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FO LLOWING T HE M ONE Y: A LO OK AT J EWIS H FOUN DAT IO N GIVI NG

INTRODUCTION
FollowingtheMoney:ALookatJewish FoundationGiving presentsselected findingsfromtheforthcomingStudyof JewishFoundations.Thestudybythe InstituteforJewish&Community Research(IJCR)providesinsightinto Jewishfoundationphilanthropyandits impactonJewishandnonJewish charitableorganizations.Thisresearch notefocusesonJewishfoundationgiving toJewishcausesinAmericaandabroad. Jewishfoundationsaremakingtheirmark ontheJewishphilanthropicworld.They helptofundthevastnetworkofJewish communalinstitutions,whilealsoacting ascatalystsforinnovativeprogramming andupstartorganizationsmeetingthe diverseneedsoftheJewishcommunity. Theincreasingroleoffoundationsisnot uniquelyaJewishtrend.From1999to 2009thenumberofgrantmaking foundationsinAmericahasincreasedin totalnumberfrom50,201to76,545,an increaseofover50%.1 Nearly10,000 foundationshavemadegrantstoJewish causesandofthe100largestprivate foundations,16werefoundedbyaJewish donor.

MAJOR FIND ING S FOLLOWING THE MONEY: A LOOK AT JEWISH F O U N D ATION GIVING ERIK LUDWIG A RYEH WEINBERG
Thirtysevenpercent($105million) oftotaldollarsdonatedbyJewish foundationstoJewishcauseswent toIsraelrelatedorganizations. TheaveragegranttoIsraelrelated organizationswasnearly60%larger thanthosetootherJewishorganiza tions. Jewishfoundationsarecommittedto centralizedfundinginAmericaand Israel. Israeladvocacy,includingtripstoIsrael, accountedfor22%ofalldollarsto Israel. ThepercentofJewishfoundationdollars donatedtoIsraelrelatedorganizations hasincreasedfrom32%to37%since thepreviousIJCRstudy. Onefifth(21%)oftotaldollarsdonated byJewishfoundations,or$287million, wenttoJewishcauses,showingno changefromthepreviousIJCRstudy.

ErikLudwig ChiefOperatingOfficer

AryehWeinberg ResearchDirector

2012Allrightsreserved.InstituteforJewish&CommunityResearch.

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TheInstituteforJewish&CommunityResearch hasprovidedindepthanalysisoftrends,values andbeliefsinphilanthropyoverthelastfifteen years.Ourgoalistoprovideaccurateand understandabledataonJewishgiving.Wearenot advocatingthatfoundationsgiveinaspecific mannermoreJewishlyorlessJewishlyorfor whatpurposesfoundationsshouldgive.By providingdataandanalysisthatofferadeeper understandingofJewishgivinginAmerica,our intentistoencouragedialoguebetween foundations,communityleaders,andJewish organizations.

includeprivatefoundationsandsupporting foundationsundertheroofofJewishFederations. Foundationswereselectedforstudybasedona numberofcriteria,includingprominenceinthe JewishcommunityandinAmericansocietyasa whole,regionaldiversity,size,ageandorganiza tionalstyle.Thesampleprovidesavaluablelook atabroadrangeofJewishfoundations.Thestudy reflectsfoundationgivinganddoesnotcompre hensivelycapturethegivingoflivingdonorswho haveaccesstoamultitudeofphilanthropicmech anismsoutsideoftheirfoundations. Jewishrecipientinstitutionsweredefinedasany charitableorganizationsthatservetheJewish communitydirectlyorservethegeneralcommu nitywithanexplicitlyJewishmission.Allgrants madetoorganizationsinIsraelareconsidered Jewish.GrantstoIsraelrelatedorganizationsare attimesinthisreportevaluatedseparatelyfrom otherJewishgiving,buttogethercomprise Jewishgivingasawhole. Pleaseseelistoffoundationsat www.JewishResearch.org.Anydiscrepanciesin chartsareduetoroundingerrors.

METHODOLOGY
FollowingtheMoney:ALookatJewishFoundation Giving includes50foundationswithcombined assetsofjustunder$20billionthatmadegrants totalling$1.3billionaccordingtothemostrecent yearavailableinIRS990filings,either2009or 2010.Totalgivingrepresented6.5%oftotal assets,abovethe5%minimumrequired. Jewishfoundationsaredefinedasfoundations establishedbyaJewishdonor.Whilethemajority offoundationsmissionstatementsclaimaJewish interest,thisisnotarequirement,thoughall foundationsselectedhavemadegrantstoJewish causes.Theselected50Jewishfoundations

INS TITU TE FOR JEWI SH & COMMUNITY R ES EAR CH


TheInstituteforJewish&CommunityResearchis anindependent,nonpartisanthinktankthat providesinnovativeresearchandpragmaticpolicy analysisonabroadrangeofissuesincludingracial andreligiousidentity,philanthropy,andanti Semitism.

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FO LLOWING T HE M ONE Y: A LO OK AT J EWIS H FOUN DAT IO N GIVI NG


GI VING TO JEWIS H CA US ES
PrivatefoundationsestablishedbyJewsholdvast sumsofwealth.The50selectedforthisstudy haveapproximately$20billionincombined assets.AnimportantquestionfacingtheJewish community,especiallyascentralizedfundraisingin theJewishcommunitydecreasesandthenumber ofprivatefoundationsincreases,is:Towhat extentshouldprivatefoundationsbereliedonto supportJewishcauses?Thedatarevealedthat 21%($287million)ofthetotal$1.3billiondollars donatedwenttoJewishcauses,withtheremain ing79%($1.05billion)goingtononJewishcauses. (Figure1)Thedistributionoftotalgrantsmirrored totaldollars,with21%ofallgrantsgoingtoJewish causes,and79%tononJewishcauses.(Figure2) ThepercentofdollarsthatwenttoJewishcauses (21%)isconsistentwithfindingsfromtheprevious studyofJewishfoundationgiving.2 However,the percentofgrantsdecreasedfrom24%to22%, indicatingaslightdropinthenumberofgrantsto JewishcausesrelativetononJewishgrantsbut alsoaconcurrentincreaseintheaveragesizeof grantstoJewishcauses.Theaveragesizeofagift toJewishcauses,excludingIsraelrelatedorganiza tions,was$123,000.

HowmuchshouldtheJewishcommunityexpect fromprivateJewishfoundations?AsJewish organizationsseektoincreasephilanthropic supportfromJewishfoundations,itisimportant torememberthatJewishfoundationshave historicallygiventogeneralAmericancausesat exceptionalrates,andwilllikelycontinuetodoso. Asacommunity,AmericanJewryexpressesvalues andethicsthataresimultaneouslyJewishand American.Jewishfoundationsarenodifferent. JewishfoundationsarecommittedtotheJewish philanthropicnetworkaswellasthevast Americanindependentsector.Manyofthese donorsbelievetheirphilanthropytohealth, education,socialjusticeandhumanservices reflectcoretenetsofJewishlifeevenwhenthese organizationsmaynotbeJewish.

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FO LLOWING T HE M ONE Y: A LO OK AT J EWIS H FOUN DAT IO N GIVI NG

GIVI NG TO I S RA EL
OneofthemostuniqueaspectsofJewishgiving inAmericaisthecommitmenttoIsrael.While givingtoIsraelisconsideredJewishgivingand isincludedinthetotal21%donatedtoJewish causes,wehavealsobrokenitoutsothatthis categorycanbebetterunderstood.Outofthe total$1.3billiondonated,8%($105million)went toIsraelrelatedorganizations,asdid6%ofall grants. Ofthetotal$287milliondonatedtoJewish causes,37%($105million)wenttoIsraelrelated organizations(Figure3),whichconstitutes27% (540)oftotalgrants(2,022)toJewishcauses. (Figure4)

JewishgivingtoIsraelremainsimportantto foundations.TheaveragegifttoIsraelrelated organizationswas$195,000,whichrepresents anincreaseofapproximately60%overgrantsto otherJewishcauses.Despitetheeconomiccrisis thatstressedfoundationresourcesandthatcould haveleadtoamorelocalfocus,givingtoIsrael sawa5%increasesincethelastIJCRreport. Consideringconcernsoverthedecliningpriority ofIsraelamongyoungerJewsandnext generationdonors,continuedcommitment towardsIsraelbyJewishfoundationsis encouraging.Itshouldbenotedthatconsistency ingivingtoIsraelisrelativeandcanfluctuate basedonexistentialthreatstotheJewishState.

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FO LLOWING T HE M ONE Y: A LO OK AT J EWIS H FOUN DAT IO N GIVI NG

WH ERE D O JEW IS H GIFTS GO? JEWI SH GI VING - NOT IS RA EL R ELAT E D


Centralizedgivingdominatedthetotaldollarsin nonIsraelrelatedJewishphilanthropy,with28% oftotaldollars,and11%oftotalgrants.Human Servicesfollowed,with21%oftotaldollarsand 13%oftotalgrants.Organizationsdevotedto strengtheningJewishLifereceived13%ofdollars and18%ofgrants;Education,12%ofdollarsand 20%ofgrants;Religion,9%ofdollarsand13%of grants.(Figures5&6)

WhenallEducationalcategoriesarecombined theyrepresent12%($22million)ofnonIsrael relatedJewishgiving.Ofthisamount,$10.8 millionwenttoK12Education,$5.8millionto PrivateHigherEducationand$5.5millionto GeneralEducation.Theaveragesizeofagiftto Educationwas$75,597.

ThenumberofgiftstononIsraelrelatedJewish causesisrelativelyevenlydistributedcomparedto thetotaldollarsgiventothesecauses.The averagesizeofagifttoFederations/Fundswas $317,421,andtoHumanServiceswas$197,973. Incomparison,theaveragegifttoJewishLifewas $87,523,and$78,591toReligion.

Jewishfoundationsprioritizecentralizedgivingto Federations/Funds.Asgeneralfundraising campaignsdecline,thisrelationshipwillbecome increasinglyimportant.Itisworthnotingthatthat JewishFederations/Fundsmayinthefuture redistributedollarstoIsraelrelatedcausesor nonJewishcauses,butarelistedhereasnon IsraelrelatedJewishgiving.Likewise,IsraelFunds, toalesserdegree,alsoredistributefundsraisedto causesoutsideofIsrael.

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FO LLOWING T HE M ONE Y: A LO OK AT J EWIS H FOUN DAT IO N GIVI NG

WHER E DO JEWIS H GI FTS G O? JEWIS H GIV ING - IS R A EL R ELAT E D


JewishgivingtoIsraellooksdifferentthanJewish givingoutsideofIsrael.Ourmethodologycounts allJewishfoundationgiftstoIsraelasJewishgifts. Asavibrantsociety,Israelprovidesmanyfunding opportunitiesthatwouldnotbeconsidered JewishinAmerica,fromHigherEducationtoArts &CulturetotheEnvironment. DespitedifferencesbetweenJewishgivingto IsraelrelatedcausesandotherJewishcauses, therearesimilarities.IsraelFundswerethemajor recipientsofIsraeldesignatedJewishdollarswith 34%oftotaldollarsand30%ofgrants.While IsraelfundsdonotmirrorAmericanJewish federationsandfunds,theyareanalogousinthat theyrepresentdollarsentrustedbydonorstobe distributedthroughacentralizedcampaign. (Figures7&8)

Thesecondlargestgivingcategory,Israel Advocacy(22%ofdollars;8%ofgrants)was influencedbylargegrantsfortripstoIsrael.Arts &CulturecombinedwithPublicSocietyBenefit accountedfor15%oftotaldollarsand14%of grants.Educationalsoaccountedfor15%of dollars,butagreaterpercentage(17%)ofgrants. HumanServicesandYouthDevelopmentreceived lessthan5%ofdollarseachand7%and6%of grantsrespectively. WhileitisevidentthatIsraelrelatedgivingand otherJewishgivingshareacommitmentto Federations/FundsandEducation,thereare significantdifferences.Israelrelatedgivingdoes notfocusonthecategoriesofJewishLife, Religion,orHumanServicesnearlyasmuchas nonIsraelrelatedJewishgiving.Atthesame

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FO LLOWING T HE M ONE Y: A LO OK AT J EWIS H FOUN DAT IO N GIVI NG

time,IsraelrelatedgivingismoredevotedtoArts &CultureandPublicSocietyBenefit.Givingto Educationalsomeanssomethingdifferentin IsraelthanintheUnitedStates.InIsrael,Jewish educationincludesallinstitutionsofeducation andisdominatedbyhighereducationwhereas outsideIsrael,Jewisheducationreferslargelyto K12Jewishdayschools.GivingtoReligionpre dominantlymeanssupportinglocalsynagoguesin theUnitedStates,whereasinIsraelitislargely directedtocentersofreligiousstudy. Onecanframethedifferenceingivingpriorities basedonthecontextofdifferentneedsinIsrael. Arguably,littleisneededtofacilitateJewishlife whilelivingintheJewishstate.However,outside ofIsraelamultitudeoforganizationsexisttopro videspacesforJewishlife.

available,howdonorsperceiveJewishgiving, andhowtheyweightheneedsofJewishand nonJewishcommunities.Whatgetslostinthis conversationisthecontinuedcommitmentto JewishcausesandincredibleimpactJewishphi lanthropyhasontheJewishworldandbeyond. Jewishfoundationgivingisshapingthelandscape oftheJewishcommunitythroughitsphilanthrop icdecisions. Perhaps,themostimportantdecisionprivate foundationshavemadeistocontinuetoprovide significantsupporttowardtraditionalcentralized organizations,whilealsoseedinginnovative Jewishprojectsandorganizations.Thisand/ bothinsteadofeither/orapproachprovides theJewishcommunitywithsupportforcore programswhilemaintainingtheabilityto researchanddevelopnewprogramsthatmeet contemporaryneeds.Moreover,itencourages cooperation,communicationandcoordination betweenfoundations,communityleaders,and Jewishorganizations.Jewishfoundationsare criticalpartnersofferingcentralizedsupport directlyandalsoindirectlybygrantingprograms thatwouldotherwisecomefromcommunity funds.Jewishfoundationsareinvestedinboth traditionalandinnovativephilanthropy,question ingthenotionthatJewishphilanthropyisazero sumgame.

CONCLUSION
WalkintotheboardroomofaJewishorganization andsoonerorlater,usuallysooner,someonewill suggestthatJewsneedtogivemoretothe Jewishcommunity.Itisacomplicatedstatement oftenmadeinanoffthecuffmannerthat frequentlyfailstotakeintoaccountthe complexityofJewishphilanthropy.WhyJewish foundationsgivemoreorlesstoJewishcauses maybetheresultofthefundingopportunities

Endnotes: 1.foundationcenter.org/findfunders/statistics/pdf/02.../2009/03_09.pdf 2.Tobin,GaryA.andAryehK.Weinberg,AStudyofJewishFoundations,SanFrancisco:TheInstituteforJewish& CommunityResearch,2007.

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F O RT H C O M I N G
Thissummaryprovidesasnapshotofthe completereportaboutphilanthropyinAmerica, tobereleasedlaterin2012.Previousstudies onphilanthropycanbeviewedonlineat www.JewishResearch.org Foradditionalinformationpleasecontact: ErikLudwigorAryehWeinberg InstituteforJewish&CommunityResearch 415.386.2604

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