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UNIVERSITATEA DANUBIUS" DIN GALAI DEPARTAMENTUL DE NVMNT LA DISTAN SI FRECVENTA REDUSA FACULTATEA DE TIINE ECONOMICE

ENGLISH FOR ECONOMICS - III IIndYear, lstSemester

LIVIU-MIHAIL MARINESCU

Editura Universitar Danubius, Galai 2011

Toate drepturile pentru aceast lucrare sunt rezervate autorului. Reproducerea ei integral sau fragmentar este interzis.

Editura Universitar Danubius" este recunoscut de Consiliul Naional al Cercetrii tiinifice din nvmntul Superior (cod 111/2006)

ISBN 978-606-533-154-9

Tipografia ZigOttO Galai


Tel: 0236.477171

CONTENTS
1. Studying English for Economics. Textual Approach
Economic Systems Basic Types of Economic Systems. Part of a Social System Divisions of Economic Systems Generalities upon the Elements of a Business Letter. Short Review Specific Objectives of the Learning Unit Abstract Self-Evaluation Tests Key to the Self-Evaluation Tests Minimal Bibliography

2. Contract Letter -Request To Expedite Payments


Contract Letter -Request To Expedite Payments Language Approach -Part 1 Specific Objectives of the Learning Unit Abstract Self-Evaluation Tests Key to the Self-Evaluation Tests Minimal Bibliography

3. Studying English for Economics. Monetary Stability and Production. Textual Approach
Monetary Stability Manufacturing Modern Guilds Specific Objectives of the Learning Unit Abstract Self-Evaluation Tests Key to the Self-Evaluation Tests

Control test 4. Business

Correspondence -Letter of Reference


Business Correspondence -Letter of Reference Language Approach -Part 2 Specific Objectives of the Learning Unit Abstract Self-Evaluation Tests Key to the SelfEvaluation Tests Control test Minimal Bibliography

List of References (A Selective Bibliography)

INTRODUCTION
The module titled ENGLISH FOR ECONOMICS- III, which is studied in the second year, first semester, aims at obtaining specific skills pertaining to the knowledge and use of English by those working in an economic environment. After studying and learning the content of this module, you will acquire the following general skills: Performing practicai activities particular to this discipline with proficiently using various scientific research instruments and approaches. Reading, explaining and interpreting English texts Translating economic texts from English to Romanian and vice versa Developing a constructive and mature standpoint with regard to this scientific field as well as to other domains of interest involving similar skills Theframe objectives which I suggest you to attain are the following: ^Jjk ;; U - acquiring factual expertise of English grammar and economic vocabulary; - the substanial capability of resourcefully using English vocabulary in both * ; the written and spoken systems; - the consistent and systematic language development in view of scientifically approaching English texts belonging to different economic fields of interest; - proficiently using lexical units specific to economic activities; - efficiently operating with English commercial correspondence elements. The content is structured according to the following learning units: Studying English for Economics - Textual Approach Contract Lefter -Request To Expedite Payments Studying English for Economics -Monetary Stability and Production Business Correspondence -Letter ofReference

In the first studying unit titled Studying English for Economics - The Economic System you will acquire the following specific skills: - build up a text describing the main ideas in an economic reading unit; - write a paragraph describing your own opinion concerning the learning unit; - use certain words and expressions in drawing up a text of your own concerning the economic systems; - use elements of commercial correspondence.

After studying the contents of the unit and using the recommended bibliography, I suggest you should do the included set of exercises both for practice and seif- evaluaion.
- In the second studying unit titled Contract Letter -Request To Expedite

Payments you will acquire the following specific skills: build up sentences using the key words in the learning unit; - use new elements of commercial correspondence; - use commercial abbreviations and acronyms. After dealing with the essential information from the first unit, go on to the third learning unit, i.e. Studying English for Economics - Monetary Stability and Production, which is to help you acquire a new amount of knowledge and also new skills, which are: - using key words from the learning unit, build up sentences which are further to be included in grammatically correct economic texts of your own; - compose sentences using terms from the sphere of manufacturing; - draw up a short business letter using as pattern the text of the learning unit. In order to assess your degree of knowledge assimilation, you will pass through a control test, which you will further receive corrected and added with the adequate strategy for you to use when learning the subsequent units. After studying the information presented, you will pass to the fourth unit -Business Correspondence -Letter of Refer ence - in which you will acquire new amounts of knowledge and new skills: - build up sentences using the key words in the learning unit; - use new elements of commercial correspondence; - use commercial abbreviations and acronyms. In order to assess your degree of knowledge assimilation, you will pass through a control test, which you will further receive corrected for a better understanding of your actual English performance. An efficient learning requires from you the observing of the following steps: Read the module very carefully; Use colours to mark essential information, note it on a paper or use the white space to put it down; Answer the questions and do the exercises; Imitate the final evaluation, proposing yourself a theme and dealing with it without using the written support; Compare the result with the course and explain why you have skipped over several sequences; In case you are not satisfied with your learning result, you should immediately restart the whole learning process from the very beginning. You will be administered control texts all along the studying process. You will answer all requirements in written, using the course support and the indicated extra-materials. You will be assessed according to the degree in which you succeeded in attaining the mentioned objectives. The accuracy of your doing the test, the presentation itself, and the promptness of your answer will be carefully taken into account. For further details and information do not hesitate to contact the indicated instructor.

1. STUDYING ENGLISH FOR ECONOMICS. THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM


1.1. Economic Systems 1.2. Basic Types of Economic Systems. Part of a Social System 1.3. Divisions of Economic Systems 1.4. Generalities upon the Elements of a Business Letter. Short Review 1.5. Contract Letter -Request To Expedite Payments 1.6. Language Approach -Part 1 Specific Objectives of the Learning Unit Abstract Self-Evaluation Tests Key to the Self-Evaluation Tests Minimal Bibliography

Specific objectives: At the end of this chapter you will have the capacity to:

build up a text describing the main ideas in an economic reading unit; write a paragraph describing your own opinion concerning the learning unit; use certain words and expressions in drawing up a text of your own concerning the economic systems; use elements of commercial correspondence.

Average time estimatedfor the individual study: 8 hours

1.1. Economic Systems


An economic system is the system of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services of an economy. Alternatively, it is the set of principles and techniques by which problems of economics are addressed, such as the economic problem of scarcity through allocation of finite productive resources. The economic system is composed of people and institutions, including their relationships to productive resources, such as through the convention of property. Examples of contemporary economic systems include capitalist systems, socialist systems, and mixed economies. "Economic systems" is the economics category that includes the study of respective systems. System Types "Hands on " systems "Hands-on " Private-oriented Systems "Hands-on" State-oriented Systems "Hands-on" Communal-oriented Systems "Hands off" systems "Hands-off" Private-oriented Systems "Hands-off State-oriented Systems "Hands-off Communal-oriented Systems "Compromise " Mixed systems An economic system can be defined as a "set of methods and standards by which a society decides and organizes the allocation of limited economic resources to satisfy unlimited human wants. At one extreme, production is carried in a private-enterprise system such that all resources are privately owned. It was described by Adam Smith as frequently promoting a social interest, although only a private interest was intended. At the other extreme, following Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin is what is commonly called a pure-communist system, such that all resources are publicly owned with intent of minimizing inequalities of wealth among other social objectives". Alternatively, 'economic system' refers to the organizational arrangements and process through which a society makes its production and consumption decisions. In creating and modifying its economic system, each society chooses among alternative objectives and alternative decision modes. Many objectives may be seen as desirable, like efficiency, growth, liberty, and equality.

BASIC BUSINESS TERMINOLOGY - ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY AND EXAMPLES advertising - show your products to customers through radio, television or newspapers "What is the best way for us to advertise our product?" afford - able to buy, have enough money to buy "Television is the best advertising, but the most expensive. Can we afford it?" agenda - a detailed plan for a meeting. "The first item on our agenda is advertising. " booming - business is growing very fast "This year business is booming, so we can start thinking about increasing our investments. " borrow - getting money from someone else, or from a bank, which we must pay back later "We need to borrow $100,000 to expand our business. " brand- the name of a well-known product (McDonald's, Coca Cola, Volkswagen, etc.) "We'll need to borrow money for advertising, then we'll build our brand awareness. " break even - when our spending equals the amount we receive from sales "The company didn 't make money nor lose money during the last quarter. They just broke even." bribe - secretly paying money to get special favors from a company or government official "She was sent to prison for 30 years for trying to bribe a high official. " budget - a detailed plan for spending money "The second item on our agenda is the budget We need to pay special attention to advertising, marketing and building our sales staff. Oh, and we need to significantly increase our budget for English teachers! " calculate - to count, add, subtract, multiply, divide numbers "It's not hard to calculate - if we keep spending more money than we take in, we'll have to sell more! " cancel - to decide NOT to buy something that you had agreed to before "Before they cancel the order, find out what the problem is and fix it! " capital - money "If we had more capital to invest, we would build a new factory. " charge for - ask money for payment "We never charge for repairs. Making sure our products work is included in the purchase price."

CEO - the top officer in a company, the chief executive officer "How can we find a good CEO who knows how to run a business in today's business environment? " CFO - the top financial officer in a company "The CFO will be attending today's meeting to talk about fundamental accounting principles." commission - a percentage of each sale that goes directly to the salesperson "Our salespeople get 10% for each item sold, but that increases as he or she sells more. " competition - other companies that make the same product as yours "We face tough competition, but our product has some important advantages. " consumption - the total amount of product bought in a market "Although prices have fallen, overall consumption is higher, so we can still make money. " credit - when you buy first, but pay later "You can buy this product on credit The payment will be due in 90 days. " currency - the money of one country "If you exhange currency in the airport, you 'II pay a large commission. Go to a bank instead " deadline - the time by which some project must be finished "We have to finish this by Friday. That's the final deadline. " demand- the wish of customers to buy a product "Until demand increases, we won't sell many of our most expensive products. " discount - a lower price "Ifyou buy more than 100 of these, we will give you a 10% discount". distribution - getting the product to the final consumer, or customer "Our distribution system needs to be improved if we are to meet increased demand " diversify - start many new businesses instead of doing just one "If we diversify, we can make more money, but sales of our main product may go down. " economics - the study of finance and money "If you want to succeed in business, you should study economics. " employee - a worker "Employees today need to learn so much to be able to move up in the company. "

employer - the person who finds and pays workers "My employer told me I have to work overtime or I'll lose my job! " estimate - a guess about how much something will cost "We estimate the new factory will cost less than 20 million euros. " export - to send goods out of a country "As the local currency drops in value, our exports to that country also drop. " extend- to give more, especially a loan of money "The bank said they cannot extend the deadline. We have to pay by Friday or face the consequences." finance - the study of money and how to use money well "After you study finance, you will know how to increase profits and limit losses. " fund - to provide money in general "The CFO said the company plans to fund 50% of the project The rest will come from the government" gross - amount of money received from sales "We took in more than $100 million in gross sales last year. import - to bring goods into a country "When our currency is strong, we can import more goods into our own country. " incentive - a special price to get customers to buy "By offering a 15% discount as an incentive, we'll attract many new customers. " income tax - money paid to the government, based on total money received "I thought I made enough money last year, but after paying 25% income tax, I didn 't have enough to buy that new house. " inflation - rising prices "Rising energy prices have caused many other prices to increase. The rate of inflation has increased to 7%." install- to put in and prepare for use, as with a machine "Ifyou buy now, we 'II install this machine for free. " interest - extra money needed to pay back borrowed money " When you pay back the 100,000 euros, you must also pay 10% interest, so the total will be 110,000 euros." inventory - unsold items that you keep so that you can sell them in the future

"Our inventory is very low right now. We have to increase build up our inventory to meet demand in the coming year. invest - spending money so that we can make more in the future "If we invest so much money in a new factory, we won't have any money in our budget for new advertising." invoice - a paper which explains what was sold and at what prices "Look at the invoice. You charged us for repairs that you said were free! " leadership - the skill of managing people "He has natural leadership skills, so he will surely be successful. " lend - giving money to someone else, which they will pay back to us later "When did you lend him the money? I lent it to him two months ago. " loss - when we spend more money than we receive from selling our product "We took a loss last year, but this year we are spending less and selling more. " lucrative - the possibility of making a great amount of money "This could be a very lucrative contract! Well make money for each sale as well as for each installation! " maintain - keep a machine in good condition "Ifyou maintain this product, it will last for years. " management - the study of how to run a business and lead people "Iplan to study management before I open my own business. " memo - a paper with a message, sent to other people in the same company "The CFO read the CEO's memo at the meeting, to remind the employees of the company's strategic goals." monopoly - when only one company controls a whole market "With this new product, we can break our competitor's monopoly. " negotiate - try to get a better price or make a better arrangement "We negotiated for hours before they finally gave us a 20% discount. " net - the amount of money received from sales, after expenses are subtracted "Our gross sales were very good, but we need to cut expenses to add to our net sales. " principal - the main part of a loan, before interest is added "We can pay back the pincipal in 10 years, then we will only have to repay the interest " process (verb) - get something ready.

"Please process his employement application, then send him to the accounting office. " profit - the money left over after all expenses are paid " Our profits are lower this year, but at least we're not losing money! " quarter - three months of the year, the usual time for planning and reporting financial reports "Last quarter was our best ever, and I am confident next quarter will be even better. " recruit - search for and choose workers "We'll need to recruit new employees before the factory starts operation. " refund - giving money back to the customer if there is a problem with the item you sell "We cannot give you a refund after 90 days. Sorry! " resign - quit a job suddenly "Nobody knows why the CFO quit, but some people say he didn't get along with the CEO. " retail - selling to the final customer "The retail price is 150 euros, but you can buy it for less if you bargain. " retire -finish work after a long career (at age 65 in the U.S., 60 in Japan, 55 in China,..) "I've saved enough money for my retirement, but if I want to retire to Hawaii, I have to save even more! " sales tax - money paid to the government, based on sales made "In most states in the U.S., sales tax is added on after the sale. It varies from state to state. " salary - a monthly or yearly pay to managers of important workers "We will have a salary increase of 7% this year, just enough to keep up with inflation. " saturated- too many companies producing the same product "The market for product A is already saturated We need to diversify if we wish to increase our profits." sluggish - when business is slow (opposite of "booming") "In this sluggish economy, the best we can hope for is to break even. " supply - the total amount of a product available in a market "The supply of computer parts is too high, so the price is falling fast " target - the amount that you plan to sell in a month (also "quota ") "The salesman reached his target by the 24th. He'll get a larger commission on any sales after that." tariff- a tax on imports from another country "If the government puts a tariff on electronic products, sales will fall "

terms - the details of an agreement or contract "The terms of this contract are quite good I think we have a deal! " trend- movement in one direction, especially about product becoming more and more popular "The trend towards more colorful fashion is getting stronger. We need to develop new products." unit cost - the average amount needed to produce a product "If we can produce more of these, our unit price will fall, and we'll be able to make a better profit." warranty - a promise that the things you sell will be of good quality "This product has a one-year warranty, but if you pay a small fee, we can extend it to five years." wholesale - selling to a salesman who will then sell to the final customer "The wholesale price is generally 50% of the retail price. "

Work Task 1
Build up a ten-line paragraph describing the main ideas in the text.

1.2. Basic Types of Economic Systems. Part of a Social System


An economic system can be considered a part of the social system and hierarchically equal to the law system, political system, cultural, etc. There is often a strong correlation between certain ideologies, political systems and certain economic systems (for example, consider the meanings of the term "communism").

Many economic systems overlap each other in various areas (for example, the term "mixed economy" can be argued to include elements from various systems). There are also various mutually exclusive hierarchical categorizations. The basic and general economic systems are: Market Economy (the basis for several "hands off" systems, such as capitalism). Mixed Economy (a compromise economic system that incorporates some aspects of the market approach as well as some aspects of the planned approach). Planned Economy (the basis for several "hands on" systems, such as socialism, or a command economy). Traditional Economy (a generic term for the oldest and traditional economic systems) Participatory Economics (a recent proposal for a new economic system) Inclusive Democracy (a project for a new political and economic system) There are several basic and unfinished questions that must be answered in order to resolve the problems of economics satisfactorily. The scarcity problem, for example, requires answers to basic questions, such as: what to produce, how to produce it, and who gets what is produced. An economic system is a way of answering these basic questions, and different economic systems answer them differently. Vocabulary: THANKS AND APOLOGIES: thanks for your... help hospitality email I'm sorry I'm really sorry Tmi pare rau Tmi pare foarte rau multumesc pentru. ajutor ospitalitate email

COMMON QUESTIONS 1: where are you? what is this? what is that? what is this called? unde eti? ce este aceasta? ce este aceea? cum se numes.te aceasta?

Work Task 2
Draw up a paragraph about five lines describing your own opinion concerning the learning unit.

1.3. Divisions of Economic Systems


Typically, "hands-on" economic systems involve a greater role for society and the state to pick goods and services, with the stated aim of ensuring social justice and a more equitable distribution of wealth or ameliorating market failures. Meanwhile, "hands-off' economic systems give more power to private businesses (and perhaps corporations) to make those decisions, rather than leaving them up to society as a whole, and often limit government involvement in the market economy. Often the primary concern of many "hands-on" economic systems that contain government involvement in market-oriented economies is usually egalitarianism, while the primary concern for traditional "hands-on" socialist economic systems was to rationalize production, better coordinate economic activity (and thus provide a superior form of economic organization and exchange to capitalism) and advance the productive forces of the economy from the perspective that the market mechanism of exchange was prone to systemic crises and inefficiencies; while the primary concern of "hands-off" economic systems is usually private property. Libertarians target individual economic freedom as a primary goal of their "hands-off policies, though in general, most types of economic systems claim that their system of economic organization is either most efficient or socially effective. The following list divides the main economic systems into "hands-on" and "hands-off," it attempts to structure the systems in a given section by alphabetical order and in a vertical hierarchy where possible. "Hands on" Systems "Hands-on" Private-oriented Systems A system in which large privately-owned entities control or direct the economy in their favor, or in which private shareholders own, and thus reap the profits, of enterprises that are operated by the state or by employee cooperatives. Fascist Economics State Corporatism

Capitalism State Capitalism

"Hands-on" State-oriented Systems Economic systems in which the state directs or controls economic activity through economic planning, with economic institutions being primarily publicly-owned. State Communism Socialism State Socialism Market Socialism Energy-Based Economics Feudalism Mercantilism "Hands-on" Communal-oriented Systems Economic systems in which a collective, such as a commune or worker cooperative, directs or plans large-scale economic activity, usually combined with workplace democratic management. Communism Anarcho-Communism (a form of libertarian socialism) Socialism Libertarian socialism Democratic Socialism (a form of socialism in which enterprises are managed democratically by workers but are owned by the state) Participatory Economics "Hands off" Systems "Hands-off" Private-oriented Systems Economic systems in which the economy is controlled privately in a usually decentralized fashion and operated based on market principles. Capitalism AnarchoCapitalism Laissez-Faire Capitalism

Corporate Capitalism Gift Economy Mutualism Syndicalism "Hands-off" State-oriented Systems Economic systems in which the state runs, owns and/or manages its own resources and enterprises in a free-market economy with minimal regulation and without government planning. Socialism Socialist Market Economy Various socialist proposals in which the means of production are owned and operated by the state in a free-market system with no government regulation Mixed economies that are more market-oriented but contain a number of state-owned enterprises that operate in the market and are subject to market forces. "Hands-off" Communal-Oriented Systems Economic systems that are characterized by decentralized cooperative or collective ownership that operate in market economies or decentralized, collectively-planned economies. Anarchist Economics Syndicalism Participatory Planning Inclusive Democracy (a project for a new political and economic system based on democratic principles and libertarian socialism) Pure Communism Mutualism (a form of libertarian socialism) Non-Property System "Compromise" Mixed systems Economic systems that contain substantial state, private and sometimes cooperative ownership and operated in mixed economies - i.e, ones that contain substantial amounts of both market activity and economic planning. Distributism Georgism Mixed Economy

American School Dirigisme Nordic Model Japanese System Mercantilism Social Market Economy also known as Soziale Marktwirtschaft Social Corporatism Socialist Commodity Economy PROUTalso known as Progressive Utilization Theory Indicative Planning also known as a planned market economy

COMMON QUESTIONS 2 is there anything wrong? what is the matter? is everything OK? really? are you sure? este ceva in neregula? care este problema? este totul in regula? serios? eti sigur?

Work Task 3
Translate the following short sample of sales contract into English

CONTRACT DE VANZARE- CUMPARARE PENTRU UN VEHICUL FOLOSIT

1. VANZATOR PERSOANA FIZICA nr............................. PERSOANA Nr. inmatriculare

.....................................,

act

de

identitate

seria

...,

JURIDICA:

la Registrul Comertului ............................. Reprezentata prin ......................................................... Domiciliul / sediul in ..........................................., str. ...................................... nr ........ Bl.............. sc.......... Ap.......... sector/ judet ...................................................,cod .................

(Stampila in cazul persoanelor juridice)

2. CUMPARATOR PERSOANA FIZICA : ......................................................, act de identitate seria . . . , nr............................. PERSOANA JURIDICA: Nr. la Registrul Comertului ............................. Reprezentata prin ........................................................., Domiciliul / sediul in ..........................................., str. ...................................... nr ........ Bl.............. sc.......... Ap.......... sector/ judet ...................................................,cod ................. inmatriculare

(Stampila in cazul persoanelor juridice)

3. OBIECTUL CONTRACTULUI Vehiculul marca .......................................... tipul ....................., numar de identificare .............................................. Serie motor ................Cilindree ............ cmc, numar de inmatriculare ................, data la care expira inspectia tehnica periodica ..........................................., numarul cartii de identitate a vehiculului.......................

4. PRETUL

in

cifre

...........................

lei

in

litere

5. Vanzatorul mentionat la punctul (1) declara ca vehiculul este proprietatea sa, libera de orice sarcini. De asemenea, declara ca a predat cumparatorului mentionat la punctul (2) vehiculul, cheile, fisa de inmatriculare si cartea de identitate a vehiculului, primind de la acesta pretul prevazut la punctul (4) Cumparatorul mentionat la punctul (2) declara ca a primit de la vanzatorul mentionat la punctul (1) vehiculul, cheile, fisa de inmatriculare si cartea de identitate a vehiculului, achitand vanzatorului pretul mentionat la punctul (4).

Anexa la contract:

Da

Nu Semnatura vanzatorului

Locul incheierii contractului.............................................. Semnatura cumparatorului Data Incepand cu data semnarii, cumparatorul dobandeste calitatea de proprietar de drept si de fapt asupra vehiculului ce face obiectul prezentului contract de vanzare-cumparare, preluand toate obligatiile prevazute de lege, inclusiv cele legate de transcrierea vehiculului pe numele sau, in maxim 30 de zile.

Am luat la cunostinta (semnatura cumparator si stampila dupa caz)

1.4. Generalities upon the Elements of a Business Letter. Short Review


The heading is also the return address to which the recipient will refer when sending a response. The writer's name is not included in the heading, as it is appears in the complimentary close at the end of the letter. It should include only the street, city, state and zip code of the letter writer. Identifying words such as Avenue, Circle, Court, Drive, and Street should be spelled out rather than abbreviated. Doing so reduces the chances of a response being sent to an incorrect address. The date a letter is written should be placed below the writer's return address information. It is the final component in the heading of a business letter. The inside address contains the mailing information belonging to the recipient and should be justified to the left margin of the letter and placed two spaces below the date (for very short letters four spaces is acceptable). As in the heading, the inside address includes the street, city, state and zip code of the recipient, all of which should be placed below the name of the business or organization to whom the letter is being written. Identifying words such as Avenue, Circle, Court, Drive, and Street should be spelled out rather than abbreviated. When the recipient' name, title and position are known, they should be included as the first two lines in the inside address and placed directly above the name of the business or organization. The salutation is a greeting. Its placement belongs two spaces below the inside address and always justified to the left margin of the letter. It should include the title and full name of the recipient, followed by a colon. Customarily the salutation begins with Dear, followed by a title such as Mr., Ms., Mrs., however, when the writer is on a first name basis with the recipient, that formality can be dropped in favour of a first name. The titles Mr., Ms., Mrs., and Dr. are always abbreviated. Other titles, such as Professor and Senator are never abbreviated. Regardless of marital status women should always be addressed as Ms.-the only exception being when the recipient has personally expressed a desire to be addressed otherwise (Miss or Mrs.). Avoid gender-based salutations when it is not known if the recipient is a man or a woman. Dear Student: Dear Customer: Dear Resident: etc. are perfectly acceptable options for gender-neutral correspondence. An impersonal device may be preferable when addressing a letter to a large organization where the recipient's name is not likely to be known. For example, Attention: Accounts Receivable or Subject: Billing Error may replace more familiar forms of greeting. The salutation, To Whom It May Concern: is very out of date-very 20th Century.

The body of a business letter begins with two spaces below the salutation or attention-getting device. Each paragraph should be single-spaced and justified to the left margin of the page with a double space separating each paragraph. It is acceptable to double space the text of a letter when the body is very short. This is done purely for cosmetic reasons, giving the letter a more visually balanced appearance on the page. In such instances it is appropriate to indent the first line of each paragraph. The complimentary close is placed two spaces below the last line of a letter's body. Customary expressions used to close a formal business letter include Thank you, Sincerely, Sincerely yours, and Yours truly. Less formal expressions such as Regards, Best regards, and Best wishes should be used only when the writer is addressing a business associate that is also a

friend.
When the expression contains two words, such as Thank you, only the first word receives an initial upper case letter A comma follows all forms of a complimentary close. Allow four spaces between the complimentary close and the typed version of the writer's full name. The space between is reserved for a handwritten signature. The writer's job position or title should appear directly below his or her name. The writer's signature should be identical to the printed version except in those situations where the recipient is also a friend, in which case a first name only is fine. The additional notation is used in a number of specific situations. These notations should be placed two spaces below the position or title line following the writer's printed signature. When a letter references one or more documents that are enclosed by the writer for the recipient, the enclosure is noted in one of the follow ing ways: Enclosure: Wholesale Pricing Packet Enclosures Enc. (Encs.) When a letter has been dictated to an assistant it should be initialed. Both writer and assistant are acknowledged with their personal initials. The writer's will appear in uppercase letters and the assistant's will appear in lowercase letters in one of the following ways: EIB:pjc IMK/pjc When copies of a letter are sent to named business associates or other interested parties, the copy recipients are acknowledged with their full name as in the following example. cc: Ms. Michaela Jackson

Vocabulary ECONOMIC TERMS EXPLAINED 1: Market: an arrangement that allows people to make exchanges with one another; whenever and wherever people voluntarily make exchanges with one another. Market Economy: Using markets as the primary means of organizing and coordinating production. Also called capitalism or free enterprise. Goods: Physical products businesses produce. Tangible items of value. Services: Products you can't touch. Work performed; intangible items of value. COMMON QUESTIONS 3: why? why not? what happened? what's going on? what's happening? de ce? de ce nu? ce s-a Tntamplat? ce se Tntampla? ce se Tntampla?

INSTRUCTIONS 1: come in! please sit down could I have your attention, please? let's go! hurry up! hang on a second hang on a minute intra te rog ia un loc a^i putea sa fi^i aten^i,va rog? sa mergem! grabete-te! stai pu^in stai un minut

Sample of Faulty product Letter (Use letter headed paper showing home/business address and phone number) Name and address (of customer service department) Date Dear Sirs Faulty (xyz) product I'm afraid that the enclosed (xyz) product doesn't work. It is the third one I've had to return this month (see attached correspondence). I bought it from ABC stores at New town, Big County on (date). I was careful to follow the instructions for use, honestly. Other than the three I've had to return recently, I've always found your products to be excellent. I'd be grateful if you could send a replacement and refund my postage (state amount). I really appreciate your help. Yours faithfully Signature Enc.

BASIC BUSINESS IDIOMS WITH EXAMPLES 1. 800 pound gorilla - the biggest, most powerful group or company Example: "If we follow our plan to make this new software, we're going to have a lot of competition, including from the 800 pound gorilla, Microsoft "

2. (a rising tide that) lifts all boats - something that helps all people or all groups Example: " We 're only number three, but the current economic growth will lift all boats, so we're sure to make a profit this year. "

3. an old hand - a person who has long experience, especially in one place Example: "He can help us set up a new company. He's been working in this industry for many years and knows the language of business - he's really an old hand at this. "

4. at the 11th hour - very late, at the very last minute Example: "The negotiated until late at night and it seemed they would never agree. Finally, at the 11th hour, they came to an agreement "

5. on a shoestring - with limited money Example: "They started their company on a shoestring and built it up to one of the largest companies in the world! "

6. bring to the table - whatever you can possibly offer Example: "I will meet with Teacher Joe's new company to show him what we can bring to the table."

7. carve out a niche -find a special market that you can control Example: "To succeed in this competitive world, you have to focus on part of it. Try to carve out a niche and be number one in that are. "

8. deep pockets - have a lot of money Example: "If there is a price war, we won't win because we don't have deep enough pockets. "

9. down time - when equipment of facilities are not available, so you cannot work Example: "There will probably be a lot of down time at the conference, so I'm bringing a lot of paperwork."

10. (draw) a line in the sand - make final conditions that cannot be changed Example: "We have to draw a line in the sand so they will see that this is really our final

offer."

11. free ride - get benefit at no cost Example: "Of course we should make them pay for our travel expenses. WHy should we give them a free ride?"

12. from day one -from the beginning Example: "Teacher Joe has been providing the best English-learning web site from day one!"

13. get your foot in the door - have a small opportunity that can become a big opportunity in the future, if you do good work Example: "Right now, I just want to get my foot in the door, so they can see what I can do. Next year I hope to start moving up in the company. "

14. I need it yesterday - an informal way to say it is needed immediately Example: "Can I send that report to you later this afternoon? " "No! I need that report yesterday! "

15. a two-way street - both people or both groups can contribute or benefit from the situation

Example: "We want to help you, but we need your help too. It should be a two-way street. "

16. it will never fly - it won't be successful Example: "We don't have to worry about their idea competing with ours. It will never fly. "

17. it's a jungle out there - it's a difficult market with many, tough competitors Example: "Do you think a new company can survise without a unique product? It's a real jungle out there! "

18. jump through hoops - trying very hard (like a dog doing tricks!) Example: "He's a tough boss. All of his subordinates have to jump through hoops to prove their loyalty to the company. "

19. put your cards on the table - be completely honest Example: "I think it's time to put all of our cards on the table. Here's what we need.. "

20. learning curve - how much time needed to learn something new Example: "This new software has a long learning curve, so we have to give our staff enough time to learn how to use it well. "

SAMPLE PROJECT AGREEMENT AND STATEMENT OF WORK

THIS PROJECT AGREEMENT AND STATEMENT OF WORK (this "Agreement") is entered into by and between the undersigned Buyer and Service Provider as of the Effective Date. The Buyer and Service Provider are sometimes referred to collectively herein as the "Parties" and individually as a "Party." This Agreement is made in pursuance of the Project described herein, on the marketplace for services owned by Elance, Inc. ("Elance") at the domain and sub-domains of www.elance.com (the "Site"). All capitalized terms not defined in this Agreement have the meanings given to such terms in the Terms of Service Agreement ("Terms of Service") available at the Site, unless the context requires otherwise.

BACKGROUND AND INITIAL OBLIGATIONS.

1.1

The "Buyer" is:

Elance ID: Legal Name: Type of Legal Organization or Proprietorship: Jurisdiction of Organization: Address of Principal Place of Business:

1.2

The "Service Provider" is:

1.3

The "Project" is: Elance Proj ect ID: Elance Proj ect Name:

1.4 Milestone Deliverables. The Parties will submit the following "Milestone Deliverables," "Delivery Dates," and "Amounts" in the Web form at the "Business Terms" page for the Project on the Site:

Milesto ne Deliver able 1. 2. 3. 4. Final Delivery Date & Amount

Deliv ery Date

Amo unt

US$

1.5 Statement of Work. If Buyer and Service Provider have agreed to a written statement of work, written project plan, or other written communication to specify in more detail the Project scope, required features or functionality, deliverables, milestones, development methods, resources, communications, training, acceptance, change control, payment, or other terms, such writing ("SOW") is incorporated in and made a part of this Agreement. The SOW may be appended to this Agreement as an Attachment.

1.6 Private Message Board; Upload. Service Provider will upload a true and correct copy of both this Agreement and any SOW as fully executed, to the "Private Message Board" for the Project at the Site. Buyer will consult the Private Message

Board to confirm that the Agreement and any SOW posted on the Private Message Board are true and correct as fully executed. By entering into a course of dealing with each other in connection with the Project, Service Provider and Buyer are contractually agreeing to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, the Business Terms, and any SOW as posted on the Private Message Board, and to the further terms and conditions of the Terms of Service.

1.7 Escrow. The Parties [___]will / [_ __]will not require "Escrow" in the Business Terms for the Project. If Escrow is required, the Escrow Terms and Conditions contained in the Terms of Service will govern this Agreement.

2.

ENGAGEMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF SERVICES.

2.1 Project Work Product. Buyer hereby engages Service Provider to deliver the Work Product to Buyer, and Buyer will pay Service Provider for the Project Work Product, in accordance with the terms and conditions of this Agreement and the Terms of Service. As used in this Agreement, the "Work Product" means any and all work product developed by Service Provider as required to complete the Project and delivered to the Buyer in the performance of the Project, as specified in the Business Terms, the SOW, and this Agreement.

2.2 Performance. Service Provider will perform the services necessary to complete the Project in accordance with the procedures described on the Site, in a timely and professional manner, consistent with industry standards, at a location, place and time that Service Provider deems appropriate, and all in accordance with the Business Terms, the SOW, and this Agreement. The manner and means that Service Provider chooses to complete the Project are in Service Provider's sole discretion and control. In completing the Project, Service Provider agrees to provide its own equipment, tools, and other materials at its own expense.

2.3 Duration of Services. The duration of performance of services under this Agreement commences on the Effective Date and terminates on the Final Delivery Date set forth in Section 1.4 above, unless the Parties otherwise agree in a writing signed by both parties and uploaded to the Private Message Board

2.4 Change Control. "Provider" will provide "Buyer" project management with comprehensive status reporting on a regular basis. These reports will indicate the work activities performed, progress against project milestones, as well as any expenses incurred in the furtherance of this work to date.

Material deviations from the baseline scope and budget documented herein will be mutually reviewed and agreed by Provider and Buyer. The following provides the process to be followed for any such material change to the SOW:

A Change Request ("CR") will be the vehicle for requesting a change to the SOW. The CR will describe the change, the rationale for the change, the impact on the implementation timeline, and the impact on the Compensation. Both Provider and Buyer may initiate a CR. 2. The designated Project Manager of the requesting party will review the CR and determine whether to submit the CR to the other party. 3. Both Project Managers will review the proposed CR and either approve for further investigation or reject. Provider may specify additional charges for such investigation. If the investigation is authorized, the Project Managers will sign the estimation portion of the CR, which constitutes authorization for the investigative changes. The investigation will determine the effect that the implementation of the CR will have on compensation, schedule and other terms and conditions of the Agreement. 4. A written CR must be signed by both Buyer and Provider to authorize implementation of the CR.
1.

3. COMPENSATION. Buyer will pay Service Provider the fee specified for the Project in accordance with the Business Terms, any SOW, and the Terms of Service. Payment will be made by Buyer to Service Provider through the Site in accordance with the Elance Payment Service and, if applicable, the Escrow Terms and Conditions, promptly upon each acceptance of the Project Work Product. Service Provider will be responsible for all expenses incurred in performing services under this Agreement, except and only to the extent expressly provided in this Agreement, the Business Terms, or SOW.

4. INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR RELATIONSHIP Service Provider's relationship with Buyer will be that of an independent contractor, and nothing in this Agreement should be construed to create a partnership, joint venture, or employer-

employee relationship. Service Provider (a) is not the agent of Buyer; (b) is not authorized to make any representation, contract, or commitment on behalf of Buyer; (c) will not be entitled to any of the benefits that Buyer makes available to its employees, such as group insurance, profit-sharing or retirement benefits (and waives the right to receive any such benefits); and (d) will be solely responsible for all tax returns and payments required to be filed with or made to any federal, state, or local tax authority with respect to Service Provider's performance of services and receipt of fees under this Agreement. If applicable, Buyer will report amounts paid to Service Provider by filing Form 1099-MISC with the Internal Revenue Service, as required by law. Service Provider agrees to fill out form W-9 or W8-BEN, as applicable, and as required by Buyer. Service Provider agrees to accept exclusive liability for complying with all applicable state and federal laws, including laws governing self-employed individuals, if applicable, such as laws related to payment of taxes, social security, disability, and other contributions based on fees paid to Service Provider under this Agreement. Buyer will not withhold or make payments for social security, unemployment insurance or disability insurance contributions, or obtain workers' compensation insurance on Service Provider's behalf. Service Provider hereby agrees to indemnify and defend Buyer against any and all such taxes or contributions, including penalties and interest. Service Provider agrees to provide proof of payment of appropriate taxes on any fees paid to Service Provider under this Agreement upon reasonable request of Buyer.

5.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

5.1 Inventions and Intellectual Property Rights. As used in this Agreement, the term "Invention" means any ideas, concepts, information, materials, processes, data, programs, know-how, improvements, discoveries, developments, designs, artwork, formulae, other copyrightable works, and techniques and all Intellectual Property Rights therein. The term "Intellectual Property Rights" means all trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks, mask work rights, patents and other intellectual property rights recognized by the laws of any country.

5.2 Background Technology. As used in this Agreement, the term "Background Technology" means all Inventions developed by Service Provider other than in the course of providing services to Buyer hereunder and all Inventions acquired or licensed by Service Provider that Service Provider uses in performing services under this Agreement or incorporates into Work Product. Service Provider will disclose any Background Technology which Service Provider proposes to use or incorporate. If

Service Provider discloses no Background Technology, Service Provider warrants that it will not use Background Technology or incorporate it into Work Product provided pursuant thereto. Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise agreed in the Project, Service Provider agrees that it will not incorporate into Work Product or otherwise deliver to Buyer any software code licensed under the GNU GPL or LGPL or any other license that by its terms requires, or conditions the use or distribution of such code on, the disclosure, licensing, or distribution of the Work Product or any source code owned or licensed by the Buyer.

5.3 License to Background Technology. Service Provider hereby automatically upon receipt of payment from Buyer, grants to Buyer a non-exclusive, perpetual, fullypaid and royalty-free, irrevocable and world-wide right, with rights to sublicense through multiple levels of sublicensees, to reproduce, make derivative works of, distribute, publicly perform, and publicly display in any form or medium, whether now known or later developed, make, have made, use, sell, import, offer for sale, and exercise any and all present or future rights in the Background Technology incorporated or used in Work Product.

5.4 Ownership and Assignment of Work Product. Service Provider agrees that upon receipt of payment from Buyer, any and all Work Product will be the sole and exclusive property of Buyer. If Service Provider has any rights to the Work Product that are not owned by Buyer upon creation or embodiment, Service Provider hereby automatically upon receipt of payment from Buyer irrevocably assigns to such Buyer all right, title and interest worldwide in and to such Work Product. Except as set forth below, Service Provider retains no rights to use the Work Product and agrees not to challenge the validity of Buyer's ownership in the Work Product.

5.5 License to or Waiver of Other Rights. If Service Provider has any right to the Work Product that cannot be assigned by Service Provider, Service Provider hereby automatically upon receipt of payment from Buyer unconditionally and irrevocably grants to Buyer during the term of such rights, an exclusive, even as to Service Provider, irrevocable, perpetual, worldwide, fully paid and royalty-free license, with rights to sublicense through multiple levels of sublicensees, to reproduce, make derivative works of, distribute, publicly perform and publicly display in any form or medium, whether now known or later developed, make, use, sell, import, offer for sale and exercise any and all such rights. If Service Provider has any rights to the Work Product that cannot be assigned or licensed, Service Provider hereby automatically upon receipt of payment

from Buyer unconditionally and irrevocably waives the enforcement of such rights, and all claims and causes of action of any kind against Buyer or related to Buyer's customers, with respect to such rights, and agrees, at Buyer's request and expense, to consent to and join in any action to enforce such rights.

5.6 Assistance. Service Provider agrees to assist Buyer in every way, both during and after the term of this Agreement, to obtain and enforce United States and foreign Intellectual Property Rights relating to Work Product in all countries.

6. Competitive or Conflicting Projects. Service Provider agrees, during the term of this Agreement, not to enter into a contract or accept an obligation that is inconsistent or incompatible with Service Provider's obligations under this Agreement. Service Provider warrants that there is no such contract or obligation in effect as of the Effective Date. Service Provider further agrees not to disclose to, deliver to, or induce Buyer to use any confidential information that belongs to anyone other than Buyer or Service Provider.

7. Confidential Information. Service Provider agrees that during the term of this Agreement and thereafter, except as expressly authorized in writing by Buyer, it (a) will not use or permit the use of Confidential Information (defined below) in any manner or for any purpose not expressly set forth in this Agreement; (b) will not disclose, lecture upon, publish, or permit others to disclose, lecture upon, or publish any such Confidential Information to any third party without first obtaining Buyer's express written consent on a case-by-case basis; (c) will limit access to Confidential Information to Service Provider personnel who need to know such information in connection with their work for Buyer; and (d) will not remove any tangible embodiment of any Confidential Information from Buyer's premises without Buyer's prior written consent. "Confidential Information" includes, but is not limited to, all information related to Buyer's business and its actual or anticipated research and development, including without limitation (i) trade secrets, inventions, ideas, processes, computer source and object code, formulae, data, programs, other works of authorship, know-how, improvements, discoveries, developments, designs, and techniques; (ii) information regarding products or plans for research and development, marketing and business plans, budgets, financial statements, contracts, prices, suppliers, and customers; (iii) information regarding the skills and compensation of Buyer's employees, contractors, and any other service providers; (iv) the existence of any business discussions, negotiations, or agreements between Buyer and any third party; and (v) all such information related to any third party that is disclosed to Buyer or to Service Provider during the course of Buyer's business ("Third Party Information").

Notwithstanding the foregoing, it is understood that Service Provider is free to use information that is generally known in the trade or industry, information that is not gained as a result of a breach of this Agreement, and Service Provider's own skill, knowledge, know-how, and experience.

8. SERVICE PROVIDER REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES. Service Provider hereby represents and warrants that (a) the Work Product will be an original work of Service Provider and any third parties will have executed assignment of rights prior to being allowed to participate in the development of the Work Product; (b) the Work Product will fully conform to the requirements and terms set forth on the Site and in the Project; (c) neither the Work Product nor any element thereof will infringe or misappropriate the Intellectual Property Rights of any third party; (d) neither the Work Product nor any element thereof will be subject to any restrictions or to any mortgages, liens, pledges, security interests, or encumbrances; (e) Service Provider will not grant, directly or indirectly, any rights or interest whatsoever in the Work Product to third parties; (f) Service Provider has full right and power to enter into and perform this Agreement without the consent of any third party; (g) Service Provider has an unqualified right to grant the license to all Background Technology as set forth in the section titled "License to Background Technology"; and (h) Service Provider will comply with all laws and regulations applicable to Service Provider's obligations under this Agreement.

9. INDEMNIFICATION. Service Provider will defend, indemnify, and hold harmless Buyer against any damage, cost, loss or expense arising from a claim, suit or proceeding brought against Buyer alleging that any Work Product that Service Provider delivers pursuant to this Agreement or the Project: (i) infringes upon any intellectual property rights or (ii) misappropriates any trade secrets, of any third party.

10. INSURANCE. Service Provider, at its sole cost and expense, will maintain appropriate insurance in accordance with industry standards.

11.

TERMINATION.

11.1 Termination with Cause. Either party has the right to terminate this Agreement immediately in the event that the other party has materially breached the

Agreement and fails to cure such breach within fifteen (15) days of receipt of notice by the non-breaching party, setting forth in reasonable detail the nature of the breach. Buyer may also terminate this Agreement immediately in its sole discretion in the event of Service Provider's material breach of the section titled "Intellectual Property Rights."

11.2 Return of Property. Upon termination of the Agreement or upon Buyer's request at any other time, Service Provider will deliver to Buyer all of Buyer's property together with all copies thereof, and any other material containing or disclosing any Work Product, Third Party Information or Confidential Information.

11.3 Survival. The following provisions will survive termination of this Agreement: Sections titled "Intellectual Property Rights," "Confidential Information," "Service Provider Representations and Warranties," "Indemnification," "Return of Property," "Survival," and "General Provisions."

12. MULTI-EMPLOYEE SERVICE PROVIDER. Before any Service Provider employee or agent performs services in connection with this Agreement or has access to Confidential Information, the employee or agent and Service Provider must have entered into a binding written agreement expressly for the benefit of Buyer that contains provisions substantially equivalent to the sections of this Agreement titled "Engagement and Performance of Services" and "Intellectual Property Rights." Service Provider agrees (a) that its employees and agents will not be entitled to or eligible for any benefits that Buyer may make available to its employees; (b) to limit access to the Confidential Information to employees or agents of Service Provider who have a reasonable need to have such access in order to perform the services pursuant to this Agreement; and (c) to be solely responsible for all expenses incurred by any of its employees or agents in performing the services or otherwise performing its obligations under this Agreement, except as set forth in the Engagement.

13.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

13.1 Governing Law and Venue. This Agreement and any action related thereto will be governed, controlled, interpreted, and defined by and under the laws of the State of California, without giving effect to any conflicts of laws principles that require the

application of the law of a different jurisdiction. Service Provider hereby expressly consents to the personal jurisdiction and venue in the state and federal courts for the county in which Buyer's or Elance's principal place of business is located for any lawsuit filed there against Service Provider by Buyer or Elance arising from or related to this Agreement.

13.2 Severability. If any provision of this Agreement is, for any reason, held to be invalid or unenforceable, the other provisions of this Agreement will be unimpaired and the invalid or unenforceable provision will be deemed modified so that it is valid and enforceable to the maximum extent permitted by law.

13.3 No Assignment. This Agreement, and the party's rights and obligations herein, may not be assigned, subcontracted, delegated, or otherwise transferred by either party without the other's prior written consent, and any attempted assignment, subcontract, delegation, or transfer in violation of the foregoing will be null and void. The terms of this Agreement will be binding upon assignees.

13.4 Notices. Each party must deliver all notices or other communications required or permitted under this Agreement to the other party by posting it on the Private Message Board for the Project.

13.5 Injunctive Relief. Service Provider acknowledges that, because its services are personal and unique and because Service Provider will have access to Confidential Information of Buyer, any breach of this Agreement by Service Provider would cause irreparable injury to Buyer for which monetary damages would not be an adequate remedy and, therefore, will entitle Buyer to injunctive relief (including specific performance). The rights and remedies provided to each party in this Agreement are cumulative and in addition to any other rights and remedies available to such party at law or in equity.

13.6 Waiver. Any waiver or failure to enforce any provision of this Agreement on one occasion will not be deemed a waiver of any other provision or of such provision on any other occasion.

13.7 Export. Service Provider agrees not to export, directly or indirectly, any U.S. technical data acquired from Buyer or any products utilizing such data, to countries outside the United States, because such export could be in violation of the United States export laws or regulations.

13.8 Execution and Delivery; Binding Effect. The parties will evidence execution and delivery of this Agreement with the intention of becoming legally bound hereby, by completion of the following process on the Site:

(a) Uploading Party. One party (the "Uploading Party") will cause the definitive version of this Agreement ("Approved Version") to be approved by its duly authorized representative, and will upload the Approved Version to the Private Message Board for the Project with a message containing substantially the following text:

"Uploading Party hereby uploads the file named "[Insert Filename.ext]", with the intention of being legally bound."

The Uploading Party will thereby be deemed to represent and warrant that the Approved Version has been approved by all necessary corporate action, and that the Uploading Party's performance of its obligations under the Approved Version will not violate the terms of any law or contract binding on such Party. The Approved Version as so uploaded will be deemed to be executed and delivered with the intention of creating a legally binding contract.

(b) Responding Party. The other party (the "Responding Party") will then inspect the Approved Version on the Private Message Board, and will cause the Approved Version to be approved by its duly authorized representative. Upon approval, the Responding Party will post a message on the Private Message Board containing substantially the following text:

"Responding Party hereby accepts the file named "[Filename.ext]" posted on [Insert Date and Time of upload], with the intention of being legally bound."

[Note: The Responding Party should NOT re-upload the Approved Version; instead the Responding Party should type the Filename, ext of the Approved Version, and Date and Time the Uploading Party uploaded it]

The Responding Party will thereby be deemed to represent and warrant that the Approved Version has been approved by all necessary corporate action, and that such Party's performance of its obligations under the Approved Version will not violate the terms of any law or contract binding on such Party. The Approved Version as so uploaded will be deemed to be executed and delivered with the intention of creating a legally binding contract.

(c) Counteroffers. If either Party uploads a modified version of this Agreement to the Private Message Board prior to the Responding Party's acceptance of a previously uploaded version pursuant to Section 13.8 (b) above, the Uploading Party's execution and delivery of the previously uploaded version will be deemed revoked, and the Parties must upload and accept the new version in accordance with Sections 13.8 (a) and (b) above in order to form a binding contract.

13.9 Entire Agreement. This Agreement is the final, complete and exclusive agreement of the parties with respect to the subject matters hereof and supersedes and merges all prior discussions between the parties with respect to such subject matters. No modification of or amendment to this Agreement, or any waiver of any rights under this Agreement, will be effective unless in writing and signed by Service Provider and Buyer. The terms of this Agreement will govern all Projects and services undertaken by Service Provider for Buyer. In the event of any conflict between this Agreement and the express written terms of an agreement applicable to an engagement, the express written terms of such agreement will govern, but only to the extent and with respect to the services set forth therein.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have caused this Agreement to be approved by their duly authorized representatives and executed and delivered in accordance with the process of uploading and approval set forth in Section 13.8 above, with the intention of becoming legally bound hereby.

BUYER: PROVIDER:

SERVICE

Type Name and Title Name and Title

Type

If service provider is an individual, Service Provider must provide the following information for copyright registration purposes only:

Date of Birth:

Nationality or Domicile:

Work Task 4

s_____________

Use the elements above to build up a short economic text (ten sentences).

Minimal Bibliography
Ciuciuc, Olga; Eugenia Tanasescu (1998). English for Business Purposes, Essential English. Bucureti: Teora. Dictionary of Accounting, Economic and Financial Terms. (1998). Bucureti: Garamond Emerson, Paul (2008). Business English. Macmillan Evans, David (2003). Decisionmaker. Cambridge: Cambridge Universty Press. Mariana, Nicolae (2008). Corespondenta comerciala in limba engleza. Bucuresti: Editura Universitara. Powell, Mark (1996). Publications. Business Matters. Hove: Language Teaching

English for economics II

2. CONTRACT LETTER - REQUEST TO EXPEDITE PAYMENTS. LANGUAGE APPROACH 2


2.1. Contract Letter - Request to Expedite Payments

2.2. Language Approach -Part 1


Definition and Position of Adjectives Definition and Examples Abstract Self-Evaluation Tests Key to the Self-Evaluation Tests Minimal Bibliography

2.1. Contract Letter - Request to Expedite Payments


Mr. Randall Peterson CEO, Contract Administration Wiscounsin Project Consolidated Trust 25535 North Riverbed Blvd 14 North West, Potomac Wiscounsin 060045

April 12, 2010

Dear Mr. Peterson,

Re: Request To Expedite Payment - Contract PLC-09-17542 Due to circumstances beyond our control, we have been unable to complete the final delivery phase of the exterior wharf retaining wall under the above-noted contract. All work has been completed except for the installation of the tiedown anchors which have not yet been received from the manufacturer. These are expected to arrive within four weeks and we plan to install them as soon as we receive them.
English for economics II

In the meantime, we are experiencing a serious cash flow problem which is affecting our ability to complete a number of our other contracts; including the access road extension project (PLC- 10-21743). As you know, any delay in completion of the access road will have a negative impact on a number of other Phase 2 contracts. We therefore request that you immediately release payment for the abovenoted wharf retaining wall contract, subject to a 10% holdback to be payable on completion of the tie-down anchors. That arrangement will protect you while at the same time relieving the problems caused by our current cash flow difficulties. Accordingly, please find attached an invoice for the final progress payment of $67,575 for contract PLC-09-17542. If you have any questions at all please contact me immediately at 450-7523479. On behalf of our entire company I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.

Yours sincerely, Charles Hill JR INSTRUCTIONS 2: one moment, please un moment, te rog just a minute stai o clipa

take your time nu te grabi don't worry don't forget help yourself go ahead let me know! nu-fi face griji nu uita servete-te n-ai decat s a ma anun^i!

Vocabulary - Lexical Review BANCA- BANK banca centrala - central bank banca emitenta - issuing bank banca eitenta a creditului - openind bank banca platitoare - paying bank
English for economics II

banca colectoare (incasatoare) - collecting bank banca de invesu'tii - investment bank banca nationals - national bank banca negociatoare - negotiating bank banca universala - full service bank Banca Europeans de Investitii - European Investment Bank/EIB Banca Europeans pentru Reconstructie i Dezvoltare - European Bank for Reconstruction & Development / EBRD Banca Internationals de reconstructie i Dezvoltare / BIRD - International Bank for Reconstruction & Development/IBRD

2.2. Language Approach -Part 1


BRANDS

A. 1.
2.

List some of your favourite brands. Then answer these questions.

Are they International or national brands? What image and qualities does each one have? Use the following words and phrases to help you.
Value for money top of the range Reliable luxurious durable stylish timeless inexpensive fashionable well-made cool sexy

3. Why do people buy brands? 4. Why do you think some people dislikes brands? 5. How loyal are you to the brands you have chosen? For example, when you buy jean, do you always buy Levi's

English for economics II

B. A recent survey named the brands below as the world's top ten. Which do you think is number one? Rank the others in order.
Marlboro IBM Nokia Microsoft Mercedes Coca-cola General Electriclntel McDonald's Disney

Vocabulary Brand Management A. partnerships to their meanings. 1. Loyalty

Match these word

BRAND

PRODUCT 2. Image

a. the name given to a product by the company that makes it. b. using an existing name on another type of product c. the ideas and beliefs people have about a brand d. the tendency to always buy a particular brand e. how familiar people are with a brand f the set of products made by a company g. the use of a wellknown person to advertise products

3. stretching 4. awareness 5. name

6. launch

7. lifecycle

English for economics II

8. range

h. When products are used in films or TV programs i. The introduction of a product to the market j. the length of time people continue to buy a product

9. placement 10. endorseme nt

B.

Complete these sentences with word partnerships from exercise A

BRAND the creation of Virgin Cola, Virgin Air, Virgin Rail and Virgin bride is an example of... brand streching............. 2. Consumers who always buy Levi's when they need a new pair of jeans are showing................ 3. not enough people recognize our logo; we need to spent a lot more on raising
1.

PRODUCT

David Beckham advertising Vodafone is an example of .. .product endorsement..... 2. A......................consists of introduction, growth , maturity and decline. 3. the use of BMW cars and Nokia phones in James Bond films are examples of................
1.

C. Make sentences of your own using the word partnerships in Exercise A.

l.Why do some companies make luxury products abroad rather than at home? 2.Read the text and answer these questions.
English for economics II

a. Which brands are mentioned? Do you know which country each is from? b. Which companies make all of their products in their own country?

Text:

Almost every fashion label outside the top super-luxury brands is either already manufacturing in Asia or thinking of it. Coach, the US leather goods maker, is a classis example. Over the past five years, it has lifted all its gross margins by manufacturing solely in low-cost markets. In March 2002 it closed its factory in Lares, Puerto Rico, its last company-owned plant, and outsources all its products. Burberry has many Asian licensing arrangements. In 2000 it decided to renew Sanyo's Japanese licence for 20 ten years. This means that almost half of Burberry's sales at retail value will continue to be produced under licence in Asia. At the same time however, Japanese consumers prefer the group's European-made products. Sanyo is now creating to this demand for a snob alternative to the Burberry products made in its factories across Asia by opening a flagship store in Tokyo's Ginza, where it sells Burberry products imported from Europe. In interviews with the FT, many executives says the top luxury brands will continue to be seen, particularly in Asia, as European. Domenico De Sole of Gucci says " The Asian Consumer really dos believe - whether it's true or not -that luxury comes from Europe and must be made there to be the best.' Serge Weinberg, Chief Executive of Pinault Printemps Redoute, which controls Gucci, says it will not move Gucci's production of shore. Yet some in the industry recognize that change may be round the corner even for the superluxury brands. Patrizio Bertelli, Chief Executive of Prada, says:' The "Made in Italy" label is important but what we are really offering is a style, and style is an expression of culture.' He therefore recognizes that quality fashion items may not always need to be produced in italy. Amitava Chattopadhyay, professor of marketing at Insead, the business school, says:' A brand is a set of associations in the mind of the consumer and one of these is the country of origin. . For luxury goods, the role of the brand is crucial. To damage it is a cardinal sin and no brand manager will want to get the balance between manufacturing location and the brand image wrong'.

English for economics II

Which of these statements are true? Correct the false ones.

1.
2.

Coach has no longer factory in Puerto Rico. Coach, like many other companies, is outsourcing its product to reduce

costs. 3. Some Japanese people choose to buy Burberry products made in Europe rather than in Japan. 4. Sanyo's store in Tokyo sells Burberry's product made in Asia. 5. According to Domenico De Solle, the best luxury products are made in Japan. 6. Gucci is planning to outsource some of its products. 7. Partizio Bertelli believes that luxury fashion products should always be made in Europe 8. Amitava chattopadhyay says that companies need to pay careful attention to where they manufacture their products. 3. Choose the best summary of the article.

a. Most manufacturers of luxury brands do not wish to produce their goods in low-cost countries because their believe that it will damage their brand image. b. Most manufacturers of top brands now produce their goods in low cost countries. Consumers no longer care about where the products are manufactured. c. Asian consumers think that European luxury goods are of high quality. The current trend of making such goods in Asia could damage the reputation of these luxury brands. Language Review Present simple and present continuous.

The Present simple and Present continuous have several uses. We use the present simple to give factual information, for example about company activities. Coach outsources all its products. Does Burberry outsource its products? We use the present simple to talk about routine activities or habits. I always buy Armani suits. Do you usually buy designer brands?
English for economics II

We use the present continuous to talk about ongoing situations and projects. Sanyo is now reacting to this demand. We use present contiuous to talk about temporary situations. We are testing a new brand at the moment.

A. Which of the time expressions below do we usually use with the present simple? Which of the time expressions do we usually use with the present continuous? Which are used with both? Usually Often Currently this year nowadays at the moment every day once a month these days now

B. Complete these sentences with the present simple or the present continuous forms of the verbs in brackets. 1.a. This year we..................(try) to develop a brand with personality. b. We usually.................... (develop) brands that say something. 2. a. Powerful brand names........................ (create) strong costumer loyalty. b. At the moment we........................ (look) for a new brand name that suggests something about the product's benefits and qualities. 3. a. L'Oreal.................... (sell) cosmetics and toiletries to customers around the world. b. This year L'Oreal........................(invest) over 180m in R & D. 4. a. The marketing department always ........................... (keep) within its budget. b. Because the company made a loss last year, the marketing department .................(try to reduce costs.

C. Complete the text below with the present simple or present continuous forms of the verbs in brackets.

English for economics II

At the moment I ........................ (work) for a cosmetics company. We offer a full range of cosmetic products and ........................... (sell) cosmetics and toiletries around the world. Our main cosmetics brand .................. (dominate) the French market and it ................... (do) well in the rest of Europe at the moment, too. In fact, the brand..................... (become) more and more popular throughout the world and our market share.................... (grow) everyday. We usually ............................... (develop) and ..................... (extend) productsunder our existing brand name. The brand is distinctive and ............................(stand) out from the competition. However, this year we ......................(create) a completely new brand of cosmetics.

Text:

In 2003 the Harley Davidson brand was 100 years old. Although its brand image is based on the spirit of wild and rebellious youth such as Marlon Brando in the film The Wild One (1954), the typical consumer is very different. They are likely to be rich, middle-aged accountants trying to recapture their youth. The average age of Harley Davidson customers is 46 compared with 36 for the rest of the motorbike industry. At the party to celebrate the centenary, the surprise performance was actually Elton John, rather than the Rolling Stones who many people had expected. This caused many of the 150,000 riders and dealers to leave the event very unhappy. Although sales and earnings for Harley Davidson have been increasing for the past 18 years, many people see the trouble on the road ahead. The problem is Harley Davidson's typical customers from the baby -boom generation (1946 - 1964) and, as these customers get older, Harley Davidson may find its market shrinking.

a. What is the brand image of Harley Davidson? b. Why were many people unhappy about the music at the party? c. What problem could have Harley Davidson have in the future? d. What can Harley Davidson fo to preserve it sales? Should it change its brand image? Should it look for a new market segments? Should it stretch its brand?
English for economics II

Text:

JCB is a world-famous engineering company. It was founded in 1945 by Joseph Cyril Bamford. He began his business working alone in a small garage. JCB makes construction and agricultural equipment such as tractors, earthmoving vehicles, and loading machines. Now its world headquarters in England is one of the finest engineering factories in Europe. The company produces over 130 different models on four different continents and sells a full range of equipment in over 150 countries. It is truly a global brand. JCB's research showed that its customers associated with the company with the following brand values :'yellow,'digger', and 'durable'. Adult saw the brand and being functional. Children, on the other hand, saw the brand as 'big', 'muddy' and 'fun'. JCB made a decision to stretch its brand.

1. 2.

Where does the name JCB come from? What was surprising about JCB's customer research? 3. What sort of products do you think JCB developed as a result of its research? 4. Can you think of a similar example of brand-stretching in your country? Useful Language

Asking for opinions suggestions How do you feel about.....? should.... What do you think? about... ? What's your opinion? we ... ? What's your view? could....

Agreeing That's true I agree Absolutely / exactly I think so too.

Making I think we How Why Perhaps don't we

Giving opinions I think......../I don't think............


English for economics II

Disagreeing I see / know what you mean, but....

In my opinion........

I'm afraid I can't agree Maybe, but...

A. Answer these questions individually. Then compare your answers with a partner.

1. 2. 3.

How often do you travel by air, road and sea? What do you enjoy about traveling? What don't you enjoy? Put the following in order of importance to you when you travel? safety price reliability speed

Comfort

4.

Does the order change for different types of travel?

B. Choose the correct word from the box to complete the following list of things which irritate people when flying.

Seats

trolleys food

queues jet

luggage

Room cancellations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Not enough leg.............. lost or delayed.......... long..................at check in poor quality.................... and drink no baggage..............available. overbooking of................ flight delays and................ 8................................-lag

Vocabulary British and American English

English for economics II

A. Match the words and phrases below which have the same meaning. For each pair decide which is British English and which is American English.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

subway city centre carry-on baggage one way return freeway rest room elevator coach class timetable car park

a. motorway b. lift c. public toilet d. schedule e. economy class, f single g. parking lot h. underground i. hand luggage j. round trip k. downtown.

Exercise: Use words or phrases from exercise A to complete the text below

My last overseas business trip was a nightmare from start to finish. First of all there was a delay on the way to the airport as there was an accident on the ..................When I got there I found the lower level of the airport........................ was flooded. Next my...............was closed and there were no cabs at all. After long time trying to read the............and waiting for forty minutes, we finally got a bus...................and found the hotel, but the.............................. wasn't working and our rooms were on the fifth floor.

Text:

Airlines and their long-suffering customers are reporting a steep climb in air rage incidents. Some incidents are apparently caused by problems which are familiar to many regular travellers. One case reported from America stemmed from an interminable delay in takeoff, when passangers were cooped up in their aircraft on the tarmac or our hours, without food, drink or information. Mass unrest is less common the individual misbehaviour, as in the case of the convict
English for economics II

who recently went crazy on a flight, attacked the crew and tried to open the door in mind flight. The psychology of air rage is a new are o study, and there are almost as many explanations as examples. Most analysis of the phenomenon blame alcohol, but many people now think that the airlines are at fault. To cut costs, they are cramming ever more passangers into their aircraft, while reducing cabin crew, training, and quality of service, all o which increase passenger frustration. In addition, there are increasing concern in the US about another cost-cutting exercise, which could seriously harm passengers' health: cabin ventilation. I. Modern aircraft are equipped with sophisticated air conditioning devices - but running them at.optimum capacity burns up valuable aviation fuel. Many airlines routinely instruct their flight crews to run the systems on minimum settings. Champaignes for improved air quality claim that this can lead to irritability and disorientation. In the US, the soaring number of passenger complaints across a wide range of issues is reflected in a number of new internet sites which criticize the airline and demand better service. One of the sites is demanding an air passengers' Bill of Rights. Cabin and flight crews, who are in the front line of the battle against disruptive and dangerous in-flight behaviour, have called for stiffer penalties against the offenders. Management have also called or legislation - while denying that its cost-cutting practices have contributed to the problem. But there are some signs, in the US at least, that the airlines are at last attempting to respond to customer dissatisfaction. Some major lines have announced concessions to the most frequent complaint for all, and are removing seats to make more room for their customers.

Exercises: A. COMPLETE EACH DIALOGUE WITH THE CORRECT FROM OF GOING TO OR WILL 1 A.I'm really sorry,I can't take you to the station .Something has just come up B.Oh,don't worry,!........(take) a taxi

2 A. We've chosen a name four new low-cost airline B.Really,What...............(you/call) it?


English for economics II

3 A.Have you decided how to increase the number of passengers? B.Yes,we...........(offer) a family discount at weekends.

A.I can't send an e-mail to the travel agent;my computer's just crashe B. Write down your details and I.........(fax) them over for you. 5 A.How's your daughter?

B.She's fine.She...........(learn) to be a pilot for the flying doctor service next Year!

B.USE THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR THE PRESENT SIMPLE TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES BELOW

l.His flight arrives / is arriving at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning. 2.We're staying / stay at the Hilton Hotel for next month's sales conference. 3.The next seminar is beginning / begins at 3 p.m 4.1 travel / am travelling by train from Paris to London next time. 5.The boat is departing / departs at midday so you have the whole morning to get ready. 6.The delegation from China are seeing / see the Chairman the following Monday

C. COMPLETE THE SENTENCES BELOW.USE GOING TO,WILL,THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR THE PRESENT SIMPLE.

l.I'm sorry,! can't attend the sales meeting tomorrow. 2.The marketing department have decided on their travel plans for the next month......
English for economics II

3The trains are delayed because of bad weather,so.......... 4.Don't worry if you can't drive me to airport,................ 5.I've got the details of your flight to Turkey................. 6.Oh,no!There's been an accident and the traffic is very

Definition and Position of Adjectives Definition and Examples An adjective is a word used to denote some quality in the noun or pronoun to which it is accessory. The adjective is indeclinable in English (but has degrees of comparison), and generally precedes the noun, while in most other European languages it follows the inflections of the substantive, and is more commonly placed after it. the tall professor a solid commitment a month's pay a six-year-old child the unhappiest, richest man Large trees could be seen. They are happy. It should be noted that adjectives can be formed from two or more words combined by the use of hyphens. e.g. the three-month-old baby a ninety-dollar jacket a two-hour trip As illustrated in these examples, the nouns in such hyphenated expressions are generally in the singular. Thus, the singular forms of the nouns month, dollar and hour are used. If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adjective, it is called an Adjective Clause. My sister, who is much older than I am, is an engineer.
English for economics II

If an adjective clause is stripped of its subject and verb, the resulting modifier becomes an Adjective Phrase: He is the man keeping my family in the poor house. Position of Adjectives _ _j Unlike Adverbs, which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence, adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun I phrase that they modify. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives, and when they do, they appear in a set order according to category. When indefinite pronouns such as something, someone, anybody are modified by an adjective, the adjective comes after the pronoun: Anyone capable of doing something horrible to someone nice should be punished. Something wicked this way comes. And there are certain adjectives that, in combination with certain words, are always "postpositive" (coming after the thing they modify): The president elect, heir apparent to the Glitzy fortune, lives in New York proper.

Proper Adjectives Proper adjectives are adjectives derived from proper nouns. In English, proper adjectives must begin with a capital letter. The proper adjectives in the following sentences are underlined.

e.g. The French town has an interesting history. Many of my friends are American. This house is a fine example of Victorian architecture. The derivation of proper adjectives from proper nouns is somewhat irregular. For instance, the spelling of the following proper nouns and proper adjectives can be compared. Proper Noun America Canada Germany Mexico George
English for economics II

Proper Adjective American Canadian German Mexican Georgian

Victoria

Victorian

Many proper adjectives end with an or ian. However, other endings are also used, as indicated below. Proper Noun England France China Proper Adjective English French Chinese

Attributive Adjectives Adjectives which precede the noun they modify are usually referred to as attributive adjectives. For instance, in the following examples, the attributive adjectives are underlined. e.g. Heavy rain is expected. We saw white swans on the river. In these examples, heavy is an attributive adjective modifying the noun rain, and white is an attributive adjective modifying the noun swans.

Order of Attributive Adjectives A. It is possible for a noun to be preceded by many different types of attributive adjective. In the following example, the attributive adjectives are underlined. e.g. Two large red cardboard milk cartons stood on the steps. In this example, two is a cardinal number, large is an adjective indicating size, red is an adjective indicating colour, cardboard is an adjective indicating a type of material, and milk is a defining adjective indicating purpose. B. When a noun is preceded by more than one type of attributive adjective, the different types of adjective are usually arranged in a particular order. For instance, the following example contains eleven different types of attributive adjective. e.g. a small, heavy, snug, warm, 100-year-old, round-bellied black iron Norwegian wood stove. In this example, a is an article, small is an adjective indicating size, heavy is an adjective indicating weight, snug is a general descriptive adjective, warm is an adjective indicating temperature, 100-year-old is an adjective indicating age, round-bellied is an adjective indicating shape, black is an adjective indicating
English for economics II

colour, iron is an adjective indicating a type of material, Norwegian is a proper adjective, and wood is a defining adjective indicating a method of operation. The different types of attributive adjective are usually arranged in the order shown in the following enumeration:
1) certain determiners such as all, both and half 2) determiners including the articles a, and and the;

possessive adjectives e.g. my, his, her, our and their; demonstrative adjectives e.g. that, these, this, and those; and certain other determiners such as another, any, each, either, enough, every, neither, no, some, what and which 3) cardinal numbers e.g. one, two, three; and certain other determiners such as few, many and several 4) determiners such as fewer, fewest, least, less, more and most 5) general descriptive adjectives, often in the following order: a) adjectives indicating size e.g. large, long, narrow b) adjectives indicating weight e.g. heavy, light c) participles and other adjectives e.g. clever, excited, interesting d) adjectives indicating temperature e.g. cold, hot, warm e) adjectives indicating humidity e.g. dry, damp, wet f) adjectives indicating age e.g. new, six-month-old, young g) adjectives indicating shape e.g. barrel-shaped, round, square 6) adjectives indicating colour e.g. blue, grey, white 7) adjectives indicating materials e.g. cloth, leather, metal 8) proper adjectives e.g. American, Victorian 9) defining adjectives, usually indicating purpose, method of operation, location, time or categories of people

Abstract
An economic system can be defined as a set of methods and standards by which a society decides and organizes the allocation of limited economic resources to satisfy unlimited human wants. At one extreme, production is carried in a private-enterprise system such that all resources are privately owned. It was described by Adam Smith as frequently promoting a social interest, although only a private interest was intended. At the other extreme, following Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin is what is commonly called a purecommunist system, such that all resources are publicly owned with intent of minimizing inequalities of wealth among other social objectives. Alternatively, 'economic system' refers to the organizational arrangements and process through which a society makes its production and consumption decisions. In creating and modifying its economic system, each society chooses among alternative objectives and alternative decision modes. Many objectives may be
English for economics II

seen as desirable, like efficiency, growth, liberty, and equality.

Control Task Translate the following contract agreement sample into Romanian:

Search Engine Optimization and Reporting Agreement This agreement is hereby entered into between YOUR COMPANY (hereinafter referred to as "Company" and_______________________(hereinafter referred to as "Client") on the____day of_________, 20____. 1."Company" agrees to provide Client with Search Engine Optimization and Reporting Services (hereinafter referred to as "SEO") as described in this agreement. "Company" is authorized to use the specific keywords and/or phases set forth below for development, improving the ranking of, and/or positioning the contents of the Client's URL(s), http://www.________________________.com in the search engines and/or directories that are most frequently used by the general public which are defined below. 2.Client agrees to pay "Company" a fee as stated in "Proposal." Fee must be received prior to the start of any services provided. SEO Services are intended to provide the client with preferential positioning in selected search engines and report results on an ongoing and timely basis. SEO Services include:

Research keywords and phrases to select appropriate, relevant search terms. Number of keywords is listed in the Proposal. Additional keyword purchases will require Addendum or separate contract.

Edit various html tags and page text as necessary prior to submission to selected search engines and directories. Create as required, additional web pages for the purpose of "catching" keyword/phrase searches. Hand-submit your pages to the engines and directories stated in this agreement.

English for economics II

Create positioning reports for main site and any associated pages showing rankings in the major search engines and under which keywords. 4. For the purposes of providing these services, client agrees to provide:

Give "Company" FTP access to the main site for uploading new pages, and making changes for the purpose of optimization OR approval to go through 3rd Party. Client authorizes "Company" use of all client logos, trademarks, Web site images, etc., for use in creating informational pages and any other uses as deemed necessary by "Company" for search engine positioning and optimization.

If Client's site is light in textual content, client will provide additional relevant text content in electronic format for the purpose of creating additional web pages. Client agrees to provide content, for example 200 to 500-word "articles" about each of their keyword phrases. 5. Selected search engines* include:

AOL Alta Vista About Google All The Web Excite Hot Bot Looksmart MSN Lycos Yahoo [web pages only] Netscape * Top Major SE and SE names may change without notice 6. Client acknowledges the following with respect to services:

"Company" has no control over the policies of search engines with respect to the type of sites and/or content that they accept now or in the future. Client site may be excluded from any directory at any time at the sole discretion of the search engine or directory. "Company" will resubmit those pages that have been dropped from the index.)

Due to the competitiveness of some keywords/phrases, ongoing changes in search engine ranking algorithms and other competitive factors, "Company" does not guarantee #1 positions or consistent top 10 positions for any particular keyword, phrase or search term. However, if "Company" fails to achieve 3 top 30 positions in the major search engines, "Company" will start over "SEO" services with no cost to Client.

Some search engines and directories may take as long as 2 to 4 months, and in some cases longer, after submission to list your site.

English for economics II

Occasionally, search engines will stop accepting submissions for an indefinite period of time. Occasionally, search engines will drop listings for no apparent or predictable reason. Often listing will "reappear" without any additional submissions. Should the listing not reappear, "Company" will re-submit the site based on the current policies of the search engine in question.

Some search directories offer expedited listing services for a fee. "Company" encourages clients to take advantage of these expedited services. Client is responsible for expedited service fees, example Yahoo, unless otherwise noted in the package Client purchases.
7. The "Company" is not responsible for changes made to the Web site by other

parties that adversely affect the search engine rankings of the Client's Web site.
8. Additional Services not listed herein or in Proposal will be provided for $40 per

hour.

For example, purchasing keywords beyond the scope provided in the SEO

proposal, or creating more doorway pages than provided in original Proposal.


9. Client guarantees any elements of text, graphics, photos, designs, trademarks, or

other artwork provided to "Company" for inclusion on the website above are owned by Client, or that Client has received permission from the rightful owner(s) to use each of the elements, and will hold harmless, protect, and defend "Company" and its subcontractors from any liability or suit arising from the use of such elements. 10. "Company" is not responsible for Client's overwriting SEO work to Client's site. IE / Client webmaster making changes and uploading over work already provided. Client will be charged an additional fee for re-constructing Metas, etc based on the hourly rate of $55/hour. Client Signatory, Date

NAME, COMPANY

Date:

Self-Evaluation Tests 1:

1. Find the best answer: Do you often read the 'situations vacant' ads?
English for economics II

a) Sure. I never fail to. I want to stay informed. b) No way. I'm not at all happy with it. c) I'm only staying until I find something better.

2. Find the best answer: What do you think of your line supervisor? a) Yes. I'm going down the pub. b) It's OK. I'm not enjoying my present project very much. c) Usually she and I get on fine but we're having a few problems at the moment.

3. Find the best answer: Do you earn enough as an accountant? a) Yes. I'm going down the pub. b) Sure. I never fail to. I want to stay informed. c) No way. I'm not at all happy with it.

4. Find the best answer: How long do you intend to stay in your factory job? a) Yes. I'm going down the pub. b) I'm only staying until I find something better. c) Sure. I never fail to. I want to stay informed.

5. Find the best answer: Do you want to stop now? a) Yes. I'm going down the pub. b) It depends on what I'm doing that day. Usually about 7.30. c) Sure. I never fail to. I want to stay informed.

Key: 1. a, 2. c; 3. c, 4. b; 5. a.

Self-Evaluation Tests 2:
'Extra word' exercise 1
English for economics II

Read the extract from a business book. In most of the lines 1-12, there is one extra word. It is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit in with the meaning of the text. Some lines, however, are correct. Write the extra word in the margin, or write 'correct'. (- the first two lines are examples)

Managing Your Business Finances eg. If you want to succeed in the business, you need to know about financial eg. management. No matter how skilled you are at developing a new product, 1 providing with a service, or marketing your wares, the money you earn will 2 slip between your fingers if you do not know how to collect it, keep on track 3 of it, save it and spend or invest it wisely. A poor financial management 4 is_one of the main reasons why businesses fail. In many cases, failure 5 could have been avoided against if the owners had applied sound financial 6 principles to all their dealings and decisions. So what is the most best way of 7 making sure that you are handling after your money correctly? The truth of 8 course is that you must have to pay a professional to do it for you. This 9 should be looked at as_another investment: you have to_spend money in the 10 short term to save money in the long term, However, you are then faced 11 with a new other problem: how do you find the best consultant for your 12 business and make sure of you are getting value for money? The short answer is that only time will tell. the correct

'Extra word' exercise 2 Read the extract from a business book. In most of the lines 1-12, there is one extra word. It is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit in with the meaning of the text. Some lines, however, are correct. Write the extra word in the margin, or write 'correct'. (- the first two lines are examples)

English for economics II

Managing Your Business eg. Many organisations are seeking to_take advantage of flatter management eg. structures by. moving through to self-managed teams. In our experience. These 1 teams produce us very impressive results. However, as the companies 2 we work with can tell it you, they are neither a soft option nor a ' quick fix'. 3 Self-managed teams operate in dramatically different ways from the other 4 teams and they can only succeed if the organisational culture, along with a 5 number of systems and procedures, are been re-shaped. Thus, changing to 6 self-managed teams requires not only most top level support but a clear 7 understanding of the concept which at all levels. Often staff who find themselves 8 at the lower levels of a traditional structure imagine that operating in self9 managed teams simply means that they will be free to do what they are want 10 without having to obey the orders of upper management and this simply is 11 not the case. One ofjhe most important areas we address with our clients 12 is the need to re-educate staff with a regard to the practical meaning of the word team, Such re-education is required from shop floor to board level. correct through .............. .............. ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ...............

'Extra word' exercise 3 Read this extract from a business management book.

In most of the lines 1-12, there is one extra word. It is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit in with the meaning of the text. Some lines, however, are correct. Write the extra word in the margin, or write 'correct'. (- the first two lines are examples)

eg From the outside looking in, it has may seem that what we offer our clients is eg nothing more than a simple delivery service. However, actually delivering the load 1 is just the one small part of our operation. Our team includes a comprehensive 2 and efficient administration service which is_also been essential for operating at the 3 high standards demanded by. today's customers. Our centrally controlled group 4 administration department is a channel for all ofjnformation about each and
English for economics II

has correct .............. ............... ............... ...............

5 every delivery. This department is ^responsible for providing our customers with 6 a wide range afservices and information, which will involves processing customs 7 and proof of_delivery documents, providing full pallet control and delivery updates 8 via our unique tracking system. Customers can also be access this information 9 independently by_ using our new website. Security and an absolute confidentiality 10 are ensured by the use of individual PIN numbers which we have assign to each 11 load when we accept it Links with our partners throughout worldwide mean that 12 every customer is able to follow the progress of their goods all the way from Argentina to Zimbabwe!

'Extra word' exercise 4 Read this newspaper bulletin about a joint venture. In most of the lines 1-12, there is one extra word. It is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit in with the meaning of the text. Some lines, however, are correct. Write the extra word in the margin, or write 'correct'. (- the first two lines are examples) Roysten plans US joint venture eg. Roysten, the engineering group, it plans to launch a US joint venture with eg. HarvestTate to set up a factory to make up to 1,000 buses a year. The 1 agreement is one the first product ofjhe strategic alliance with HarvestTate 2 that Roysten announced the last May. Roysten's joint venture partner will be 3 Freerider, a HarvestTate subsidiary and leading manufacturer of_school buses. 4 The two parties are aiming to ease out or buy a factory capable of producing 5 1,000 buses a year, which selling at $ 50,000 each. Until now the U.S. school 6 bus market has been being dominated by_ the reassuring shape of John Lloyd's 7 yellow buses which have been made familiar to many all over the world 8 through an appearances in countless Hollywood films and American TV 9 series. This situation looks set to be_change, however, with Roysten and 10 HarvestTate promising that a revolutionary new design with a number of 11 inbuilt safety features which are sure to find appeal to the nation's parents shares closing up 22p at 246p. it correct ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. .................. ..................

12 regardless of_cost. The market seemed to approve the move, with Roysten's ...................

Key:
'Extra word' n. 1 English for economics II

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

with on a correct against most after must correct correct other of

'Extra word' n. 2 1. us 2. it 3. the 4. correct 5. been 6. most 7. which 8. correct 9. are 10. be 11. correct 12. a 'Extra word' n. 3 1. the 2. been 3. correct 4. of 5. a 6. will 7. correct 8. be 9. an 10. have 11. throughout 12. correct 'Extra word' n. 4 1. one 2. the 3. correct 4. out 5. which 6. being 7. correct 8. an 9. be 10. that 11. find 12. correct

English for economics II

Minimal Bibliography
Ciuciuc, Olga; Eugenia Tanasescu (1998). English for Business Purposes, Essential English. Bucureti: Teora. Dictionary of Accounting, Economic and Financial Terms. (1998). Bucureti: Garamond Emerson, Paul (2008). Business English. Macmillan Evans, David (2003). Decisionmaker. Cambridge: Cambridge Universty Press. Mariana, Nicolae (2008). Corespondenta comerciala in limba engleza. Bucuresti: Editura Universitara. Powell, Mark (1996). Publications. Business Matters. Hove: Language Teaching

English for economics II

3.STUDYING ENGLISH FOR ECONOMICS. MONETARY STABILITY AND PRODUCTION __________________________________________________


3.1. Monetary Stability 3.2. Manufacturing 3.3. Modern Guilds

Specific Objectives of the Learning Unit Abstract Self-Evaluation Tests Key to the Self-Evaluation Tests Control Test Self-Evaluation Tests Minimal Bibliography Specific objectives: At the end of this chapter you will have the capacity to:
- build up sentences which are further to be included in grammatically

correct economic texts of your own, using key words from the learning unit; - compose sentences using terms from the sphere of manufacturing; - draw up a short business letter using as pattern the text of the learning unit. Average time estimated for the individual study: 8 hours

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

3.1. Monetary Stability


Money long preceded the existence of government. Grain and cattle have long been used as money, and still are, but it is a bit hard to make change for a ram, so valuable metals have been more popular. Real money does not need to be enforced. It is either something of inherent value, such as gold or silver, or, more conveniently, promises to pay by someone whose credit rating is well known to be good. The bills of exchange issued by merchants in medieval times were effectively paper money. Indeed money was mostly issued privately until the twentieth century. In America the revolutionary experience with the "continentals" (revolutionary fiat paper money) was so disastrous that the constitution was for a long time interpreted in a way that restrained the federal government from taking a large role in the issue of money, leading to the "free banking era". Paper money started with the goldsmiths: people would ask them to keep their gold in their safe, and the goldsmith would give them a piece of paper saying how much was deposited. But then people started using these notes as money: "here's a goldsmith credit for 1 ounce of gold, so next time you go there you can get the gold I owe you for this horse", then after a while the goldsmiths realized that they could give out more credits than they had gold in the safe, as not everyone claimed back their gold at the same time. The reason we call banknotes "banknotes", and not "government notes" is that they were originally issued by banks, and only later did governments take them over. At the end of the nineteenth century, and the beginning of the twentieth century, it was widely argued that the government should more fully control money and the issue of money, supposedly because fluctuations in the volume of money caused economic instability, booms and busts, though arguably it was more a matter of debtors demanding government intervention to ensure inflation, and creditors demanding government intervention to ensure deflation. The problem was that banker's tended to issue money denominated in gold against debts backed by against assets other than gold. Thus it came to pass that a rather small amount of gold circulated, and a rather large amount of paper money circulated. The amount of gold tends to remain pretty stable, for the gold that Agamemnon looted from Troy is still circulating, but the amount of paper tended to fluctuate with people's confidence in the banks, and in the assets securing mortgages. When the volume of money increased, there was lots of demand for labor, goods, and assets, and prices tended to rise, or, equivalently, gold fell. When the volume of money fell, there was high unemployment, a bust, prices and wages tended to fall, including the price of assets securing loans, loans backed by land, but denominated in gold. This often resulted in shaky loans going under, hence shaky banks going under, hence loss of confidence in banks, hence further reduction in the volume of money.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Vocabulary - ECONOMIC TERMS EXPLAINED 2: Scarcity: The result of an inability to satisfy all of everyone's wants Resources: they are the basic elements used to produce goods and services Natural Resources: they are unaltered raw materials from nature Human Resources: they are physical and mental efforts people use to create goods and services Capital Resources: they are the buildings, tools, and machines people use to create goods and services Opportunity Cost: it is the best alternative given up when making a choice Trade-offs: A choice that involves giving up some of one thing to have more of another. What, How, Who Choices: What goods and services are to be created, how they are to be created and who is to receive them. What: People choose the kinds and quantities of goods and services to produce. E.g.: People in a community want to buy products made from potatoes. How: People choose the way to create goods and services. Ex: They want to create strawberry ice-cream and strawberry juice. They need to decide whether they are going to use old machinery or new technology to do it. Who: who receives and consumes the goods and services created. Ex: the community gets to buy the products from potatoes.

Work Task 5
Using five of the key words of the text presented above, compose two sentences for each item and then use them in a grammatically correct economic text ofyour own. *

3.2. Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to make things for use or sale. Also it can be used for selling things. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users - the "consumers".
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In free market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in the North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone. In its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the preindustrial world the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture (and continues to do so in places). Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toil manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. According to some economists, manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy, whereas a service sector tends to be wealth-consuming. Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. In Europe, pollution taxes to offset environmental costs are another form of regulation on manufacturing activity. Labor Unions and craft guilds have played a historic role negotiation of worker rights and wages. In the U.S, manufacturers are subject to regulations by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Vocabulary - Business Terms from the Sphere of EMPLOYMENT - Revision: curriculum vitae n. short account of one's education, career etc; CVUK; resumeUS; resumeUS; dismiss v. to remove or discharge from employment; to sack [colloq.J; to fire US; employer n. person or firm who employs people - employee n. person employed; fire v. [colloq.J to dismiss; interview v. an oral examination of an applicant for a job - also v.; make redundant v. [made, made] to dismiss because of not being needed -redundancyUK n.; maternity leave n. period of absence from work (for a woman) when having a baby; notice n. advance warning of intention to resign - to give or tender one's notice v.; personnel n. the people who work for a firm; personnel officer n. manager responsible for recruitment, training and welfare of personnel; promotion n. advancement in rank or position - to promote v.; prospects n. opportunity for success, promotion etc; recruit n. to look for and employ personnel - recruitment n.; resign v. to give up a job - letter of resignation n.; retire v. to leave employment, esp. because of age - retirement n.; salary n. a fixed, regular payment, usually monthly, made by employer to employee; staff n. the people who work for a firm or a particular department; employees.

W ork Task 6 Using the terms from the sphere of manufacturing, compose ten sentences.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

3.3. Modern Guilds


A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel and a secret society. They often depended on grants of letters patent by an authority or monarch to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places. The modern patent system was set up to break the power of the guilds. Modern guilds exist in different forms around the world. In many European countries guilds have had a revival as local organizations for craftsmen, primarily in traditional skills. They may function as forums for developing competence and are often the local units of a national employers organization. In Europe, in the City of London, UK, for example, the ancient guilds survive as Livery Companies, most of which play a ceremonial role. Guilds also survive in the UK in Preston, Lancashire as the Preston Guild Merchant where among other celebrations descendants of Burgesses are still admitted into membership. In 1878 the London Livery companies established the City and Guilds of London Institute the forerunner of the engineering school (still called City and Guilds college) at Imperial College London. The aim of the City and Guilds of London Institute was the Advancement of Technical Education. Today City and Guilds is an examining and accreditation body for vocational, managerial and engineering qualifications from entry level craft and trade skills up to post doctoral achievement. In the United States guilds exist in several fields. The Screen Actors Guild, Writers Guild of America, East and the Writers Guild of America, West are capable of exercising very strong control in Hollywood because a very strong and rigid system of intellectual property rights exists. These guilds exclude other actors and writers who do not abide by the strict rules for competing within the film and television industry in America. The Newspaper Guild is a labor union for journalists and other newspaper workers, with over 30,000 members in North America. Quilting guilds are also very common and are found in almost all areas of the United States. Real estate brokerage is an excellent example of a modern American guild. Telltale signs of guild behavior are on display in real estate brokerage: standard pricing (6% of the home price), strong affiliation among all practitioners, selfregulation (see National Association of Realtors), strong cultural identity (see Realtor), little price variation with quality differences, and traditional methods in use by all practitioners. In September 2005, the U.S. Department of Justice filed an antitrust lawsuit against the National Association of Realtors challenging NAR practices that, DOJ asserts, prevent competition from practitioners who use different methods. The DOJ and the Federal Trade Commission in 2005 advocated against state
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

laws, supported by NAR, that disadvantage new kinds of brokers U.S. v. National Assoc. of Realtors, Civil Action No. 05C-5140 (N.D. 111. Sept. 7, 2005). The practice of law in the United States is also an example of modem guilds at work. Every state maintains its own bar association, supervised by that state's highest court. The court decides the criteria for entering and staying in the legal profession. In most states, every attorney must be a member of that state's bar association in order to practice law. State laws forbid any person from engaging in the unauthorized practice of law and practicing attorneys are subject to rules of professional conduct that are enforced by the state's high court. Medical associations that might be compared to guilds are the American Medical Association, and the American Dental Association. Scholars from the history of ideas have noticed that consultants play a part similar to that of the journeymen of the guild systems: they often travel a lot, work at many different companies and spread new practices and knowledge between companies and corporations. Many professional organizations similarly resemble the guild structure. Professions such as architecture, engineering, geology, and land surveying require varying lengths of apprenticeships before one can be granted a 'professional' certification. These certifications hold great legal weight and are required in most states as a prerequisite to doing business there. Thomas Malone of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology champions a modem variant of the guild structure for modem "e-lancers", professionals who do mostly telework for multiple employers. Insurance including any professional liability, intellectual capital protections, an ethical code perhaps enforced by peer pressure and software, and other benefits of a strong association of producers of knowledge, benefit from economies of scale, and may prevent cut-throat competition that leads to inferior services undercutting prices.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

CONTRACT SAMPLE Read the following contract, translate the first 10 points into English, with filling in all gaps and build up an English smaller version of it - about one page CONTRACT DE EXECUTIE DE LUCRARI nr.........din............ 1. Partile contractante Intre autoritatea contractanta............, adresa sediului..............., telefon/fax..........., numar de inmatriculare ................, cod fiscal ..................., cont trezorerie ................., reprezentata prin....................,/(denumirea conducatorului)/............. functia............................................................., in calitate de achizitor, si executantul .........,/(denumirea)/....., adresa sediului .........., telefon/fax ..........., numar de inmatriculare ........., cod fiscal ............., cont (trezorerie, banca)........., reprezentat prin..........,/(denumirea conducatorului)/....... functia..........................................................., in calitate de executant, a intervenit prezentul contract. 2. Obiectul si pretul contractului 2.1. - Executantul se obliga sa execute, sa finalizeze si sa intretina ..........,/(denumirea lucrarii)/.... in conformitate cu obligatiile asumate prin prezentul contract. 2.2. - Achizitorul se obliga sa plateasca executantului pretul de.................. mii lei pentru executia, finalizarea si intretinerea........./(denumirea lucrarii)/..... 2.3. - Pretul convenit pentru indeplinirea contractului, platibil executantului de catre achizitor conform graficului de plati, este de..................................mii lei, din care T.V.A............................mii lei. 3. Durata contractului 3.1. - Executantul se obliga sa execute si sa finalizeze .........,/(denumirea lucrarii).... asa cum este prevazut in graficul de executie, in decurs de ................/(luni calendaristice)/... de la data intrarii in vigoare a contractului. 4. Definitii 4.1. - In prezentul contract urmatorii termeni vor fi interpretati astfel: a) contract - actul juridic care reprezinta acordul de vointa al celor doua parti, incheiat antre o autoritate contractanta, in calitate de achizitor, si un executant de lucrari, in calitate de executant; b) achizitor si executant - partile contractante, astfel cum acestea sunt denumite in prezentul contract;
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

c) pretul contractului - pretul platibil executantului de catre achizitor in baza contractului pentru indeplinirea integrala si corespunzatoare a tuturor obligatiilor sale asumate prin contract; d) standarde - standardele, reglementarile tehnice sau altele asemenea prevazute in Caietul de sarcini si in propunerea tehnica; e) amplasamentul lucrarii - locul in care executantul executa lucrarea; f) forta majora - un eveniment mai presus de controlul partilor, care nu se datoreaza greselii sau vinii acestora, care nu putea fi prevazut in momentul incheierii contractului si care face imposibila executarea si, respectiv, indeplinirea contractului; sunt considerate asemenea evenimente: razboaie, revolutii, incendii, inundatii sau orice alte catastrofe naturale, restrictii aparute ca urmare a unei carantine, embargou, enumerarea nefiind exhaustiva, ci enuntiativa. Nu este considerat forta majora un eveniment asemenea eel or de mai sus care, fara a crea o imposibilitate de executare, face extrem de costisitoare executarea obligatiilor uneia dintre parti. g) zi - zi calendaristica; in - 365 de zile. 5. Aplicabilitate 5.1. - Contractul de executie intra in vigoare dupa constituirea garantiei bancare de buna executie, asa cum s-a convenit la pet. 11, la data de............/(se precizeaza data la care intra in vigoare contractul)/....... 6. Documentele contractului 6.1. - Natura si volumul lucrarilor sunt precizate in anexele la prezentul contract. 6.2. - Documentele prezentului contract sunt: a) acte aditionale, daca exista; b) grafic de executie; c) propunerea tehnica si propunerea financiara; d) caietul de sarcini; e) alte anexe la contract. 7. Standarde 7.1. - (1) Executantul garanteaza ca la data receptiei lucrarea executata va avea calitatile declarate de catre acesta in contract, va corespunde reglementarilor tehnice in vigoare si nu va fi afectata de vicii care ar diminua sau ar anula valoarea ori posibilitatea de utilizare, conform conditiilor normale de folosire sau celor specificate in contract. (2) La lucrarile la care se fac ancercari calitatea probei se considera realizata daca rezultatele se anscriu in tolerantele admise prin reglementarile tehnice in vigoare. 8. Caracterul confidential al contractului 8.1. - (1) O parte contractanta nu are dreptul, fara acordul scris al celeilalte parti: a) de a face cunoscut contractul sau orice prevedere a acestuia unei terte parti, in afara acelor persoane implicate in indeplinirea contractului;

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

b) de a utiliza informatiile si documentele obtinute sau la care are acces in perioada de derulare a contractului, in alt scop decat acela de a-si indeplini obligatiile contractuale. (2) Dezvaluirea oricarei informatii fata de persoanele implicate in indeplinirea contractului se va face confidential si se va extinde numai asupra acelor informatii necesare in vederea indeplinirii contractului. 8.2. - O parte contractanta va fi exonerata de raspunderea pentru dezvaluirea de informatii referitoare la contract daca: a) informatia era cunoscuta partii contractante inainte ca ea sa fi fost primita de la cealalta parte contractanta; sau b) informatia a fost dezvaluita dupa ce a fost obtinut acordul scris al celeilalte parti contractante pentru asemenea dezvaluire; sau c) partea contractanta a fost obligata in mod legal sa dezvaluie informatia. 9. Drepturi de proprietate intelectuala 9.1. - Executantul are obligatia de a despagubi achizitorul impotriva oricaror: a) reclamatii si actiuni in justitie ce rezulta din incalcarea unor drepturi de proprietate intelectuala (brevete, nume, marci anregistrate etc.), legate de echipamentele, materialele, instalatiile sau utilajele folosite pentru ori in legatura cu executia lucrarilor sau ancorporate in acestea; si b) daune-interese, costuri, taxe si cheltuieli de orice natura, aferente, cu exceptia situatiei in care o astfel de incalcare rezulta din respectarea proiectului sau Caietului de sarcini intocmit de catre achizitor. 10. Protectia patrimoniului cultural national 10.1. - Toate fosilele, monedele, obiectele de valoare sau orice alte vestigii ori obiecte de interes arheologic descoperite pe amplasamentul lucrarii sunt considerate, in relatiile dintre parti, ca fiind proprietatea absoluta a achizitorului. 10.2. - Executantul are obligatia de a lua toate precautiile necesare pentru ca muncitorii sai sau oricare alte persoane sa nu indeparteze sau sa nu deterioreze obiectele prevazute la clauza 10.1, iar imediat dupa descoperirea si anainte de indepartarea lor, de a anstiinta achizitorul despre aceasta descoperire si de a indeplini dispozitiile primite de la achizitor privind indepartarea acestora. Daca din cauza unor astfel de dispozitii executantul sufera intarzieri si/sau cheltuieli suplimentare, atunci, prin consultare, partile vor stabili: a) orice prelungire a duratei de executie la care executantul are dreptul; b) totalul cheltuielilor suplimentare care se va adauga la pretul contractului. 10.3. - Achizitorul are obligatia, de indata ce a luat cunostinta despre descoperirea obiectelor prevazute la clauza 10.1, de a anstiinta in acest sens organele de politie si comisia monumentelor istorice. 11. Garantia de buna executie a contractului 11.1. - (1) Executantul are obligatia de a constitui garantia de buna executie a contractului in perioada convenita in acesta. (2) Achizitorul are obligatia de a elibera garantia pentru participare si de a emite ordinul de incepere a contractului numai dupa ce executantul a facut dovada constituirii garantiei de buna executie.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

11.2. - Cuantumul garantiei de buna executie a contractului reprezinta un procent din pretul acestuia; garantia poate fi constituita in lei sau intr-o valuta convertibila. (se precizeaza cuantumul garantiei de buna executie a contractului, modul de constituire, perioada pentru care se constituie si modul de restituire) 11.3. - Achizitorul are dreptul de a emite pretentii asupra garantiei de buna executie, in limita prejudiciului creat, daca executantul nu asi indeplineste obligatiile asumate prin prezentul contract. Anterior emiterii unei pretentii asupra garantiei de buna executie achizitorul are obligatia de a notifica acest lucru executantului, precizand totodata obligatiile care nu au fost respectate. 12. Responsabilitatile executantului 12.1. - (1) Executantul are obligatia de a executa si de a finaliza lucrarile, precum si de a remedia viciile ascunse, cu atentia si promptitudinea cuvenite, in concordanta cu obligatiile asumate prin contract, inclusiv de a proiecta, in limitele prevazute in contract. (2) Executantul are obligatia de a supraveghea lucrarile, de a asigura forta de munca, materialele, instalatiile, echipamentele si toate celelalte obiecte, fie de natura provizorie, fie definitive, cerute de si pentru contract, in masura in care necesitatea asigurarii acestora este prevazuta in contract sau se poate deduce in mod rezonabil din contract. (3) Executantul are obligatia de a notifica prompt achizitorului despre toate erorile, omisiunile, viciile sau altele asemenea descoperite de el in proiect sau in Caietul de sarcini pe durata indeplinirii contractului. 12.2. - Executantul are obligatia de a prezenta achizitorului spre aprobare, anainte de inceperea executiei lucrarii, graficul de plati necesar pentru executia lucrarilor, in ordinea tehnologica de executie. 12.3. - (1) Executantul este pe deplin responsabil pentru conformitatea, stabilitatea si siguranta tuturor operatiunilor executate pe santier, precum si pentru procedeele de executie utilizate, cu respectarea prevederilor si a reglementarilor legii privind calitatea in constructii. (2) Un exemplar din documentatia predata de catre achizitor executantului va fi tinut de acesta in vederea consultarii de catre Inspectia de Stat in Constructii, Lucrari Publice, Urbanism si Amenajarea Teritoriului, precum si de catre persoane autorizate de achizitor, la cererea acestora. (3) Executantul nu va fi raspunzator pentru proiectul si caietele de sarcini care nu au fost intocmite de el. Daca totusi contractul prevede explicit ca o parte a lucrarilor permanente sa fie proiectata de catre executant, acesta va fi pe deplin responsabil pentru acea parte a lucrarilor. (4) Executantul are obligatia de a pune la dispozitie achizitorului, la termenele precizate in anexele la contract, caietele de masuratori (atasamentele) si, dupa caz, in situatiile convenite, desenele, calculele, verificarile calculelor si orice alte documents pe care executantul trebuie sa le intocmeasca sau care sunt cerute de achizitor. 12.4. - (1) Executantul are obligatia de a respecta si de a executa dispozitiile achizitorului in orice problema mentionata sau nementionata in contract, referitoare la lucrare. In cazul in care executantul considera ca dispozitiile achizitorului sunt nejustificate sau inoportune, acesta are dreptul de a ridica obiectii in scris, fara ca obiectiile respective sa al absolve de obligatia de a
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

executa dispozitiile primite, cu exceptia cazului in care acestea contravin prevederilor legale. (2) In cazul in care respectarea si executarea dispozitiilor prevazute la alin. (1) determina dificultati in executie care genereaza costuri suplimentare, aceste costuri vor fi acoperite pe cheltuiala achizitorului. 12.5. - (1) Executantul este responsabil de trasarea corecta a lucrarilor fata de reperele date de achizitor, precum si de furnizarea tuturor echipamentelor, instrumentelor, dispozitivelor si resurselor umane necesare in vederea indeplinirii responsabilitatii respective. (2) In cazul in care pe parcursul executiei lucrarilor survine o eroare in pozitia, cotele, dimensiunile sau aliniamentul oricarei parti a lucrarilor, executantul are obligatia sa rectifice eroarea constatata, pe cheltuiala sa, cu exceptia situatiei in care eroarea respectiva este rezultatul datelor incorecte furnizate in scris de catre proiectant. Pentru verificarea trasarii de catre proiectant executantul are obligatia de a proteja si de a pastra cu grija toate reperele, bornele sau alte obiecte folosite la trasarea lucrarilor. 12.6. - Pe parcursul executiei lucrarilor si al remedierii viciilor ascunse executantul are obligatia: a) de a lua toate masurile pentru asigurarea tuturor persoanelor a caror prezenta pe santier este autorizata si de a mentine santierul (atata timp cat acesta este sub controlul sau) si lucrarile (atata timp cat acestea nu sunt finalizate si ocupate de catre achizitor) in starea de ordine necesara pentru evitarea oricarui pericol pentru respectivele persoane; b) de a procura si de a intretine pe cheltuiala sa toate dispozitivele de iluminare, protectie, ingradire, alarma si paza, in cazul in care sunt necesare sau au fost solicitate de catre achizitor sau de catre alte autoritati competente, in scopul protejarii lucrarilor sau al asigurarii confortului riveranilor; c) de a lua toate masurile rezonabil necesare pentru a proteja mediul pe si in afara santierului si pentru a evita orice paguba sau neajuns provocat persoanelor, proprietatilor publice sau altora, rezultat din poluare, zgomot sau alti factori generati de metodele sale de lucru. 12.7. - Executantul este responsabil pentru mentinerea in buna stare a lucrarilor, materialelor, echipamentelor si instalatiilor care urmeaza sa fie puse in opera de la data primirii ordinului de incepere a lucrarii pana la data semnarii procesului-verbal de receptie a acesteia. 12.8. - (1) Pe parcursul executiei lucrarilor si al remedierii viciilor ascunse executantul are obligatia, in masura permisa de respectarea prevederilor contractului, de a nu stanjeni inutil sau in mod abuziv: a) confortul riveranilor; sau b) caile de acces, prin folosirea si ocuparea drumurilor si a cailor publice sau private care deservesc proprietatile aflate in posesia achizitorului sau a oricarei alte persoane. (2) Executantul va despagubi achizitorul impotriva tuturor reclamatiilor, actiunilor in justitie, daunelor-interese, costurilor, taxelor si cheltuielilor, indiferent de natura lor, rezultand din sau in legatura cu obligatia prevazuta la alin. (1), pentru care responsabilitatea revine executantului. 12.9. - (1) Executantul are obligatia de a utiliza in mod rezonabil drumurile sau podurile ce comunica cu sau sunt pe traseul santierului si de a preveni deteriorarea sau distrugerea acestora de traficul propriu sau al oricaruia dintre
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

subcontractantii sai; executantul va selecta traseele, va alege si va folosi vehiculele, va limita si va repartiza incarcaturile, in asa fel incat traficul suplimentar ce va rezulta in mod inevitabil din deplasarea materialelor, echipamentelor, instalatiilor sau a altora asemenea, de pe si pe santier, sa fie limitat, in masura in care este posibil, astfel incat sa nu produca deteriorari sau distrugeri ale drumurilor si podurilor respective. (2) In cazul in care natura lucrarilor impune utilizarea de catre executant a transportului pe apa, prevederile alin. (1) vor fi interpretate in maniera in care prin "drum" se intelege inclusiv ecluza, doc, dig sau orice alta structura aferenta caii navigabile si prin "vehicul" se intelege orice ambarcatiune, iar prevederile respective se vor aplica in consecinta. (3) In cazul in care se produc deteriorari sau distrugeri ale oricarui pod sau drum care comunica cu sau care se afla pe traseul santierului, datorita transportului materialelor, echipamentelor, instalatiilor sau altora asemenea, executantul are obligatia de a despagubi achizitorul impotriva tuturor reclamatiilor privind avarierea respectivelor poduri sau drumuri. (4) Cu exceptia unor clauze contrare prevazute in contract, executantul este responsabil si va plati consolidarea, modificarea sau ambunatatirea, in scopul facilitarii transportului materialelor, echipamentelor, instalatiilor sau altora asemenea, a oricaror drumuri sau poduri care comunica cu sau care se afla pe traseul santierului. 12.10. - (1) Pe parcursul executiei lucrarii executantul are obligatia: a) de a evita pe cat posibil acumularea de obstacole inutile pe santier; b) de a depozita sau de a retrage orice utilaje, echipamente, instalatii, surplus de materiale; c) de a aduna si de a indeparta de pe santier daramaturile, molozul sau lucrarile provizorii de orice fel, care nu mai sunt necesare. (2) Executantul are dreptul de a retine pe santier pana la sfarsitul perioadei de garantie numai acele materiale, echipamente, instalatii sau lucrari provizorii, care ai sunt necesare in scopul indeplinirii obligatiilor sale in perioada de garantie. 12.11. - Executantul raspunde, potrivit obligatiilor care ai revin, pentru viciile ascunse ale constructiei, ivite intr-un interval de ......../(se precizeaza numarul de ani)/... de la receptia lucrarii si dupa amplinirea acestui termen, pe toata durata de existenta a constructiei, pentru viciile structurii de rezistenta, ca urmare a nerespectarii proiectelor si detaliilor de executie aferente executiei lucrarii. 13. Responsabilitatile achizitorului 13.1. - La inceperea lucrarilor achizitorul are obligatia de a obtine toate autorizatiile si avizele necesare in vederea executiei lucrarilor. 13.2. - (1) Achizitorul are obligatia de a pune la dispozitie executantului, fara plata, daca nu s-a convenit altfel, urmatoarele: a) amplasamentul lucrarii liber de orice sarcina; b) suprafetele de teren necesare pentru depozitare si pentru organizarea de santier; c) caile de acces rutier si racordurile de cale ferata; d) racordurile pentru utilitati (apa, gaz, energie, canalizare etc.), pana la limita amplasamentului santierului.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

(2) Costurile pentru consumul de utilitati, precum si eel al contoarelor sau al altor aparate de masurat se suporta de catre executant. 13.3. - Achizitorul are obligatia de a pune la dispozitie executantului intreaga documentatie necesara pentru executia lucrarilor contractate, fara plata, in 4 exemplare, la termenele stabilite prin graficul de executie a lucrarii. 13.4. - Achizitorul este responsabil pentru trasarea axelor principale, a bornelor de referinta, a cailor de circulatie si a limitelor terenului pus la dispozitie executantului, precum si pentru materializarea cotelor de nivel in imediata apropiere a terenului. 13.5. - Achizitorul are obligatia de a examina si de a masura lucrarile care devin ascunse in eel mult 5 zile de la notificarea executantului. 13.6. - Achizitorul este pe deplin responsabil de exactitatea documentelor si a oricaror alte informatii furnizate executantului, precum si de dispozitiile si livrarile sale. 14. Inceperea si executia lucrarilor 14.1. - (1) Executantul are obligatia de a incepe lucrarile in timpul eel mai scurt posibil de la primirea ordinului in acest sens din partea achizitorului. (se precizeaza data maxima de emitere a ordinului de incepere a executiei) (2) Executantul trebuie sa notifice achizitorului si Inspectiei de Stat in Constructii, Lucrari Publice, Urbanism si Amenajarea Teritoriului data inceperii efective a lucrarilor. 14.2. - (1) Lucrarile trebuie sa se deruleze conform graficul ui general de executie si sa fie terminate la data stabilita. Datele intermediare prevazute in graficele de executie se considera date contractuale. (se precizeaza datele intermediare, daca este cazul) (2) Executantul va prezenta, la cererea achizitorului, dupa semnarea contractului, graficul de executie de detaliu, alcatuit in ordinea tehnologica de executie. In cazul in care, dupa opinia achizitorului, pe parcurs desfasurarea lucrarilor nu concorda cu graficul general de executie a lucrarilor, la cererea achizitorului executantul va prezenta un grafic revizuit, in vederea terminarii lucrarilor la data prevazuta in contract. Graficul revizuit nu al va scuti pe executant de nici una dintre andatoririle asumate prin contract. (3) In cazul in care executantul intarzie inceperea lucrarilor, terminarea pregatirilor sau daca nu asi indeplineste andatoririle prevazute la clauza 12.1 alin. (2), achizitorul este indreptatit sa ai fixeze executantului un termen pana la care activitatea sa antre in normal si sa al avertizeze ca, in cazul neconformarii, la expirarea termenului stabilit ai va rezilia contractul. 14.3. - (1) Achizitorul are dreptul de a supraveghea desfasurarea executiei lucrarilor si de a stabili conformitatea lor cu specificatiile cuprinse in anexele la contract. Partile contractante au obligatia de a notifica, in scris, una celeilalte, identitatea reprezentantilor lor atestati profesional pentru acest scop, si anume a responsabilului tehnic cu executia din partea executantului si a dirigintelui de santier sau, daca este cazul, a altei persoane fizice sau juridice atestate potrivit legii, din partea achizitorului. (2) Executantul are obligatia de a asigura accesul reprezentantului achizitorului la locul de munca, in ateliere, depozite si oriunde asi desfasoara activitatile legate de indeplinirea obligatiilor asumate prin contract, inclusiv pentru verificarea lucrarilor ascunse.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

14.4. - (1) Materialele trebuie sa fie de calitatea prevazuta in documentatia de executie; verificarile si testarile materialelor folosite la executia lucrarilor, precum si conditiile de trecere a receptiei provizorii si a receptiei finale (calitative) sunt descrise in anexa/anexele la contract. (2) Executantul are obligatia sa asigure instrumentele, utilajele si materialele necesare pentru verificarea, masurarea si testarea lucrarilor. Costul probelor si ancercarilor, inclusiv al manoperei aferente acestora, revine executantului. (3) Probele neprevazute si comandate de achizitor pentru verificarea unor lucrari sau materiale puse in opera vor fi suportate de executant, daca se dovedeste ca materialele nu sunt corespunzatoare calitativ sau ca manopera nu este in conformitate cu prevederile contractului. In caz contrar achizitorul va suporta aceste cheltuieli. 14.5. - (1) Executantul are obligatia de a nu acoperi lucrarile care devin ascunse, fara aprobarea achizitorului. (2) Executantul are obligatia de a notifica achizitorului, ori de cate ori astfel de lucrari, inclusiv fundatiile, sunt finalizate, pentru a fi examinate si masurate. (3) Executantul are obligatia de a dezveli orice parte sau parti din lucrare, la dispozitia achizitorului, si de a reface aceasta parte sau aceste parti din lucrare, daca este cazul. (4) In cazul in care se constata ca lucrarile sunt de calitate corespunzatoare si au fost executate conform documentatiei de executie, cheltuielile privind dezvelirea si refacerea vor fi suportate de catre achizitor, iar in caz contrar, de catre executant. 15. Intarzierea si sistarea lucrarilor 15.1. - In cazul in care: a) volumul sau natura lucrarilor neprevazute; sau b) conditiile climaterice extrem de nefavorabile; sau c) oricare alt motiv de intarziere care nu se datoreaza executantului si nu a survenit prin incalcarea contractului de catre acesta al indreptatesc pe executant sa solicite prelungirea termenului de executie a lucrarilor sau a oricarei parti din acestea, prin consultare, partile vor stabili: (i) orice prelungire a duratei de executie la care executantul are dreptul; (ii) totalul cheltuielilor suplimentare, care se va adauga la pretul contractului. 15.2. - Fara a prejudicia dreptul executantului conform clauzei 24.1, acesta are dreptul de a sista lucrarile sau de a diminua ritmul executiei, daca achizitorul nu plateste in termen de 28 de zile de la expirarea termenului prevazut in clauza 18.2; in acest caz va notifica in scris acest fapt achizitorului. 16. Finalizarea lucrarilor 16.1. - Ansamblul lucrarilor sau, daca este cazul, oricare parte din acestea, prevazut sa fie finalizat intr-un termen stabilit prin graficul de executie, trebuie finalizat in termenul convenit de parti, termen care se calculeaza de la data inceperii lucrarilor. 16.2. - (1) La finalizarea lucrarilor executantul are obligatia de a notifica in scris achizitorului ca sunt indeplinite conditiile de receptie, solicitand acestuia convocarea comisiei de receptie.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

(2) Pe baza situatiilor de lucrari executate confirmate si a constatarilor efectuate pe teren achizitorul va aprecia daca sunt intrunite conditiile pentru a convoca comisia de receptie. In cazul in care se constata ca sunt lipsuri sau deficiente acestea vor fi notificate executantului, stabilindu-se si termenele pentru remediere si finalizare. Dupa constatarea remedierii tuturor lipsurilor si deficientelor, la o noua solicitare a executantului, achizitorul va convoca comisia de receptie. 16.3. - Comisia de receptie are obligatia de a constata stadiul indeplinirii contractului prin corelarea prevederilor acestuia cu documentatia de executie si cu reglementarile in vigoare. In functie de constatarile facute achizitorul are dreptul de a aproba sau de a respinge receptia. 16.4. - Receptia se poate face si pentru parti din lucrare, distincte din punct de vedere fizic si functional. 17. Perioada de garantie acordata lucrarilor 17.1. - Perioada de garantie decurge de la data receptiei la terminarea lucrarilor, pe ansamblu sau pe parti din lucrare distincte din punct de vedere fizic si functional, pana la receptia finala. 17.2. - (1) In perioada de garantie executantul are obligatia, in urma dispozitiei date de achizitor, de a executa toate lucrarile de modificare, reconstructie si remediere a viciilor, contractiilor si altor defecte a caror cauza este nerespectarea clauzelor contractuale. (2) Executantul are obligatia de a executa toate activitatile prevazute la alin. (1), pe cheltuiala proprie, in cazul in care ele sunt necesare ca urmare a: a) utilizarii de materiale, de instalatii sau a unei manopere neconforme cu prevederile contractului; sau b) unui viciu de conceptie, acolo unde executantul este responsabil de proiectarea unei parti din lucrari; sau c) neglijentei sau neindeplinirii de catre executant a oricareia dintre obligatiile explicite sau implicite care ai revin in baza contractului. (3) In cazul in care defectiunile nu s-au produs din vina executantului, lucrarile fund executate de catre acesta conform prevederilor contractului, costul remedierilor va fi evaluat si platit ca lucrari suplimentare. 17.3. - In cazul in care executantul nu executa lucrarile prevazute la clauza 17.2 alin. (1), achizitorul este indreptatit sa angajeze si sa plateasca alte persoane care sa le execute. Cheltuielile aferente acestor lucrari vor fi recuperate de catre achizitor de la executant sau retinute din sumele cuvenite acestuia. 18. Modalitati de plata 18.1. - Achizitorul are obligatia de a efectua plata catre executant in termenul convenit de la emiterea facturii de catre acesta. Platile in valuta se vor efectua prin respectarea prevederilor legale. (se precizeaza termenul de plata de la emiterea facturii si, dupa caz, graficul de plata) 18.2. - Daca achizitorul nu onoreaza facturile in termen de 14 zile de la expirarea perioadei prevazute la clauza 18.1 si fara a prejudicia dreptul executantului de a apela la prevederile clauzei 24.1, acesta din urma are dreptul de a sista executarea lucrarilor sau de a diminua ritmul executiei si de a
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

beneficia de reactualizarea sumei de plata la nivelul corespunzator zilei de efectuare a platii. Imediat ce achizitorul onoreaza factura executantul va relua executarea lucrarilor in eel mai scurt timp posibil. 18.3. - Achizitorul are dreptul de a acorda avans executantului, daca acesta solicita, numai contra unei scrisori de returnare a avansului si numai in limita valorica prevazuta de lege. (se precizeaza cuantumul avansului) 18.4. - (1) Platile partiale trebuie sa fie facute, la cererea executantului (antreprenorului), la valoarea lucrarilor executate conform contractului si in eel mai scurt timp posibil. Lucrarile executate trebuie sa fie dovedite ca atare printr-o situatie de lucrari provizorii, intocmita astfel incat sa asigure o verificare rapida si sigura a lor. Din situatiile de lucrari provizorii achizitorul va putea face scazaminte pentru servicii facute executantului si convenite cu acesta. Alte scazaminte nu se pot face decat in cazurile in care ele sunt prevazute in contract sau ca urmare a unor prevederi legale. (2) Situatiile de plata provizorii se confirma in termenul stabilit. (se precizeaza termenul) (3) Platile partiale se efectueaza, de regula, la intervale lunare, dar nu influenteaza responsabilitatea si garantia de buna executie a executantului; ele nu se considera de catre achizitor ca receptie a lucrarilor executate. 18.5. - Plata facturii finale se va face imediat dupa verificarea si acceptarea situatiei de plata definitive de catre achizitor. Daca verificarea se prelungeste din diferite motive, dar in special ca urmare a unor eventuale litigii, contravaloarea lucrarilor care nu sunt in litigiu va fi platita imediat. 18.6. - Contractul nu va fi considerat terminat pana cand procesul-verbal de receptie finala nu va fi semnat de comisia de receptie. Procesele-verbale de receptie finala pot fi intocmite si pentru parti din lucrare, daca acestea sunt distincte din punct de vedere fizic si functional. Receptia finala va fi efectuata conform prevederilor legale, dupa expirarea perioadei de garantie. Plata ultimelor sume datorate executantului pentru lucrarile executate nu va fi conditionata de eliberarea certificatului de receptie finala. 19. Actualizarea pretului contractului 19.1. - Pentru lucrarile executate platile datorate de achizitor executantului sunt cele declarate in propunerea financiara, anexa la contract. 19.2. - Pretul contractului se actualizeaza utilizandu-se formula de actualizare convenita. (se precizeaza formula de actualizare) 20. Asigurari 20.1. - (1) Executantul are obligatia de a incheia, anainte de inceperea lucrarilor, o asigurare ce va cuprinde toate riscurile care ar putea aparea privind lucrarile executate, utilajele, instalatiile de lucru, echipamentele, materialele pe stoc, personalul propriu si reprezentantii amputerniciti sa verifice, sa testeze sau sa receptioneze lucrarile, precum si daunele sau prejudiciile aduse catre terte persoane fizice sau juridice. (2) Asigurarea se va incheia cu o agentie de asigurare. Contravaloarea primelor de asigurare va fi suportata de catre executant din capitolul "Cheltuieliindirecte".
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System (3) Executantul are obligatia de a prezenta achizitorului, ori de cate ori i se va cere, polita sau politele de asigurare si recipisele pentru plata primelor curente (actualizate). (4) Executantul are obligatia de a se asigura ca subantreprenorii au incheiat asigurari pentru toate persoanele angajate de ei. El va solicita subantreprenorilor sa prezinte achizitorului, la cerere, politele de asigurare si recipisele pentru plata primelor curente (actualizate). (5) Achizitorul nu va fi responsabil pentru nici un fel de daune-interese, compensatii platibile prin lege, in privinta sau ca urmare a unui accident ori prejudiciu adus unui muncitor sau altei persoane angajate de executant, cu exceptia accidentelor sau prejudiciilor rezultate din vina achizitorului, a agentilor sau a angajatilor acestora.

21. Amendamente 21.1. - Partile contractante au dreptul, pe durata indeplinirii contractului, de a conveni modificarea clauzelor contractului prin act aditional numai in cazul aparitiei unor circumstante care lezeaza interesele comerciale legitime ale acestora si care nu au putut fi prevazute la data incheierii contractului. 22. Subcontractanti
22.1. - Executantul are obligatia de a incheia contracte cu subcontractantii

desemnati, in aceleasi conditii in care el a semnat contractul cu achizitorul. 22.2. - (1) Executantul are obligatia de a prezenta la incheierea contractului toate contractele incheiate cu subcontractantii desemnati. (2) Lista subcontractantilor cuprinzand datele de recunoastere a acestora, precum si contractele incheiate cu acestia se constituie in anexe la contract. 22.3. - (1) Executantul este pe deplin raspunzator fata de achizitor de modul in care indeplineste contractul. (2) Subcontractantul este pe deplin raspunzator fata de executant de modul in care indeplineste partea sa din contract. (3) Executantul are dreptul de a pretinde daune-interese subcontractantilor, daca acestia nu indeplinesc partea lor din contract. 22.4. - Executantul poate schimba oricare subcontractant numai daca acesta nu a indeplinit partea sa din contract. Schimbarea subcontractantului nu va modifica pretul contractului si va fi notificata achizitorului. 23. Penalitati, daune-interese 23.1. - In cazul in care, din vina sa exclusiva, executantul nu reuseste sa isi indeplineasca obligatiile asumate prin contract, achizitorul are dreptul de a deduce din pretul contractului, ca penalitati, o suma echivalenta cu o cota procentuala din pretul contractului. (se precizeaza cota procentuala pentru fiecare zi/saptamana de intarziere, pana la indeplinirea efectiva a obligatiilor) 23.2. - In cazul in care achizitorul nu onoreaza facturile in termen de 28 de zile de la expirarea perioadei prevazute la clauza 18.2, acesta are obligatia de a plati, ca penalitati, o suma echivalenta cu o cota procentuala din plata neefectuata.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

(se precizeaza cota procentuala pentru fiecare zi/saptamana de intarziere, pana la indeplinirea efectiva a obligatiilor, cota care, de regula, trebuie sa acopere dobanda practicata pe piata bancara) 24. Rezilierea contractului
24.1. - Nerespectarea obligatiilor asumate prin prezentul contract de catre

una dintre parti da dreptul partii lezate de a cere rezilierea contractului de lucrari si de a pretinde plata de dauneinterese. 24.2. - Achizitorul asi rezerva dreptul de a denunta unilateral contractul de lucrari in eel mult 30 de zile de la aparitia unor circumstante care nu au putut fi prevazute la data incheierii contractului si care conduc la modificarea clauzelor contractuale astfel incat indeplinirea contractului respectiv ar fi contrara interesului public. 24.3. - In cazul prevazut la clauza 24.2 executantul are dreptul de a pretinde numai plata corespunzatoare pentru partea din contract indeplinita pana la data denuntarii unilaterale a contractului. 25. Cesiunea 25.1. - Executantul are obligatia de a nu transfera total sau partial obligatiile sale asumate prin contract, fara sa obtina in prealabil acordul scris al achizitorului. 25.2. - Cesiunea nu va exonera executantul de nici o responsabilitate privind garantia sau orice alte obligatii asumate prin contract. 26. Forta majora 26.1. - Forta majora este constatata de o autoritate competenta. 26.2. - Forta majora exonereaza partile contractante de indeplinirea obligatiilor asumate prin prezentul contract, pe toata perioada in care actioneaza aceasta. 26.3. - Indeplinirea contractului va fi suspendata in perioada de actiune a fortei majore, dar fara a prejudicia drepturile ce li se cuveneau partilor pana la aparitia acesteia. 26.4. - Partea contractanta care invoca forta majora are obligatia de a notifica celeilalte parti, imediat si in mod complet, producerea acesteia si de a lua orice masuri care ai stau la dispozitie, in vederea limitarii consecintelor. 26.5. - Daca forta majora actioneaza sau se estimeaza ca va actiona o perioada mai mare de 6 luni, fiecare parte va avea dreptul sa notifice celeilalte parti ancetarea de plin drept a prezentului contract, fara ca vreuna dintre parti sa poata pretinde celeilalte daune-interese. 27. Solutionarea litigiilor 27.1. - Achizitorul si executantul vor face toate eforturile pentru a rezolva pe cale amiabila, prin tratative directe, orice neintelegere sau disputa care se poate ivi antre ei in cadrul sau in legatura cu indeplinirea contractului. 27.2. - Daca dupa 15 zile de la inceperea acestor tratative neoficiale achizitorul si executantul nu reusesc sa rezolve in mod amiabil o divergenta contractuala, fiecare poate solicita ca disputa sa se solutioneze fie prin arbitraj la Camera de Comert si Industrie a Romaniei si a Municipiului Bucuresti, fie de catre instantele judecatoresti din Romania.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

(se precizeaza modalitatea de solutionare a litigiilor) 28. Limba care guverneaza contraetul 28.1. - Limba care guverneaza contraetul este limba romana. 29. Comunicari 29.1. - (1) Orice comunicare antre parti, referitoare la indeplinirea prezentului contract, trebuie sa fie transmisa in scris. (2) Orice document scris trebuie anregistrat atat in momentul transmiterii, cat si in momentul primirii. 29.2. - Comuniearile dintre parti se pot face si prin telefon, telegrama, telex, fax sau e-mail, cu conditia confirmarii in scris a primirii comunicarii. 30. Legea aplicabila contractului 30.1. - Contraetul va fi interpretat conform legilor din Romania. Achizitor, (semnatura autorizata) L.S. Contractant, (semnatura autorizata) L.S.

Vocabulary: MAKING TRANSACTIONS 1: I'd like to withdraw 100, please. as. dori sa retrag 100 , va rog. I want to make a withdrawal. as. dori sa retrag nite bani. how would you like the money? ce fel de bancnote dori^i? in tens, please. in hartii de zece. could you give me some smaller notes? puteti sa-mi dati bancnote mai mici? I'd like to pay this in, please. as. dori sa depun banii acetia, va rog. I'd like to pay this cheque in, please. as. dori sa incasez cecul acesta, va rog. how many days will it take for the cheque to clear?
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

in cate zile vor fi disponibili banii de pe cec? have you got any...? aveti vreun...? identification. act de identitate. I've got my... passport. driving licence. ID card. am... paaportul. permisul de conducere. cartea de identitate. I'd like to transfer some money to this account. as. dori sa transfer ceva bani in acest cont. could you transfer 1000 from my current account to my deposit account? puteti sa-mi transferal 1000 de lire din contul curent in contul de economii?

TERMINOLOGY USED IN NEGOTIATIONS

1. alternatives - any other choices a person or group has, rather then agreeing with the other person or group Example: "We can ask them to do A if we do B, but they have many alternatives."

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System 2. arbitration - when a neutral person or group comes in to settle a disagreement Example: "If we can't agree by midnight tomorrow, this case will go to arbitration."

3. commitment - an obligation to do something or deliver something Example: "We 've made a commitment on this point. If we don't do it, the agreement will fall apart "

4. compromise - an agreement where you get less than you want but also give less than the other person wants Example: "If we don't compromise, this deal will never get done."

5. concession - accepting less on one specific point in order to get something from the other person on a different point Example: "Okay, you 've made a concession on price, so we can make a concession on the delivery date."

6. confidentiality - an agreement that prevents either side from talking about the agreement in public Example: "I'm sorry but our confidentiality agreement prevents me from answering your questions in detail"

7. equivalent - aproprosed agreement that is different from, but equal in value to, a previous proposal Example: "We can't agree to that proposal, but here we would like to suggest an equivalent package for you to consider."

8. facilitation - a process where people, called facilitators, try to make it easier for two people to reach an agreement

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System Example: "You may not reach a better agreement with facilitation, but you will reach an agreement faster. "

9. final agreement - the results of the negotation that everyone agrees to put into action Example: "After six long months, we now have a final agreement "

10. good faith - being honest about your intentions Example: "If we negotiate in good faith, we are sure to reach an agreement eventually."

11. impasse - when two sides hold different positions that they are unwilling to change Example: "We were close to an agreement but we suddenly hit an impasse over payment terms."

12. intermediary - a person who communicates between the two sides of a negotiation Example: "They've been negotiating through an intermediary after that big argument last week."

13. issue - a topic that needs to be discussed in a negotiation Example: "Money is the biggest issue in this negotiation, but resources and responsibilities are important issues too."

14. mediation - when a neutral person or group comes in to identify the issues, explore options and clarify goals Example: "If we use mediation, it may help to move the negotiations forward "

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Studying English for Economics. The Economic System 15. offer - one or more options that is sent by one negotiator to the other Example: "Let's offer them a one-year service contract and see how they respond "

16. package - a combination of options that has been offered as a solution Example: "John put this package together last night. Let's look at each option and see if we really want to offer this."

17. party - either side in a negotiation is called a party, whether one individual or a whole group Example: "Ifparty A accepts party B's proposal, then the negotiation is finished "

18. proposal - any suggestion or idea given to one party from the other Example: "We 'II look at your proposal during the coming week and give you our response the following Monday."

19. tentative solution - an agreement that depends on some conditions, so that it might not be a final agreement Example: "At last we've reached a tentative agreement Perhaps these long negotiations will be over soon. "

20. trade-off- an exchange process in which one side gives up partly on some issues in order to gain on other issues Example: "There are always trade-offs when negotiating. You can't win them all!"

Work Task 7

ics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Draw up a short business letter using as pattern the text of the learning

Minimal Bibliography:

Brooks, Michael; David Horner. (1991). English for the Business World. Paris: Edition Belin. Cotton, D.; S. Robbins. (1996). Business Class. London: Longman. Dimitriu-Caracota, Maria; Duncan; Frederick Henry. (1998). English -Romanian Dictionary of Accounting, Economic and Financial Terms. Bucureti: Garamond. Dutescu, Dan; Mares. Liliana. (1988). Manual de conversafie in limba englezd. Bucureti: Editura tiintifica i Enciclopedica. Emerson, Paul. (2008). Business English. Macmillan. Evans, David. (2003). Decisionmaker. Cambridge: Cambridge Universty Press. Mariana, Nicolae (2008). Corespondenta comerciala in limba engleza. Bucureti: Editura Universitara.

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Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

4. BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE -LETTER OF REFERENCE

4.1. Business Correspondence - Letter of Reference 4.2.Language Approach - Part 2 Specific Objectives of the Learning Unit Abstract Self-Evaluation Tests Key to the Self-Evaluation Tests Control Test Self-Evaluation Tests Minimal Bibliography

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Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

4.1. Business Correspondence - Letter of Reference

Dear Sirs, Re: Customer Reference - Fairchild Inc. I have been asked to write this letter of reference because our company will no longer be operating its printing plant that has served Fairchild Inc. for more than a decade. Fairchild Inc has been one of our top customers for the past 40 years. Accordingly, I have no hesitation in recommending them as a company with which to do business. In addition to doing business with his company for many years, I have known the president and founder of Fairchild Inc, Mr. Peter Straub, for over 25 years. We were classmates and teammates at Oxford University in the late 1990s. Knowing him for so long I am quite comfortable in vouching for him as a great individual as well as a concerned and active citizen in this community. As far as a company to do business with, Fairchild Inc. is one of the best that we have ever dealt with. Its practice has always been to pay our printing invoices within the 30-day time limit. We did significant amounts of business, especially during the past 10 years, and I cannot recall a late-payment situation involving that company. Billing disputes were rare, and those only required some minor additional documentation for clarification and resolution. Fairchild was one of the best companies that I have ever dealt with from a change-order and work scheduling perspective. We maintained close communication with the company's production people and they always kept us apprised of their upcoming workload. Thus, scheduling jobs on our presses was never a problem. In addition, Fairchild's graphics people always provided us with high quality finished artwork, and it was unusual for additional changes to be made after the plates had been produced. Based on our experience, any printing company should be very pleased to be the one that Fairchild selects to do business with once we have closed our doors. Your faithfully, Gordon Wipswitch Esq. President and CEO

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Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

ADVERTISING TERMINOLOGY

ad abbr. advertisement - advert abbr. advertisement?!, item of publicity for a product or service, in magazine, on TV etc advertising agency n. company specialising in producing and placing advertisements for clients AIDA abbr. Attention, Interest, Desire, Action - the objective of all advertisements benefit n. advantage of a product or service, usually derived from its features billboard US n. signboard, usually outdoors, for advertising posters; circulation n. average number of copies of a magazine sold in a particular period classified ads n. small advertisements in magazine or newspaper categorised by subject commercial n. paid advertisement on radio or TV coupon n. part of a printed advertisement used for ordering goods, samples etc double-page spread n. advertisement printed across 2 pages in a magazine or newspaper eye-catcherUS n. something that especially attracts one's attention - eye-catching adj. features n. special characteristics of a product, usually leading to certain benefits hoardingUK n. signboard, usually outdoors, for advertising posters; billboardUS poster n. large sheet of paper, usually illustrated, used as advertisement prime time n. hours on radio & TV with largest audience, esp. the evening hours promote v. to (try to) increase sales of a product by publicising and advertising it slot n. specific time in a broadcasting schedule, when a commercial may be shown target n. objective; what one is aiming at - target audience n. U.S.P. abbr. Unique Selling Proposition; what makes a product different from others

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Web Site Design Contract This is a legal and binding contract between YOUR COMPANY NAME and the Client listed below. YOUR COMPANY NAME YOUR STREES YOUR TOWN, STATE ZIP PHONE FAX EMAIL

Client Company Contact Name Address City Phone E-mail address State FAX ZIP Country

Present WWW URL (if any): Username Password

These are the terms of our agreement together: 1. Authorization. The above-named Client is engaging YOUR COMPANY NAME, known as Developer, a sole proprietor, located at YOUR ADDRESS, as an independent contractor for the specific purpose of developing and/or improving a web site. The Client hereby authorizes Developer to access the above FTP account, and authorizes the web hosting service to provide Developer with "write permission" for the Client's web page directory, cgi-bin directory, and any other directories or programs which need to be accessed for this project. The Client also authorizes Developer to publicize their completed web site to Web search engines, as well as other Web directories and indexes. 2. Standard Web Site Package: Domain Registration: The Developer will secure a domain name for the Client at the Client's request. All charges incurred in doing so will be billed to the Client as an addition to the base price contemplated by this agreement. These are Internic fees, and are not a source of income for the Developer.
English for economics II

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Studying English for Economics. The Economic System If the Client already has a domain name, the Developer will coordinate redirecting the address to the new host. Should the Client desire a specific domain name, which is already owned by another party, negotiations for said domain name must be undertaken by the Client. Text. Copy for web site must be supplied by the Client in a .doc format via disk or email attachment. Otherwise, if not supplied on disk or via email, there will be an additional charge for typesetting. Links. This agreement contemplates up to an average of 12 external or relative links per page and an e-mail response link on each web page to any e-mail address specified by Client. This agreement also contemplates making any link the Client desires "pop up" in a new window if requested at the specific dimensions and configuration specified by the Author. Photos. Photos and other misc. graphic images must be supplied by Client. Scanning. This agreement contemplates scanning up to 10 images for the Client. It is contemplated that this will accommodate the needs of most Clients.. Please note: If you anticipate needing extensive scanning service, or need large format images scanned, please contact Developer for pricing and/or discounts on volume scanning. Installation. Finished site will be uploaded to Client's hosting company. Site publicity. The site will be subject to a one-time blast submission to at least 12 of the major Web search engines, such as Yahoo, AltaVista, InfoSeek, WebCrawler, Lycos, HotBot, etc. E-mail response link on each web page to any e-mail address the Client designates. Cross Browser Compatibility. Our agreement contemplates the creation of a web site viewable by both Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer. Compatibility is defined herein as all critical elements of each page being viewable in both browsers. Client is aware that some advanced techniques on the Internet, however, may require a more recent browser version and brand or plug-in. Client is also aware that as new browser versions of Internet Explorer and Netscape are developed, the new browser versions may not be compatible. In the absence of a Maintenance Agreement time spent to redesign a site for compatibility due to the introduction of a new browser version will be separately negotiated and in addition to the base price of our agreement. CGI / Perl. This contract contemplates one basic form embedded on the Clients web site with the data captured in each form delivered to the Client at the Client's specified e-mail address. If a specific script beyond this capability is requested by the Client and it must be purchased or created

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System by the" Developer" at the Client's request, the charge for the script, if any, will be billed back to the Client. Image Map. for internal navigation (Not included in the package price for sites smaller than 6 pages.) 3. Standard Web site Packages only. The content of the web pages will be supplied by the Client and executed as specified by the Client in the "Web Site Planning Worksheet" dated_________________. This web site includes up to _____________ web pages. In case the Client desires additional standard web pages beyond the original number of pages specified above, the Client agrees to pay Developer an additional $________for each additional web page. Graphics or photos beyond the allowed average of 1.3 per web page shall be billed at an additional $ _______________________________________________________________ each. Where custom graphic work (beyond the scope of the "Custom Graphics Package" detailed above) is requested, it will be billed at the hourly rate specified below. The store size and additional services, and prices of each are detailed on the attached estimate. 4. Online stores only. The text and graphic content of the web pages will be supplied by the Client and executed as specified by the Client in the "Web Page Planning Worksheet" and / or the Store Planning Worksheet. It is understood that total prices calculated are likely to vary from the final amount due to different quantities of products, categories, photos, regular pages, etc. in the final store. An Estimate is listed in Appendix A and governs the prices for this contract. Notwithstanding any prices listed in literature or on web pages, the Client and Developer agree that the services described above in this section shall be completed for the amount indicated in Appendix A and / or Appendix B and upon this amount the first payment shall be determined. The final payment shall reflect and include all elements actually completed at the prices attached. We include e-mail/phone consultation of up to 2 hours total general Internet orientation education, marketing strategy, Web design consultation, and helping Clients learn to use the store software. Telephone long distance charges are in addition to package rates quoted. (Additional education and consultation is at our hourly rate.) Product web pages, products, or photos added after the store is ready for advertising to the Web search engines will be calculated for actual time spent at the hourly rate specified below. 5. Available Services : This agreement includes all the aforementioned services plus: Page Redirection / Plug-in Technology. JavaScript programming page redirection based on the presence or absence of a viewer's browser, plugin, screen resolution and platform. Note however, that if additional pages

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System are necessary to accommodate specific browsers, plug-in technology, screen resolutions, or platforms additional charges may apply. Graphic Creation / Banner Advertisements. This custom package contemplates that the "Developer" will create, capture or receive from the Client all the graphic elements necessary to complete the Client's web site. This includes creation / redesign of Corporate Identity (logo), ancillary images, animated graphics, photography and banner advertisements. Java Applets. This custom package contemplates the use of Java Applets specified in Appendix A. Clients are encouraged to not use Java Applets as many viewers on America Online will be served an error when trying to view the page. Java Applets may also 'crash' older computers on download and download times for some viewers can be excessive. Macromedia Flash Macromedia Flash is always an option and the specific understanding of our arrangement will be listed in Appendix A. Although Flash work is charged by the hour, the Developer warrants to protect the client by specifying a maximum charge in advance which will be listed in Appendix A. The Developer warrants to work earnestly to come in under the maximum charge. DHTML This custom package contemplates using DHTML technology. The rate to program each DHTML page will be specified in Appendix A. The Author understands that DHTML technology may not work in older browsers and some DHTML technology is not cross-browser specific. Real Audio/Video. This custom package contemplates using Real Audio or Real Video on the Client's site. If chosen, however, the charges for such will be listed in Appendix A. QuickTime / QuickTime VR This custom package contemplates using QuickTime or QuickTime VR technology on the Client's web site. E-commerce. This custom package contemplates the possibility of an ecommerce enabled site. If a shopping cart is required for the Client's site, the charges for the shopping cart will be listed in Appendix A. Secure Certificate If the Client selects an e-commerce enabled site, the Client is encouraged to obtain a secure certificate for online transactions. The Client understands that if they do not obtain their own secure certificate, design capabilities on the shopping cart itself may be limited. Merchant Account The Client will need a Merchant Account to enable the ability to accept credit cards online. Any charges necessary to secure the Merchant Account are chargeable to the Client. Real Time Credit Card Processing. If the Client has a high volume / high sales web site, real-time credit card processing will be desired. In this

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System instance, the Developer will assist the Client in obtaining this service. Any charges related to this service are the responsibility of the Client as an addition to this agreement. ASP / Cold Fusion. Sites requiring database design may require Microsoft ASP or Allaire Cold Fusion technology. Any charges applicable to ASP or Cold Fusion are in addition to this agreement. Databases. Costs for creation of a database will be specifically listed in Appendix A. Training. The Developer will provide e-mail and telephone assistance to the Client's designated representatives regarding management of the Client's web site at a pre-negotiated rate. 6. Additional Expenses. Client agrees to reimburse the Developer for any critical Client requested expenses necessary for the completion of the project. Examples would be:

Purchase of specific fonts at the Client's request, Purchase of specific photography at the Client's request. Purchase of specific software at the Client's request. 7. Client Amends / Changes. Developer prides itself in providing excellent customer service. That is the spirit of our agreement and the spirit of the Developer's business. To that end, we encourage input from the Client during the design process. The Developer understands, however, that Clients may request significant design changes to pages that have already built to the Client's specification. To that end, please note that our agreement does not include a provision for significant page modification or creation of additional pages in excess of our agreed page maximum [Appendix A]. If significant page modification is requested after a page has been built to the Author's specification, we must count it as an additional page. Some examples of significant page modification at the request of the Client include:

Developing a new table or layer structure to accommodate a substantial redesign at the Client's request. Recreating or significantly modifying the company logo graphic at the Client's request. Replacing more than 75% of the text to any given page at the Client's request. Creating a new navigation structure or changing the link graphics at the Author's request.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Significantly reconfiguring the Client's shopping cart with new product, shipping or discount calculation if an e-commerce enabled site has been selected by the Client. Clients who anticipate frequently changing the look of their site during the design process and Clients who desire to be intricately involved design of each page are encouraged to negotiate an agreement which exceeds the page maximum. If significant page modification is requested by the Client after the page maximum has been reached a Change Request with estimated costs will be submitted for Client approval prior to changes being done. Moderate changes, however, will always be covered during our development of the site and also covered by our one month of free maintenance. 8. Third Party or Client Page Modification. Some Clients will desire to independently edit or update their web pages after completion of the site. Note however, Developer is not responsible for any damage created by the Client or agent of the Client. Any repairs required will be assessed at an hourly rate of $______. [1 hour minimum charge]. 9. Web Hosting. The Client agrees to select a web hosting service that allows HOSTING COMPANY NAME full access to the web site and a cgi-bin directory via FTP and telnet. The Client further understands that if the web hosting service's operating system is not a Unix system, standard CGI software may not work, and providing a substitute may incur additional charges. 10. Search Engine Registration. The Developer will optimize the Clients web site with appropriate titles, keywords, descriptions and text and thereafter submit the Client's web site to each of the major search engines and directories. The Developer also offers advanced search engine optimization and site promotion services. If advanced search engine optimization and site promotion services are desired the agreement for said services will be listed in Appendix B. The Developer encourages all commercial Clients to obtain advanced Search Engine Optimization and Site Promotion services. 11. Work Schedule and Completion Date. Developer to submit a First Mockup Draft of web site no later than twenty (20) days after Developer receives signed agreement, along with down payment and initial direction from the Client. Client to provide Developer with all the data needed to complete web site, including text, company logo, and photos. Upon completion of this stage, the Client will be asked to confirm acceptance for the basic site design via e-mail or by signing a printed copy of the design
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

and faxing to Developer. Once this acceptance is received from the Client, the work necessary to complete the project will continue. Upon completion of the web site, an e-mail or letter and invoice will be sent to the Client advising the Client that the work has been completed. Client will supply written approval by printing, initialing and faxing back each page in web site. After contract has been paid in full, site will then be uploaded to Client's hosting company. The Developer will bum one copy of the Client's web site onto a CD, at the Client's request, upon completion of the site and upon receipt of final balance. Additional copies of the CD are available for $25.00 each. 12. Maintenance Grace Period. This agreement includes minor web page maintenance to regular web pages (not store product pages) over a onemonth period, including updating links and making minor changes to a sentence or paragraph. It does not including removing nearly all the text from a page and replacing it with new text. If the Client or an agent other than Developer attempts updating the Client's pages, time to repair web pages will be assessed at the hourly rate, and is not included as part of the updating time. The one-month maintenance period commences upon the date the Client signs this contract. Changes requested by the Client beyond those limits will be billed at the hourly rate [Appendix A]. This rate shall also apply toward additional work authorized beyond the maximums specified above for such services as: general Internet orientation education, marketing consulting, web page design, editing, modifying product pages and databases in an online store, and art, photo, graphics services, and helping Clients learn how to use their own web page editor. CGI programming charges (if any) are not included in this rate. 13. Extended Maintenance Contracts. Terms for Maintenance Contracts will be listed in Appendix B, using one of two methods. The Monthly "Flat Rate" Maintenance Contract, payable each month, allowing up to 2 hours of changes per month, including new pages and store product changes. The "Flat Rate" Agreement is payable each month, whether the time is used or not. Changes requested, which go beyond the 2 hour limit, are chargeable at the rate disclosed in Appendix B. The "As Needed" Maintenance Contract is a monthly chargeable agreement, higher than the "Flat Rate", but offering cost savings on sites with little to no changes. Charges incur when Client requests a change - 1 hour minimum charge. Details are listed in Appendix B. 14. Copyrights and Trademarks The Client represents to Developer and unconditionally guarantees that any elements of text, graphics, photos, designs, trademarks, or other artwork
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Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

furnished to Developer for inclusion in web pages are owned by the Client, or that the Client has permission from the rightful owner to use each of these elements, and will hold harmless, protect, and defend Developer and its subcontractors from any claim or suit arising from the use of such elements furnished by the Client.
15. Assignment of Project. The Developer reserves the right to assign

certain subcontractors to this project to insure the right fit for the job as well as on-time completion. The Developer warrants all work completed by subcontractors for this project. When subcontracting is required, the Developer will only use industry recognized professionals.
16. Age. Authorized representative of the Client certifies that he or she is

at least 18 years of age and legally capable of entering a contract in the State of Montana on behalf of the Client.
17. Warranties and Liability. Client agrees that any material submitted

for publication will not contain anything leading to an abusive or unethical use of the Web Hosting Service, the Host Server or the Developer. Abusive and unethical materials and uses include, but are not limited to, pornography, obscenity, nudity, violations of privacy, computer viruses, harassment, any illegal activity, spamming, advocacy of an illegal activity, and any infringement of privacy.. Client hereby agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Developer from any claim resulting from the Client's publication of material or use of those materials. It is also understood that the Developer will not publish information over the Internet which may be used by another party to harm another. The Developer will also not develop a pornography or warez web site for the Client. The Developer reserves the right to determine what is and is not pornography. Developer does not warrant the functions of the site will meet Client's expectations of site traffic or resulting business or that the operation of the web pages will be uninterrupted and / or error-free. Developer is not be held responsible for occasional downtime of email or web site due to line interruptions and/or other instances beyond Developers control. 18. Indemnification. Client agrees that it shall defend, indemnify, save and hold the Developer harmless from any and all demands, liabilities, losses, costs and claims, including reasonable attorney's fees associated with the Developer's development of the Client's web site. This includes Liabilities asserted against the Developer, it's subcontractors, it's agents, its clients, servants, officers and employees, that may arise or result from any service provided or performed or agreed to be performed or any product sold by the Client, its agents, employee or assigns.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Client also agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Developer against Liabilities arising out of any injury to person or property caused by any products or services sold or otherwise distributed over the Client's web site. This includes infringing on the proprietary rights of a third party, copyright infringement, and delivering any defective product or misinformation which is detrimental to another person, organization, or business. 19. Rights Upon Termination of Agreement. Developer shall transfer, assign and make available to Client all property and materials in Developer's possession or subject to Developer's control that are the property of Client, subject to payment in full of amounts due pursuant to this Agreement Developer also agrees to provide reasonable cooperation in arranging for the transfer or approval of third party's interest in all contracts, agreements and other arrangements with advertising media, suppliers, talent and others not then utilized, and all rights and claims thereto and therein, following appropriate release from the obligations therein. In the event the Client terminates this contract by registered letter within 30 days, 50% of down payment will be refunded. Work completed shall be billed at the hourly rate stated in Appendix A, and deducted from 50% of the down payment, the balance of which shall be returned to the Client. If, at the time of the request for refund, work has been completed beyond the amount covered by the initial payment, the Client shall be liable to pay for all work completed at the hourly rate. No portion of this initial payment will be refunded unless written application is made within 30 days of signing this contract. Refund request must be submitted by registered letter to YOUR COMPANY NAME [address}
20. Default. In the event of any default of any material obligation by or

owed by a party pursuant to this Agreement, then the other party may provide written notice of such default and if such default is not cured within ten (10) days of the written notice, then the non-defaulting party may terminate this Agreement.
21. Notices. Any notice required by this Agreement or given in connection

with it, shall be in writing and shall be given to the appropriate party by personal delivery or by certified mail, postage prepaid, or recognized overnight delivery services. 22. Laws Affecting Electronic Commerce. From time to time governments enact laws and levy taxes and tariffs affecting Internet electronic commerce. The Client agrees that the Client is solely responsible for complying with such laws, taxes, and tariffs, and will hold harmless, protect, and defend Developer and its subcontractors from any claim, suit,
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Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

penalty, tax, or tariff arising from the Client's exercise of Internet electronic commerce. 23. Ownership to Web Pages and Graphics. Copyright to the finished assembled work of web pages and graphics produced by the Developer shall be vested with the Client upon final payment for the project. This ownership is to include, design, photos, graphics, source code, work-up files, text, and any program(s) specifically designed or purchased on behalf of the Client for completion of this project. Rights to photos, graphics, computer programs are specifically not transferred to the Client, and remain the property of their respective owners. Developer and its subcontractors retain the right to display all designs as examples of their work in their respective portfolios. 24. Litigation. Any disputes arising form this contract will be litigated or arbitrated in Flathead County, Montana. This agreement shall be governed and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Montana, USA. Undersigned hereby agree to the terms, conditions and stipulations of this agreement on behalf of his or her organization or business. This Agreement constitutes the entire understanding of both parties. Any changes or modification thereto must be in writing and signed by both parties. 25. Payment of Fees. A minimum deposit of fifty percent (50%) is required to commence work. Fees to Developer are due and payable on the following schedule: 50% upon signing of contract, 25% after first stage of site is completed and approved and the balance upon page completion, but prior to delivery / uploading. If the total amount of this contract is less than $700, the total amount shall be paid upon signing of contract and any additional costs incurred during development will be invoiced at the completion of the web site. Advertising the pages to Web Search Engines and updating occur only after the final payment is made. All payments will be made in US funds. Developer reserves the right to remove web pages from viewing on the Internet until final payment is made. If a payment delay is anticipated, please contact the Developer immediately for an alternative arrangement. In case collection proves necessary, the Client agrees to pay all fees incurred by that process. This agreement becomes effective only when signed by Developer. Regardless of the place of signing of this agreement, the Client agrees that for purposes of venue, this contract was entered into in Flathead County, Montana, and any dispute will be litigated or arbitrated in Flathead County, Montana

English for economics II

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Studying English for Economics. The Economic System 26. Sole Agreement. The agreement contained in this "Web Site Design Contract" constitutes the sole agreement between Developer and the Client regarding this web site. Any additional work not specified in this contract, Appendix A or Appendix B must be authorized by a written change order. All prices specified will be honored for 30 days after both parties sign this contract. Continued services after that time will require a new agreement. This agreement constitutes the entire understanding of the Developer and Client. This agreement terminates and supersedes all prior understanding or agreements on the subject matter hereof. Any changes or modification thereto must be in writing and signed by both parties 27. Initial Payment and Refund Policy. The total amount of this contract is $ This agreement begins with an initial down payment of $_ The undersigned agrees to the terms of this agreement on behalf of his or her organization or business. On behalf of the Client (authorized signature): Date On behalf of Developer (authorized signature) Date

4.2. Language Approach -Part 2


Predicate Adjectives Attributive adjectives which can be used as predicate adjectives An adjective which is separated from the noun or pronoun it modifies by a verb is often referred to as a predicate adjective. The predicate adjectives in the following examples are underlined. e.g. The horse is black. The streets are long and narrow. It is large, heavy and awkward. In these examples, the adjective black modifies the noun horse, the adjectives long and narrow modify the noun streets, and the adjectives large, heavy and awkward modify the pronoun it. Most general descriptive adjectives, as well as adjectives indicating color, can be used as predicate adjectives. In the following examples, the predicate adjectives are underlined. e.g. The answer is puzzling.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu These envelopes are small. The bucket was heavy.

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

The weather will be cool and dry. That child is young. The cake is round. The leaves are red, yellow and orange. However, there are a few general descriptive adjectives which cannot be used as predicate adjectives. For example, the adjectives listed below are normally used only as attributive adjectives. Adjectives used only attributively: chief main principal sheer utter It should be noted that although they cannot be used with attributive adjectives, pronouns can be used with predicate adjectives. e.g. He is happy. She is proud We are careful They are successful Proper adjectives are sometimes used as predicate adjectives. e.g. That car is American. This one is Japanese. It should be noted that hyphenated adjectives containing nouns often cannot be used as predicate adjectives. When such an expression follows the verb, the hyphens are omitted and the noun assumes a plural form, if required. In the following examples, the nouns contained in the hyphenated adjectives are underlined. e.g. the two-year-old child the one-hour program forty-dollar shoes When placed after the verb, the hyphenated adjectives must be changed as follows: e.g. The child is two years old The length of the program is one hour.
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Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

The price of the shoes is forty dollars. However, hyphenated adjectives which do not contain nouns can often be used as predicate adjectives. For instance, in the following examples, the hyphenated adjectives are underlined. e.g. the long-winded orator the wide-spread belief These adjectives contain past participles. Hyphenated adjectives containing past participles are frequently used as predicate adjectives. e.g. The orator was long-winded. The belief is wide-spread.

Order, Punctuation and Peculiarities of Predicate Adjectives Order of predicate adjectives The order of predicate adjectives relative to one another is generally the same as the order of attributive adjectives relative to one another. The following examples illustrate the order of predicate adjectives. e.g. The package is small and light. The weather is clear, cold and dry. The footstool is round and black. In the first example, the adjective small, indicating size, precedes the adjective light, indicating weight. In the second example, the general descriptive adjective clear precedes the adjective cold, indicating temperature, which precedes the adjective dry, indicating humidity. In the third example, the adjective round, indicating shape, precedes the adjective black, indicating colour. Punctuation of predicate adjectives As can be seen in these examples, the last two adjectives in a list of predicate adjectives are usually separated from each another by the word and, and any preceding adjectives are usually separated from one another by commas. e.g. The clothes were clean and dry. The dancers were tall, slender and graceful. In a list of three or more predicate adjectives, an additional comma is sometimes placed before the word and. e.g. The dancers were tall, slender, and graceful. However, this additional comma is usually considered unnecessary. Adjectives which can be used only as predicate adjectives
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Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

The following are examples of adjectives with the prefix a which can be used only as predicate adjectives, not as attributive adjectives. The prefix a was formerly a preposition meaning on. Adjectives used only Predicatively: afloat afraid aglow alive alone asleep In some cases, related words can be used as attributive adjectives. In the following examples, words used only as predicate adjectives and related words used as attributive adjectives are underlined. Predicate Adjectives The boat is afloat. The child is afraid. The sky is aglow. The animal is alive. The boy is asleep. Attributive Adjectives the floating boat the frightened child the glowing sky the live animal the sleeping boy

As illustrated below, the words here, there and ready can be used as predicate adjectives. e.g. The children are here. The records were there. I am ready. The words here and there are often used as adverbs, and cannot be used as attributive adjectives. The word ready is used as an attributive adjective only in certain expressions such as ready money and a ready answer. As illustrated in the following examples, a few adjectives differ in meaning, depending upon whether they are used as predicate adjectives or attributive adjectives. e.g. The treasurer was present, the present treasurer Robin Harris was late. the late Robin Harris My friend is poor. my poor friend
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

In the sentence the treasurer was present, the predicate adjective present indicates that the treasurer was not absent. However, in the phrase the present treasurer, the attributive adjective present indicates that the person referred to holds the position of treasurer at the present time. In the sentence Robin Harris was late, the predicate adjective late indicates that Robin Harris did not arrive on time. However, in the phrase the late Robin Harris, the attributive adjective late indicates that Robin Harris is no longer alive. In the sentence my friend is poor, the predicate adjective poor indicates that my friend has little money. However, in the phrase my poor friend, the attributive adjective poor indicates that my friend is in an unfortunate situation.

Linking Verbs Followed by Predicate Adjectives In addition to the verb to be, certain other verbs can be followed by predicate adjectives. Such verbs are sometimes referred to as linking verbs, since they can link nouns or pronouns to modifying adjectives. For instance, the following verbs can be used as linking verbs. Linking Verb to become to feel to grow to look to seem to smell to sound to taste to turn Linking Verb used with Predicate Adjective The wind became stronger. The blanket feels soft, warm and comfortable. The weather is growing cold. The sky looked grey and overcast. His reasoning seems logical. The soup smelted good. The story sounds interesting. The carrots tasted sweet. The leaves turned scarlet.

In the above examples, the linking verbs link noun subjects with predicate adjectives. When a verb is used as a linking verb, it is intransitive, since it does not take an object. It should be noted that many of the verbs listed above can also be used transitively. e.g. The child felt the blankets. We smelted the soup.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

In these examples, the verbs to feel and to smell are used transitively, taking the objects blankets and soup respectively.

Abstract
Money long preceded the existence of government. Grain and cattle have long been used as money, and still are, but it is a bit hard to make change for a ram, so valuable metals have been more popular. Real money does not need to be enforced. It is either something of inherent value, such as gold or silver, or, more conveniently, promises to pay by someone whose credit rating is well known to be good. The bills of exchange issued by merchants in medieval times were effectively paper money. Indeed money was mostly issued privately until the twentieth century. In America the revolutionary experience with the "continentals" (revolutionary fiat paper money) was so disastrous that the constitution was for a long time interpreted in a way that restrained the federal government from taking a large role in the issue of money, leading to the "free banking era". Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to make things for use or sale. Also it can be used for selling things. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users - the "consumers".

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Self-Evaluation Tests - Learning Unit 4


1. Which sentence is the best continuation of the first sentence? We're in financial trouble but you're always going out spending money. a) What on earth do you and your friends find to talk about? b) Unless you stop doing that, we'll soon go broke. c) I wish he would go and bother somebody else. 2. Which sentence is the best continuation of the first sentence? This car is always breaking down. a) She'll get the sack soon. b) I think I'll have to trade it in for a newer one. c) Doesn't she know how much other work we've got to do? 3. Which sentence is the best continuation of the first sentence? It's always raining here! a) I'm fed up of being wet all the time. b) I don't think we should let it in the house any more. c) You should save some for the rest of us. 4. Which sentence is the best continuation of the first sentence? Mary is always arriving late for work. a) She'll get the sack soon. b) It seems really unhappy. He should look after it a bit more and take it for walks. c) You cannot believe a word she says. 5. Which sentence is the best continuation of the first sentence? This flight is always arriving late. a) You cannot believe a word she says. b) In future I'm going to get the earlier one. c) But I think she looks great. Any thinner and she'd be too thin.

Key:
1. b; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Control Task
Translate the following texts into Romanian and rephrase them in English: a.)Income in a capitalist economy depends primarily on what skills are in demand and what skills are being supplied. Skills that are in scarce supply are worth more in the market and can attract higher incomes. Competition among workers for jobs and among employers for skilled workers help determine wage rates. Firms need to pay high enough wages to attract the appropriate workers; when jobs are scarce, workers may accept lower wages than they would when jobs are plentiful. Trade union and governments influence wages in capitalist systems. Unions act to represent their members in negotiations with employers over such things as wage rates and acceptable working conditions. b.) Neoclassical economics explain capitalism as made up of individuals, enterprises, markets and government. According to their theories, individuals engage in a capitalist economy as consumers, labourers, and investors. As labourers, individuals may decide which jobs to prepare for, and in which markets to look for work. As investors they decide how much of their income to save and how to invest their savings. These savings, which become investments, provide much of the money that businesses need to grow.

Read the entire following business contract sample and fill in the gaps. Translate the first ten articles into Romanian and build up a shorter similar contract with less points CONSULTING AGREEMENT THIS CONSULTING AGREEMENT is made as of this ____day of [month] , 20___, by and between ___________ (the "Company"), a [state] corporation, with its principal place of business at ________________ and _____________ ("Consultant") an individual having a place of business at Background The Company is engaged in the development and sale of __________software. Consultant has expertise and experience in areas beneficial to the Company and desires to consult with the Company in his area of expertise. Based on Consultant's experience, the Company desires to retain the services of Consultant and Consultant desires to render such services on the terms and conditions set forth below.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

IN CONSIDERATION of the foregoing and of the mutual covenants set forth below, the parties, intending to be legally bound, agree as follows:
1. Retention as Consultant. The Company hereby retains Consultant, and Consultant hereby agrees to render consulting services to the Company, upon the terms and conditions set forth herein. 2. Duties . Consultant covenants and agrees that, as an independent contractors, he will perform all services requested of him by the Company, acting through its authorized representatives, who shall initially be

Consultant agrees that at the close of business on Friday of each week he will fax a signed weekly status report to __________, or to such other representatives as the Company may designate, outlining the following items: list of work items for the week just ended, deliverables and accomplishments for each of the work items, number of hours spent working on each item during the week just ended, and a list of any additional expenses attributable directly to the work being done for the Company, e.g. phone bills for calls made to the Company, with itemized bills detailing the expenses attached.
3. Independent Contractor Status. The parties recognize that Consultant is an independent contractor and not an employee, agent, coventurer, or representative of the Company and that the Company will not incur any liability as the result of Consultant's actions. Consultant shall at all times disclose that he is an independent contractor of the Company and shall not represent to any third party that he is an employee, agent, co-venturer, or representative of the Company other than as expressly authorized by the Company. The Company shall not withhold any funds from Consultant for tax or other governmental purposes, and Consultant shall be responsible for the payment of same. Consultant shall not be entitled to receive any employment benefits offered to employees of the Company, including but not limited to: workers' compensation coverage; savings or profit sharing plans; stock option, incentive or other bonus plans; health, dental or life insurance coverage; and paid vacations. The Company shall not exercise control over Consultant.

The Company shall pay to Consultant, as compensation for the services to be rendered, the sum of__________________ per hour for hours actually worked. The Company shall not be obligated to provide a minimum number of hours of work, nor shall Consultant be entitled to receive any compensation for hours not actually worked. The Company shall also reimburse Consultant for all ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in connection with the performance of his services hereunder, provided that timely notice of such expenses is sent to and approved by an appropriate officer or other authorized representative of the Company. Consultant shall report to__________, or to such other employee of the Company as the Company may designate from time to time.

4. Compensation.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

The Company shall process payments to Consultant bi-weekly for all undisputed invoices presented by Consultant under this Agreement but in no case shall Consultant be paid later than thirty (30) days after the receipt of such undisputed invoices. In the case of a dispute, __________ or such other representative as the Company may designate, will discuss the controversial items with Consultant and attempt to resolve the dispute.
5. Term . This Agreement shall commence on the date first written above and shall continue indefinitely until such time as either Consultant or the Company terminates the Agreement as provided below.

The parties agree that either the Company or Consultant through written notice may terminate Consultant's engagement under this Agreement at any time for any reason or for no reason.
7. Covenant of Nondisclosure. Consultant shall not, at any time during

6. Termination .

or after the term of this Agreement, in any manner, either directly or indirectly, divulge, disclose, or communicate to any person, firm, corporation or other entity, or use for his own benefit or for the benefit of any other person, firm, corporation or other entity, and not for the benefit of the Company, any information acquired from the Company or its affiliates, without the express prior written consent of an authorized executive officer of the Company, as more fully set forth in a certain Non-disclosure Agreement between the Company and Consultant dated_____________.
8. Rights to Work. The parties acknowledge that any work created by Consultant in connection with the performance of services for the Company pursuant hereto is being created at the insistence of the Company and shall be deemed "work made for hire" under the United States copyright laws.

The Company shall have the right to use the whole work, any part or parts thereof, or none of the work, as it sees fit. The Company may alter the work, add to it, or combine it with any other work or works, at its sole discretion. Notwithstanding the foregoing, all original material submitted by Consultant as part of the work or as part of the process of creating the work, including but not limited to programs, listings, printouts, documentation, notes, flow charts, and programming aids, shall be the property of the Company whether or not the Company uses such material. No rights are reserved by Consultant. All programs, specifications, documentation and all other technical information prepared by Consultant in connection with the performance of his services hereunder will become the Company's sole property. Title to all material and documentation, including but not limited to, systems specifications furnished by the Company to Consultant or delivered by the Company into Consultant's possession shall remain with the Company. Consultant shall immediately return all such material or documentation within seven (7) days of any request or upon the termination or conclusion of his engagement under this Agreement, whichever shall occur first.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Whenever an invention or discovery is made by Consultant either solely or in collaboration with others, including employees of the Company under or relating to this Agreement, Consultant shall promptly give the Company written notice thereof and shall furnish the Company with complete information thereon including, as a minimum, (1) a complete written disclosure of each such invention and (2) information concerning the date and identity of any public use, sale or publication of such invention made by or known to Consultant or of any contemplated publication by Consultant. As used herein, the terms (1) "invention" or "invention or discovery" includes any art, machine, manufacture, design or composition of matter or any new and useful improvement thereof where it is or may be patentable under the patent laws of the United States or of any foreign country; and (2) "made," when used in relation to any invention or discovery, means the conception of the first actual or constructive reduction to practice of such invention. Consultant hereby grants, assigns and conveys to the Company all right, title and interest in and to all inventions, works of authorship, trade secrets and other proprietary data and all other materials (as well as the copyrights, patents, trade secrets and similar rights attendant hereto) conceived, reduced to practice, authored or developed by Consultant, either solely or jointly with others, during and in connection with the performance of services under this Agreement with the Company. Consultant agrees that he will not seek patent, copyright, trademark, registered design or other protection for any rights in any such inventions, works of authorship, proprietary data or other materials. Consultant shall have no right to disclose or use any such inventions, works of authorship, trade secrets and proprietary data or other materials for any purpose whatsoever and shall not communicate to any third party the nature of or details relating to such inventions, works of authorship, proprietary data or other materials. Consultant agrees that at the Company's expense, he shall do all things and execute all documents as the Company may reasonably require to vest in the Company or its nominees the rights referred to herein and to secure for the Company or its nominees all patent, trademark, and trade secret copyright protection. Consultant's obligations under this Section 8 shall survive expiration or termination of the Agreement and any amendments thereto. Furthermore, Consultant hereby irrevocably waives all rights in and to all works created or developed hereunder. Consultant agrees he will not disclose to any third party, without prior written consent of the Company, any invention or discovery made under or relating to this Agreement or any proprietary or confidential information acquired from the Company under this Agreement, including trade secrets, business plans and confidential or other information which may be proprietary to the Company, all of which shall be subject to the Non-disclosure Agreement described in Section 7 hereof. 9. Legal Relief . In the event Consultant breaches, or threatens to breach any of the covenants expressed herein, the damages to the Company will be difficult to quantify; therefore, the Company may apply to a court of
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

competent jurisdiction for injunctive or other equitable relief to restrain such breach or threat of breach, without disentitling the Company from any other relief in either law or equity. In the event that any or all of the covenants expressed herein shall be determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or unenforceable, by reason of its geographic or temporal restrictions being too great, or by reason that the range of activities covered are too great, or for any other reason, such covenants shall be interpreted to extend over the maximum geographic area, period of time, range of activities or other restrictions with respect to which they may be enforceable.
10. Export Regulations . Consultant acknowledges his obligations to

control access to technical data under the U.S. Export Laws and Regulations and agrees to adhere to such laws and regulations with regard to any technical data received under this Agreement. Consultant agrees that in carrying out his duties and responsibilities under this Agreement, he will neither undertake nor cause, nor permit to be undertaken, any activity which either (i) is illegal under any laws, decrees, rules, or regulations in effect in either the United States or any other country in which the Company has a business interest; or (ii) would have the effect of causing the Company to be in violation of any laws, decrees, rules, or regulations in effect in either the United States or any other country in which the Company has a business interest. Consultant agrees to notify the Company immediately of any extortive solicitation, demand, or other request for anything of value, by or on behalf of any entity or individual, relating to the subject matter of this Agreement. Consultant shall defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its officers, directors, employees, agents, parent, subsidiaries and other affiliates, from and against any and all damages, costs, liability, and expense whatsoever (including attorneys' fees and related disbursements) incurred by reason of (a) any failure by Consultant to perform any covenant or agreement of Consultant set forth herein; (b) injury to or death of any person or any damage to or loss of property which is due to the negligence and/or willful acts of Consultant; or (c) any breach by Consultant of any representation, warranty, covenant or agreement under this Agreement. The Company shall have the right to offset against any fees or commissions due Consultant under this Agreement the amount of any indemnity to which the Company is entitled under this Section 12 for any damage, cost, liability, expense, fee or other disbursement, incurred by the Company pursuant to this Section 12. 13. Miscellaneous 13.1 Cooperation. Consultant agrees that at any time and from time to time, upon the request of the Company, to do, execute, acknowledge and deliver, or cause to be done, executed, acknowledged and delivered, all such
12. Indemnification . 11. Adherence to Laws .

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

further acts, documents and instruments as may be required to effect any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement. 13.2 Amendments. This Agreement replaces and supersedes all prior consulting agreements, and any other agreements relating to the subject matter hereof, between the parties to this agreement. No alteration, modification, amendment or other change of this Agreement shall be binding on the parties unless in writing, approved and executed by Consultant and an authorized executive officer of the Company whether by operation of law or otherwise.
13.3 Assignment. This Agreement is not assignable by Consultant, whether by operation of law or otherwise, and all obligations of the Company hereunder, other than the obligation to pay previously accrued compensation, shall terminate automatically upon the death of Consultant should such death occur prior to the termination of this Agreement.

This Agreement shall be governed by and interpreted, construed and enforced in accordance with the laws of the State of [State], excluding conflicts of laws principles, and both parties further consent to jurisdiction by the state and federal courts sitting in the State of [State].
13.5 Invalidity. The terms of this Agreement shall be severable so that if any term, clause, or provision hereof shall be deemed invalid or unenforceable for any reason by a court of competent jurisdiction, such invalidity or unenforceability shall not affect the remaining terms, clauses and provisions hereof, the parties intending that if any such term, clause or provision were held to be invalid prior to the execution hereof, they would have executed an agreement containing the remaining terms, clauses and provisions of this Agreement. 13.6 Waiver of Breach . The waiver by either party hereto of any breach of the terms and conditions hereof will not be considered a modification of any provision, nor shall such a waiver act to bar the enforcement of any subsequent breach. 13.7 Background. Enumerations and Headings. The "Background," enumerations and headings contained in this Agreement are for convenience of reference only and are not intended to have any substantive significance in interpreting this Agreement. 13.8 Company Property. All Company property in the possession or control of Consultant including, but not limited to, specifications, documentation, source code, and magnetic media will be returned by Consultant to the Company on demand, or at the termination of this Agreement, whichever shall come first.

13.4 Governing Law .

13.9 Entire Agreement . This Agreement and the Non-disclosure Agreement described in Section 7 hereof constitute the entire agreement

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

between the parties hereto and supersedes all existing contracts or agreements, written or oral, between the parties hereto. 13.10 Warranty. As an inducement for Company to enter into this Agreement, Consultant represents and warrants to Company that all services, work and deliverables to be performed hereunder shall be performed by him in a professional and workmanlike manner, in accordance with the highest industry standards. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Agreement effective the date first written above.

Consultant [name of business] By:____________________________ Its: Duly Authorized Representative

Self-Evaluation Tests
FILL IN THE GAPS: 1. We set.........the Amsterdam office 6 years ago. a) in; b) at; c) up; d) through. 2. We have decided to take..........his offer. a) up;
b)in ;

c) through; d) out of. 3. We have decided to invest.... .... computer shares. a) at; b) through; c) on; d)in. 4. We are not interested.........your problems.
English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

a) in; b) at; c) through; d) out of.


5. In Spain, we are working...........a local company.

a) b) c) d)

on; out; to; with.

6. I am quite happy to listen...........what you have to say.

a) b) c) d)

to; at; in; on.

7. We know all..........your other job offer.

a) b) c) d)

in; on; at; about;

8. There is absolutely no way we can make a deal...........them.

a) b) c) d)

on; with; at; to.

9. We're delighted...........what you have done.

a) b) c) d)

with; at; in; on.

10. As people have left the company, I've had to take........... more and more

work. a) b) c) d)
_______

on; in; at; to.

Minimal Bibliography:
conomics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

Brooks, Michael; David Horner. (1991). English for the Business World. Paris: Edition Belin. Cotton, D.; S. Robbins. (1996). Business Class. London: Longman. Dimitriu-Caracota, Maria; Duncan; Frederick Henry. (1998). English -Romanian Dictionary of Accounting, Economic and Financial Terms. Bucureti: Garamond. Dutescu, Dan; Mares. Liliana. (1988). Manual de conversafie in limba englezd. Bucureti: Editura tiintifica i Enciclopedica. Emerson, Paul. (2008). Business English. Macmillan. Evans, David. (2003). Decisionmaker. Cambridge: Cambridge Universty Press. Mariana, Nicolae (2008). Corespondenta comerciala in limba engleza. Bucureti: Editura Universitara.

English for economics II

Liviu Marinescu

Studying English for Economics. The Economic System

List of References (A Selective Bibliography)


Brooks, Michael; Horner, David (1991). English for the Business World. Paris: Edition Belin. Ciuciuc, Olga; Tanasescu, Eugenia (1998). English for Business Purposes. Essential English. Bucureti: Teora. Cotton, D.; Robbins S. (1996). Business Class. London: Longman. Dimitriu-Caracota, Maria; Duncan, Frederick Henry - English - Romanian Dictionary of Accounting, Economic and Financial Terms. Bucureti: Garamond. Dutescu, Dan; Mares., Liliana (1988). Manual de conversafie in limba englezd. Bucureti: Editura tiintifica i Enciclopedica; Emerson, Paul (2008). Business English. Macmillan. Evans, David (2003). Decisionmaker. Cambridge: Cambridge Universty Press. Gavriliu, Eugenia (1998). English for Economics. Galati: Zigotto. Hulban, Horia (1997). English for You. Razeu, Iai: Fundatia Academica "Petre Andrei". Mariana, Nicolae (2008). Corespondenta comerciala in limba engleza. Bucureti: Editura Universitara. Miroiu, Mihai (1992). English Business Letters. Corespondenta de afaceri in limba englezd. Alexandria: Editura Andreescu. Neagu, Mariana; arpe, Daniela (1999). Dicfionar explicativ englez - romdn de termeni economici. Galati: Editura Alma. Powell, Mark (1996). Business Matters. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.

English for economics II