperative 5-D, 1
Bothbrakelightsinoperative 5-D,2
Oneor bothbrakelightsverydim 5-D,3

Ignition, Battery and Alternator Warning Lights, Check Engine


Light, Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) Light, Brake Warning
Light, Oil Pressure Warning Light, and Parking Brake Warning
Light
Warninglight(s)remainson aftertheengineis started 5-E,1
Warninglight(s)flickersonandoff whendriving 5-E,2
Warninglight(s)inoperativewith ignitionon,andenginenotstarted 5-E,3

Turnsignalsor hazardlightscomeon, butdo notflash 5-F, 1


Turnsignalsor hazardlightsdo notfunctionon eitherside 5-F,2
Turnsignalsor hazardlightsonlyworkon oneside 5-F,3
Onesignallightdoesnotwork 5-F,4
Turnsignalsflashtoo slowly 5-F,5
Turnsignalsflashtoo fast 5-F,6
Four-wayhazardflasherindicatorlight inoperative 5-F,7
Turnsignalindicatorlight(s)do notworkin eitherdirection 5-F,8
Oneturnsignalindicatorlightdoesnotwork 5-F,9

Horndoesnotoperate 5-G,1
Hornhasan unusualtone 5-G,2

Windshieldwipersdo not operate 5-H, 1


Windshieldwipermotormakesa hummingnoise,getshot or blowsfuses 5-H,2
Windshieldwipermotoroperatesbutoneor bothwipersfail to move 5-H, 3
Windshieldwiperswill not park 5-H,4

Speedometer
doesnotwork 6-A, 1
Speedometer
needlefluctuateswhendrivingat steadyspeeds 6-A, 2
Speedometer
worksintermittently 6-A, 3

Speedometer
doesnotwork 6-B,1
Speedometer
worksintermittently 6-B,2

Gaugedoesnot register 6-C 1


Gaugeoperateserratically 6-C 2
Gaugeoperatesfully pegged ’ 6-C 3

Noair comingfromair conditionervents 7-A, 1


Air conditionerblowswarmair ’ 7-A, 2
Watercollectsonthe interiorfloor whentheair conditioneris used 7-A, 3
Air conditionerhasa moldyodorwhenused 7-A, 4

Blowermotordoesnotoperate 7-B, 1
Heaterblowscoolair 7-B,2
Heatersteamsthewindshieldwhenused 7-B,3
II-6 TROUBLESHOOTING
DIAGhUSTICPROCEDURES

b. Checkthe batterycablecondition.Cleanthe batteryterminalsandreplacecorrodedor


damagedcables.
Gasoline Engines c. Checkthefuelsystemfor properoperation.A fuel pumpwith insufficientfuelpressure
or cloggedinjectorsshouldbereplaced.
1. Engine turns over, but wilt not start d. Checktheengine’stune-upstatus.Notethetune-upspecificationsandcheckfor items
a. Checkfuellevelin fueltank,addfuel if empty. suchasseverelywornsparkplugs;adjustor replaceas needed.Onvehicleswith
b. Checkbatteryconditionandstateof charge.If voltageandloadtestbelowspecifica- manuallyadjustedvalveclearances,checkfor tightvalvesandadjustto specification.
tion, chargeor replacebattery. e. Checkfor a failedcoolanttemperature
sensor,andreplaceif outof specification.
c. Checkbatteryterminalandcableconditionandtightness.Cleanterminalsandreplace f. Checktheoperationof theenginemanagement systemsfor fuelandignition;repairor
damaged,wornor corrodedcables. replacefailedcomponentsas necessary.
d. Checkfueldeliverysystem.If fuelis not reachingthefuel injectors,checkfor a loose
electricalconnectoror defectivefuse,relayor fuelpumpandreplaceas necessary. 6. En#ine is ditticutt to start when hot
e. Enginemayhaveexcessivewearor mechanicaldamagesuchas lowcylindercranking a. Checktheair filterandair intakesystem.Replacetheair filter if it is dirty or contami-
pressure,a brokencamshaftdrivesystem,insufficientvalveclearanceor bentvalves. nated.Checkthefreshair intakesystemfor restrictionsor blockage.
f. Checkfor fuelcontamination suchaswaterin thefuel.Duringwintermonths,thewa- b. Checkfor looseor deterioratedenginegroundsandclean,tightenor replaceas
ter mayfreezeandcausea fuelrestriction.Addinga fueladditivemayhelp,however needed.
thefuelsystemmayrequiredrainingandpurgingwithfreshfuel. c. Checkfor neededmaintenance. Inspecttune-upandservicerelateditemssuchas
g. Checkfor ignitionsystemfailure.Checkfor looseor shortedwiresor damagedigni- sparkplugsandengineoil condition,andchecktheoperationof theenginefueland
tionsystemcomponents. Checkthesparkplugsfor excessivewearor incorrectelec- ignitionmanagement system.
trodegap.If the problemis worsein wetweather,checkfor shortsbetweenthespark
plugsandthe ignitioncoils. Diesel Engines
h. Checktheenginemanagement systemfor a failedsensoror controlmodule.
1. Engine turns over but won’t start
2. Engine does not turn over when attempting to start a. Checkenginestartingprocedureandrestartengine.
a. Checkthebatterystateof chargeandcondition.If the dashlightsarenotvisibleor b. Checktheglowplugoperationandrepairor replaceas necessary.
verydimwhenturningthe ignitionkeyon,the batteryhaseitherfailedinternallyor c. Checkfor air in thefuelsystemor fuelfilter andbleedtheair as necessary.
discharged,the batterycablesareloose,excessivelycorrodedor damaged,or theal- d. Checkthefueldeliverysystemandrepairor replaceas necessary.
ternatorhasfailedor internallyshorted,dischargingthebattery.Chargeor replacethe e. Checkfuel levelandaddfuelas needed.
battery,cleanor replacethe batterycables,andcheckthealternatoroutput. f. Checkfuelquality.If thefuel is contaminated, drainandflushthefueltank.
b. Checkthe operationof theneutralsafetyswitch.Onautomatictransmissionvehicles, g. Checkenginecompression.If compressionis belowspecification,theenginemay
try startingthevehiclein bothParkandNeutral.Onmanualtransmissionvehicles,de- needto berenewedor replaced.
presstheclutchpedalandattemptto start.Onsomevehicles,theseswitchescanbe h. Checkthe injectionpumptimingandsetto specification.
adjusted.Makesuretheswitchesor wireconnectorsarenot looseor damaged.Re- i. Checkthe injectionpumpconditionandreplaceas necessary.
placeor adjusttheswitchesas necessary. j. Checkthefuelnozzleoperationandconditionor replaceasnecessary.
c. Checkthestartermotor,startersolenoidor relay,andstartermotorcablesandwires.
2. Engine does hot turn over when attempting to start
Checkthegroundfromtheengineto thechassis.Makesurethewiresarenot loose, a. Checkthe batterystateof chargeandcondition.If the dashlightsarenotvisibleor
damaged,or corroded.If batteryvoltageis presentat thestarterrelay,try usinga re-
verydimwhenturningthe ignitionkeyon,the batteryhaseitherfailedinternallyor
motestarterto startthevehiclefor testpurposesonly.Replaceanydamagedor cor-
discharged, the batterycablesareloose,excessivelycorrodedor damaged,or theal-
rodedcables,in additionto replacinganyfailedcomponents.
ternatorhasfailedor internallyshorted,dischargingthe battery.Chargeor replacethe
d. Checktheenginefor seizure.If theenginehasnot beenstartedfor a longperiodof
battery,cleanor replacethe batterycables,andcheckthealternatoroutput.
time,internalpartssuchasthe ringsmayhaverustedto thecylinderwalls.Theengine
b. Checktheoperationof the neutralsafetyswitch.Onautomatictransmissionvehicles,
mayhavesufferedinternaldamage,or couldbehydro-lockedfromingestingwater.
try startingthevehiclein bothParkandNeutral.Onmanualtransmissionvehicles,de-
Removethesparkplugsandcarefullyattemptto rotatetheengineusinga suitable
presstheclutchpedalandattemptto start.Onsomevehicles,theseswitchescanbe
breakerbarandsocketon thecrankshaftpulley.If theengineis resistantto moving,or
movesslightlyandthenbinds,do notforcetheengineanyfurtherbeforedetermining adjusted.Makesuretheswitchesor wireconnectorsarenot looseor damaged.Re-
the problem. placeor adjusttheswitchesas necessary.
c. Checkthe startermotor,startersolenoidor relay,andstartermotorcablesandwires.
3. Enpine stalls immediately when started Checkthegroundfromtheengineto thechassis.Makesurethewiresarenot loose,
a. Checkthe ignitionswitchconditionandoperation.Theelectricalcontactsin the run damaged,or corroded.If batteryvoltageis presentatthestarterrelay,try usinga re-
positionmaybewornor damaged.Try restartingtheenginewithall electricalacces- motestarterto startthevehiclefor testpurposesonly.Replaceanydamagedor cor-
soriesin theoff position.Sometimesturningthekeyon anoff will helpin emergency rodedcables,in additionto replacinganyfailedcomponents.
situations,howeveroncetheswitchhasshownsignsof failure,it shouldbereplaced d. Checktheenginefor seizure.If theenginehasnot beenstartedfor a longperiodof
assoonas possible. time,internalpartssuchastheringsmayhaverustedto thecylinderwalls.Theengine
b. Checkfor loose,corroded,damagedor shortedwiresfor the ignitionsystemandre- mayhavesufferedinternaldamage,or couldbehydro-lockedfrom ingestingwater.
pairor replace. Removetheinjectorsandcarefullyattemptto rotatetheengineusinga suitable
c. Checkfor manifoldvacuumleaksor vacuumhoseleakageandrepairor replaceparts breakerbarandsocketonthecrankshaftpulley.If theengineis resistantto moving,or
as necessary. movesslightlyandthenbinds,do notforcetheengineanyfurtherbeforedetermining
d. Measurethefuelpumpdeliveryvolumeandpressure.Lowfuelpumppressurecan thecauseof the problem.
alsobenoticedasa lackof powerwhenaccelerating. Makesurethefuel pumplines
3. Engine stalls afier starting
arenot restricted.Thefuelpumpoutputis notadjustableandrequiresfuelpumpre-
placementto repair. a. Checkfor a restrictionin thefuel returnlineor the returnlinecheckvalveandrepairas
e. Checktheenginefuelandignitionmanagement system.Inspectthesensorwiringand necessary.
electricalconnectors.A dirty,looseor damagedsensoror controlmodulewirecan b. Checkthe glowplugoperationfor turningtheglowplugsoff too soonandrepairas
simulatea failedcomponent. necessary.
f. Checktheexhaustsystemfor internalrestrictions. c. Checkfor incorrectinjectionpumptimingandresetto specification.
d. Testtheenginefuel pumpandreplaceif theoutputis belowspecification.
4. Starter motor spins, but does not engage e. Checkfor contaminated or incorrectfuel.Completelyflushthefuelsystemandreplace
a. Checkthestartermotorfor a seizedor bindingpiniongear. withfreshfuel.
b. Removetheflywheelinspectionplateandcheckfor a damagedring gear. f. Testthe engine’scompressionfor lowcompression.If belowspecification,mechanical
repairsarenecessaryto repair.
5. Engine is difficult to start when Gold g. Checkfor air in thefuel.Checkfueltankfuelandfill as needed.
a. Checkthebatterycondition,batterystateof chargeandstartermotorcurrentdraw.Re- h. Checkfor a failedinjectionpump.Replacethepump,makingsureto properlysetthe
placethe batteryif marginalandthestartermotorif thecurrentdrawis beyondspecifi- pumptiming.
cation.
TROUBLESHOOiNG
11-7
4. Startermotorspins,butdoesnotengage 5. Engine knocks and pinfls during heavy accele/ation, and on steep hills
a. Checkthestartermotorfor a seizedor bindingpiniongear. a. Checkthe octaneratingof thefuel usedduringrefilling,andusea higheroctanerated
b. Removetheflywheelinspectionplateandcheckfor a damagedring gear. fuel.
b. Checktheignitiontimingandadjustto recommended settings.Checkfor defective
sensorsor relatedcomponentsandreplaceif defective.
c. Checktheenginefor excessivecarbonbuild-upin thecombustionchamber.Usea
Gasoline Engines recommended decarbonizing fueladditiveor disassemble thecylinderheadto remove
thecarbon.
1. Engine runs poor/y, hesiiates d. Checkthesparkplugsfor thecorrecttype,electrodegapandheatrange.Replaceworn
a. Checktheengineignitionsystemoperationandadjustif possible,or replacedefective or damagedsparkplugs.Forsevereor continuoushighspeeduse,installa sparkplug
parts. thatis oneheatrangecolder.
b. Checkfor restrictedfuel injectorsandreplaceas necessary. e. Checkthe operationof theenginefuelmanagement systemandreplacedefectivesen-
c. Checkthefuelpumpoutputanddelivery.Inspectfuel linesfor restrictions.If thefuel sorsor controlunits.
pumppressureis belowspecification,replacethefuelpump. f. Checkfor a restrictedexhaustsystem.Checkfor bentor crimpedexhaustpipes,or in-
d. Checktheoperationof theenginemanagement systemandrepairas necessary. ternallyrestrictedmufflersor catalyticconverters.Compareinletandoutlettempera-
turesfor theconverteror muffler.If the inletis hot,butoutletcold,thecomponentis
2. Enfline lacks power restricted.
a. Checktheengine’stune-upstatus.Notethetune-upspecificationsandcheckfor items
suchasseverelywornsparkplugs;adjustor replaceas needed.Onvehicleswith 6. Engine atxelerates, but vehicle does not gain speed
manuallyadjustedvalveclearances, checkfor tightvalvesandadjustto specification. a. Onmanualtransmissionvehicles,checkfor causesof a slippingclutch.Referto the
b. Checktheair filter andair intakesystem.Replacetheair filter if it is dirtyor contami- clutchtroubleshooting sectionfor additionalinformation.
nated.Checkthefreshair intakesystemfor restrictionsor blockage. b. Onautomatictransmissionvehicles,checkfor a slippingtransmission”Checkthe
c. Checkthe operationof theenginefuelandignitionmanagement systems.Checkthe transmissionfluid levelandcondition.If thefluid levelis too high,adjustto thecor-
sensoroperationandwiring.Checkfor lowfuelpumppressureandrepairor replace rectlevel.If thefluid levelis low,top off usingthe recommended fluidtype.If thefluid
componentsas necessary. exhibitsa burningodor,thetransmissionhasbeenslippinginternally.Changingthe
d. Checkthethrottlelinkageadjustments. Checkto makesurethe linkageis fully open- fluid andfilter mayhelptemporarily,howeverin this situationa transmissionmayre-
ingthethrottle.Replaceanywornor defectivebushingsor linkages. quireoverhaulingto ensurelong-termreliability.
e. Checkfor a restrictedexhaustsystem.Checkfor bentor crimpedexhaustpipes,or in-
ternallyrestrictedmufflersor catalyticconverters.Compareinletandoutlettempera- Diesel Engines
turesfor theconverteror muffler.If the inletis hot,butoutletcold,thecomponentis
restricted. 1. Engine runs pOOr!y
f. Checkfor a looseor defectiveknocksensor.A loose,improperlytorquedor defective a. Checkthe injectionpumptimingandadjustto specification.
knocksensorwill decreasesparkadvanceandreducepower.Replacedefectiveknock b. Checkfor air in thefuel linesor leaks,andbleedtheair fromthefuelsystem.
sensorsandinstallusingthe recommended torquespecification. c. Checkthefuelfilter,fuelfeedandreturnlinesfor a restrictionandrepairas necessary.
g. Checkfor enginemechanicalconditionssuchas lowcompression,wornpistonrings, d. Checkthefuelfor contamination, drainandflushthefueltankandreplenishwithfresh
wornvalves,worncamshaftsandrelatedparts.An enginewhichhasseveremechani- fuel.
calwear,or hassufferedinternalmechanicaldamagemustberebuiltor replacedto re- 2. Enfline lacks power
storelostpower. a. Inspecttheair intakesystemandair filterfor restrictionsand,if necessary, replacethe
h. Checktheengineoil levelfor beingoverfilled.Adjusttheengine’soil level,or change air filter.
theengineoil andfilter,andtop off to thecorrectlevel. b. Verifythe injectionpumptimingandresetif out of specification.
i. Checkfor anintakemanifoldor vacuumhoseleak.Replaceleakinggasketsor worn c. Checktheexhaustfor an internalrestrictionandreplacefailedparts.
vacuumhoses. d. Checkfor a restrictedfuelfilterand,if restricted,replacethefilter.
j. Checkfor draggingbrakesandreplaceor repairas necessary. e. Inspectthefuelfiller capvent. Whenremovingthefiller cap,listenfor excessivehiss-
k. Checktire air pressureandtire wear.Adjustthe pressureto the recommended set- ing noisesindicatinga blockagein thefuelfiller capvents,If thefiller capventsare
tings.Checkthetire wearfor possiblealignmentproblemscausingincreasedrolling blocked,replacethe cap.
resistance,decreased accelerationandincreasedfuelusage. f. Checkthefuelsystemfor restrictionsandrepairas necessary.
I. Checktheoctaneratingofthefuel usedduringrefilling,andusea higheroctanerated g. Checkfor lowenginecompressionandinspectfor externalleakageat theglow plugs
fuel. or nozzles.If noexternalleakageis noted,repairor replacetheengine.
3. Poor fuel economy
a. Inspecttheair filter andcheckfor anyair restrictionsgoingintotheair filter housing. ENGINEPERFORMANCE
TROUBLESHOOTING
HINTS
Replacetheair filter if it is dirty or contaminated. Whentroubleshooting anenginerunningor performance condition,the mechanical
b. Checktheenginefor tune-upandrelatedadjustments. Replacewornignitionparts, conditionof theengineshouldbedeterminedbeforelengthytroubleshooting procedures
checktheengineignitiontimingandfuelmixture,andsetto specificationsif possible. areperformed.
c. Checkthetire size,tire wear,alignmentandtire pressure.Largetirescreatemore Theenginefuel management systemsin fuel injectedvehiclesrelyon electronicsen-
rollingresistance,smallertiresrequiremoreenginespeedto maintaina vehicle’sroad sorsto provideinformationto theenginecontrolunitfor precisefuelmetering.Unlike
speed.Excessivetire wearcanbecausedby incorrecttire pressure,incorrectwheel carburetors, whichusethe incomingair speedto drawfuelthroughthefuelmeteringjets
alignmentor a suspensionproblem.All of theseconditionscreateincreasedrolling in orderto providea properfuel-to-airratio,a fuel injectionsystemprovidesa specific
resistance,causingtheengineto workharderto accelerateandmaintaina vehicle’s amountof fuelwhichis introducedby thefuel injectorsintothe intakemanifoldor intake
speed. port,basedon the informationprovidedby electronicsensors.
d. Inspectthe brakesfor bindingor excessivedrag.A stickingbrakecaliper,overlyad- Thesensorsmonitortheengine’soperatingtemperature, ambienttemperature andthe
justedbrakeshoe,brokenbrakeshoereturnspring,or bindingparkingbrakecableor amountof air enteringtheengine,enginespeedandthrottlepositionto provideinforma-
linkagecancreatea significantdrag,brakewearandlossof fueleconomy.Checkthe tionto theenginecontrolunit,which,in turn,operatesthefuel injectorsby electrical
brakesystemoperationandrepairas necessary. pulses.Thesensorsprovideinformationto theenginecontrolunitusinglowvoltage
electricalsignals.As a result,an unpluggedsensoror a poorelectricalcontactcould
4. Engine runs on (diesels) when turned off causea poorrunningconditionsimilarto a failedsensor.
a. Checkfor idlespeedsettoo highandreadjustto specification. Whentroubleshooting a fuelrelatedengineconditiononfuel injectedvehicles,care-
b. Checktheoperationof the idlecontrolvalve,andreplaceif defective. fully inspectthewiringandelectricalconnectorsto therelatedcomponents. Makesure
c. Checkthe ignitiontimingandadjustto recommended settings.Check for defective theelectricalconnectorsarefully connected, cleanandnotphysicallydamaged.If neces-
sensorsor relatedcomponentsandreplaceif defective. sary,cleantheelectricalcontactsusingelectricalcontactcleaner.Theuseof cleaning
d. Checkfor a vacuumleakat theintakemanifoldor vacuumhoseandreplacedefective agentsnotspecificallydesignedfor electricalcontactsshouldnot beused,astheycould
gasketsor hoses. leavea surfacefilm or damagethe insulationof thewiring.
e. Checktheenginefor excessivecarbonbuild-upin thecombustionchamber.Usea Theengineelectricalsystemprovidesthe necessaryelectricalpowerto operatetheve-
recommended decarbonizing fueladditiveor disassemblethecylinderheadto remove hicle’selectricalaccessories,electroniccontrolunitsandsensors.Becauseengineman-
thecarbon. agementsystemsaresensitiveto voltagechanges,analternatorwhichoveror under-
f. Checktheoperationof theenginefuel management systemandreplacedefectivesen- chargescouldcauseenginerunningproblemsor componentfailure.Mostalternators
sorsor controlunits. utilizeinternalvoltageregulatorswhichcannotbeadjustedandmustbereplacedindi-
g. Checktheengineoperatingtemperature for overheatingandrepairas necessary. viduallyor asa unitwiththealternator.
11-8 TROUBLESHOOTING
Ignitionsystemsmaybecontrolledby,or linkedto, the enginefuelmanagement sys- d. Checkthevehicle’sfueleconomy.If fuelconsumptionhasincreaseddueto a failed
tem.Similarto thefuel injectionsystem,theseignitionsystemsrelyon electronicsen- component,or if thefuel is not properlyigniteddueto an ignitionrelatedfailure,the
sorsfor informationto determinetheoptimumignitiontimingfor a givenenginespeed catalyticconvertermaybecomecontaminated. Thisconditionmayalsotriggerthe
andload.Someignitionsystemsno longerallowthe ignitiontimingto beadjusted. checkenginewarninglight.Checkthesparkplugsfor a dark,richconditionor verify
Feedback from lowvoltageelectricalsensorsprovideinformationto thecontrolunitto theconditionby testingthevehicle’semissions.Replacefuelfouledsparkplugs,and
determinetheamountof ignitionadvance.Onthesesystems,if a failureoccursthefailed testandreplacefailedcomponentsas necessary.
componentmustbereplaced.Beforereplacingsuspectedfailedelectricalcomponents,
carefullyinspectthewiringandelectricalconnectorsto therelatedcomponents.Make 5. Vehicle has a rotten egg odor when driven
suretheelectricalconnectorsarefullyconnected,cleanandnot physicallydamaged.If a. Checkfor a leakingintakegasketor vacuumleakcausinga leanrunningcondition.A
necessary, cleantheelectricalcontactsusingelectricalcontactcleaner.Theuseof clean- leanmixturemayresultin increasedexhausttemperatures, causingthecatalyticcon-
ing agentsnotspecificallydesignedfor electricalcontactsshouldbeavoided,as they verterto run hotterthannormal.Thisconditionmayalsotriggerthecheckengine
couldleavea surfacefilm or damagethe insulationof thewiring. warninglight.Checkandrepairthevacuumleaksas necessary.
b. Checkthevehicle’salternatorandbatterycondition.If thealternatoris overcharging,
the batteryelectrolytecanbeboiledfromthe battery,andthebatterycasingmaybegin
to crack,swellor bulge,damagingor shortingthebatteryinternally.If this hasoc-
curred,neutralizethe batterymountingareawitha suitablebakingsodaandwater
1. Engine makes a knocking or pinging noise when accelerating mixtureor equivalent,andreplacethealternatoror voltageregulator.Inspect,service,
a. Checktheoctaneratingof thefuelbeingused.Depending on thetypeof drivingor andloadtestthebattery,andreplaceif necessary.
drivingconditions,it maybenecessaryto usea higheroctanefuel.
b. Verifythe ignitionsystemsettingsandoperation.Improperlyadjustedignitiontiming 9. Vehicle has a sweet odor when driven
or a failedcomponent,suchas a knocksensor,maycausethe ignitiontimingto ad- a. Checkfor anenginecoolantleakcausedbya seepingradiatorcap,loosehoseclamp,
vanceexcessivelyor prematurely. Checkthe ignitionsystemoperationandadjust,or weepingcoolingsystemseal,gasketor coolingsystemhoseandreplaceor repairas
replacecomponentsas needed. needed.
c. Checkthesparkpluggap,heatrangeandcondition.If thevehicleis operatedin se- b. Checkfor a coolantleakfromtheradiator,coolantreservoir,heatercontrolvalveor
vereoperatingconditionsor at continuoushighspeeds,usea colderheatrangespark underthedashboardfromtheheatercore,andreplacethefailedpartas necessary.
plug.Adjustthesparkpluggapto the manufacturer’s recommended specificationand c. Checktheengine’sexhaustfor whitesmokein additionto a sweetodor.Thepresence
replacewornor damagedsparkplugs. of white,steamysmokewitha sweetodorindicatescoolantleakingintothecombus-
tion chamber.Possiblecausesincludea failedheadgasket,crackedengineblockor
2. Sfarter motor grinds when used cylinderhead.Othersymptomsof this conditionincludea whitepastebuild-upon the
a. Examinethestarterpiniongearandtheenginering gearfor damage,andreplacedam- insideof theoil filler cap,andsoftened,deformedor bulgingradiatorhoses.
agedparts.
b. Checkthestartermountingboltsandhousing.If the housingis crackedor damaged 19. Engine vibraies when idling
replacethestartermotorandcheckthe mountingboltsfor tightness. a. Checkfor loose,collapsed,or damagedengineor transmissionmountsandrepairor
replaceas necessary.
3. Engine makes a screeching noise b. Checkfor looseor damagedenginecoversor shieldsandsecureor replaceas neces-
a. Checktheaccessorydrivebeltsfor loosenessandadjustas necessary. sary.
b. Checktheaccessorydrivebelttensionersfor seizingor excessivebearingnoisesand
replaceif loose,binding,or excessivelynoisy. 11. Engine vibrates during acceleration
c. Checkfor a seizingwaterpump.Thepumpmaynot beleaking;however,thebearing a. Checkfor missing,looseor damagedexhaustsystemhangersandmounts;replaceor
maybefaultyor the impellerlooseandjammed.Replacethewaterpump. repairas necessary.
b. Checktheexhaustsystemroutingandfit for adequateclearanceor potentialrubbing;
4. Engine makes a growling noise repairor adjustas necessary.
a. Checkfor a looseor failingwaterpump.Replacethe pumpandenginecoolant.
b. Checktheaccessorydrivebelttensionersfor excessivebearingnoisesandreplaceif
looseor excessivelynoisy.
5. Engine makes a ticking or tapping noise 7. Battery goes dead while driving
a. Onvehicleswith hydrauliclashadjusters,checkfor lowor dirtyengineoil andtop off a. Checkthe batterycondition.Replacethe batteryif the batterywill notholda chargeor
or replacetheengineoil andfilter. failsa batteryloadtest.If the batterylosesfluid whiledriving,checkfor anovercharg-
b. Onvehicleswith hydrauliclashadjusters,checkfor collapsedliftersandreplacefailed ing condition.If thealternatoris overcharging, replacethealternatoror voltageregula-
components. tor. (A voltageregulatoris typicallybuilt intothealternator,necessitatingalternatorre-
c. Onvehicleswithhydrauliclashadjusters,checkfor lowoil pressurecausedby a re- placementor overhaul.)
strictedoil filter,wornengineoil pump,or oil pressurereliefvalve. b. Checkthe batterycablecondition.Cleanor replacecorrodedcablesandcleanthebat-
d. Onvehicleswithmanuallyadjustedvalves,checkfor excessivevalveclearanceor teryterminals.
wornvalvetrainparts.Adjustthevalvesto specificationor replacewornanddefective c. Checkthealternatorandvoltageregulatoroperation.If thechargingsystemis overor
parts. undercharging, replacethealternatoror voltageregulator,or both.
e. Checkfor a looseor improperlytensionedtimingbeltor timingchainandadjustor re- d. Inspectthewiringandwire connectorsatthealternatorfor looseness,a missing .
placepartsas necessary. groundor defectiveterminal,andrepairas necessary.
f. Checkfor a bentor stickingexhaustor intakevalve.Removetheenginecylinderhead e. Inspectthealternatordrivebelttension,tensionersandcondition.Properlytensionthe
to accessandreplace. drivebelt,replaceweakor brokentensioners,andreplacethedrivebeltif wornor
6. Engine makes a heavy knocking noise cracked.
a. Checkfor a loosecrankshaftpulleyor flywheel;replaceandtorquethemounting 2. Battery goes dead overnight
bolt(s)to specification. a. Checkthe batterycondition.Replacethe batteryif the batterywill notholda chargeor
b. Checkfor a bentconnectingrodcausedby a hydro-lockcondition.Enginedisassem- failsa batteryloadtest.
bly is necessaryto inspectfor damagedandneededreplacement parts. b. Checkfor a voltagedraw,suchasa trunklight,interiorlightor gloveboxlightstaying
c. Checkfor excessiveenginerod bearingwearor damage.Thisconditionis alsoasso- on. Checklightswitchpositionandoperation,andreplaceif defective.
ciatedwith lowengineoil pressureandwill requireenginedisassemblyto inspectfor c. Checkthealternatorfor an internallyfaileddiode,andreplacethealternatorif defec-
damagedandneededreplacement parts, tive.

7. Vehicle has a fuel odor when driven ’


a. Checkthefuelgaugelevel.If thefuelgaugeregistersfull, it is possiblethattheodoris
causedby beingfilledbeyondcapacity,or somespillageoccurredduringrefueling. 1. Engine overheats
Theodorshouldclearafterdrivingan hour,or twentymiles,allowingthevaporcanis- a. Checkthecoolantlevel.Setthe heatertemperature to full hotandcheckfor internalair
ter to purge. pockets,bleedthecoolingsystemandinspectfor leakage.Topoff thecoolingsystem
b. Checkthefuelfiller capfor loosenessor seepage.Checkthecaptightnessand,if withthecorrectcoolantmixture.
loose,properlysecure.If seepageis noted,replacethefiller cap. b. Pressuretestthecoolingsystemandradiatorcapfor leaks.Checkfor seepagecaused
c. Checkfor loosehoseclamps,crackedor damagedfueldeliveryandreturnlines,or by loosehoseclamps,failedcoolanthoses,andcoolingsystemcomponentssuchas
leakingcomponentsor seals,andreplaceor repairas necessary. theheatercontrolvalve,heatercore,radiator,radiatorcap,andwaterpump.Replace
defectivepartsandfill thecoolingsystemwiththe recommended coolantmixture.
TROUBLESHOOTING
11-9
c. Onvehicleswithelectricallycontrolledcoolingfans,checkthecoolingfanoperation. specificallydesignedfor electricalcontactscouldleavea film or damagethe insulationof
Checkfor blownfusesor defectivefanmotors,temperature sensorsandrelays,and thewiring.
replacefailedcomponents.
d. Checkfor a coolantleakcausedby a failedheadgasket,or a porouswaterjacketcast-
ing in thecylinderheador engineblock.Replacedefectivepartsas necessary.
e. Checkfor an internallyrestrictedradiator.Flushtheradiatoror replaceif the blockage 1. Exhaust rattles at idle speed
is too severefor flushing. a. Checktheengineandtransmissionmountsandreplacemountsshowingsignsof
f. Checkfor a damagedwaterpump.If coolantcirculationis poor,checkfor a loosewa- damageor wear.
ter pumpimpeller.If the impelleris loose,replacethewaterpump. b. Checktheexhausthangers,bracketsandmounts.Replacebroken,missingor dam-
2. Enginelosescoolant agedmounts.
a. Pressuretestthecoolingsystemandradiatorcapfor leaks.Checkfor seepagecaused c. Checkfor internaldamageto mufflersandcatalyticconverters.Thebrokenpiecesfrom
by loosehoseclamps,failedcoolanthoses,andcoolingsystemcomponentssuchas thedefectivecomponentmaytravelin thedirectionof theexhaustflowandcollect
the heatercontrolvalve,heatercore,radiator,radiatorcap,andwaterpump.Replace and/orcreatea blockagein a componentotherthantheonewhichfailed,causingen-
defectivepartsandfill thecoolingsystemwiththerecommended coolantmixture. ginerunningandstallingproblems.Anothersymptomof a restrictedexhaustis low
b. Checkfor a coolantleakcausedby a failedheadgasket,or a porouswaterjacketcast- enginemanifoldvacuum.Removetheexhaustsystemandcarefullyremoveanyloose
ing in thecylinderheador engineblock.Replacedefectivepartsas necessary. or brokenpieces,thenreplaceanyfailedor damagedpartsas necessary.
3. Engine temperature remains co/d when driving d. Checktheexhaustsystemclearance,routingandalignment.If theexhaustis making
a. Checkthethermostatoperation.Replacethethermostatif it sticksin the openposi- contactwiththevehiclein anymanner,loosenandrepositiontheexhaustsystem.
tion. 2. Exhaust system vibrates when driving
b. Onvehicleswithelectricallycontrolledcoolingfans,checkthe coolingfan operation. a. Checktheexhausthangers,bracketsandmounts.Replacebroken,missingor dam-
Checkfor defectivetemperaturesensorsandstuckrelays,andreplacefailedcompo- agedmounts.
nents. b. Checktheexhaustsystemclearance,routingandalignment.If theexhaustis making
c. Checktemperature gaugeoperationif equippedto verifyproperoperationof the contactwiththevehiclein anymanner,checkfor bentor damagedcomponentsand
gauge.Checkthesensorsandwiringfor defects,andrepairor replacedefectivecom- replace,thenloosenandrepositiontheexhaustsystem.
ponents. c. Checkfor internaldamageto mufflersandcatalyticconverters.Thebrokenpiecesfrom
4. Engine runs hot thedefectivecomponentmaytravelin thedirectionof theexhaustflowandcollect
a. Checkfor an internallyrestrictedradiator.Flushthe radiatoror replaceif the blockage and/orcreatea blockagein a componentotherthanthe onewhichfailed,causingen-
is too severefor flushing. ginerunningandstallingproblems.Anothersymptomof a restrictedexhaustis low
b. Checkfor a looseor slippingwaterpumpdrivebelt.Inspectthedrivebeltcondition. enginemanifoldvacuum.Removetheexhaustsystemandcarefullyremoveanyloose
Replacethe beltif brittle,crackedor damaged.Checkthepulleyconditionandprop- or brokenpieces,thenreplaceanyfailedor damagedpartsas necessary.
erlytensionthebelt. 3. Exhaust system hangs too low
c. Checkthecoolingfanoperation.Replacedefectivefan motors,sensorsor relaysas a. Checktheexhausthangers,bracketsandmounts.Replacebroken,missingor dam-
necessary. agedmounts.
d. Checktemperature gaugeoperationif equippedto verifyproperoperationof the b. Checktheexhaustroutingandalignment.Checkandreplacebentor damagedcom-
gauge.Checkthesensorsandwiringfor defects,andrepairor replacedefectivecom- ponents.If theexhaustis not routedproperly,loosenandrepositiontheexhaustsys-
ponents. tern.
e. Checkthecoolantlevel.Settheheatertemperature to full hot,checkfor internalair
pockets,bleedthecoolingsystemandinspectfor leakage.Topoff thecoolingsystem 4. Exhaust sounds loud
withthecorrectcoolantmixture.Oncetheengineis cool,recheckthefluid leveland a. Checkthesystemfor loosenessandleaks.Checktheexhaustpipes,clamps,flange
top off as needed. boltsandmanifoldfastenersfor tightness.Checkandreplaceanyfailedgaskets.
b. Checkandreplaceexhaustsilencersthathavea lossof efficiencydueto internally
NOTE:The engine cooling system can also be affected by an engine’s me- brokenbafflesor wornpackingmaterial.
chanical condition. A failed head gasket or a porous casting in the engine c. Checkfor missingmufflersandsilencersthathavebeenreplacedwithstraightpipes
block or cylinder head could cause a loss of coolant and result in engine or with non-originalequipmentsilencers.
overheating.
NOTE:Exhaust system rattles, vibration and proper alignment should not
Somecoolingsystemsrelyon electricallydrivencoolingfansto cooltheradiatorand be overlooked. Excessive vibration caused by collapsed engine mounts,
useelectricaltemperaturesensorsandrelaysto operatethecoolingfan.Whendiagnos- damaged or missing exhaust hangers and misalignment may cause surface
ingthesesystems,checkfor blownfuses,damagedwiresandverifythattheelectrical cracks and broken welds, creating exhaust leaks or internal damage to ex-
connectionsarefullyconnected,cleanandnot physicallydamaged.If necessary, clean haust components such as the catalytic converter, creating a restriction to
theelectricalcontactsusingelectricalcontactcleaner.Theuseof cleaningigents not exhaustflow and loss of power.

b. Checkfor a lossof transmissionfluid andtop off as neededwiththe recommended


fluid.
1. Transmission shit& erratically c. If thetransmissiondoesnotengagewiththeshift linkagecorrectlyinstalledandthe
a. Checkandif notwithinthe recommended range,addor removetransmissionfluid to properfluid level,internaldamagehaslikelyoccurred,requiringtransmissionremoval
obtainthecorrectfluid level.Alwaysusethe recommended fluidtypewhenadding anddisassembly.
transmissionfluid. 3. Transmission will not downshift during heavy acceleration
b. Checkthefluid levelcondition.If thefluid hasbecomecontaminated, fatiguedfrom a. Oncomputercontrolledtransmissions,checkfor failedsensorsor controlunitsand
excessiveheator exhibitsa burningodor,changethetransmissionfluid andfilter us- repairor replacedefectivecomponents.
ingthe recommended typeandamountof fluid.A fluid whichexhibitsa burningodor b. Onvehicleswith kickdownlinkagesor vacuumservos,checkfor properlinkagead-
indicatesthatthetransmissionhasbeenslippinginternallyandmayrequirefuturere- justmentor leakingvacuumhosesor servounits.
pairs.
c. Checkfor an improperlyinstalledtransmissionfilter,or missingfilter gasket,andre- NOTE:Mlanyautomatic transmissions use an electronic control module,
pairas necessary. electrical sensors and solenoids to control transmission shifting. When
d. Checkfor looseor leakinggaskets,pressurelinesandfittings,andrepairor replaceas troubleshooting a vehicle with this type of system, be sure the electrical
necessary. connectors are fully connected, clean and not physically damaged. If nec-
e. Checkfor looseor disconnected shiftandthrottlelinkagesor vacuumhoses,andre- essary, clean the electrical contacts using electrical contact cleaner. The
pairas necessary. , use of cleaning agents not specifically designed for electrical contacts
could leave a film or damage the insulation of the wiring.
2. Transmission will not engage
a. Checktheshift linkagefor looseness,wearandproperadjustment,
andrepairas nec-
essary.
II-10 TROUBLESHOOTING
c. Onmechanicallinkageclutches,checkthe linkagefor bindingor misalignment.Lubri-
catepivotsor linkagesandrepairas necessary.
1. Transmission grinds going into forward gears while driving d. Checkthe releasebearingguidetubeandreleaseforkfor a lackof lubrication.Installa
a. Checktheclutchreleasesystem.Onclutcheswitha mechanicalor cablelinkage, smoothcoatingof hightemperature greaseto allowsmoothmovementof therelease
checktheadjustment. Adjusttheclutchpedalto have1 inch(25mm)of free-playat bearingovertheguidetube.
the pedal. 5. Clutchpedalremainsdownwhenpressed
b. If theclutchreleasesystemis hydraulicallyoperated,checkthefluid leveland,if low, a, Onmechanicallinkageor cableactuatedclutches,checkfor a looseor disconnected
top off usingthe recommended typeandamountof fluid. , link.
c. Synchronizers worn.Removetransmissionandreplacesynchronizers. b. Onhydraulicallyactuatedclutches,checkthefluid levelandcheckfor a hydraulicleak
d. Synchronizer slidingsleeveworn.Removetransmissionandreplaceslidingsleeve. atthe clutchslaveor mastercylinder,or hydraulicline.Replacefailedpartsandbleed
e. Gearengagement dogswornor damaged.Removetransmissionandreplacegear. clutchhydraulicsystem.If no leakageis noted,theclutchmastercylindermayhave
failedinternally.Replacetheclutchmastercylinderandbleedtheclutchhydraulicsys-
2. Transmission jumps out of gear tem.
a. Shiftshaftdetentspringsworn.Replaceshiftdetentsprings.
b. Synchronizerslidingsleeveworn.Removetransmissionandreplaceslidingsleeve. 6. clutch chatters when engaging
c. Gearengagement dogswornor damaged.Removetransmissionandreplacegear. a. Checktheengineflywheelfor warpageor surfacevariationsandreplaceor repairas
d. Crankshaftthrustbearingsworn.Removeengineandcrankshaft,andrepairas neces- necessary.
sary. b. Checkfor a warpedclutchdiscor damagedclutchdamperhub.Removetheclutch
discandreplace.
3. Transmission difficult to shift c. Checkfor a looseor damagedclutchpressureplateandreplacedefectivecomponents.
a. Verifytheclutchadjustmentand,if notproperlyadjusted,adjustto specification.
b. Synchronizersworn.Removetransmissionandreplacesynchronizers. NOTE:The clutch is actuated either by a mechanical linkage, cable or a
c. Pilotbearingseized.Removetransmissionandreplacepilot bearing. clutch hydraulic system. The mechanical linkage and cable systems may
d. Shiftlinkageor bushingseized.Disassembletheshift linkage,replacewornor dam- require the clutch pedal free-play to be adjusted as the clutch disc wears. A
agedbushings,lubricateandreinstall. hydraulic clutch system automatically adjusts as the clutch wears and, with
the exception of the clutch pedal height, no adjustment is possible.
4. Transmission leaks fluid
a. Checkthefluid levelfor anoverfilledcondition.Adjustthefluid levelto specification.
b. Checkfor a restrictedtransmissionventor breathertube.Clearthe blockageas neces-
saryandcheckthefluid level.If necessary,top off withthe recommended lubricant.
c. Checkfor a porouscasting,leakingsealor gasket.Replacedefectivepartsandtop off 1. Differential makes a low pitched rumbling noise
thefluid levelwiththerecommended lubricant. a. Checkfluid leveltypeandamount.Replacethefluidwiththerecommended typeand
amountof lubricant.
b. Checkthedifferentialbearingsfor wearor damage.Removethe bearings,inspectthe
driveanddrivengearsfor wearor damage,andreplacecomponentsas necessary.
1. Clutch slips on hills or during sudden acceleration 2. Differential makes a howling noise
a. Checkfor insufficientclutchpedalfree-play.Adjustclutchlinkageor cableto allow a. Checkfluid leveltypeandamount.Replacethefluid withthe recommendedtypeand
about1 inch(25mm)of pedalfree-play. amountof lubricant.
b. Clutchdiscwornor severelydamaged.Removeengineor transmissionandreplace b. Checkthedifferentialdriveanddrivengearsfor wearor damage,andreplacecompo-
clutchdisc. nentsas necessary.
c. Clutchpressureplateis weak.Removeengineor transmissionandreplacetheclutch
pressureplateandclutchdisc.
d. Clutchpressureplateand/orflywheelincorrectlymachined.If theclutchsystemhas
beenrecentlyreplacedandrebuilt,or refurbishedpartshavebeenused,it is possible All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles
thatthemachinedsurfacesdecreased theclutchclampingforce.Replacedefective
partswith newreplacement parts. 1. Leaks fluid from seals or vent after being driven
a. Fluidleveloverfilled.Checkandadjusttransfercasefluid level.
2. Clutch will not disengage, difficult to shift b. Checkfor a restrictedbreatheror breathertube,clearandcheckthefluid levelandtop
a. Checktheclutchreleasemechanism.Checkfor stretchedcables,wornlinkagesor off as needed.
failedclutchhydraulicsandreplacedefectiveparts.Onhydraulicallyoperatedclutch c. Checksealconditionandreplaceworn,damaged,or defectiveseals.Checkthefluid
releasemechanisms, checkfor air in the hydraulicsystemandbleedas necessary. levelandtop off as necessary.
b. Checkfor a broken,crackedor fatiguedclutchreleasearmor releasearmpivot.Re-
placedefectivepartsandproperlylubricateuponassembly. 2. Makes excessive noise while driving
c. Checkfor a damagedclutchhubdamperor damperspring.Thebrokenpartstendto a. Checkthefluid for thecorrecttypeof lubricant.Drainandrefill usingthe recom-
becomelodgedbetweentheclutchdiscandthepressureplate.Disassemble clutch mendedtypeandamountof lubricant.
systemandreplacefailedparts. b. Checkthefluid level.Topoff thefluid usingtherecommended typeandamountof lu-
d. Checkfor a seizedclutchpilot bearing.Disassemble theclutchassemblyandreplace bricant.
the defectiveparts. c. If thefluid levelandtypeof lubricantmeetspecifications,checkfor internalwearor
e. Checkfor a defectiveclutchdisc.Checkfor warpageor liningthicknesseslargerthan damage.Removeassemblyanddisassemble to inspectfor worn,damaged,or defec-
originalequipment. tive components.
3. Clutch is noisy when the clutch pedal is pressed 3. Jumps out of gear
a. Checktheclutchpedalstopandpedalfree-playadjustmentfor excessivemovement a. Stopvehicleandmakesuretheunit is fullyengaged.
andadjustas necessary. b. Checkfor worn,looseor an improperlyadjustedlinkage.Replaceand/oradjustlink-
b. Checkfor a wornor damagedreleasebearing.If thenoiseceaseswhenthepedalis re- ageas necessary.
leased,thereleasebearingshouldbereplaced. c. Checkfor internalwearor damage.Removeassemblyanddisassemble to inspectfor
c. Checktheenginecrankshaftaxialplay.If thecrankshaftthrustbearingsarewornor worn,damaged,or defectivecomponents.
damaged,thecrankshaftwill movewhenpressingtheclutchpedal.Theenginemust
bedisassembled to replacethecrankshaftthrustbearings.
4. Clutch pedal extremely difficult to press
a. Checktheclutchpedalpivotsandlinkagesfor binding.Cleanandlubricatelinkages. Rear Wheel, All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles
b. Oncableactuatedclutchsystems,checkthecableroutingandcondition.Replace 1. Clunking noise from center of Vehicle shifting from forward to reverse
kinked,frayed,damagedor corrodedcablesandcheckcableroutingto avoidsharp a. Wornuniversaljoint. Removedriveshaftandreplaceuniversaljoint.
bends.Checktheenginegroundstrapfor poorconductivity.If thegroundstrapis
marginal,theenginecouldtry to grounditselfvia theclutchcable,causingpremature 2. Excessive vibration from center of vehicle when accelerating
failure. a. Wornuniversaljoint. Removedriveshaftandreplaceuniversaljoint.
TROUBLESHOOTlNGll-11
b. Driveshaftmisaligned.Checkfor collapsedor damagedengineandtransmission 4. Rear wheel makes a clicking noise
mounts,andreplaceas necessary. a. Checkfor debrissuchas a pebble,nail or glassin thetire or tire tread.Carefullyre-
c. Driveshaftbentor out of balance.Replacedamagedcomponentsandreinstall. movethedebris.Smallrocksandpebblesrarelycausea puncture;however,a sharp
d. Driveshaftout of balance.Removethedriveshaftandhaveit balancedby a competent objectshouldberemovedcarefullyat a facilitycapableof performingtire repairs.
professional,or replacethedriveshaftassembly.
NOTE:Most driveshafts are linked together by universal joints; however, Rear Wheel Drive Vehicles
some manufacturers use Constant Velocity (CV) joints or rubber flex cou- 5. Front or rear wheel makes a clicking noise
plers. a. Checkfor debrissuchas a pebble,nail or glassin thetire or tire tread.Carefullyre-
movethedebris.Smallrocksandpebblesrarelycausea puncture;however,a sharp
objectshouldberemovedcarefullyat a facilitycapableof performingtire repairs.
6. Rear wheel shudders or vibrates
All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles a. Checkfor a bentrearwheelor axleassemblyandreplacedefectivecomponents.
1. Front or rear wheel makes a clicking noise b. Checkfor a loose,damagedor wornrearwheelbearingandreplaceas necessary.
a. Checkfor debrissuchasa pebble,nail or glassin thetire or tire tread.Carefullyre-
movethedebris.Smallrocksandpebblesrarelycausea puncture;however,a sharp
objectshouldberemovedcarefullyat a facilitycapableof performingtire repairs.
b. Checkfor a loose,damagedor wornConstantVelocity(CV)joint andreplaceif defec- 1. Burning odor from center of vehicle when accelerating
tive. a. Checkfor a seizingbrakehydrauliccomponentsuchasa brakecaliper.Checkthe
2. Front or rear wheel vibrates wlth Increased speed caliperpistonfor surfacedamagesuchas rust,andmeasurefor out-of-roundwear
a. Checkfor a bentrim andreplace,if damaged. andcaliper-to-pistonclearance.Foradditionalinformationon brakerelatedodors,re-
b. Checkthetiresfor balanceor internaldamageandreplaceif defective. ferto section3-A, conditionnumber9.
c. Checkfor a loose,wornor damagedwheelbearingandreplaceif defective. b. Onvehicleswitha manualtransmission,checkfor a slippingclutch.Forpossible
causesandadditionalinformation,referto sectionZ-C,conditionnumber1.
d. Checkfor a loose,damagedor wornConstantVelocity(CV)joint andreplaceif defec-
tive. c. Onvehicleswithanautomatictransmission,checkthefluid levelandcondition,Top
off or changethefluidandfilter usingthe recommendedreplacementparts,lubricant
typeandamount.If theodorpersists,transmissionremovalanddisassemblywill be
Front Wheel Drive Vehicles necessary.
3. Front wheel makes a c&kin@ noise 2. Engine accelerates, but vehicle does not gain speed
a. Checkfor debrissuchasa pebble,nail or glassin thetire or tire tread.Carefullyre- a. Onvehicleswith a manualtransmission,checkfor a slippingor damagedclutch.For
movethedebris.Smallrocksandpebblesrarelycausea puncture;however,a sharp possiblecausesandadditionalinformationreferto sectionZ-C,conditionnumber1.
objectshouldberemovedcarefullyat a facilitycapableof performingtire repairs. b. Onvehicleswithanautomatictransmission,checkthefluid levelandcondition.Top
b. Checkfor a loose,damagedor wornConstantVelocity(CV)joint andreplaceif defec- off or changethefluid andfilter usingtherecommendedreplacement
parts,lubricant
tive. typeandamount.If theslippingcontinues,transmissionremovalanddisassemblywill
benecessary.

bleedingthe brakes.Besureto usefreshbrakefluidthatmeetsthemanufacturers rec-


ommendedstandards.
1. Brake pedal pulsates or shimmies when pressed b. Checkfor an internallyrestrictedflexiblebrakehydraulichose.Replacethehoseand
a. Checkwheellug nuttorqueandtightenevenlyto specification. flushthe brakesystem.
b. Checkthe brakerotorfor truenessandthicknessvariations.Replacetherotorif it is c. Checkfor a seizingbrakehydrauliccomponentsuchasa brakecaliper.Checkthe
too thin,warped,or if thethicknessvariesbeyondspecification.Somerotorscanbe caliperpistonfor surfacedamagesuchas rust,andmeasurefor out-of-roundwear
machined:consultthe manufacturer’s specificationsandrecommendations beforeus- andcaliper-to-pistonclearance.Overhaulor replacefailedpartsandflushthe brake
ing a machinedbrakerotor. system.
c. Checkthebrakecaliperor caliperbracketmountingbolttorqueandinspectfor loose- d. Checkthevehicle’salignmentandinspectfor suspensionwear.Replacewornbush-
ness.Torquethe mountingboltsandinspectfor wearor anylooseness,including ings,balljointsandsetalignmentto themanufacturers specifications.
wornmountingbrackets,bushingsandslidingpins. e. If thebrakesystemusesdrumbrakesfrontor rear,checkthebrakeadjustment.Inspect
d. Checkthewheelbearingfor looseness.If the bearingis loose,adjustif possible,oth- for seizedadjustersandcleanor replace,thenproperlyadjust.
erwisereplacethe bearing. 5. Brake pedal feels spongy or has excessive travel
2. Brakes make a squealing noise a. Checkthebrakefluid levelandcondition.If thefluid is contaminated
or hasnot been
a. Checkthe brakerotorfor the presenceof a ridgeontheouteredge;if present,remove flushedeverytwoyears,cleanthe mastercylinderreservoir,andbleedandflushthe
the ridgeor replacethebrakerotorandbrakepads. brakesusingfreshbrakefluidthatmeetsthe manufacturers recommended standards.
b. Checkfor debrisin the brakeliningmaterial,cleanandreinstall. b. Checkfor a weakor damagedflexiblebrakehydraulichose.Replacethehoseand
c. Checkthe brakeliningsfor wearandreplacethe brakeliningsif wearis approaching flushthebrakesystem.
the liningwearlimit. c. If the brakesystemusesdrumbrakesfrontor rear,checkthebrakeadjustment.Inspect
d. Checkthe brakeliningsfor glazing.Inspectthe brakedrumor rotorsurfaceandre- for seizedadjustersandcleanor replace,thenproperlyadjust.
place,alongwiththe brakelinings,if thesurfaceis notsmoothor even. 6. Brake pedal feel is firm, but brakes lack sufficient stopping power or
e. Checkthe brakepador shoemountingareasfor a lackof lubricantor thepresenceof fade
surfacerust.Cleanandlubricatewitha recommended hightemperaturebrakegrease. a. Checkthe operationof the brakeboosterandbrakeboostercheckvalve:Replaceworn
3. Brakes make a flrindinfl noise or failedparts.
a. Checkthebrakeliningsandbrakesurfaceareasfor severewearor damage.Replace b. Checkbrakeliningsandbrakesurfaceareasfor glazingandreplacewornor damaged
wornor damagedparts. parts.
b. Checkfor a seizedor partiallyseizedbrakecausingprematureor unevenbrakewear, c. Checkfor seizedhydraulicpartsandlinkages,andcleanor replaceas needed.
excessiveheatandbrakerotoror drumdamage.Replacedefectivepartsandinspect 7. Vehicle has excessive front end dive or locks rear brakes too easily
thewheelbearingcondition,whichcouldhavebeendamageddueto excessiveheat. a. Checkfor worn,failedor seizedbrakeproportioningvalveandreplacethevalve.
4. Vehicle pulls to one side during braking b. Checkfor a seized,disconnectedor missingspringor linkagefor thebrakepropor-
a. Checkfor air in the brakehydraulicsystem.Inspectthebrakehydraulicseals,fluid tioningvalve.Replacemissingpartsor repairas necessary.
linesandrelatedcomponentsfor fluid leaks.Removetheair fromthebrakesystemby
11-12 TROUBLESHOOTING
8. Brake pedal goes to floor when pressed and will not pump up BRAKEPERFORMANCE
TROU5LESHOOTINc;
HIIVTS
a. Checkthebrakehydraulicfluid levelandinspectthefluid linesandsealsfor leakage. Brakevibrationsor pulsationcanoftenbediagnosedona safeandcarefultestdrive.
Repairor replaceleakingcomponents, thenbleedandflushthe brakesystemusing A brakevibrationwhichis felt throughthe brakepedalwhilebraking,butnotfelt in the
freshbrakefluid thatmeetsthemanufacturer’s recommended standards. steeringwheel,is mostlikelycausedby brakesurfacevariationsin therearbrakes.If
b. Checkthe brakefluid level.Inspectthe brakefluid levelandbrakehydraulicseals.If boththe brakepedalandsteeringwheelvibrateduringbraking,a surfacevariationin the
thefluid levelis ok,andthe brakehydraulicsystemis freeof hydraulicleaks,replace frontbrakes,or bothfrontandrearbrakes,is verylikely.
thebrakemastercylinder,thenbleedandflushthe brakesystemusingfreshbrake A brakepedalthatpumpsupwith repeatedusecanbecausedbyair in thebrakehy-
fluidthatmeetsthemanufacturer’s recommended standards. draulicsystemor, if thevehicleis equippedwith reardrumbrakes,the brakeadjusters
9. Brakes produce a burning odor maybeseizedor out of adjustment.A quicktestfor brakeadjustmentonvehicleswith
a. Checkfor a seizingbrakehydrauliccomponentsuchasa brakecaliper.Checkthe reardrumbrakesis to pumpthebrakepedalseveraltimeswiththevehicle’senginenot
caliperpistonfor surfacedamagesuchas rust,andmeasurefor out-of-roundwear runningandthe parkingbrakereleased.Pumpthe brakepedalseveraltimesandcon-
andcaliper-to-pistonclearance.Overhaulor replacefailedpartsandflushthebrake tinueto applypressureto the brakepedal.Withpressurebeingappliedto thebrake
system. pedal,engagethe parkingbrake.Releasethebrakepedalandquicklypressthebrake
b. Checkfor an internallyrestrictedflexiblebrakehydraulichose.Replacethe hoseand pedalagain.If thebrakepedalpumpedup,the rearbrakesarein needof adjustment.Do
flushthebrakesystem. notcompensate for the rearbrakeadjustmentbyadjustingtheparkingbrake,thiswill
c. Checktheparkingbrakereleasemechanism,seizedlinkageor cable,andrepairas causeprematurebrakeliningwear.
necessary. To testa vacuumbrakebooster,pumpthe brakepedalseveraltimeswiththevehicle’s
engineoff.Applypressureto the brakepedalandthenstarttheengine.Thebrakepedal
shouldmovedownwardaboutoneinch(25mm).

b. Checkfor wornshockabsorbers.Replacedfailedcomponents, wornor defectivetires


andcheckthealignment;adjustif necessary.
IJront Wheel or Wheel Bearing Loose c. Checkthealignmentsettings.Checkandsettire pressuresandproperlyadjustthe
alignmentto specification.
All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles d. Checkfor worn,damagedor defectivesuspensioncomponents.Replacedefective
a.Torquelug nutsandaxlenutsto specificationandrecheckfor looseness. partsandadjustthealignmentto specification,
b. Wheelbearingwornor damaged.Replacewheelbearing.
FrontWheelDriveVehicles
a. Torquelug nutsandaxlenutsto specificationandrecheckfor looseness.
b. Wheelbearingwornor damaged.Replacewheelbearing. 1. Excessive play in steering wheel
a. Checkthesteeringgearfree-playadjustmentandproperlyadjustto removeexcessive
Rear Wheel Drive Vehicles play.
a. Wheelbearingoutof adjustment. Adjustwheelbearingto specification;if still loose, b. Checkthesteeringlinkagefor worn,damagedor defectiveparts.Replacefailedcom-
replace. ponentsandperforma frontendalignment.
b. Torquelugnutsto specificationandrecheckfor looseness. c. Checkfor a worn,damaged,or defectivesteeringbox,replacethesteeringgearand
c. Wheelbearingwornor damaged.Replacewheelbearing. checkthefrontendalignment.

2. Rear Wheel or Wheel Bearing Loose 2. Steering wheel shakes at cruising speeds
a. Checkfor a bentfrontwheel.Replacea damagedwheelandcheckthetirefor possible
internaldamage.
All Wheel and Four Wheel Drive Vehicles b. Checkfor anunevenlywornfronttire. Replacethetire,adjusttire pressureandbal-
a.Torquelug nutsandaxlenutsto specificationandrecheckfor looseness. ance.
b. Wheelbearingwornor damaged.Replacewheelbearing. c. Checkthefronttiresfor hiddeninternaldamage.Tireswhichhaveencountered large
pot holesor sufferedotherhardblowsmayhavesustainedinternaldamageand
Front Wheel Drive Vehicles shouldbereplacedimmediately.
a.Wheelbearingout of adjustment. Adjustwheelbearingto specification;if still loose, d. Checkthefronttiresfor anout-of-balancecondition.Remove,spinbalanceandrein-
replace. stall.Torqueall thewheelboltsor lugnutsto therecommended specification.
b. Torquelugnutsto specificationandrecheckfor looseness. e. Checkfor a loosewheelbearing.If possible,adjustthe bearing,or replacethe bearing
c. Wheelbearingwornor damaged.Replacewheelbearing. if it is a non-adjustable
bearing.

Rear Wheel Drive Vehicles 3. Steering wheel shakes when braking


a. Referto section3-A, conditionnumber1.
a.Torquelugnutsandto specificationandrecheckfor looseness.
b. Wheelbearingwornor damaged.Replacewheelbearing. 4. Steering wheel becomes stiff when turned
a. Checkthesteeringwheelfree-playadjustmentandresetas needed.
b. Checkfor a damagedsteeringgearassembly.Replacethesteeringgearandperforma
frontendalignment.
1. Tires worn on inside tread c. Checkfor damagedor seizedsuspensioncomponents.Replacedefectivecomponents
a. Checkalignmentfor a toed-outcondition.Checkandsettire pressuresandproperly andperforma frontendalignment.
adjustthetoe.
b. Checkfor worn,damagedor defectivesuspensioncomponents.Replacedefective
partsandadjustthealignment.
2. Tires worn on outside tread e 1. Vehicle pulls to one side
a. Tire pressureuneven.Adjusttire pressureto recommendedsettings.
a. Checkalignmentfor a toed-incondition.Checkandsettire pressuresandproperly
b. Tireswornunevenly.Replacetiresandcheckalignmentsettings.
adjustthetoe.
c. Alignmentout of specification.Alignfrontendandcheckthrustangle.
b. Checkfor worn,damagedor defectivesuspensioncomponents. Replacedefective
d. Checkfor a draggingbrakeandrepairor replaceas necessary.
partsandadjustthealignment.
2. Vehicle is very bouncy over bumps
3. Tires worn unevenly
a. Checkfor wornor leakingshockabsorbersor strutassembliesandreplaceas neces-
a. Checkthetire pressureandtire balance.Replacewornor defectivetiresandcheckthe
. alignment;adjustif necessary. sary.
b. Checkfor seizedshockabsorbersor strutassembliesandreplaceas necessary.
TROUBLESHOOTING
11-13
NOTE:When one shock fails, ft is recommended to replace front or rear 3. Vehicle makes a low pitched rumbling noise when driven
units as pairs. a. A lowpitchedrumblingnoiseis usuallycausedby a drivetrainrelatedbearingandis
mostoftenassociatedwitha wheelbearingwhichhasbeendamagedor worn.The
3. Vehicle leans excessively in turns damagecanbecausedby excessivebraketemperatures or physicalcontactwitha pot
a. Checkfor wornor leakingshockabsorbersor strutassembliesandreplaceas neces- holeor curb.Sometimesthe noisewill varywhenturning.Lefthandturnsincreasethe
sary. loadonthevehicle’srightside,andrightturnsloadthe leftside.A failedfrontwheel
b. Checkfor missing,damaged,or wornstabilizerlinksor bushings,andreplaceor in- bearingmayalsocausea slightsteeringwheelvibrationwhenturning.A bearing
stallas necessary. whichexhibitsnoisemustbereplaced.
4. Vehicle ride quality seems excessively ha&h b. Checkthetire conditionandbalance.An internallydamagedtire maycausefailure
a. Checkfor seizedshockabsorbersor strutassembliesandreplaceas necessary. symptomssimilarto failedsuspensionparts.Fordiagnosticpurposes,try a known
b. Checkfor excessivelyhightire pressuresandadjustpressuresto vehiclerecommen- goodsetof tiresandreplacedefectivetires.
dations. 4. Vehicle makes a squeaking noise over bumps
5. Vehicle seems low or leans to one side a. Checkthevehicle’sballjointsfor wear,damagedor leakingboots.Replacea balljoint
a. Checkfor a damaged,brokenor weakspring.Replacedefectivepartsandcheckfor a if it is loose,thebootis damagedandleaking,or theballjoint is binding.Whenre-
neededalignment. placingsuspensionparts,checkthevehiclefor alignment.
b. Checkfor seizedshockabsorbersor strutassembliesandreplaceasnecessary. b. Checkfor seizedor deterioratedbushings.Replacebushingsthatarewornor dam-
c. Checkfor wornor leakingshockabsorbersor strutassembliesandreplaceas neces- agedandcheckthevehiclefor alignment.
sary. c. Checkfor thepresenceof swaybaror stabilizerbarbushingswhichwraparoundthe
bar.Inspecttheconditionof the bushingsandreplaceif wornor damaged.Remove
the bushingbracketandapplya thin layerof suspensiongreaseto theareawherethe
bushingswraparoundthe barandreinstallthe bushingbrackets. ~
Noises 5. Vehicle vibrates when driven
1. Vehiclemakesa clickingnoiseswhendriven a. Checkthe roadsurface.Roadswhichhaveroughor unevensurfacesmaycauseun-
a. Checkthe noiseto seeif it varieswith roadspeed.Verifyif the noiseis presentwhen usualvibrations.
coastingor withsteeringor throttleinput.If theclickingnoisefrequencychangeswith b. Checkthetire conditionandbalance.An internallydamagedtire maycausefailure
roadspeedandis notaffectedby steeringor throttleinput,checkthetiretreadsfor a symptomssimilarto failedsuspensionparts.Fordiagnosticpurposes,try a known
stone,pieceof glass,nail or anotherhardobjectimbeddedintothetire or tire tread. goodsetof tiresandreplacedefectivetires immediately.
Stonesrarelycausea tire punctureandareeasilyremoved.Otherobjectsmaycreate c. Checkfor a wornConstantVelocity(CV-joint)joint, universal(U- joint) or flex joint
anair leakwhenremoved.Considerhavingtheseobjectsremovedimmediatelyat a andreplaceif loose,damagedor binding.
facilityequippedto repairtire punctures. d. Checkfor a loose,bent,or out-of-balance
axleor driveshaft.Replacedamagedor
b. If theclickingnoisevarieswiththrottleinputandsteering,checkfor a wornConstant failedcomponents.
Velocity(CV-joint)joint, universal(U- joint) or flexjoint.
NOTE:Diagnosing failures related to wheels, tires, steering and the sus-
2. Vehicle makes a clunking or knocking noise over bumps pension system can often times be accomplished with a careful and thor-
a.A clunkingnoiseoverbumpsis mostoftencausedbyexcessivemovementor clear- ough test drive. Bearing noises are isolated by noting whether the noises
ancein a suspensioncomponent.Checkthesuspensionfor soft,cracked,damagedor or symptoms vary when turning left or right, or occur while driving a
wornbushings.Replacethe bushingsandcheckthevehicle’salignment. straight line. During a teft hand turn, the vehicle’s weight shifts to the
b. Checkfor loosesuspensionmountingbolts.Checkthetightnessonsubframebolts, right, placing more force on the right side bearings, such that if a right side
pivot boltsandsuspensionmountingbolts,andtorqueto specification. wheel bearing is worn or damaged, the noise or vibration should increase
c. Checkthevehiclefor a loosewheelbearing.Somewheelbearingscanbeadjustedfor during light-to-heavy acceleration. Conversely, on right hand turns, the ve-
looseness,whileothersmustbereplacedif loose.Adjustor replacethe bearingsas hicle tends to lean to the left, loading the left side bearings.
recommended bythe manufacturer.
d. Checkthedoorlatchadjustment.If the dooris slightlyloose,or the latchadjustment Knockingnoisesin thesuspensionwhenthevehicleis drivenoverroughroads,rail-
is notcentered,thedoorassemblymaycreatenoisesoverbumpsandroughsurfaces. roadtracksandspeedbumpsindicatewornsuspensioncomponentssuchasbushings,
Properlyadjustthedoorlatchesto securethedoor. balljoints or tie rodends,or a wornsteeringsystem.

1. One headlight only works on high or low beam 1. Tail light, running light or side marker light inoperative
a. Checkfor batteryvoltageat headlightelectricalconnector.If batteryvoltageis present, a. Checkfor batteryvoltageandgroundat light’selectricalconnector.If batteryvoltageis
replacethe headlightassemblyor bulbif availableseparately.If batteryvoltageis not present,checkthe bulbsocketandelectricalconnectorgroundterminalfor a proper
present,referto theheadlightwiringdiagramto troubleshoot. ground.If batteryvoltageandgroundarepresentat thelightconnector,butnot in the
socket,cleanthesocketandthegroundterminalconnector.If batteryvoltageand
2. Headlight does not work on high or low beam groundarepresentin the bulbsocket,replacethe bulb.If batteryvoltageor groundis
a. Checkfor batteryvoltageandgroundat headlightelectricalconnector.If batteryvolt- notpresent,referto thewiringdiagramto troubleshootfor an opencircuit.
ageis present,checkthe headlightconnectorgroundterminalfor a properground.If b. Checkthe lightswitchoperationandreplaceif necessary.
batteryvoltageandgroundarepresentat theheadlightconnector,replacethehead-
lightassemblyor bulbif availableseparately.If batteryvoltageor groundis not pre- 2. Tall light, running light or side marker light works intermittently
sent,referto the headlightwiringdiagramto troubleshoot. a. Checkthebulbfor a damagedfilament,andreplaceif damaged.
b. Checkthe headlightswitchoperation.Replacetheswitchif theswitchis defectiveor b. Checkthebulbandbulbsocketfor corrosion,andcleanor replacethebulband
ooeratesintermittentlv.
w
socket.
c. Checkfor loose,damagedor corrodedwiresandelectricalterminals,andrepairas
3. Headlight(s) very dim necessary.
a. Checkfor batteryvoltageandgroundat headlightelectricalconnector.If batteryvolt- d. Checkthe lightswitchoperationandreplaceif necessary.
ageis present,tracethegroundcircuitfor theheadlampelectricalconnector,then
cleanandrepairas necessary.If thevoltageat theheadlightelectricalconnectoris 3. Tail light, running light or side marker light very dim
significantlylessthanthevoltageat thebattery,referto the headlightwiringdiagram a. Checkthe bulbandbulbsocketfor corrosionandcleanor replacethe bulband
to troubleshootandlocatethevoltagedrop. socket.
II-14 TROUBLESHOOTING
b. Checkfor lowvoltageat thebulbsocketpositiveterminalor a poorground.If voltage Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) Light
is low,or thegroundmarginal,tracethewiringto, andcheckfor loose,damagedor a. Checkthewheelsensorsandsensorringsfor debris,andcleanas necessary.
corrodedwiresandelectricalterminals;repairasnecessary. b. Checkthe brakemastercylinderfor fluid leakageor sealfailureandreplaceas neces-
c. Checkthe lightswitchoperationandreplaceif necessary. sary.
c, ChecktheABScontrolunit,pumpandproportioningvalvesfor properoperation;re-
placeas necessary.
d. CheckthesensorwiringatthewheelsensorsandtheABScontrolunitfor a looseor
1. Interior light inoperative shortedwire,andrepairas necessary.
a. Verifythe interiorlightswitchlocationandposition(s),andsettheswitchin thecor-
rectposition. brake Warning Light
b. Checkfor batteryvoltageandgroundatthe interiorlightbulbsocket.If batteryvoltage a. Checkthe brakefluid levelandcheckfor possibleleakagefromthe hydrauliclinesand
andgroundarepresent,replacethe bulb.If voltageis notpresent,checkthe interior seals.Topoff brakefluidandrepairleakageas necessary.
lightfusefor batteryvoltage.If thefuseis missing,replacethefuse.If thefusehas b. Checkthe brakeliningsfor wearandreplaceas necessary.
blown,or if batteryvoltageis present,referto thewiringdiagramto troubleshootthe c. Checkfor a looseor shot-tedbrakewarninglightsensoror wire,andreplaceor repair
causefor anopenor shortedcircuit.If groundis notpresent,checkthe doorswitch as necessary.
contactsandcleanor repairas necessary.
2. Interior light works intermittent/y Oil Pressure Warning Light
a. Checkthe bulbfor a damagedfilament,andreplaceif damaged. a. Stoptheengineimmediately.Checktheengineoil levelandoil filter condition,and
b. Checkthebulbandbulbsocketfor corrosion,andcleanor replacethebulband top off or changetheoil as necessary.
socket. b. Checktheoil pressuresensorwirefor beingshortedto ground.Disconnectthewire
c. Checkfor loose,damagedor corrodedwiresandelectricalterminals;repairas neces- fromtheoil pressuresensorandwiththe ignitionin theONposition,butnot running,
sary. theoil pressurelightshouldnot beworking.If the lightworkswiththewirediscon-
d. Checkthedoorandlightswitchoperation,andreplaceif necessary. nected,checkthesensorwirefor beingshortedto ground.Checkthewire routingto
makesurethewire is notpinchedandcheckfor insulationdamage.Repairor replace
3. Interior light very dim thewireas necessaryandrecheckbeforestartingtheengine.
a. Checkthe bulbandbulbsocketfor corrosion,andcleanor replacethe bulband c. Removetheoil panandcheckfor a cloggedoil pick-uptubescreen.
socket. d. Checktheoil pressuresensoroperationbysubstitutinga knowngoodsensor.
b. Checkfor lowvoltageat the bulbsocketpositiveterminalor a poorground.If voltage e. Checktheoil filterfor internalrestrictionsor leaks,andreplaceas necessary.
is low,or thegroundmarginal,tracethewiringto, andcheckfor loose,damagedor
corrodedwiresandelectricalterminals;repairas necessary. WARNING: If the engine is operated with oil pressure below the manufac-
c. Checkthedoorandlightswitchoperation,andreplaceif necessary. turer’s specification, severe (and costly) engine damage could occur. Low
oil pressure can be caused by excessive internal wear or damage to the en-
gine bearings, oil pressure relief valve, oil pump or oil pump drive mecha-
nism.
1. One brake light inoperative Beforestartingtheengine,checkfor possiblecausesof rapidoil loss,suchas leaking
a. PressPressthe brakepedalandcheckfor batteryvoltageandgroundat thebrakelight oil linesor a loose,damaged,restricted,or leakingoil filter or oil pressuresensor.If the
bulbsocket.If present,replacethebulb.If eitherbatteryvoltageor groundis notpre- engineoil levelandconditionareacceptable, measuretheengine’soil pressureusinga
sent,referto thewiringdiagramto troubleshoot. pressuregauge,or determinethecausefor theoil pressurewarninglightto function
2. Both brake lights inoperative whentheengineis running,beforeoperatingtheenginefor anextendedperiodof time.
a. Pressthe brakepedalandcheckfor batteryvoltageandgrou’ndat thebrakelightbulb Anothersymptomof operatinganenginewith lowoil pressureis thepresenceof severe
socket.If present,replacebothbulbs.If batteryvoltageis not present,checkthe brake knockingandtappingnoises.
lightswitchadjustmentandadjustasnecessary.If thebrakelightswitchis properly
adjusted,andbatteryvoltageor thegroundis not presentat thebulbsockets,or atthe Parking Brake Warning Light
bulbelectricalconnectorwiththe brakepedalpressed,referto thewiringdiagramto a. Checkthebrakereleasemechanismandverifythe parkingbrakehasbeenfullyre-
troubleshootthecauseof an opencircuit. leased.
b. CheckCheck the parkingbrakelightswitchfor loosenessor misalignment.
3. One or both brake lights very dim c. CheckCheck for a damagedswitchor a looseor shortedbrakelightswitchwire,and
a. Pressthebrakepedalandmeasurethevoltageat thebrakelightbulbsocket.If the replaceor repairas necessary.
measuredvoltageis closeto thebatteryvoltage,checkfor a poorgroundcausedby a
loose,damaged,or corrodedwire,terminal,bulbor bulbsocket.If thegroundis 2. Warning light(s) flickers on and off when driving
boltedto a paintedsurface,it maybenecessaryto removetheelectricalconnectorand
cleanthemountingsurface,so theconnectormountson baremetal.If batteryvoltage Ignition, Battery or Alternator Warning Light
is low,checkfor a poorconnectioncausedby eithera faultybrakelightswitch,a a. Checkthealternatoroutputandvoltageregulatoroperation.An intermittentcondition
loose,damaged,or corrodedwire,terminalor electricalconnector.Referto thewiring mayindicatewornbrushes,an internalshort,or a defectivevoltageregulator.Replace
diagramto troubleshootthecauseof a voltagedrop. thealternatoror failedcomponent.
b. Checkthewarninglightwiringfor a shorted,pinchedor damagedwireandrepairas
necessary.

1. Warning light(s) stay on when the engine is started Check Engine Light
a. Checktheenginefor requiredmaintenance andtune-upstatus.Verifyenginetune-up
Ignition, Battery or Alternator Warning light specifications,aswellas sparkplug,air filter andengineoil condition;replaceand/or
a. Checkthealternatoroutputandvoltageregulatoroperation,andreplaceas necessary. adjustitemsas necessary.
b. Checkthewarninglightwiringfor a shortedwire. b. Checkthefueltankfor lowfuel levelcausingan intermittentleanfuelmixture.Topoff
fueltankandresetcheckenginelight.
c. Checkfor an intermittentfailureor partiallydisconnected
enginefuelandignition
Check Engine Light component,sensoror controlunit;repairor replaceas necessary.
a. Checktheenginefor routinemaintenance andtune-upstatus.Notethe enginetune-up
d. Checkthe intakemanifoldandvacuumhosesfor air leaks,andrepairas necessary.
specificationsandverifythesparkplug,air filterandengineoil condition;replace
e. Checkthewarninglightwiringfor a shorted,pinchedor damagedwireandrepairas
and/oradjustitemsas necessary.
necessary.
b. Checkthefueltankfor lowfuel level,causingan intermittentleanfuelmixtur
e.Topoff fueltankandresetcheckenginelight.
c. Checkfor a failedor disconnectedenginefuelor ignitioncomponent,sensoror con- Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) Light
trol unitandrepairor replaceas necessary. a. Checkthewheelsensorsandsensorringsfor debris,andcleanas necessary.
d. Checktheintakemanifoldandvacuumhosesfor air leaksandrepairas necessary. b. Checkthebrakemastercylinderfor fluid leakageor sealfailureandreplaceas neces-
e. Checktheengine’smechanicalconditionfor excessiveoil consumption. sary.
c. ChecktheABScontrolunit,pumpandproportioningvalvesfor properoperation,and
replaceas necessary.
TROUBLESHOOTING
1145
d. CheckthesensorwiringatthewheelsensorsandtheABScontrolunitfor a looseor 6. Turn signals flash too fast
shortedwireandrepairas necessary. a, Checksignalbulb(s)wattageandreplacewith higherwattagebulb(s).
b. Checkfor installationof thecorrectflasherunitandreplaceif incorrect.
Brake Warninu Liaht 7. Four-way hazard flasher indicator iiflhi inoperative
a. Checkthe brakefluid~evelandcheckfor possibleleakagefromthe hydrauliclinesand a.Verifythattheexteriorlightsarefunctioningand,if so, replaceindicatorbulb.
seals.Topoff brakefluidandrepairleakageas necessary. b. Checktheoperationof thewarningflasherswitchandreplaceif defective.
b. Checkthe brakeliningsfor wearandreplaceas necessary.
c. Checkfor a looseor shortedbrakewarninglightsensoror wire,andreplaceor repair 0. Turn signal indicator ii#ht(s) do not work in either direction
as necessary. a. Verifythattheexteriorlightsarefunctioningand,if so, replaceindicatorbulb(s).
b. Checkfor a defectiveflasherunit by substitutinga knowngoodunit.
Oil Pressure Warning Light 9. One turn signal indicator liflht does not work
a. Stoptheengineimmediately.Checktheengineoil levelandcheckfor a suddenand a. Checkfor a defectivebulbandreplaceas necessary.
rapidoil loss,suchasa leakingoil lineor oil pressuresensor,andrepairor replaceas b. Checkfor a defectiveflasherunit by substitutinga knowngoodunit.
necessary.
b. Checkthe oil pressuresensoroperationby substitutinga knowngoodsensor.
c. Checktheoil pressuresensorwirefor beingshortedto ground.Disconnectthewire
fromtheoil pressuresensorandwiththeignitionin theONposition,butnot running, 1. Horn does not operate
the oil pressurelightshouldnot beworking.If the lightworkswiththewirediscon- a. Checkfor a defectivefuseandreplaceas necessary.
nected,checkthesensorwirefor beingshortedto ground.Checkthewire routingto b. Checkfor batteryvoltageandgroundat hornelectricalconnectionswhenpressingthe
makesurethewire is not pinchedandcheckfor insulationdamage.Repairor replace hornswitch.If voltageis present,replacethehornassembly.If voltageor groundis
thewireas necessaryandrecheckbeforestartingtheengine. not present,referto ChassisElectricalcoveragefor additionaltroubleshooting
tech-
d. Removetheoil panandcheckfor a cloggedoil pick-uptubescreen. niquesandcircuitinformation.
Parking Brake Warning Light 2. Horn has an unusual tone
a. Checkthe brakereleasemechanismandverifytheparkingbrakehasbeenfully re- a. Onsinglehornsystems,replacethehorn.
leased. b. Ondualhornsystems,checkthe operationof thesecondhorn.Dualhornsystems
b. Checkthe parkingbrakelightswitchfor loosenessor misalignment. havea highandlowpitchedhorn.Unplugonehornat a timeandrecheckoperation.
c. Checkfor a damagedswitchor a looseor shortedbrakelightswitchwire,andreplace Replacethe hornwhichdoesnotfunction.
or repairas necessary. c. Checkfor debrisor condensation
build-upin hornandverifythehornpositioning.If
the hornhasa singleopening,adjusttheopeningdownwardto allowfor adequate
3. Warning li#ht(s) inoperative with iflnition on, andengine not started drainageandto preventdebrisbuild-up.
a. Checkfor a defectivebulbby installinga knowngoodbulb.
b. Checkfor a defectivewireusingtheappropriatewiringdiagram(s).
c. Checkfor a defectivesendingunit by removingandthengroundingthewireatthe
sendingunit.If the lightcomesonwiththe ignitionon whengroundingthewire,re-
placethesendingunit. 1. Windshield wipers do not operate
a. Checkfuseandreplaceas necessary.
b. Checkswitchoperationandrepairor replaceas necessary.
c. Checkfor corroded,loose,disconnected
or brokenwiresandcleanor repairas neces-
sary.
1. Turn siflnais or hazard iiflhts come on, but do not flash d. Checkthegroundcircuitfor thewiperswitchor motorandrepairasnecessary.
a. Checkfor a defectiveflasherunitandreplaceas necessary.
2. Windshield wiper motor makes a humming noise, gets hot or blows
2. Turn signals or hazard iiflhts do not function on either side fuses
a. Checkthefuseandreplace,if defective. a.Wipermotordamagedinternally;replacethewipermotor.
b. Checktheflasherunit by substitutinga knowngoodflasherunit. b. Wiperlinkagebent,damagedor seized.Repairor replacewiperlinkageasnecessary.
c. Checktheturnsignalelectricalsystemfor a defectivecomponent,opencircuit,short
circuitor poorground. 3. Windshield wiper motor operates, but one or both wipers fail to move
a.Windshieldwipermotorlinkagelooseor disconnected.
Repairor replacelinkageas
3. Turn siflnais or hazard lights only work on one side necessary.
a. Checkfor failedbulbsandreplaceas necessary. b. Windshieldwiperarmslooseonwiperpivots.Securewiperarmto pivotor replace
b. Checkfor poorgroundsin bothhousingsandrepairas necessary. boththewiperarmandpivotassembly.
4. One siflnai light does not work 4. Windshield wipers will not park
a. Checkfor a failedbulbandreplaceasnecessary. a. Checkthewiperswitchoperationandverifythattheswitchproperlyinterruptsthe
b. Checkfor corrosionin thebulbsocket,andcleanandrepairas necessary. powersuppliedto thewipermotor.
c. Checkfor a poorgroundatthe bulbsocket,andcleanandrepairas necessary. b. If thewiperswitchis functioningproperly,thewipermotorparkingcircuithasfailed.
5. Turn signals flash too slowly Replacethewipermotorassembly.Operatethewipermotorat leastonetimebefore
a. Checksignalbulb(s)wattageandreplacewith lowerwattagebulb(s). installingthearmsandbladesto ensurecorrectpositioning,thenrecheckusingthe
highestwiperspeedon a wetwindshieldto makesurethearmsandbladesdo not
contactthewindshieldtrim.

1. Speedometer does not work to minimizesharpbendsor kinks.If thesheathinghasbeendamaged,replacetheca-


a. Checkandverifythatthe speedometer cableis properlyseatedintothespeedometer bleassembly.
assemblyandthespeedometer drivegear. b. Checkthespeedometer cablefor adequatelubrication.Removethecable,inspectfor
b. Checkthespeedometer cablefor breakageor rounded-offcableendswherethecable damage,clean,lubricateandreinstall.If thecablehasbeendamaged,replacetheca-
seatsintothespeedometer drivegearandintothe speedometer assembly.If damaged, ble.
brokenor thecableendsareroundedoff, replacethecable. 3. Speedometer works intermittently
c. Checkspeedometer drivegearconditionandreplaceas necessary. a. Checkthecableandverifythatthecableis fully installedandthefastenersaresecure.
d. Installa knowngoodspeedometer to testfor properoperation.If thesubstituted b. Checkthecableendsfor wearandrounding,andreplaceas necessary.
speedometer functionsproperly,replacethespeedometer assembly.
II-16 TROUBLESHOOTING
c. Gaugesendingunitdefective.Replacegaugesendingunit.
d. Gaugeor sendingunit improperlyinstalled.Verifyinstallationandwiring,andrepair
1. Speedometer does not work as necessary.
a. Checkthespeedsensorpickupandreplaceas necessary. 2. Gauge operates enatica//y
b. Checkthewiringbetweenthespeedsensorandthespeedometer for corrodedtermi- a. Checkforioose,shorted,damagedor corrodedelectricalconnectionsor wiringand
nals,looseconnectionsor brokenwiresandcleanor repairas necessary. repairas necessary.
c. Installa knowngoodspeedometer to testfor properoperation.If thesubstituted b. Checkgaugesendingunitsandreplaceas necessary.
speedometer functionsproperly,replacethespeedometer assembly.
3. Gauge operates fully pegged
2. Speedometer works intermittently a. Sendingunit-to-gaugewireshortedto ground.
a. Checkthewiringbetweenthespeedsensorandthespeedometer for corrodedtermi- b. Sendingunitdefective;replacesendingunit.
nals,looseconnectionsor brokenwiresandcleanor repairas necessary. c. Gaugeor sendingunit not properlygrounded.
b. Checkthespeedsensorpickupandreplaceas necessary. d. Gaugeor sendingunit improperlyinstalled.Verifyinstallationandwiring,andrepair
as necessary.

I. Gauge does not register


a. Checkfor a missingor blownfuseandreplaceas necessary.
b. Checkfor anopencircuitin thegaugewiring.Repairwiringas necessary.

I. No air coming from air conditioner vents 1. Blower motor does not operate
a. Checktheair conditionerfuseandreplaceas necessary. a. Checkblowermotorfuseandreplaceas necessary.
b.Air conditionersystemdischarged.Havethesystemevacuated, chargedandleak b. Checkblowermotorwiringfor loose,damagedor corrodedcontactsandrepairas
testedby anMVACcertifiedtechnician,utilizingapprovedrecovery/recycling equip- necessary.
ment.Repairas necessary. c. Checkblowermotorswitchandresistorpackfor opencircuits,andrepairor replace
c. Air conditionerlowpressureswitchdefective.Replaceswitch. as necessary.
d. Air conditionerfanresistorpackdefective.Replaceresistorpack. d. Checkblowermotorfor internaldamageandrepairor replaceas necessary.
e. Looseconnection,brokenwiringor defectiveair conditionerrelayin air conditioning*
electricalcircuit.Repairwiringor replacerelayas necessary. 2. Heater blows cool air
2. Air conditionerblowswarmair a. Checktheenginecoolantlevel.If thecoolantlevelis low,top off andbleedtheair
a.Air conditionersystemis discharged.Havethesystemevacuated, chargedandleak fromthecoolingsystemas necessary andcheckfor coolantleaks.
testedby an MVACcertifiedtechnician,utilizingapprovedrecovery/recyclingequip- b. Checkenginecoolantoperatingtemperature. If coolanttemperature is belowspecifica-
ment.Repairas necessary. tion, checkfor a damagedor stuckthermostat.
b. Air conditionercompressorclutchnot engaging.Checkcompressorclutchwiring, c. Checktheheatercontrolvalveoperation.Checkthe heatercontrolvalvecableor vac-
electricalconnectionsandcompressorclutch,andrepairor replaceas necessary. uumhosefor properinstallation.Movetheheatertemperature controlfromhotto cold
severaltimesandverifythe operationof theheatercontrolvalve.Withtheengineat
3. Water collects on the interior floor when the air conditioner is used normaloperatingtemperature andtheheatertemperature controlin thefull hotposi-
a. Air conditionerevaporatordrainhoseis blocked.Clearthedrainhosewhereit exits tion, carefullyfeeltheheaterhosegoingintoandexitingthecontrolvalve.If one
thepassengercompartment. heaterhoseis hotandtheotheris muchcooler,replacethecontrolvalve.
b.Air conditionerevaporatordrainhoseis disconnected.Securethedrainhoseto the
evaporatordrainagetrayunderthedashboard. 3. Heater steams the windshield when used
a. Checkfor a loosecoolingsystemhoseclampor leakingcoolanthoseneartheengine
4. Air conditioner has a moldy odor when used firewallor underthedasharea,andrepairas necessary.
a. Theair conditionerevaporatordrainhoseis blockedor partiallyrestricted,allowing b. Checkfor theexistenceof a sweetodorandfluid drippingfromtheheaterfloorvents,
condensationto buildup aroundtheevaporatoranddrainagetray.Clearthedrain indicatinga failedor damagedheatercore.Pressuretestthecoolingsystemwiththe
hosewhereit exitsthepassengercompartment. heatersetto thefullywarmpositionandcheckfor fluid leakagefromthefloorvents.If
leakageis verified,removeandreplacetheheatercoreassembly.
NOTE:On some vehicles, the dashboard must be disassembled and re-
moved to access the heater core.