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A) Guess and Check

Problem Solving Busra went to her grandfather's farm. Her grandfather has chickens and goats on his farm. She asked him how many chickens and how many goats. Because her grandfather likes mathematical puzzles, he told her that his animals had 26 heads and 68 legs and from that information she could calculate the number of chickens and the number of goats. If you were Busra, how would you solve the problem?

Understand the problem All animals in the farm had 26 heads and 68 legs. Whereas chicken has a head & 2 legs, while goat has a head & 4 legs. Calculate the number of chickens and goats.

Plan Lets the number of chicken be p, the number of goats be q, Thus, p + q = 26 2p + 4q = 68

Do / Act out
Guess 1 2 3 Chickens 13 20 18 Goats 13 6 8 Number of heads 26 26 26 Number of legs 78 64 68

1.

You see that the number of legs you guessed is too high.So guess again.you have to add more chickens and subtract some goats.

2.

Now you have 64 legs and you need four more. But you can't add any more heads, since 26 is the correct number of heads. So you take away two chickens (two heads and four legs) and add two goats (two heads and eight legs). Now you have the correct answer: 18 chickens and 8 goats.

3.

Check 18 chickens will have 18 heads & 36 legs. 8 goats will have 8 heads & 32 legs.

Subsitute p = 18, q = 8 into equation p + q = 26, 18 + 8 = 26

Subsitute p = 18, q = 8 into equation 2p + 4q = 68, 2(18) + 4(8) = 68

Thus, there are 18 chickens & 8 goats in the farm.

B) Construct a table
Problem Solving: Holly checked a book out of the library and read this notice about fines: It a book is 1 day overdue, the fine is 10 sen, 2 days overdue, 20 sen, 3 days overdue, 40 sen, and so on. It Holly's book is 7 days overdue, how much is her fine?

Understand the problem How much is the fine for 1 day? (10 sen) How much is the fine for 2 days? (20 sen) How much is the fine for 3 days? (40 sen)

y y y

Devise a Plan How much would the fine be for 4 days if we double the previous day? (80 sen) y How much is the fine for 5 days? (RM 1.60)

Carry Out the Plan Day Fine( sen) 1 10 2 20 3 40 4 80 5 160 6 320 7 640

Thus, Hollys fine is 640 sen, that is RM6.40.

Check G.P. 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 T1 T2 r Tn T7 = a = 10 = 20 = T1/ T2 = 2 = = (10) ( )

= (10)(64) =640 Thus, Hollys fine for overdue 7 days is RM6.40

C) Working backwards
Marty did two of the following activities. He paid for them with a RM 10.00 note. His change was RM 3.75. Which two activities did Marty do? Activity Cost

Movies Putt-Putt Golf

RM3.50 RM3.00

Skating

RM2.00

Go-Kart Rides

RM2.75

Understand the Problem How many activities did he do? (2) How much money did he have? (RM10.00) What was his change? (RM3.75)

y y y

Devise a plan How much money did he have? (RM10.00) What was the change? (RM3.75) How much did he spend? (RM6.25) If he saw the movies and golfed, how much money would he have spent? (RM6.50) Did he do these 2 activities? (No, they cost too much.)

y y y

Carry Out the Plan SITUATION 1: First, the amount that he spends: RM10 - RM3.75 = RM6.25 The money that he left if he watch movie: RM6.25 - RM3.50 = RM2.75 The money that he left if he go to skating: RM2.75 - RM2.00 = RM0.75(too little) Thus, he did not do these 2 activities because the amount of these 2 activities is not the amount that he spent. SITUATION 2: First, the amount that he spends: RM10 - RM3.75 = RM6.25 The money that he left if he watch movie: RM6.25 - RM3.50 = RM2.75 The money that he left if he plays Go-Kart Rides: RM 2.75 - RM2.75 = RM 0 Thus, Movies and go- cart are the activities that Marty do.

Check The amount of change: RM3.75 The cost of movie: RM3.50 The cost of Go-Kart Rides: RM2.75 So, the total money that Marty has RM2.75 + RM3.50 + RM3.75 = RM10

D) Looking For A Pattern


Problem Solving: Two straight lines will have two intersection points. What is the maximum number of intersection points that can be made with 5 straight lines?

Understand the problem How many intersection points if there is only one straight line? (none) How many intersection points if there are two straight lines? (1) How many intersection points if there are three straight lines? (3)

y y y

Devise a Plan How many would the intersection points be if there are four straight lines? ( 6) Lets look at each intersection point of every line. Then perhaps we will notice a pattern. For example, 1 straight line does not have intersection point, 2 straight lines have 1 intersection point, 3 straight lines have 4 intersection points and so on. A pattern of numbers arranged in a particular order.

y y

Carry Out the Plan Line 1 intersection point 0

2
4 6

2
5 10

The number of sequence = 0, 1, 3, 6, 10 Thus, the maximum intersection points of 5 straight lines are 10.

Check T n = (T T 1 = (T
n 1)

+ (n 1) + (1 1)

1 1)

= 0+0

=0 T 2 = (T
2 1)

+ (2 1)

= 0+1 =1 T 3 = (T
3 1)

+ (3 1)

= 1+2 =3 T 4 = (T
4 1)

+ (4 1)

= 3+3 =6 T 5 = (T
5 1)

+ (5 1)

= 6+4 = 10 So, the maximum intersection points of 5 straight lines are 10.

E) Draw A Diagram
Problem Solving: A boats speed meter reads 20 miles per hours going down stream and it reaches its destination in of an hour. If the return trip takes one hour at the speed of 20 miles per hour, how fast is the current?

Understand the problem A boat reaches its destination in of an hour by using the speed of 20 miles per hour. But it takes 1 hour to return to the starting point with the same speed. Find the speed (rate) of the current.

Devise a plan Draw a diagram of the situation.

Use the formula. Distance = Speed (Rate) x Time Let c be the rate of the current. If the boat is moving upstream against the current, the speed of the boat is slow down by the current, because the current is pushing against the boat and holding it back. If the boat is moving downstream follow the current, the speed of the boat is increased by the current, since the current is actually pushing the boat.

According to the above statement, The actual speed when moving upstream is Speed = 20 - the current ( S = 20 - c ) The actual speed when moving downstream is Speed = 20 + the current ( S = 20 + c )

Carry Out The Plan Since the boat is moving back and forth, the distances are the same. Let D1 be the distance moving upstream, D2 be the distance moving downstream. D=SxT D1 = D2 (S x T) 1 = (S x T) 2 1(20 c) = (20 + c) 4(20 c) = 3(20 + c) 80 4c = 60 + 3c 80 60 = 3c + 4c 20 = 7c C = 20/7 Therefore, the speed of the current is 20/7 miles per hour.

Check Check to see if the distance going downstream is equal to the distance going upstream using D=S x T Upstream, D1 = 1(20 c) = 1(20 20/7) = 17 1/17 miles Downstream, D2 = (20 + c) =(20 + 20/7) =(22 6/7) = 17 1/7 miles

F) Simultaneous Equation
Problem Solving: Maybelle bought ten greeting cards consisting of birthday cards costing RM 1.50 each and anniversary cards costing RM 2.00 each. If the total cost of the cards was RM 17.00, find the number of each kind of card that Maybelle bought.

Understand the problem Maybelle bought 10 pieces of greeting card. Find how many birthday cards and how many anniversary cards that Maybelle bought. If birthday cards cost RM 1.50 each and anniversary cards cost RM 2.00 each.

Devise a plan Form 2 simultaneous equations from the problem Let x be the number of birthday cards and y be the number of anniversary cards. x + y = 10 x (1.50) + y (2.00) = 17.00

Carry Out The Plan Solve the simultaneous equation. x + y = 10 ------------------------------------ equation 1 x (1.50) + y (2.00) = 17.00 --------------- equation 2 From equation 1, x = 10 y ---------- equation 3

Substitute equation 3 into equation1, (10 y)(1.5) + y (2.00) = 17.00 15 1.5y + 2y = 17 -1.5y +2y = 17 15

0.5y = 2 y=4 When y = 4, x + 4 =10 x = 10 4 x=6 Therefore, Maybelle bought 6 birthday cards and 4 anniversary cards.

Check 6 birthday cards and 4 anniversary cards cost (6 x RM 1.50) + (4 x RM 2.00) = RM9.00 + RM 8.00 = RM 17.00

G) Using A Formula
Problem Solving: If there are 30 red and blue marbles in a jar, and the ratio of red to blue marbles is 2:3, what is the probability that, drawing twice, you will select two red marbles if you will not return the marbles after first draw?

Understand The Problem 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 30 red and blue marbles in a jar. Ratio red: blue = 2:3 Draw twice times. Do not return back the first marble after first draw. Find the probability to select 2 red marbles

Devise a plan 1. Determine the number of red and blue marbles respectively. 2. Examine the probability using strategy of using a formula. 3. P(A) is the probability to get a red marble in the first draw. P(B) is the probability to get a red marble in the second draw without return back the marble in the first draw. 4. Formula: P(A) x P(B) because this is a dependent event problem.

Carry out the plan First, the ratio 2:3 tells us that the total of 30 marbles must be broken into 5 groups of 6 marbles, each with 2 groups of red marbles and 3 groups of blue marbles. Setting up the equation 2x + 3x = 5x =30 employs the same reasoning. Solving, 2x+ 3x =5x 5x = 30 x=6 Red marbles: 2x=2 x 6 =12 There are 12 red marbles and 18 blue marbles. Blue marbles: 3x= 3 x 6 =18

The probability of drawing a red marble on the first draw remains the same, there are 30 marbles in the jar initially, and we have 12 red marbles in the jar. First draw wont be affected. First draw: 12/30 = 2/5. The second draw, however, is different. The initial conditions have been altered by the first draw. We now have only 29 marbles in the jar and only 11 red. Second draw: 11/29 The event is a dependent event. Since we want two red marbles in a row, the question is really saying that we want a red marble on the first draw and a red marble on the second draw. The total probability is the product of the probability of first draw and probability of second draw. P(A B) = P(A) P(B) = 2/5 11/29 = 132/870 = 22/145.

Check This non-routine problem is a problem of probability of dependent event. First draw of marble will influence the second draw of the marble. From the formula given, we can get the correct answer which is product of both probabilities.

H) Make A List
Problem Solving: Place the digit 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in the circle in figure 1.2 so that the sum of the tree diagram of the three numbers on each side of the triangle is 12.

Understand the problem 1. There are number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 2. Each number is used exactly one time when arranging the number in the triangle. 3. The sum of the three numbers on each side must be 12. Devise a plan 1. This time, we will use the strategy of make a list to find the answer. 2. The figure 1.7 is in the triangle shape, so there will be one number appear in both equations. Let X be the number appear in both equation.
X

3. List down all the equation which is equal to 12.

Carry out the plan The final answer will be 12. List out all the equation that equal to 12 by using 3 number from number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Equation 1: 2+4+6=12 Equation 2: 3+4+5=12 From these two equations, we know that only combination of 2, 4, 6 and 3, 4, 5 will be equal to 12 with no repetition of the number.

X (appear in both equation) =4 4 2 6 1 3 5

Check Sum of the three numbers in one side=4+2+6 =12 Sum of three numbers in another side=4+3+5 =12 So, the arrangements of the numbers are correct.

I)

Identify A Subgoal

Problem Solving: 5 friends decided to give a party and split the costs equally. Al spent $4.75 on invitations, Betty spent $12 for drinks and $5.25 on vegetables, Carl spent $24 for pizza, Dani spent $6 on paper plates and napkins, and Ellen spend $13 on decorations. Determine who pays money to whom and how much money can be paid.

Understand the problem To find out who owes money to whom and how much money can be paid.

Device a plan Find out how much a person needs to pay - Sum up the expenditures and then divide by 5. Check who overspend and not overspent. The ones who did not overspent the money need to pay back to the person who overspent. - Use addition and subtraction method.

Carry out plan Step 1: Al Betty $ 4.75 $12.00 $ 5.25 Carl Dani $24.00 $ 6.00

Ellen + $13.00 ` Total $65.00

= $13 (per person) Each of them have decided to split the cost equally. Total cost = $65

Therefore, each of them needs to pay up $13. Al $13 - $4.75 = $8.25

Dani $13 - $6.00 = $7.00 Ellen $13 - $13.00 = $0 Betty $13 - $17.25 = - $4.25 Carl $13 - $24.00 = - $11.00

Since Al has the balance of $8.25 and Betty is lack of $4.25, then Al has to pay to Betty. Al Betty = $8.25-$4.25 = $4.00 (Als balance) Since Dani has the balance of $7 and Carl is lack of $11, then Dani has to pay to Carl. Dani Carl = $7-$11 = -$4.00 (Amount of money Carl still lack of) Since Al has the balance of $4 and Carl is still lack of $4, then Al has to pay to Carl. Al-Carl=$4-$4 =$0

Check Total of balance Total of money lack of = $0 ($8.25+$7) - ($4.25+$11) = $15.25-$15.25 = $0 Therefore, Al is to pay back Betty and Carl; Dani is to pay back Carl.

J) Act it out
Problem Solving: Three missionaries and three cannibals wish to cross a river. There is a boat that can carry up to three people, and either missionaries or cannibals can operate the boat. However, it is never permissible for the cannibals to outnumber the missionaries either in the boat or on the shore.

Understand the problem 3 missionaries 3 cannibals 1 boat 3 people How are the cannibals and missionaries going to get to other side? Devise a plan y y y y y y Try to find five more people to do this with, because this is an "Act it Out" problem. Choose who is going to be a missionary and who is going to be a cannibal. Each person is a missionary or a cannibal, it depends on how you divide the people. Choose something to be the river then start. Now start acting out by taking turns going across the river, if there are more cannibals than missionaries, then start over. Keep acting until you get the answer.

Carry out the plan You take 1 missionary and 1 cannibal across. Then have the missionary go back and pick a missionary and another cannibal. Then drop the cannibal off. Have the missionary go back and bring last cannibal across. Drop off both missionaries and have the cannibal go get the last missionary.

Check If you take the cannibals across one at a time with one or more missionaries, there will never be more cannibals in the boat or on the shore.

K) Logical Reasoning Problem Solving: MC,Thomas,and Andrew decided to go to Freeza's Pizza's, where each one chose one of three kinds of pizza: suasage, cheese, or pepperoni. Using the following clues, who ordered which kind of pizza? A. Thomas eats anything that is spelled with a double letter. B. MC loves pizza, but she can't eat anything with too much dairy in it. C. Andrew said he would settle for whatever kind was left. Understand the problem 1. 2. 3. 4. MC, Thomas and Andrew went to Freezas Pizzas. There are 3 kinds of pizzas. Each of them have to choose 1 pizza. Using the clues given, trace out who will choose what pizza.

Devise a plan Now using Logical Reasoning fill out the table below by putting an X in the kind of pizza each person would want. You will need to copy the table on a piece of paper. PERSON PEPPERONI CHEESE SUASAGE MC THOMAS ANDREW

Carry out a plan

Check

Answer:
PERSON PEPPERONI CHEESE SAUSAGE

MC THOMAS ANDREW

X X X

Now I hope you understand the term Logical Reasoning, and you can use it real life situations.