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Urban/Water CoP

WATER QUALITY MONITORING IN PRCS SURFACE WATER


INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF URBAN SURFACE WATER

Arnaud Heckmann, EASS / Wang Jianguo, PRCM Benjamin Wu, Consultant 5 March 2010

Presentation Objectives
Present the challenge of surface water (in urban area) management and monitoring Present the use of Water Quality Model (WQM) to improve the integrated management of surface water Present the different applications of the WQM in the case of Wuhan City

Presentation Summary
Lake rehabilitation and water quality monitoring Function of WQM in surface water management Application of WQM in Wuhan City Questions

Surface Water Management and Rehabilitation- Background

PRC Background
-90% of PRCs urban surface water are polluted, a l t of surface 90% f PRC b f t ll t d lot f f water require remediation activity and strict water quality control - Water security treat: use of about 44% of available water change to 60% by 2020: environmentally overexploited - Complexity of lake/river remediation and water quality sustainability - Poor records due to the lack of pollution control and integrated approach, weak institutional arrangement and focus only on engineering solution

Surface Water Management and Rehabilitation - Background


Good Practices
4 key factors

(i) Strong and consistent political leadership, ( ) (ii) integrated p g planning and analysis, g y , (iii) effective management structures, and (iv) effective financial engineering
Key actions

Legal and organizational reform, Policy integration, IRBM master planning - including integrated ecological restoration, restoration Public participation, Point source/non point source pollution control, Water Quality Modeling as Science and technology support

sc e ce and technology science a d tec o ogy support

Water Quality Model Requirement for


Function
Tool using mathematical simulation to predict water pollution It is not be a substitute for monitoring and mitigation measures system A cutting edge technology for planner and decision maker to determine appropriate management options for water quality issues Assisting in pollution control, long term urban planning (impact assessment), water quality forecast and emergency response Very relevant in urban areas due to the complexity of the environment

Implementation

Requirement
In data-poor or knowledge-poor environments more accessible solutions have to be seek Strong support of and consensus b t St t f d between main stakeholders ( t b i t k h ld (water bureau, di t i t gov., district EPB) Establishment of functions priority: Drinking water security, pollution control, emergency response, urban development impacts Local experts in universities or other institutions to be associated

Water Quality Model Requirement for

Implementation

Sustainability
Intensive spatial and temporal data: Establishment of responsibility of coordinated data collection over longer time periods and sufficiently fine temporal scales Institutional: Clear responsibility for operation and decision making on management options for water quality issues

Wuhan City A Fast Growing City Made-up of Lakes and Rivers

Hankou

Yangtze River

Han River

Population of 3.5 million in the dense urban core (9,700 inhabitants per km2). Three urban areas (Hankou, Hanyang, and Wuchang) divided by the Yangtze and Han rivers. Very rapid urban growth in the past. Rivers and lakes represent 25% of the urban area. b

Hanyang

Wuchang

The Problem 85% of the wastewater treated but


Severe Degradation of Urban Surface Water

Direct discharge of wastewater in the urban surface water in the past; Due to urbanization 60 lakes over 100 already disappeared; Channels blocked, stopping the natural water circulation of the lake system; The pollution of the surface water has reached 56% of the rivers and 89% of the Lakes. Lakes are now all class IV V or worse Lakes IV, worse.

Heping Channel

Government actions: point-source pollution program (wastewater treatment ratio from 27% in 2004 to 85% by 2010) and implementing lake and river rehabilitation program Government programs supported by three ADB Projects

Algae Bloom of the East Lake

Dead Fish from Eutrophication Longyang Lake

Zong Channel

Wuhan Water Quality Modeling Project


Consulting Services for Water Quality Modeling (ADB Loan No1996-PRC & 2240-PRC)

Water Quality Modeling


A mathematical representation of the fate and th ti l t ti f th f t d transport of pollutants in a water body.
Biology

B
Physics

A WQM

Chemistry

Computer

Mathematics

Why Use a Water Quality Model ? y Q y


To Understand the mechanisms underlying observed trends in water quality To relate human activities (PS, NPS...)to the existing water quality impacts t lit i t Provide a framework for assessing past, existing and future conditions The What if ? game Use science and engineering for setting fair effluent & regulatory limits Provide a scientific management tool for decision makers Economy growth vs. Environmental Quality

What Can Water Quality Model Do?


To Evaluate the Benefit of:
Watershed Best Management Practices (BMPs) Wastewater Management Upgraded Treatment Practices Discharge Facility Planning CSO/Storm Water Management Pollution Loads Reduction Outfall Relocation Effluent Trading

What Can Water Quality Model Do?


For policy development, implementation and development management:
Water and Sediment Criteria Development Develop Goals and Objectives for Water Bodies Water Resources Management Watershed/Sewershed Management Waste Load Allocation and Load Allocation (TMDL) Tracking Progress toward Achieving Goals Assess when Appropriate Goals and Objectives Will be Met

Wuhan Water Quality Modeling Main Obj ti M i Objectives/Significances /Si ifi


First ADB funded water quality modeling project in China

Objectives:
Develop water quality modeling system i selected pilot water b di D l t lit d li t in l t d il t t bodies such as Yangtze River, Han River, East Lake and South Lake Provide a scientific supporting system to (i) optimize the outfall-layout plans for rivers and lakes (ii) carry out analysis to understand the lakes, contribution of wastewater treatment works on water quality improvement. and (iii) develop a drinking water safety and emergency response mechanism. To enhance water environment management in Wuhan and also provide assistances to the improvement/restoration of water environment quality.

WQM Pilot Water Bodies

Han

Yangtze

East Lake

South Lake

Scope of Work
Collection of Existing data

Additional Sampling/ Monitoring

Modeling of Rivers

SOW

Modeling of Lakes

Improve Existing GIS database

Establish WQM Platform

Water Quality Evaluation Tools: Mathematical Modeling M th ti l M d li


Mathematical Models Were Used to Understand Past, Evaluate Present and Predict Future What if Water Quality in the System:

(1) Watershed Model (CSO, Stormwater, Runoff )

(2) ( ) Hydrodynamic & Sediment Transport Model

(3) Receiving Water Models: Eutrophication E t hi ti Pathogen Chemical Fate Chemical Spill Oil Spill & More

Simulated PS, NPS, Piping and Sub-basins around East Lake

Layout of sub-basins, Piping and Discharge points around E t d East Lake System

Model Result Contour Plots (CHL-a)

Application: Storm Water Impact pp p

Application: Discharge Ab t Di h Abatement S t Scenario (2006-2010) i (2006 2010)


100 Cell (6,13): 80

Chl-a a(ug/L)

60

40

20

0 0 2006 2007 731 2008 2009 1461 2010

Time(year)

ExampleLake Veluwe

100 Cell (6,13): 80

C h l-a (u g /L ) L

60

40

20

0 0 2006 2007 731 2008 2009 1461 2010

Time(year)

Grid at Conference of Rivers

Surface Temperature and Current ModelingWinter

Han River Water Pollution Incident


Accident location Zongguan WTP Han River

Location: 3km upstream of WTP Discharge: 10m3/s Concentration: 100 mg/L Duration: 3 hours

Yangtze River

Duration (hours) Concentration (mg/L)

Water Environment Management Decision Supporting System

De De ecision su ecision su upporting upporting g g

Data mana Data mana D D agement agement

WQM Platform Structure - Overall

Wat quality evaluation Wat quality evaluation ter ter y y

Model database

Result database

Wat quality simulati ter y ion and pre and pre ediction ediction

Integrated WQM Platform

Model s M system

Monitor database

GIS sy ystem
GIS database

Integrated WQ modeling Management Platform

Water Quality Model Results Display

Eutrophication Simulation

Model Application
Storm Water Impact Simulation

3D Display Effect

Selected Cross-section Display

Model Platform Display at Control Center

Application of Water Quality Model (WQM) for Yangtze and Han River Drinking Water Emergency Response Mechanism

Wuhan Web-GIS Water Quality Monitoring, WebForecasting, and Emergency Response System (WWWQMFER)

Static Infor

Interface
Region Shortcut R i Sh t t Time Control Base Map

Time varying

Spills

Zoom Layer Time Series Languages

Model Grid Overlays with Satellite Image y g

Currents and Depth with Satellite Image p g

ECOM Simulated River Currents

Simulated Fecal Coliform

Time Series Plot of Simulated Fecal Coliform

Spill Simulation Setup p p

Spill location Spill time and simulation length Historic Spill run

Oil Spill Model Results Display

Oil Spill Weathering ProcessEvaporation

Oil Spill Simulation in East Lake

Run Online Chemical Spill Model p

Legend: Particles & Max Dissolved Concentration g

Legend: Floating Chemicals g g

Step 1 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 2 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 3 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 4 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 5 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 6 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 7 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 8 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 9 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 10 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 11 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 12 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 13 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 14 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 15 ( min interval) p (20 )

Step 16 ( min interval) p (20 )

Weathering Information (Surface) g ( )

Weathering Information (Water Column)

Can Be Used by ArcGIS y

GOOGLE Earth Connection

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