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St.

Bonaventure

The Breviloquium

Foreword

PART I The first part, on the Trinity of God, has nine chapters.
1. SUMMARY OF THE SEVEN TOPICS OF THEOLOGY 2. ON FAITH IN THE TRINITY OF PERSONS AND THE UNITY OF ESSENCE 3. ON THE RIGHT UNDERSTANDING OF THIS FAITH 4. ON THE CATHOLIC EXPRESSION OF THIS FAITH 5. ON THE UNITY OF DIVINE NATURE IN THE PLURALITY OF MANIFESTATIONS 6. ON THE UNITY OF DIVINE NATURE IN THE PLURALITY OF APPROPRIATIONS 7. ON GOD'S OMNIPOTENCE 8. ON GOD'S WISDOM, PRE-ELECTION, AND FOREKNOWLEDGE 9. ON GOD'S WILL AND PROVIDENCE

PART II The second part, on Creation, has twelve chapters.


1. ON THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE 2. ON THE ACTUAL PRODUCTION OF PHYSICAL NATURE 3. ON THE ESSENCE OF PHYSICAL NATURE 4. ON THE ACTION AND INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL NATURE 5. ON HOW THESE THINGS ARE DESCRIBED IN HOLY SCRIPTURE 6. ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE HEAVENLY SPIRITS 7. ON THE APOSTASY OF THE DEMONS 8. ON THE CONFIRMATION OF THE GOOD ANGELS 9. ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE HUMAN SOUL 10. ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE HUMAN BODY

11. ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE WHOLE HUMAN COMPOSITE 12. ON THE COMPLETION AND ORDERING OF THE WHOLE WORLD AFTER ITS CREATION

PART III The third part, on the Corruption of Sin, has eleven chapters.
1. ON THE ORIGIN OF EVIL IN GENERAL 2. ON THE TEMPTATION OF OUR FIRST PARENTS 3. ON THE SIN OF OUR FIRST PARENTS 4. ON THE PUNISHMENT OF OUR FIRST PARENTS 5. ON THE CORRUPTION EFFECTED BY ORIGINAL SIN 6. ON THE TRANSMISSION OF ORIGINAL SIN 7. ON THE CURE OF ORIGINAL SIN 8. ON THE ORIGIN OF ACTUAL SIN 9. ON THE ORIGIN AND DIVISION OF CAPITAL SINS 10. ON THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF PENAL SIN 11. ON THE ORIGIN OF FINAL SIN, OR SIN AGAINST THE HOLY SPIRIT

PART IV The fourth part, on the Incarnation of the Word, has ten chapters.
1. ON THE REASON WHY THE INCARNATION OF THE WORD WAS NECESSARY OR FITTING 2. ON THE INCARNATION AS REGARDS THE UNION OF NATURES 3. ON HOW THE INCARNATION CAME ABOUT 4. ON THE INCARNATION AS REGARDS THE FULLNESS OF TIME 5. ON THE FULLNESS OF THE GRACE OF CHRIST CONSIDERED IN THE GIFTS OF HIS WILL 6. ON THE FULLNESS OF WISDOM IN THE INTELLECT OF CHRIST 7. ON THE PERFECTION OF MERIT IN THE ACTIONS OF CHRIST 8. ON THE STATE OF THE SUFFERING CHRIST 9. ON THE NATURE OF CHRIST'S SUFFERING 10. ON THE ISSUE OF THE PASSION OF CHRIST

PART V The fifth part, on the Grace of the Holy Spirit, has ten chapters.

1. ON GRACE AS A GIFT OF GOD 2. ON GRACE AS A CONDITION OF MERITORIOUS ACTS 3. ON GRACE CONSIDERED AS A REMEDY FOR SIN 4. ON HOW GRACE BRANCHES OUT INTO THE HABITS OF THE VIRTUES 5. ON HOW GRACE BRANCHES OUT INTO THE HABITS OF THE GIFTS 6. ON HOW GRACE BRANCHES OUT INTO THE HABITS OF THE BEATITUDES, AND CONSEQUENTLY OF THE FRUITS AND OF THE SPIRITUAL SENSES 7. ON GRACE APPLIED TO THE OBJECTS OF FAITH 8. ON GRACE APPLIED TO THE OBJECTS OF LOVE 9. ON GRACE APPLIED TO THE FULFILLMENT OF THE COMMANDMENTS AND COUNSELS 10. ON GRACE APPLIED TO THE OBJECTS OF PETITION AND PRAYER

PART VI The sixth part, on the Sacramental Remedy, has thirteen chapters.
1. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SACRAMENTS 2. ON THE DIVERSITY OF THE SACRAMENTS 3. ON THE NUMBER AND DIVISION OF THE SACRAMENTS 4. ON THE INSTITUTION OF THE SACRAMENTS 5. ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE SACRAMENTS 6. ON THE REPETITION OF THE SACRAMENTS 7. ON THE NATURE AND INTEGRITY OF BAPTISM 8. ON THE INTEGRITY OF CONFIRMATION 9. ON THE INTEGRITY OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST 10. ON THE INTEGRITY OF PENANCE 11. ON THE INTEGRITY OF EXTREME UNCTION 12. ON THE INTEGRITY OF ORDERS 13. ON THE INTEGRITY OF MATRIMONY

PART VII
The seventh part, on the Last Stage, the Final Judgment, has seven chapters. 1. ON THE JUDGMENT IN GENERAL 2. ON THE ANTECEDENTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE PAINS OF

PURGATORY 3. ON THE ANTECEDENTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE SUFFRAGES OF THE CHURCH 4. ON THE CONCOMITANTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE CONSUMING FIRE 5. ON THE CONCOMITANTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE RESURRECTION OF BODIES 6. ON THE CONSEQUENTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE PAINS OF HELL 7. ON THE GLORY OF PARADISE

"Agnuz"

PUBLISHER ST. ANTHONY GUILD PRESS, PATERSON, N. J. DISTRIBUTOR DESCLEE CO., PARIS, TOURNAI, NEW YORK, ROME
1 2

Eph. 3:14-29.

Like other early Scholastics, St. Bonaventure often identifies theology with the Scriptures, as both have revealed truth for their object. See his "Reductio artium ad theologiam" (to be published in Volume III of this series).
3 4 5 6 7

Jas. 1:17. Eph. 3:15. 1 Cor. 12:11. Eph. 3:17.

Scripture originates from the Father of Lights, through the wisdom of the Word, by means of the Holy Spirit who inspired the writers. The readers, in turn, in order that their understanding may be firm, must receive within their hearts faith in Christ the Word, a faith given to them by the Spirit whom they receive through Christ from the Father.
8

2 Cor. 5:6.

Rom. 12:3* Cf. 6. Jn. 6:69. Eph. 3:19. ibid. 17.

10 11 12 13 14

This explanation of breadth, length, height, and depth is different from that given earlier in paragraph 3. The reason is that in the first explanation, Bonaventure considers these four aspects in relation to the INNER DEVELOPMENT of the Scriptures. Here, he considers them in relation to their EXTERNAL EXPRESSION, from the viewpoint of the student who is to "explore their unfolding."
15

This division of the Old Testament corresponds to that given in part III, section 32, of the "Centiloquium," a work generally attributed to Bonaventure. The five legal books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The ten historical books are Josue, Judges, Kings, Paralipomena, Esdras, Tobias, Judith, Esther, Job, and Machabees. The five sapiential books are Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus (Sirach). The six prophetical books are Isaia, Jeremia (including Lamentations), Ezechiel, Daniel, the Psalms, and the Minor Prophets. The position occupied in this division by the book of Ruth is not apparent; nor is Baruch clearly placed, since the Minor Prophets cover the twelve prophets from Osee to Malachia. The matter is clarified, however, by a decision of the fourth session of the Council of Trent which established that Esdras would be divided into two books instead of three, the third being replaced by the book of Ruth, and that Baruch would be included with Jeremia. It seems quite probable that the decision to include Ruth with Esdras and Baruch with Jeremia was a return to an earlier division which the author of the "Centiloquium" had in mind. The Douay edition of the Old Testament is divided into forty-six books, since it counts as a separate book each subdivision of Kings, Paralipomena, Esdras, and Machabees, and also counts separately Ruth, Lamentations, and Baruch.
16

In the writings of scriptural commentators, there is great variety-not to say great confusion - as regards the symbolical meaning of the third creature in Ezechiel's vision. The confusion is apparent in the translations of this passage, which make use of three different words: bull (taureau in the French "Bible of Jerusalem"), ox (currently used in English texts, following the Vulgate bos), and calf ( in the Greek Septuagint, and vitulus in several Latin commentaries). The problem is worsened by the fact that the modern symbolism of these three words may be quite different from the allegorical meaning they had in ancient times. To our mind, the bull represents virility, the ox, brute strength, the calf, youth or springtime: three widely different notions. Which of these, if any, did the sacred author intend to convey? It is

almost hopeless to seek an answer in medieval writings with their immense variety of interpretations. To limit ourselves to the ox alone, and to Bonaventure's interpretations of it, we find the following: - The yoke of five oxen represents the useless concern of the five senses for the things of the earth (Dominica decima nona post Pentecosten, sermo I:I; Comment. in evangelium Lucae, XIV:42). - The ox signifies prompt obedience (De purificatione beatae virginis Mariae, sermo II, in fine). - The ox is a figure of the Jewish people because of the burden of legal servitude (Comment. in evangelium Lucae, XIII: 35). - The plowing oxen are symbols of hard labor (Comment. in librum Ecclesiastae, III: v.8). - The oxen are the preachers (Comment. in evangelium Lucae, II:102; Comment. in Ioannem, II:25, quoting Bede). - The ox means the wise preacher, as opposed to the ass (Comment. in evangelium Lucae, XIV:13). - The ox means Christ as a victim (Proemium commentarii in Lucam, 24). All this is no great help when we read in the present passage of the "Breviloquium": in historialibus (libris) est fades bovis propter exempla virtutis. The two main difficulties are: the double meaning of the word virtus, which is either strength, or virtue; and the fact that the historical books seem to contain many more examples of wickedness than of virtue. Our interpretation "examples of moral strength" can be nothing more than a hopeful compromise.
17 18 19

Ez. 1:15ff. Jn. 16:13.

In the medieval mind, the time of the creation of Adam coincided with the time of creation of the material universe, since man was made on the sixth day OF CREATION. When Bonaventure writes that the first age of the world extends from Adam to Noe, he actually means from creation to Noe.
20

Since the death of Christ, the redeemed souls of the dead are in a state different from ours, a state that runs concurrently with our time and that will end on the day of judgment. It is this state of just souls which Bonaventure calls the seventh age OF THE WORLD, because it does in fact coincide with a period of the world's duration. The eighth age, however- the age of resurrection or glory- to which he refers in paragraph 1, is not an age OF THE WORLD since it occurs in heaven alone: but it is the eighth and final age OF MAN.

21

The logical connection between the Jewish exile and the creation of the fishes does not seem to be explained in any of Bonaventure's other works and has not been traced so far to any source.
22 23 24 25

Gn. 2:3. Here Bonaventure gives no parallel for the seventh age. Ps. 138:6.

In Bonaventure's writings, Eternal Art means the wisdom of God as existing in the Word and applying to creation; or again, the perfect representative reason, within the Son, of all that the Father can bring forth, and particularly, of all that He proposes to bring forth by His action ad extra.
26 27 28 29 30 31 32

cf. Gn. 28:12. Ps. 132:2*. cf. Jn. 1:3. cf. Col 2:3. cf. 2 Pt. 1:21. cf. J. 16:13.

The expression "narrative modes" seems to refer to all the modes or ways enumerated in the first paragraph: narration, commandment, prohibition, etc.
33 34 35 36 37 38

Mt. 24:35. ibid. 5.18-19. Jb. 28:11. Ps. 34:2*. ibid. 5:13*. ibid. 90:5*.

39 40

Ct. 4:2.

The Latin word secure may be either an adverb, meaning securely or safely, or the alternate ablative of securis, an axe. In this second sense, the translation would read: "If a man is to make his way in the forest of the Scripture, cutting through it with an axe and opening it out. ..." It is quite possible that this play on words was intended.
41

The branches of this "intelligible cross" are represented by the vertical axis from height to depth, and the horizontal axis from beginning to end, within which all things are contained.
42 43 44 45 46 47

In other words, God is its efficient, formal, exemplary, and final cause. cf. 1 Tm. 1:17. 1 Tm. 6:3. Within His own being. This list of attributes is given in 2.

The first mode of emanation, through nature, comes about in the production of the Son. It is called "generation" in regard to both Father and Son, for the Father engenders and the Son is engendered. It may also be called "begetting," for the Father begets and the Son is begotten. The second mode of emanation, through the will, comes about in the production of the Holy Spirit. It might be called "spiration," for the Father and the Son spirate, while the Holy Spirit is spirated. Bonaventure, however, chose to introduce in the description of the second method the intransitive term "procession" as the counterpart of "spiration." So the two terms "spiration" and "procession" represent here A SINGLE MODE OF EMANATION as seen from the viewpoints, respectively, of Originators and Originated, and are therefore hyphenated; whereas they are used separately in 4 to indicate DISTINCT RELATIONS.
48

The following paragraphs are perhaps the most difficult to translate and also the hardest to understand in the whole "Breviloquium." The two usual obstacles are present- the density of the Latin language, and the technicality of the scholastic terms- but this being a summary of a much more extensive work, the "Commentaries," so much is expressed in so few lines that it implies in the reader a much more complete understanding of the background than is available even to the cultivated mind of our time. Breaking away from the policy expressed in the introduction to the first volume - not to provide explanations of the general principles of Scholastic Philosophy-we feel that a few explanatory footnotes are in order, first concerning two terms, "supposition" and "hypostasis." The terms suppositum or "supposit" and suppositio or "supposition" are used IN THE FIELD OF

LOGIC to indicate with what content a word is used. As Bonaventure himself explains, it may be used as designating an ESSENCE (God is the only omnipotent being), an individual PERSON (God is the author of creation), or an ABSTRACT IDEA (God is beyond the power of conceptual representation). On the other hand, "hypostasis" is used IN THE FIELD OF METAPHYSICS: it signifies the underlying subject within whom properties or qualities are found. Hypostasis differs from person merely in this: the person is determinate, while the hypostasis is not. The person means "this particular rational being in whom properties are found," while the hypostasis means "that rational being, whoever it may be, in whom properties are found." These explanations find their direct application in the translation of the most difficult sentence in this difficult passage: "Quinque modi dicendi, scilicet quis, qui, quae, quod et quid." Literally, this means: "Five manners of speaking, which one, one who, that which (feminine), that which, and what." Such transliteration of jargon would be meaningless. But in the light of our explanations, we may see that quis, (which one) points to a determinate person; qui (one who), to an indeterminate person, or hypostasis; quae (that which - feminine), to the concept, since it is understood to mean quae notio; quod (that which), to the concrete reality of what a thing is, or the substance; and quid (what), to the nature of what a thing is, or the essence. Hence, the translation: "Five modes of assertion, in terms of person, hypostasis, concept, substance, and essence." This is further explained in paragraph 5, where this same series is found literally in the Latin text, serving as a development of the series of relative pronouns.
49

"Transire in substantiam," literally, "to go over into substance," is rendered as "to become substantive." The meaning is that such attributes as substance (real being, thing, etc.), quality (one, true, good, etc.), relation (fatherhood, sonship, etc.), quantity (immense, all-pervading, etc.), and action (creating, loving, redeeming, etc.) cannot be predicated of God ADJECTIVELY, which would imply the presence in God of accidents: they must BECOME SUBSTANTIVE, meaning that God is the supreme Being (and not has supreme Being); that He is Oneness, Truth, and Goodness as such (and not that He is One, True, and Good); that He is the very relation of Fatherhood or Sonship (and not related - see below); that He is Immensity as such (and not immense); and that He is the Creator as such (and not one who creates). Furthermore, everything that is properly said of God must contain implicitly the fullness of His Being, so that when we say, for instance, that God is Goodness, this also means that He is, in fact, everything else besides. But since the human mind cannot conceive God, the all-perfect and simple Being, as a whole, we can think of Him only in terms of distinct attributes between which there is no real distinction, but only a logical distinction due to the weakness of our intellect.
50

For instance, fatherhood exists in the Father as an attribute of the Father, and as such "becomes substantive" by representing implicitly all that the Father is: when we say "Our Father," we refer to the whole Person. But fatherhood refers also to the Son, in which sense it is distinct from the Father and remains relation only; otherwise there would be no distinction between Father and Son. When Christ speaks of His Father, He refers to Their relationship.
51

The complete reasoning would read as follows: Some terms indicating relation may be

predicated of one of the Persons only - Father, Son, begotten, spirated, etc. - and only in the singular. Others may be predicated of two of the Persons, in the singular in reference to one, or in the plural in reference to both: for instance, the Son PROCEEDS from the Father; the Son and the Holy Spirit PROCEED from the Father. Others again may be predicated of all three Persons, in either the singular or the plural: for instance, the Father is related to the Son; all three Persons are related to one another.
52

The attribute "Trinity" may be predicated of God substantially (may "become substantive"), in which case it implies all that God is, while placing the emphasis, by means of a logical distinction, upon the fact of His trineness. In this sense, "Trinity" means "God." But the same term "Trinity" may be applied to God to indicate only the threefold interrelationship between the Persons: in this sense, it is predicated, not substantially, but as a relation. Examples will show this point more clearly: "We adore the blessed Trinity" (substance). "It is in Trinity that the mystery of God's dynamic love is contained" (relationship).
53

Some light may be obtained from a passage of Bonaventure's "Commentaries on the Sentences," where he is speaking of the names of God and goes on to explain: "One manner in which attributes may be predicated in different ways is based upon a difference in the mode of being, secundum modum essendi, that is, a difference between names applying to a being which exists of itself and other names applying to one which exists by accident. And there is no possibility of attributing names to the Godhead according to this distinction, for such diversity presupposes a difference of essence between the beings spoken of. Hence, there is in reference to God but one method of predication [i. e., the substantial]. For all that is said of God is God Himself and His very substance." (I "Sent.," d. 22, a. 1, q. 4, concl.) Now, in the present passage, Bonaventure refers, not to modum essendi (the essential mode of being), but to modos essendi sive emanandi (the variations - within a single mode of being - of the facts of either existing as does the Father, or emanating as do the Son and the Holy Spirit, each in His proper way). In this second sense, says Bonaventure, there is a difference between the names applied to the Godhead.
54

We should note carefully that when Bonaventure gives, as an example of the third mode of distinction, the difference existing between goodness and wisdom, he is using these terms as substantive properties OF THE GODHEAD, and not as appropriated names of the Persons. It is true that, within the Godhead, the difference between goodness and wisdom is merely in the order of reason; but if we consider goodness to be the appropriated attribute of the Holy Spirit and to designate Him alone, and wisdom to be the appropriated attribute of the Son, then there is between these two terms as much difference as there is between the supposits, the Persons: and this would be an application of the first mode of distinction.
55

Bonaventure explains this series of names in I "Sent.," d. 22, dub. 1: "Considering the distinction of names as being threefold, we may reduce them to the following division: every name of God is either literal or metaphorical; if literal, it concerns either the substance or the

Persons. But the Master (Peter Lombard) further develops this distinction, in the sense that any name referring to the one substance may be related either to eternity or to time. The personal names also may refer either to eternity or to time, but they may do so in two ways, being either appropriated, as the name Father, or common, as the name Trinity; and in this sense there are six elements to the division." Hence, the threefold division consists in this: 1) literal names concerning the substance; 2) literal names concerning the Persons; 3) metaphorical names. The sixfold division, which omits the metaphorical names, consists in this: 1) literal names of substance, in relation to eternity (God); 2) literal names of substance in relation to time (the Creator); 3) literal names of the Persons in relation to eternity, and common (the Trinity); 4) literal names of the Persons in relation to time, and common (the revealed Three); 5) literal names of the Persons in relation to eternity, and appropriated (Wisdom) ; 6) literal names of the Persons in relation to time, and appropriated (the Gift). Bonaventure explains that difference IN THE ORDER OF REASON applies to names which differ by being either literal or metaphorical, eternal or temporal, common or appropriated. The difference between the names expressing either substance or Persons is not mentioned here, because such difference is not in the order of reason, but IN THE ORDER OF PREDICATION, according to the second mode of differing.
56 57 58 59 60

That is, Christ, in that He is man by reason of the assumed humanity. cf. Jn. 14:23. cf. ibid. 1:32. cf. Acts 2:3.

Here again the text is a summary of the "Commentaries," so tightly condensed as to be in some points almost unintelligible without expansion. The meaning of "both in manner and origin" is this: the dove and the tongues of fire, considered as general symbols, were destined in their MANNER to represent the Holy Spirit because the dove represents purity and perfection, and fire, the warmth of love; they were destined to do so in their ORIGIN because their symbolical meaning was concreated with their essence. Considered in this particular instance and in their particular MANNER OF BEING, the dove and the tongues of fire precisely represented the Holy Spirit because, in Bonaventure's opinion, both ceased to exist as soon as their function had been completed, and, furthermore, the tongues of fire did not burn. Bonaventure believes that they were real bodily beings, but not a real dove or real flames. He shares this opinion with Albert the Great, Peter of Tarentino, Richard of Middleton, and, in a sense, with Thomas Aquinas (S. I, q. 43, a. 7); although in another passage (S. III, q. 39, a. 7) where the whole question is elaborated, Aquinas concludes that the dove was a genuine dove. Another opinion - that both dove and fire were an illusion - is disproved by Bonaventure, who explains that they were offered to the senses for the sake of signifying something that was really present, and that an illusion would have been

the equivalent of a fraud.


61

Meaning that the Holy Spirit does not beget or spirate any eternal Person, as do the Father and the Son.
62 63

Cf. footnote to page 49.

Humanly speaking, the act of exemplating in God may be understood to consist in four elements: IDEATION, or rational planning; EXPRESSION, or setting forth the pattern in an intelligible form; EXECUTION, or bringing about the realization of the pattern as planned; while, overshadowing these three is the INTENTION, or purpose, by which the exemplated object obtains its final perfection, ordination toward its proper end.
64

This seems to contradict a statement made in the preceding paragraph: that God knows future things as future. However, in paragraph five, Bonaventure is speaking as if God were considering the future from the viewpoint of man: in this sense, He presently knows future things as future. But in paragraph six, Bonaventure considers God in the no-time of His eternal duration: and in that sense, He is correctly said to see future things presently.
65

The meaning of the expressions "will of good-pleasure" and "will of sign" becomes clear in the light of Bonaventure's own explanation: "Therefore, we should realize that, as it is not absurd to call 'understanding' both the power to understand and what is understood, so also 'will' is said of both the power of willing and what is willed. Since the will of God is made known to us through what is willed, which serves as a visible sign - and a sign is something that makes something else come to mind when it offers itself to one of the senses (Cf. Augustine, II, 'De doctrina Christiana,' 1:1) - it follows that we divide the will of God into WILL OF GOOD-PLEASURE, and WILL OF SIGN." (I "Sent.," d. 45, a. 3, q. 1, concl.) Hence, "will of good-pleasure" is God's will as existing in Him subjectively, and "will of sign" is the same will considered objectively in its manifestations or signs.
66 67

cf. Ps. 36:27.

This does not mean that God suddenly ceases to protect man against sin, but that when man, by an act of free will, decides to oppose God's will, the grace of God is taken away from him.
68 69

Rom. 11:33-36.

Bonaventure's description of the universe reflects the physical notions current in his time, borrowed mainly from Aristotle. The picture he thus presents is not, by modern standards, a scientific analysis of physical reality. It is, none the less, an artistically beautiful representation of

order and harmony in the universe. Our modern scientific vision is more accurate in many details, and will probably continue to improve as time goes on. Yet, for all we know, it may at its best be almost as remote as this ancient poetry from an actual, full vision and understanding of what time and space contain. Bonaventure's theology, of course, is unaffected by his physical views. As will be noted later, he goes to great pains to avoid the pitfalls of astrology. The wisdom of Bonaventure's position in these matters is clearly shown in a passage where, after discussing the nature of the "waters" that are above the firmament, he concludes: "We might hold this third position as probable, since nothing seems to oppose it. But we must give particular attention to this: not to assert anything as certain in matters that are actually uncertain, for it is better to doubt piously than to make imprudent definitions." (II "Sent.," d. 14, p. I, a. 1, q. 1, conclusion) And, later, when he speaks of the place occupied by the saints in heaven, he concludes: "But this we will know better when we see it." (ibid. a. 2, q. 1, in fine).
70 71

Wis. 11:20.

In Bonaventure's writings, the expression status et complementum occurs several times. It is understandable only in terms of his cosmology, and of his belief that the material universe, and more particularly the "incorruptible" luminous bodies, will be rewarded at the end by ceasing to move and by receiving additional brilliance. The word status (static-ness, the condition of attained repose) indicates the ceasing of accidental motion, and applies also to the rational soul in the state of beatitude: Status est nisi in summo Bono (II "Sent.," a. 1, q. 1, 5) -"There is no repose except in the supreme Good." The word complementum refers to the superadded brilliance or glory which both heavenly bodies and human souls receive in their final state. This whole idea is based on the teachings of Aristotle, II "Metaph.," text. 5, ff.
72

MODE (of being) refers to the creature's dependency upon the efficient cause (a Deo - by the power of God); SPECIES, to the creature's conformity with the exemplary cause (secundum Deum- according to God); ORDER, to the creature's ordination toward the final cause (propter Deum - for God as an end).
73 74 75 76 77

Gn. 1:1ff. Cf. chapters 3 and 5 below. Cf. prologue, p. 9. cf. Ecclus. 18:1*. Gn. 1:14.

78

This whole theory is so remote from contemporary notions that it is hard to grasp. The basic points are the following: All material beings are composed of the four elements, each of which has its characteristic quality, and is predominantly either active or passive. These elements are: fire (hot, active), air (cold, active), water (wet, passive), earth (dry, passive). There is opposition between the elements because of their natural differences, and these differences result in interactions that depend on their active or passive quality. Opposition, therefore, means little more than "possibility of mutual active/passive action." These elements constitute the lower nature. They can be reconciled (brought together in harmony) only through the influence of an element which in itself is free from opposition because of its own perfection. This reconciling element belongs, not to the lower nature, but to the heavenly. It is sometimes called "light," at other times "quintessence," or fifth essence- the other four essences being the elements themselves. Because the planets are heavenly bodies, they participate in some way in this heavenly harmonious power of light or quintessence, and it is as such that they have an influence on physical bodies. The action of this heavenly power may lead to different degrees of harmony or, as Bonaventure has it, of "equality," which correspond more or less to our notion of individuation. In minerals, the individuation is merely accidental, since any piece of rock may be broken into smaller pieces of rock of the same nature. Plants cannot be so easily divided: they would generally die; animals cannot be divided at all (at least in the medieval conception); and the idea of dividing man is unthinkable.
79 80 81 82 83

2 Cor. 5:1. Gn. 1:1-2. Ecclus. 18:1*. cf. Gn. 1:2, Septuag.

Here, our author yields completely to his trinitarian bent: he manages to cram the notion of triplicity eight times into a single grammatical sentence.
84 85 86

Cf. chapter 7. Cf. prologue, p. 9.

Bonaventure, following Augustine, assumes that each of the seven days of creation - that is, the production of each category of creatures and the final day of repose - brought about a corresponding progress in the rational illumination of the pure spirits and in their affective conversion to God. (Cf. II "Sent.," d. 12, a. 1, q. 2).
87

KNOWLEDGE OF DUSK: that knowledge by which a rational being knows an object in itself through the species. Every creature, in itself, is darkness, while God alone is light. (Jn. 1:5)

KNOWLEDGE OF DAWN: that knowledge by which a rational creature sees an object directly in the Word, or Eternal Art; that is, in the Second Person, the Wisdom of God, in the act of creating. KNOWLEDGE OF FULL DAYLIGHT, which is mentioned later, indicates the highest possible degree of knowledge, corresponding to the vision of God face to face.
88 89

Heb. 1:14.

This idea of God's indirect action upon man through intermediate beings (pure spirits), which Bonaventure supports with a quotation from Denis Pseudo-Areopagite, seems inconsistent with the Epistle to the Colossians, 2:4-23, where St. Paul condemns the worship of intermediate beings, the "elements of the world," to which the Colossians seem to have given precedence even over Christ. Although what St. Paul condemns there is the excessive worship of these beings, and not undue belief in their action, he clearly states that in Him [Christ] dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, and in Him who is the Head of all Principality and Power you have received; and he continues by listing the benefits Christ has bestowed directly upon man. Then he writes: Disarming the Principalities and Powers, He displayed them openly, leading them away in triumph by force of it [the cross]. Although it might be said that this text refers only to evil spirits, the footnote to the Confraternity translation confirms the opinion that St. Paul referred to all spirits: "Through Him, not through angels, we may become partakers of the divine nature" (2 Pet. 1:4). (See p. 145.).
90 91

Jn. 8:34

Two early codices contain the following explanation: The earth corresponds to touch, water to taste, air to hearing, fire or vapor to smell, while the fifth essence or "quintessence," which comprises the whole luminous nature with its spheres, corresponds to the sense of sight.
92 93 94 95 96 97

Gn. 2:7. Gn. 1:28. ibid. 2:17. cf. Ps. 36:27. Ez. 2:9*; Ap. 5:13.

Here, the first condition is universal, the second is based on the nature of the rational soul, the third is moral.
98

Gn. 1:3ff.

99

Bonaventure refers to this same triple biblical expression in his "Journey of the Mind to God." (See volume I of present series, p. 10.) In both instances, he is quoting Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," II, 8:16-20; IV, 29:46 and 31:48. In the accounts of creation, there are three phases: the planning in the eternal Art: Let it be (Fiat); the execution as intelligible to the created intellect: God made it (Fecit); and the end result, or the creature itself: And it was made (Factum est). Accordingly, the creature may be known in three ways: in the eternal Art, in the created mind, and in itself.
100 101

Cf. p. 71, and 2 in fine.

Freedom of the will, which is first said to be good, is now explained to be neither entirely evil nor entirely good. This results from extreme condensation of style. We should supply some such transition as: "Now, to answer the objection of those who claim that free will is entirely evil, and also of those who claim it is entirely good, we must hold that. ..."
102 103

Gn. 3:1, 4, 5.

There is here an amusing logical circle: Bonaventure states that the tempter was permitted to take a serpent's form because of its being a symbol of cunning and evil. But he fails to realize that if all serpents suffer from this aspersion, it is mainly because the Bible teaches us that a serpent was responsible for the fall.
104 105

cf. Gn. 3:3.

The classical Scholastic division of the powers of the soul into the irascible, the concupiscible, and the rational is much easier to understand when the technical terms are replaced by others more familiar to the contemporary mind. In Bonaventure's writings, the "irascible appetite" is that power by which the soul seeks to defend what it has and to overcome opposition in the obtaining of some desired object; the "concupiscible appetite" is that by which it tends toward the desirable object; the "rational appetite" is that by which it seeks to obtain knowledge of the intelligible object. Hence, the three powers could be more clearly called the AGGRESSIVE, the AFFECTIVE, and the INTELLECTIVE.
106 107 108 109

cf. Gn. 3:6. 1 Jn. 2:16. Cf. part II, chapter 11, page 101.

Meaning that disorder began with the highest faculty, the will, and went down to disturb the harmony of the senses. By saying that disorder "went down to the bottom," Bonaventure indicates that concupiscence of

the flesh is a disorder consequent upon original sin, and not to be identified with it. He thus avoids the mistake of several medieval and a few recent theologians who believe that original sin is sexual in essence. He, on the contrary, clearly sees in it an act originating from the superior powers by which man is distinct from animal, an act motivated by pride, and spiritual in essence. Yet, in most of his writings on matters of sex, he seems to imply that, although original sin was not sexual in essence, the sex relationship was essentially vitiated by it. In this he disagrees with his master, Alexander of Hales.
110 111 112 113 114 115

cf. 1 Tm. 2:14. Gn. 3:7. ibid. I7ff. cf. Eph. 2:3. Ps. 24:10*.

The Church presently teaches that infants who die before baptism do enjoy perfect natural happiness.
116 117

Cf. preceding paragraphs; chapter 5; part II, chapter 11.

This statement was made, not by Augustine, but by Fulgentius. Bonaventure exposes the same theory elsewhere: "Original sin is a consequence, not of the conjugal act as such, but of the lust attached to it." ("Quaestiones disputatae," q. 3, a. 1, ad 7) Thomas Aquinas does not make this distinction, but teaches merely that "the first sin of the first man is transmitted to his descendants by way of origin." ("Summa theologica," la , q. 81, a. 1, thesis) For a fuller comment regarding teachings on this subject, Scholastic and modern, see footnote on pages 271-272 of this volume.
118 119

Jas. 1:14-15.

Early theologians often called sensuality "feminine" (rendered here by mulier, woman), and rationality "masculine" (rendered by vir, man), arguing that the senses must be subject to reason as Eve was subject to Adam. It is interesting to note that Bonaventure, applying this system, seemingly concludes that Eve sinned through the "masculine" principle because she willed the act formally, while Adam sinned through the "feminine" principle because he was more intent upon the sensual purpose than upon the act itself. (Cf. II "Sent.," d. 14, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; d. 24, p. II, a. 2, q. 2).
120

Ecclus. 10:15*.

121 122

1 Jn. 2:16.

The repetition in our translation of the word "pride" as being the source of actual sin, one of the capital sins, and also one of the temptations of the world (the pride of life) is justified by the use in the Latin text of the single word superbia. In the three cases, however, there are nuances of meaning. Pride, as the source of actual sin, is the general tendency to further one's immediate good through one's own means without consideration for the will of God; as a capital sin, it is the exaltation of self over neighbor, or in the case of Luciferian pride, to equality with God; and as a temptation of the world, it is excessive attention to temporal honors and glory. Thomas Aquinas, however, following Gregory, identifies this temptation of the world with the first capital sin, which he calls "vainglory," thus reserving pride in its specific sense as the source of all sin.
123 124

See footnote p. 113.

The capital sin of ENVY implies two notions: resentment toward the neighbor on account of his success, and inordinate desire for his goods. Bonaventure's explanation considers envy in this secondary meaning. SLOTH is to be understood as lack of relish for spiritual goods and apathy in their pursuit.
125 126 127 128 129 130 131

Rom. 1:28. See footnote p. 71. Mt. 12:32. Jn. 1:17. Ps. 24:10* cf. Tm. 1:17; 2:5.

After quoting Augustine, Bonaventure provides the metaphysical foundation for the difficulty of the work of restoration.
132 133 134

cf. Jn. 1:3, 14. Phil 2:7.

From the order of the Persons of the Trinity (Father/power, Son/wisdom, Holy Spirit/ goodness, corresponding to imitation, knowledge, and love), Bonaventure changes to the order of

succession in time, knowledge, love, and imitation.


135 136 137

Jn. 1:14. Phil. 2:7.

The idea that a created being could have acted in some way for the salvation of mankind seems strange to the modern mind. It is, however, but an echo of the Platonic notion of the Demiurge, a secondary being, below God but above man, responsible for creation. St. Paul strongly opposed such a notion (see footnote to p. 94), but it was revived in the works of the Gnostics and condemned again by the Church. The angels properly so called are not saved by men, but, as Bonaventure explains, men, elevated by the grace of Christ, constitute in a sense a tenth angelic choir.
139 140 138

cf. Col. 1:20.

This means that the created soul of Christ acted, not as a necessary bond between the Divinity and the flesh, but as a fitting intermediary. In III "Sent.," a. 3, q. 1-2, Bonaventure gives the explanation 1) that as regards its bulk, the body of Christ was brought to completion gradually, but 2) that as regards the formation and distinction of its members, it was perfect from the instant of conception: A) because it was fitting that Christ possess THE WHOLE of human nature from the beginning; B) because, in this miraculous event, God's power would not be restricted to the successive action of nature, but would act instantly; and C) because as soon as Mary gave her consent, she became the Mother of the whole Christ. These notions coincide with many medieval representations of the Annunciation, where a tiny, perfectly formed human being (homunculus) is shown coming down upon a beam toward the Virgin Mary. (See, for instance, several French editions of the "Book of Hours" and the Flemish "Merode Altarpiece" recently acquired by the New York Metropolitan Museum for the Cloisters.) Byzantine icons of the Mother of God (Theotokos) have the Child in a circle representing the womb; but, probably by the same theological reasoning, the Child is beyond infancy.
142 143 144 141

Gal. 4:4, 5. cf. Num. 32:25.

The play on the word "Mediator," interpreted here as one who came between two groups of men, is definitely weak, since Christ is fundamentally the Mediator between God and men.

145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152

Phil 3:14. Ps. 83:8* See footnote, page 174. Mk. 11:9. Mt.2l:9. Rom. 9:5. Jn. 1:14, 16.

See footnote p. 174. Several codices have sacramenta, sacraments, which, in the light of the second paragraph of present chapter and of the first paragraph of chapter 10, seems to be a better reading.
153 154

cf. I Cor. 6:15, 19.

In order to understand how this series of oppositions introduces the explanation that follows, we should realize that each opposition is a development of the last term of the preceding pair, so that the schematical pattern appears thus: Christ is both God and Man. As Man, He is both in the state of beatific vision, and living on earth. As living on earth, He is under the influence of both grace and nature. In the order of nature, He knows through the intellect and through the senses. The words in small capitals indicate the five ways in which Christ is able to know; the brackets show their logical relationship. As explained in "Quaestiones de scientia Christi," q. 7, conclusion, this refers to the "possibles," potentially infinite in number, which the created soul of Christ knew only by an act that EXCEEDED the natural powers of such a soul.
156 157 158 155

Heb. 5:8. See footnote p. 161.

The first two methods of knowledge consider Christ in His eternity, and therefore the verbs are in the present tense: "has," and "grasps"; the last three consider Him in His historical humanity, and therefore the verbs are in the past tense: "knew," "understood," and "perceived."

159 160 161 162 163 164 165

In the Latin, stola, "the robe of immortality." cf. Rom. 3:24. Is. 26:22. Ps. 15:2. Mt. 26:39. 1 Tm. 2:5.

The term viator, the wayfarer or pilgrim, is contrasted here with comprehensor, the possessor or embracer, expressing the state of one who enjoys the beatific vision.
166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173

Mt. 26:39. Lk. 22:42. Is. 53:12. 1 Jn. 3:16. Rom. 8:32. Phil. 2:7, 8. 1 Cor. 15:54.

There is here a classic instance of the difficulties of translating medieval Latin into English. Such expressions as "through living faith or through the sacraments of faith" may sound very good but certainly convey no clear meaning: hence a mere verbal transposition is insufficient, if not accompanied by an explanatory note. Bonaventure himself explains that the sacrament of faith par excellence is Baptism (cf. IV "Sent.," d. 29, a. 2, q. 1); he also lists as sacraments of faith Confirmation (cf. ibid., d. 26, a. 1, q. 3), and Holy Eucharist (cf. ibid., a. 2, q. 1). Furthermore, he believes that all the sacraments of the New Law were prefigured in the Old, and that these prefigurations, although imperfect, were effective to a certain point (cf. ibid., d. 2, a. 1, q. 2). Christ, then, by going down to hell, delivered the souls of those who were justified "through living faith" as such, or through "the sacraments of faith," Baptism, Confirmation, and the Holy Eucharist, or their Old Law prefigurations, which we may assume to be purification, circumcision, and the rites of Passover.

There seems to be no reference here to salvation outside of the Church, or to "baptism of desire." For note on limbo, see p. 175. This refers obviously, not to the souls of the damned, but to the souls of the just who were awaiting the merits of Christ and the opening by Him of the gates of heaven. Again, this means, not that all souls in the state of mortal sin were restored to the state of grace, but that restoration to grace was offered by Christ to all the sinful souls who would repent and make use of His merits.
176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 175 174

Ps. 67:19*. cf. Gn. 3:24. 1 Cor. 15:4. cf. Mt. 7:7; Lk.11:8. 1 Cor. 12:8-11. Jas. 1:17. Ap. 22:1.

The inpouring of grace is a Deo, secundum Deum, and propter Deum, meaning that grace is brought forth by God, conforms to God, and has God as an end. Hence, the rational faculties, by which the soul is an image of God, will be restored to their former perfection as they were originally BROUGHT FORTH BY GOD; restored to righteousness since they now CONFORM TO GOD, and restored to meriting the reward since they are now fit to enjoy GOD AS AN END. See footnote p. 71. In scholastic writings, fruitio means the enjoyment of a good as an absolute end. When medieval writers indicate that created goods cannot be the object of fruitio, they mean, not that they cannot be enjoyed, but that they cannot be sought finaliter, as sources of absolute delight. This corresponds to what modern theologians would call actual grace. It applies to an individual act and disappears with the completion of this act, whereas sanctifying grace remains as a state.
186 185 184

cf. Ps. 15:2*.

187 188

cf. Gn. 15:1*.

Bonaventure has indicated here three categories of merit: meritum congrui, meritum digni, and meritum condigni. Meritum congrui is a disposition toward something that fits the nature of the subject, but remains short of its perfect fulfillment. It is founded, not on any right, but on God's benevolence alone, and hence is not a merit properly so called, but AN APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION (for a favor). Meritum digni is a disposition toward something essentially required by the nature of the subject. It is founded on natural justice, and is A JUST TITLE (to a reward). Meritum condigni is a disposition toward something completely fulfilling the subject. It is founded on divine justice, in the sense that God always remains faithful to His promises. It is, then, AN ABSOLUTE RIGHT (to a reward).
189 190

1 Tm. 2:5.

Bonaventure does not refer here to any particular act (for such are performed with the assistance of actual grace), but to all the future acts of a life influenced by sanctifying grace.
191 192 193

Rom. 9:16. cl. 1 Cor. 4:7.

As explained in paragraph 6 below, since charity itself is the form of all virtues, it cannot exist without a form. In other words, after a mortal sin has been committed, all the other virtues continue to exist formlessly, but charity disappears completely.
194 195 196

See footnote p. 113. Is. 11:2-3*.

Both here and in the beginning of the next paragraph, the Latin has obliquitates vitiorum, the deviations of the vices, which, as indicated in this same paragraph, are overcome by the habits of the virtues. The reader would expect instead, in both places, impedimenta symptomatum, the difficulties of the after-effects, which had been related to the gifts (and not mentioned again). However, in the preceding chapter dealing with the habits of the virtues, these virtues are nowhere paired with opposite vices, as one would have expected from Bonaventure. Apparently, even he who is so subtle in discovering relationships between opposing series seems to have despaired of finding a logical link between the seven virtues and the seven vices. Having failed to

link the vices with the virtues which specifically oppose them, he now links them with the gifts. Since he parallels virtues with gifts in 5, he might, by eliminating the middle term - gifts - have gone on to establish the following relationships (the first pair of which seems hard to conciliate): faith/ gluttony, hope/covetousness, charity/lust, prudence/anger, temperance/pride, fortitude/ sloth, justice/envy. The fact that Bonaventure did not draw this final parallelism shows precisely at which point he refuses to submit to an artificial frame.
197 198 199

See footnote p. 113. Phil 2:15.

There is here an apparent lack of logic, for in paragraph 3, above, Bonaventure, pairing the gifts with the capital sins, states that it is wisdom which helps in overcoming lust.
200 201

Wis.7:11.

In the terminology of Bonaventure, the word "contemplation" does not have any connotation of a supernatural activity, as it would have in the present. Contemplation is merely the highest level of intellectual activity by which the mind beholds the truth. Since, however, Bonaventure's philosophy is basically Platonic and Augustinian, this natural contemplation of the truth is the contemplation of something innate and absolute that is not founded upon sense experience. This intellectual contemplation, in the writings of our author, is always preceded by what he calls the "hierarchizing of the soul"; that is, its setting in order by way of purgation, illumination, and union (perfection). This last stage, again, is not mystical union (which begins only beyond this point) but is the summit of the natural operation of the mind. " ... et sic arcanum contemplationis a lato consummatur quasi in cubito." In a play on the word "arcanum," (hidden, secret, closed) contemplation is likened to the "ark" of Noe, broad at the bottom but only one cubit wide at the top. Cf. Septuagint: In building the ark thou shall narrow the breadth and finish it above at a cubit. (Thomson-Muses translation, The Falcons' Wing Press, quoted with permission.) This, in Bonaventure's mind, represents contemplation rising from a broad platform of knowledge to the understanding of the oneness of God.
203 204 205 202

cf. Gn. 6:15-16. Lk. 1:79.

Augustine, Hugh of St. Victor, and others before Bonaventure had held that there were seven, and not eight, beatitudes. The reason seems weak: the beatitudes are seven in number when considered in the order of gradation, that is, of increasingly high level, the supreme level being

peace, and the suffering of persecution for the sake of justice being an annex or introduction to this highest state. These same authors do admit, however, that in the order of essence the beatitudes are eight in number. Yet, because of the medieval obsession with the symbolism of numbers and the scholastic fondness for symmetrical developments, they reduce the beatitudes from eight to seven by a trick of logic in order to make them conform and compare with the sevenfold series of the virtues, vices, or capital sins, gifts of the Holy Spirit, etc. (Cf. III "Sent.," d. 36, q. 1, scho.)
206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214

Cf. Mt. 5:3ff. cf. Gal. 5:22f. Ps. 24:10*. Prv. 20:28. cf. Phil 4:7. 1 Tm. 6:10. Mt. 19:21. cf. Osee 6:6*; Mt. 9:13; 12:7.

The number 12 is called a "number of abundance" because the sum of its possible multiples amounts to more than itself. Indeed, 1+2 + 3 + 4 + 6 amount to 16.
215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222

cf. Jn. 1:14. cf. 1 Jn. 1:1. Jn. 13:1. Gal.5:22f. Gn. 28:12. cf. 3 Kgs. 10:18. Ct. 5:16. 1 Pt. 1:12.

223 224 225 226 227

Ps. 41:1. Ct. 1:3*. Ps. 138:11. cf.Ap.2:17.

There seems to be no doubt about the substance of the Creed being of apostolic origin. But the attribution of actual authorship to the twelve apostles - each apostle being supposedly the author of one article - is no more than a pious legend which began in the sixth century and was perpetuated by later religious writers.
228 229 230 231

2 Cor. 10:5. This apparently refers to the species of the Holy Eucharist. cf. Heb. 1:3; Jn. 1:1.

The reason why "the reward of the fatherland" is mentioned here before "the merit of the way" is that, in Bonaventure's mind, the understanding of truth "as it exists in its own proper nature" constitutes the reward of the fatherland, whereas the understanding of truth "as it exists in the assumed humanity of Christ" constitutes the merit of the way.
232 233

cf. . 1:13, 16.

The Latin has lapidem vivum, a live stone, meaning a stone or gem taken from the bedrock and cut to fitting shape (cf. Cornelius a Lapide, "Commentaria," in Pt. 2:4). Bonaventure seems to oppose the "live" stone to the "dead" boulders taken up from the riverbed in the Old Testament story. Incidentally, these boulders were used to erect, not an altar, but a monument at the site where the Twelve Tribes had passed the Jordan. Concerning the supposed authorship of each individual apostle, see footnote p. 207.
234 235 236

cf. Jos. 4:2ff. Gn. 1:31. Mt. 22:40.

This enumeration omits the created pure spirits. Perhaps, in Bonaventure's mind, they were included in the category "neighbors." They are certainly included among the "other beings which through Him are made fit for beatitude."
238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251

237

cf. Mt. 22:40. Jn. 17:22ff. 1 Cor. 15:28. Ex. 31:18. cf. Mt. 19:21. Gal. 4:24. cf. Rom. 8:15. cf. 2 Cor. 3:6; cf. Mt. 11:30; Acts l5:10. Ex. 31:18. Meaning dutiful and reverential love. 1 Jn. 2:16. cf. Rom. 8:26. cf. Jas. 1:17.

The charismatic favors - whose number has been contracted here from nine to seven - are not mentioned in the development that follows. This is more understandable than that they should have been mentioned at all. They are not conditions of salvation - and furthermore, their inclusion would have ruined the sevenfold pattern by adding an eighth category to the series.
252 253 254

See part VII, chapter 8. Ps. 118:164.

This is a surprisingly negative and limited view of the sacraments on the part of an author so generally ample and positive in his interpretations.

255 256 257 258 259

This implies both historical variations and numerical variety. cf. Jn. 1:17. See Prologue (2), On the Length of Holy Scripture, page 8. 1 Cor. 1:24.

Once again, we have here an example of a systematic parallelism which, to say the least, seems artificial. The last three examples may appear to us as actually inaccurate in their excessively negative approach, but we should remember that Bonaventure is considering the sacraments under their remedial aspect. To us, the remedial is not the sole effect; we place increasing stress on the transforming and elevating union brought about by the reception of the Body and Blood of Christ.
260 261 262

Ct. 6:10. Eph. 5:32*.

Such a view of the sacrament of Matrimony seems characteristic of most Scholastics. See chapter 13, particularly footnote p. 271.
263 264

cf. Heb. 9:15.

It is unthinkable that Christ would have received in fact His own Body and Blood. Bonaventure answers this objection by stating that, as occurred in Baptism, Christ received the Eucharist "sacramentally" but not "spiritually"; that He received it not in rem (in the thing itself); and that the reason for his receiving the Eucharist at all was to induce the disciples to partake after Him of this astounding Food and Drink. (Cf. IV "Sent.," a. 1, q. 4, conclusio.)
265 266

Jn. 14:6.

As Bonaventure explains below, those who come unworthily are deprived, not of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, but of the healing effect of that presence. He makes this point very clear in IV "Sent.," d. 9, a. 2, q. 1, conclusion: "The wicked really partake of the Body of Christ, but without union in the Mystical Body."
267 268

ibid. 1:14.

Bonaventure believes in the existence of sacraments in the Old Testament, prefiguring those in the New. In that sense, it may be said that there existed, before the incarnation, sacramental graces corresponding to penance and procreation.

269 270 271 272 273

cf.Mt.4:17; cf. Jn. 2:1ff.; cf. Mk. 10:2-12. Mk. 6:13. cf. Mt. 19:13; cf. Acts 1:5. This should read: Baptism, Orders, Holy Eucharist.

cf.Mt3:13; 28:19; Mk. 1:9; 16:15; Jn. 3:5; cf. Mt. 3:13; 28:19; Mk. 1:9; cf. Jn. 20:22f.; Lk. 22:19; 1 Cor.11:24f. cf. Jn. 12:24f.
274 275

cf. Mt. 26.26-29; Mk. 14:22-25; Lk. 22:14:20; 1 Cor. 11:23-25.

Bonaventure certainly knew that the parties to a marriage are the ministers of the sacrament of matrimony, while the priest is a witness conferring a sacramental blessing, for this is the teaching of the Church since its early days. We have here just one more example of Bonaventure's condensed style which takes much for granted in the mind of the reader. When Bonaventure writes in the following sentence that the "heretical" may be the ministers of valid sacraments, he refers to those who disagree on matters of dogma but who fully believe in the seven sacraments. In the case of sacraments requiring Orders, he refers to those heretics who possess valid Orders. Hence, we should not confuse them with members of many sects of our times who reject most of the sacraments and have no valid Orders. A further difficulty concerns the phrase "those within the Church or outside it." The logical sequence would seem to indicate that this refers, to the spiritual state, not of the recipients, but of the ministers. On the other hand, the explanation that follows seems to apply, not to the ministers, but to the recipients, for Bonaventure writes later: "If the administration of the sacraments were reserved to the virtuous . . . one man's sin might hamper the salvation of another." Furthermore, there seems to be no clue to indicate the meaning of the phrase itself. Does it mean "Both those in the state of grace and those in the state of mortal sin," or "both the faithful and the heretical"? In the development of this point, page 239, it seems again that "those within the Church and those without" refers, not to the recipients, but to the ministers. But if the effect of sacraments conferred by "those without" is suspended, as explained at the end of the first paragraph, the sin of one man will, in fact, "hamper the salvation of another." The explanation of all this may be hidden somewhere in the depths of the Commentaries; so far, it has not been found. When Bonaventure writes here "the dignity of order," he could not possibly mean "the relative dignity of sacramental Orders," since he is referring to the ministers of the sacraments, including laymen who are not ordained. Hence, "the dignity of order" should be understood to
276

mean the relative rank of bishop, priest, and layman. It is possible also that "the dignity of order" is merely an erroneous transposition, for in the development, we have "the order of dignity" (see page 239).
277 278

Ps. 73:12.

It seems surprising that Bonaventure should here disregard the fact that the vital function of Orders is to give the powers of consecration and absolution to the ordained. The greatest sacrament being undoubtedly the Holy Eucharist, the present division into three categories seems artificially made up for the sake of symmetry. Likewise, since the first and fundamental sacrament, Baptism, is relegated to the last category, "as being least," there is no way in which the stated order could be accepted. See Bonaventure's own text, pp. 243,244.
279 280 281 282

Eccl 9:1. See footnote to page 200. cf. Gn. 2:8 cf.; ibid. 10ff; cf. Mt. I6:18f.

By "matter" Bonaventure means here: that which is effected within the framework of identical circumstances. This strict division indicates that the notion of the lay apostolate was entirely foreign to the medieval mind.
284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 283

cf. Mt. 28:19. The word "Amen" is not found in present-day rituals. 1 Cot. 15:4. cf. Acts 2:38; 8:12, 16;10:48; 19:5. cf. Col 1:13. The word "Amen" is not found in present-day rituals. cf. Mk. 12:30. 1 . 1:5. 1 Cor. 11:29.

By restricting the offering to the body and blood of Christ, Bonaventure is not denying the fullness of the sacrifice of the incarnate Word, but merely employing the words of the institution of the Sacrament: "This is My body. . . . This is My blood. ..." Furthermore, in ancient writings, blood is taken to be the seat of life, and the sacrifice of blood means the complete sacrifice of life.
294 295

293

1 Cor. 11:29.

The Revised Baltimore Catechism No. 2, Question 446, indicates that Extreme Unction also procures the remission of mortal sins when the sinner had at least imperfect contrition before falling into unconsciousness.
296 297

The rules for the administration of Extreme Unction are at present slightly different.

As the author explains in paragraph 5 below, ''adults" should be understood as meaning those who have attained the age of reason, being "capable of venial sin."
298 299

1 Tm. 2:5; cf. Mt. 1:21; cf. Heb. 1:9.

The order should have been "conferred and received," as in the development which follows, since the reception is dependent upon the conferring, and not vice versa.
300 301

Jas. 5:15.

As so often happens with the "Breviloquium," this dense passage is a summary of a complete article of the "Commentaries on the Sentences," and implies the following line of thought: Extreme Unction would seem to be reserved to the bishop, since its matter is oil consecrated by the bishop. However: 1) unlike Confirmation, it consists, not in an imposition of hands, reserved to the bishop, but in an act of healing, which pertains to the priest; 2) since there is the risk of not obtaining immediately the service of a bishop, its administration is entrusted to all priests; 3) some authors claim that it may be administered by simple laymen: this, however, is not the case, for unconsecrated hands should not touch the holy oil. Bonaventure mentions no age limit. Since Confirmation does not absolutely require a rational act on the part of the recipient, it may be conferred upon infants. In the Oriental Rite, in fact, it is generally administered to infants immediately after Baptism. Canon Law prescribes tonsure where it is not in contrast with local customs. The preparatory state of psalmody no longer exists. In this whole passage, the Latin has sometimes "discretio" and at other times "distinctio." Of the two possible interpretations of each word - the subjective capacity of right judgment, and the objective quality of being set apart - the latter alone is retained. Note also that this condition is
304 303 302

the first to be developed below.


305 306

cf. Ps. 15:5.

This implies no formal pairing, each to each, of the seven sacramental graces dispensed by the ordained priest and the seven stages of Orders, but merely an indication of a general parallelism, both being seven in number and both rising to a culmination: the sacramental grace, to the Holy Eucharist, and the Orders, to the priesthood.
307 308

cf. 3 Kgs. 10:l8ff.

The function of cleansing is attributed to the Porter, the Acolyte, and the Exorcist; that of enlightenment, to the Reader, the Sub-deacon, and the Deacon. In his "Commentaries," Bonaventure himself admits that such a division is artificial since it corresponds to no intrinsic characteristic of the different minor Orders.
309 310

"Consummated as a single Order" is again reminiscent of the Ark of Noe. Cf. footnote p. 201.

The expression "words concerning the future" refers to betrothal, while "words concerning the present" refers to marriage. (Cf. IV, "Sent.," d. 28, a. 1, q. 1, conclusion.) The list of impediments is slightly different since the Council of Trent. Bonaventure's list is expressed in Latin verse.
312 313 314 311

Ecclus. 1:5*. See part I, chapter 1; part II, chapters 9f.; part III, chapter 1.

Several passages of Bonaventure's writings indicate his belief that, after the fall, there was something intrinsically evil in the union of the sexes and even more in the pleasure attached to it. He is in accord with many Scholastics who, in this matter, were content to base their opinion on such writers as Basil, Augustine, Gregory, and Anselm. These Fathers were mainly concerned with protecting the chastity of religious novices, and in their eagerness to adduce every possible argument in defense of their position, were not always immune to the Manichean notion of the wickedness of the flesh and goodness of the spirit. Alexander of Hales and Duns Scotus, on the other hand, seem to be the chief early theologians to make a clear distinction between the sexual act, good in itself, and its abuses brought about by concupiscence. Even in some modern manuals of high reputation - for instance, Genicot and Salsmans, "Institutiones Theologiae Moralis," vol. 2, no. 497- the distinction is not made, the word "concupiscentia" standing for both lawful sexual desire and its sinful distortions. This lack of distinction necessarily leads to the contradictory statements which follow, that concupiscence must be both satisfied and healed. The teaching of those whose main purpose is to extinguish the flame of passion cannot be

considered the best source for a balanced study of the ethics of sex. The Quaracchi editors are well aware of this. It is they who point to the dissenting voices indicated above. Their general conclusion is: "It seems that such (Bonaventure's) teachings are consistent with the doctrines of the Fathers and of the Scholastics concerning the use of Matrimony - doctrines which are somewhat more severe than those now currently taught." (IV "Sent.," d. 31, a. 2, q. 1, scholion.)
315 316

Mt. 19:16.

The expression "union of the sexes" means here that a consummated marriage gives rise to impediments as regards the spouse's blood relations, and corresponds to affinity. The last impediment, "breach of public honesty," merely means that for one who is betrothed it is against justice and decency to marry a first degree relative of his or her affianced as long as the betrothal agreement holds.
317 318

cf. Mt. 19:6.

The statement that God the Father shall judge, through our Lord Jesus Christ, differs in wording from the usual forms of the Creed.
319 320 321 322 323 324

cf. Mt. 16:27; Ap.22.-12. Ap. 13:8 etc. cf. Mt. 25:3lff. Cf. 2 Cor. 5:10. 1 Cor. 13:12.

According to the Baltimore Catechism, venial sin does not deprive the soul of sanctifying grace. The expression "distortion of the divine image" as referring to venial sin means a slight disordering of the soul in regard to its proper end. In the development of this thought in the same paragraph, Bonaventure links distortion and purification, indicating his belief that venial sin brings about some kind of stain. This does not seem to accord with contemporary thought (cf. Catholic Encyclopedia, under the topic "Sin"). This does not contradict the statement made in paragraph 2 above, that "they may at times be unaware of it." The idea is that, by depriving the souls of the consciousness of the place in which they are, the intense pains of purgatory remove their clear awareness that they are not in hell, without, for that, producing in them any fear that they might be there.
325

Spiritual goods in general are not diminished by being portioned out. Suffrages, however, have a specific value applicable principally to the chosen beneficiary. As to other souls, their remaining debts, lesser or greater, act as proportionate barriers to the full operation of the suffrages.
327 328 329 330

326

cf. Wis. 11:20. 1 Cor.7:31. cf. Gn. 7:1ff.; 2 Pt. 2:5; ibid. 3:6ff.

The Quaracchi editors seem to forget that Bonaventure attributes this sentence to Augustine, "The City of God," chapter 20. See IV "Sent.," d. 47, a. 2, q. 1, n. 4.
331 332

cf. Mt. 24:29; Lk. 21:26.

Bonaventure believed that the "bodies of the universe"- meaning the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies which he thought to be incorruptible - would be rewarded first by receiving added brilliance and glory (which theory is based on Isaias 30:26, The light of the moon will be like that of the sun and the light of the sun will be seven times greater); then, by receiving repose (see paragraph 7, below).
333 334 335

cf.Wis.5:17. cf. Mt. 24:29.

Now that the number of the elect is completed, the heavenly bodies, incorruptible by nature and thus eternal, may reach the perfection of immobility. The idea seems to be that their motion had been the measure of time, encompassing the centuries during which men had lived on earth; thus, as soon as time comes to an end, the motion of the heavenly bodies must cease.
336 337 338 339 340 341

Eph. 4:13. cf. Lk. 21:18. Cf. part I, chapter 6. Wis. 5:20. cf.Jn.5:29. Eph. 4:13.

The "fullness of Christ," (pleroma) is generally understood in a mystical scnse. Bonaventure seems to interpret this passage in a sense that would make it refer to the physical age of Christ at the time of His resurrection, and to His physical stature.
343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361

342

cf. Mk. 9:43ff. Ap. 14:11. 2 Tm.2:13. Mt. 5.26. Ap. 14:10; cf. Soph. 1:12. In ancient imagery, fire is considered both as a means of destruction and as a source of life. cf. 1 Cor. 3:12ff. Ap. 14:11. I Cor. 13:12. Rom. 1:20. See above, part IV, chapters 8ff. cf. Ps. 132:2*. cf. 1 Cor.; 12:4ff. Cf. footnote p. 113; also text, p. 303. cf. Dn. 12:3. 1 COR. 2:9. Mt. 13:43. ibid. 22:30. 1 Cor. 15:44.

362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376

Wis. 5:15. The Latin word "salus" means both salvation and health. Ps. 36:39. cf. ibid. 16:15*. cf. ibid. 35:9*. ibid. cf. Mt. 25:21. ibid 5:9; Ps. 81:6; Jn.10:34; cf. ibid. 12:26. Rom. 8:17. Cf. Mt. 22:37. 1 Cor. 2:9. cf. Jn. 16:24. cf. Mt. 25:21. Rom. 1:25.

This citation from Anselm is used, with some variations, at the end of "The Perfection of Life" (See Vol. I of present series) and of the "Soliloquium." (See Vol. III, to come.)

i ii

Cf. Aristotle, "Analytica posteriora," I, 1ff.; and "Metaphysica," VI, text. 1ff. Aristotle, "Metaphysica," II, text. 3. Augustine, "Contra Adimantum," 17.2. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," 11:21; and "Epistolae," 55, 13:23.

iii iv

v vi

Cf. Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 24. Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi contra Manichaeos," I, 23:35. Cf. Augustine, "Epistolae," 138, 1:5. Cf. Augustine, "De doctrina Christiana," II, 41:62f.

vii viii ix x xi xii xiii xiv xv xvi

Cf. ibid., 6:7.; also, Clement of Alexandria, "Stromata," VI, 15. Cf. Aristotle, "Ethica," II, 2. Cf. Aristotle, "Analytica posteriora," I, 7. Cf. ibid., 14. Cf. Augustine, "De doctrina Christiana," III, 10:14ff.; and II, 9:14ff. Augustine, "De utilitate credendi," 11:25. "Glossa ordinaria," on Psalm 61:12. Augustine, "De Trinitate," XV, 4:6. Cf. ibid., 5, 7:10.

xvii xviii

Concerning the two emanations and three hypostases, cf. Bonaventure, I "Sententiarum," d. 2, q. 4; d. 9, q. 1; and d. 10, a. 1, q. 1; concerning relationships, notions, and properties, cf. ibid., d. 26, q. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 27, p. I, q. 2; and d. 28, q. 1ff. Cf. ibid., d. 27, p. II, q. 1ff; d. 31, p. II, a. 1, q. 1f.; and d. 37, p. II, dub. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 10, a. 1-2; and d. 18, q. 5, particularly ad 4. Cf. ibid., d. 22, q. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 5, a. 1, q. 1; d. 25, a. 1, q. 2, ad 3; and d. 33, q. 2, ad 5. Cf. ibid., d. 23, a. 1, q. 3.

xix xx xxi xxii

xxiii xxiv

xxv xxvi

Cf. ibid., loc. cit. Cf. ibid., d. 26, q. 1. Cf. Aristotle, "De praedicamentis"; also, Boethius, "De Trinitate," 4ff. Boethius, op. cit., 6; cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 26, q. 2; d. 27, p. I, q. 3, ad 1-3; and d. 33,

xxvii xxviii

q. 1.
xxix xxx xxxi xxxii xxxiii xxxiv xxxv xxxvi xxxvii xxxviii xxxix xl xli xlii

Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 22, dub. 3; d. 31, p. I, q. 2; and d. 24, a. 3, q. 1f. Cf. ibid., d. 23, a. 1, q. 1-3; and d. 25, a. 1 and 2. Cf. ibid., d. 30, q. 1ff.; d. 22, q. 3; and d. 34, q. 3. Cf. ibid., d. 21, dub. 2; d. 14, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 15, p. II, q. 1ff. Cf. ibid., d. 16. Cf. ibid., d. 15, p. I, q. 1-4. Cf. ibid., d. 37, p. I, a. 3, q. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 16, q. 3. Cf. Augustine, "De Trinitate," II, 5:8. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 31, p. II, a. 1, q. 3.

Hilarion, "De Trinitate," II, 1.

Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 31, p. II, a. 2, q. 3. Cf. ibid., d. 34, q. 4; and d. 3, p. I, dub. 3-4.

Cf. ibid., IV, d. 14, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; also, Augustine, "De vera religione," 7:13; "De civitate Dei," XI, 28; and "De Trinitate," VI, 10:12. Augustine, "De doctrina Christiana," I, 5:5. Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 31; "Metaphysica," III, and V, text. 3; "Ethica," I, 1; and I,

xliii xliv

"Magnorum moralium," 2f.


xlv xlvi

Richard of St. Victor, "De Trinitate," VI, 15.

Anselm, "Cur Deus homo," I, 20; and "De fide Trinitatis," 5; cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 42 and d. 43.
xlvii xlviii xlix l li lii liii liv lv lvi lvii lviii lix lx lxi lxii lxiii

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 18, a. 1, q. 2. Cf. ibid., I, d. 35, dub. 3; d. 36, dub. 3; and d. 38-42.

Cf. ibid., IV, d. 43, a. 2, q. 1-3.

Cf. ibid., I, d. 27, p. II, q. 3f.; d. 35, q. 1ff.; and d. 36, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 39, a. 2, q. 1-3. Cf. ibid., d. 38, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 40, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 8, p. II, q. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 45-48. Augustine, "De Trinitate," III, 4:9. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 48. Cf. ibid., II, d. 37, a. 1, q. 1; and a. 2, q. 1. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," VII, 30.

Cf. Anselm, "Proslogium," 9-11; also, Augustine, "Enchiridion," 99:25. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 41, a. 1, q. 2. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 1, p. I, a. 1-2. Cf. ibid., I, d. 3, p. I, dub. 3. Cf. Augustine, "Enarrationes in psalmos," Ps. 29, 2:10.

On "rationes seminales," cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 7. p. II, a. 2, q. 1; d. 15, a. 2, q. 3, and dub. 3; and d. 18, a. 1, q. 2f.
lxv lxvi

lxiv

Cf. ibid., II, d. 12, a. 2, q. 2; and d. 1, p. I, dub. 2 and 4.

Cf. Augustine, "Epistolae," 55, 10:19ff.; "De Genesi ad litteram," IV, 9:16ff.; and ibid., 18:31ff.
lxvii lxviii lxix lxx lxxi

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 12, a. 1, q. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 2, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; d. 14, p. I, a. 1, q. 1; and p. II, a. 1, q. 3.

Cf. ibid., d. 14, p. I, a. 1, q. 2, fundam. 6; and d. 17, a. 2, q. 2. Cf. Aristotle, "De generatione et corruptione," I, text. 43-90; and ibid., 2, text. 1ff.

Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones de scientia Christi," q. 3, ad 8; and "Itinerarium mentis in Deum," 2:10; also, Boethius, "De arithmetica," I, 1f., and II, 40ff.
lxxii lxxiii lxxiv lxxv

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 2, p. II, a. 1, q. 2; and d. 14, p. 2, a. 2, q. 2f. Cf. ibid., d. 14, p. II, dub. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 15, a. 1, q. 3; and d. 17, a. 2, q. 2f.

Cf. Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 24; also, Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 15, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 16, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 20, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 19, p. I q. 4. Cf. ibid., II, d. 12, a. 1, q. 3. Cf. Aristotle, "De anima," II, text. 68.

lxxvi lxxvii

lxxviii lxxix lxxx lxxxi lxxxii

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 14, p. I, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 12, a. 1, q. 2; and d. 13, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor; also, Peter Lombard, II "Sent.," d. III, c. 1. Cf. Augustine, "Confessiones," XII, 7:7.

lxxxiii lxxxiv. lxxxv lxxxvi lxxxvii

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 3, p. I, a. 1, q. 1; and a. 2, q. 1ff. Boethius. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 25, a. 1, q. 2.

Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," III, 15:44. Peter Lombard, gloss on 2 Cor. 6:15.

Cf. Bonaventure, "Itinerarium," 4:4; "De triplici via," prologue, 1, and chapter 3:14; and "Collationes in Hexaemeron," 22:25-27. Cf. Gregory, "Homiliae in Evangelia," II, homily 34:13; and II "Moralium," 3:3.

lxxxviii lxxxix

Cf. Augustine, "Confessiones," XIII, 2:3, and 8:9: "De Genesi ad litteram," I, 4:9ff.; IV, 22:39, and 26:43.
xc xci

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 9. Cf. Gregory, "Homiliae in Evangelia," II, homily 34:14; also, Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 9, q.

4.
xcii xciii xciv xcv xcvi xcvii

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 17, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 19, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. Anselm, "Monologium," 13. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 3, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; and II, d. 16. Cf. ibid., II, d. 25, p. I and II.

Denis Pseudo-Areopagite, "De caelesti hierarchia," 4:3 and 8:2; and "De ecclesiastica hierarchia," 5:4.
xcviii xcix c

Bernard, "Sermones," 81 "In Cantica," 6.

Cf. Aristotle, "De caelo et mundo," I, text. 126.

Cf. Aristotle, "Elench.," 6; "De praedicamentis," chapter "De substantia"; "De anima," II, text. 24; also, Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 15, a. 1, q. 1, and d. 17, a. 1, q. 2.

ci cii

Cf. Aristotle, "De generatione et corruptione," I, text. 39ff.; and "De anima," II, text. 47ff.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 24, p. I, a. 2, q. 1f.; also John Damascene, "De fide orthodoxa," II, 22.
ciii civ

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 24, p. I, a. 2, q. 3.

"Hypognosticon," II, 5:7, found among the works of Augustine; cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 25, p. I, q. 3.
cv cvi cvii cviii cix

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 17, a. 2, q. 1-3. Cf. ibid., d. 18, a. 1, q. 1, and d. 20. Cf. ibid., d. 17, a. 2, q. 3. Aristotle, "De anima," III, text. 38.

Cf. Alexander of Hales, "Summa," p. II, q. 81, m. 2, quoting Ovid, "Metamorphosae," I, 8486, and Augustine, "Quaestiones LXXXIII," q. 51, 9.
cx cxi cxii

Cf. Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," III, 18:51. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," VI, 25:36.

Cf. Augustine, op. cit., VIII, 4:8; "De civitate Dei," XIII, 20; and "Opus imperfectus contra Julianum," 30.
cxiii cxiv cxv cxvi cxvii

Cf. Bonaventure, "Itinerarium," in toto. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 17, dub. 2.

Cf. ibid., d. 24, p. II, dub. 3. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, p. VI, 6.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 17, dub. 5; also, Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," VIII, 6:12.
cxviii cxix

Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 3, p. I, q. 2; p. II, a. 1, q. 1, ad 3; and II, d. 16, a. 2, q. 3.

Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 49, p. I, q. 5.

cxx cxxi

Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," II, 8:16-20; and IV, 29:46, and 31:48. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, 10:2. Cf. ibid., loc. cit. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 25, p. II, q. 3; and d. 34 and 35. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XI, 9. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 3, p. I, dub. 3. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XIV, 11:2.

cxxii cxxiii cxxiv cxxv cxxvi

cxxvii

Cf. Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," II, 19:53; also, Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 35, dub. 6, and d. 34 and 36.
cxxviii cxxix cxxx cxxxi cxxxii cxxxiii cxxxiv cxxxv cxxxvi cxxxvii cxxxviii cxxxix

Augustine, "De vera religione," 14:27.

Ibid., loc. cit. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 1, p. I, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 34, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," VII, 30. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 25, p. I, q. 6, ad 2. Cf. ibid., d. 25, ad 2, and dub. 3. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XIV, 11:2. Cf. Boethius, "De consolatione," IV, prose 6. Cf. part II, note 25. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 30, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 22, dub. 2.

Augustine, "Enchiridion," 93:23; cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 33, a. 3, q. 1f.

cxl cxli

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 30, a. 1, q. 1.

Actually, Fulgentius, "De fide ad Petrum," 3:36 and 27:70; found among the works of Augustine. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 33, a. 3, q. 1, arg. 1 and 2.
cxlii cxliii cxliv cxlv cxlvi cxlvii cxlviii cxlix

Cf. Anselm, "De conceptu virginali et originali peccato," 23. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 31, and d. 32, a. 3. Cf. ibid., d. 30, a. 2, q. 1. Actually, Fulgentius, op. cit., 2:16. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 32, a. 1; and III, d. 3, p. I. Cf. Augustine, "De nuptiis et concupiscentia," I, 26:29. Anselm, op. cit., 18.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 41, a. 2, q. 2; and Aristotle, "De praedicamentis," chapter "De oppositis"; and "Topica," II, 3.
cl cli clii cliii cliv clv clvi clvii clviii clix

Ambrose, "De paradiso," 8:39. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 42, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 21, dub. 4; and d. 41, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. Augustine, "De Trinitate," 12:17f. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 42, dub. 3 and 4. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XIV, 7:2; and "De beata vita," 11. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 36. Augustine, "Enarrationes in psalmos," Ps. 57, 9:18. Actually, cf. Augustine, "Contra adversarium legis et prophetarum," 24:51.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 35.

clx clxi

Anselm, "De concordantia gratiae et liberi arbitrii," 3:11. Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," 9:26. Ibid., 1:1. Cf. Gilbert Porret, "De sex principiis," chapter "De actione." Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 43.

clxii clxiii clxiv clxv

Cf. Gregory, XXV "Moralium," 11:28; Isidore, "De summo bono," 17:3ff.; and Peter Lombard, II "Sent.," d. XXII, c. 4 in fine.
clxvi clxvii

Cf. Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," I, 12:26; and III, 3:7.

Cf. Aristotle, "Ethica," III, 1; John Damascene, "De fide orthodoxa," II, 24; and Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 22, a. 2, q. 3. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 46, a. 2, q. 3.

clxviii clxix clxx clxxi

Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 1, a. 2, q. 1 and 3; and d. 20, q. 1, 2 and 6, n. 5. Cf. Augustine, "Sermones," 176 "De verbis Apostoli," 5:5. Cf. Bernard, "Sermones," 3 "in Vigilia Nativitatis Domini," 8; and 2 "In Nativitate Domini,"

4.
clxxii clxxiii clxxiv clxxv clxxvi clxxvii clxxviii

Cf. Irenaeus, "Contra haereses," IV, 20:4. Cf. Augustine, "De vera religione," 16:30ff., and 55:110. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 27, p. II, q. 4. Cf. ibid., III, d. 1, a. 2, q. 3. Aristotle, "Elench," I, 5. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 3-5. Augustine, "Sermones," 196, 1:1; cf. 51, 11:8.

clxxix clxxx clxxxi clxxxii

Gregory, "Homiliae in Evangelia," II, homily 32:1; cf. Aristotle, "Ethica," 2:3. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 2, dub. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 4, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 2, a. 3, q. 1.

Cf. Anselm, "Cur Deus homo," II, 8. Also, sermon "Ad fratres in eremo," 28, found among the works of Augustine.
clxxxiv clxxxv clxxxvi clxxxvii clxxxviii clxxxix cxc

clxxxiii

Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 1, a. 2, q. 4, and dub. 1. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, quoted in Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 1, p. I, q. 5, fundam. 1. Bernard, "Sermones," 3 "In Vigilia Nativitatis Domini," 8. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 13. Ibid., d. 12, a. 2, q. 1.

Ibid., d. 9, a. 1, q. 1.

Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones . . . de scientia Christi," l:3ff.; 7, conclusio; and III "Sent.," d.

14.
cxci cxcii cxciii cxciv cxcv cxcvi cxcvii

Cf. Aristotle, "Analytica Posteriora," II, 18; and "Metaphysica," I, 1. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 8, p. I, a. 3, q. 2, ad 5. Cf. ibid., d. 18; and d. 17, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 20, q. 3f.; and ibid., IV, d. 15, p. I, q. 1. Cf. ibid., III, d. 15-18. Cf. ibid., d. 19, a. 2, q. 2, quoting Augustine, "De civitate Dei," IX, 15.

Cf. Boethius, "De una Persona et duabus naturis," 8; also, Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 12, a. 2, q. 1, ad 4, and d. 16, a. 1, q. 3, ad 2.

cxcviii cxcix

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 22, dub. 2, quoting Bede.

Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De quatuor voluntatibus in Christo"; also, Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 48, a. 2, q. 2, and III, d. 17, a. 1, q. 3.
cc cci ccii cciii cciv

Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 16. Cf. ibid., d. 21. Cf. ibid., a. 1, q. 1, fundam. 1, quoting Augustine and John Damascene. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 20, q. 5.

Anselm, "Cur Deus homo," c. 2 and 20; also, Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 15, p. I, q. 1, and p. II, a. 1, q. 1.
ccv ccvi ccvii ccviii ccix ccx ccxi ccxii ccxiii ccxiv ccxv ccxvi ccxvii

Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 18, a. 2, q. 3. Cf. gloss on Ps. 109:1. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 18, a. 2, q. 3. Cf. Bede, gloss on Mark 15:33.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 26, q. 1f. Cf. ibid., q. 3 and 4; also, ibid., I, d. 14, a. 2, q. 2. Cf. ibid., I, d. 14, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., II, d. 29, a. 1, q. 1. Augustine, "Enchiridion," 32:9. Augustine, "Epistolae," 186, 3:10. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 37, p. I, a. 1, q. 1; and II, d. 37, a. 1, q. 1 and 2. Cf. ibid., II, d. 36, dub. 5; and d. 41, a. 1, q. 1. Avicenna, "Metaphysica," 6:3.

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Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 3, p. 2, a. 1, q. 2, footnote 6.

Cf. ibid., d. 17, p. I. Cf. part III, note 28, above. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 26, q. 4. Cf. part I, note 45, above. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 4, p. I, dub. 2. Augustine, "Sermones," 169, 11:13.

Augustine, "Enarrationes in psalmos," Ps. 70, c. 2:5; Ps. 102, c. 7; letter 194, 5:19; "Sermones," 170, 10:10; "De gratia et libero arbitrio," 6:15. "Hypognosticon," III, 11; attributed to Augustine. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 27, a. 1, q. 1f. Cf. ibid., III, d. 22-33.

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Cf. ibid., d. 36. Cf. Aristotle, "De anima," II, text. 33. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 34, p. I, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi contra Manichaeos," 10:14. Cf. Anselin, "De conceptu virginali et originali peccato," 3, and "De veritate," 12. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 23, a. 2, q. 5. Cf. ibid., d. 34-35. Jerome, "Epistolae," 82 (alias 62):11. Cf. Origen, "Homiliae," 2 "In Genesi," 5; and Gregory, "Homiliae," 4 "In Ezechiel," 16f.

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Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 34, p. I, a. 1, q. 1, and a. 2, q. 1.

Cf. ibid., d. 36, q. 1, scholion.

Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 2, q. 4, scholion. Cf. "Compendium theologiae veritatis," V, 56. Found among the works of Bonaventure. Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," XII, 6:15ff.

Cf. Bonaventure, "Itinerarium," I, quoting "De spiritu et anima," 10-14, found among the works of Augustine.
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Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 23, a. 2, q. 3, and ad 6; "Quaestiones ... de scientia Christi," 7; "De triplici via," 3, and "Itinerarium," 7. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 23-25. Cf. ibid., d. 25, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 23, a. 1, q. 3; d. 24, a. 1, q. 2; and d. 25, a. 1, q. 1ff. Cf. ibid., d. 28-29.

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Cf. Augustine, "De doctrina Christiana," I, 23:22.

Cf. ibid., 32:35. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 27, a. 1, q. 1-3 and dub. 1. Cf. ibid., dub. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 37, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 40, q. 1-3. Plato, "De republica," 1; Aristotle, "Ethica," V, 1, and "De virtutibus et vitiis," 2. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 37, a. 2, q. 1ff. John Damascene, "De fide orthodoxa," III, 24.

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Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 15, p. II, a. 2, q. 3.

Cf. ibid., d. 45, a. 3, q. 1. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 1, p. I. Isidore, VI "Etymologiarum," 19:40. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, IX, 2. Ibid., 4. Peter Lombard, IV "Sent.," d. 1, c. 5. Aristotle, "De anima," II, text. 49. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 1, p. II, and d. 2, a. 1, q. 1f.

Augustine, "Contra Faustum," IX, 13; cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, VIII, 12, and XI, 6.
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Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, XI, 6.

Ibid., loc. cit. Ibid., loc. cit. Ibid., 4. Cf. Bonaventure, IV, "Sent.," d. 1, p. I, q. 2, a. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 2, a. 1, q. 3. "Commentaria in Marcum," 9:28; found among the works of Jerome.

Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 3, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; d. 7, a. I, q. 1f.; d. 8, p. I, a. 2, q. 1-3, and dub. 4; d. 17, p. II, a. 1, q. 1-3; d. 23, a. 1, q. 2, etc.
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Cf. ibid., IV, d. 1, p. I, q. 2; and d. 4, p. I, a. 2, q. 2f. Cf. ibid., d. 6, p. II, a. 2.

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Cf. ibid., d. 7, a. 1, q. 3.

Cf. ibid., d. 25, a. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 13, a. 1, q. 1ff. Cf. ibid., d. 17, p. III, a. 1; and d. 19. Cf. ibid., d. 23, a. 2, q. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 5, a. 1-2. Cf. ibid., d. 27, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 28, q. 5. Augustine, "De baptismo contra Donatistas," IV, 1-2.

Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 6, p. I (particularly, q. 4 and 6); d. 7, a. 3, q. 3; and d. 24, p. II, a. 1, q. 1ff. Cf. Augustine, op. cit., I, 1-2.

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Innocent III, C. "Veniens," (3), X, (Book III, title 43); and C. "Tuae litterae," (1), X, (Book V, title 29).
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Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 3-5; and d. 6, p. II, a. 3.

Cf. Aristotle, "De caelo et mundo," I, text. 32; and "De anima," III, text. 45. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 3, p. I, a. 2, q. 2, scholion. Cf. ibid., d. 5, a. 1, q. 1, casus 3. Aristotle, "Topica," I, c. 6. Peter Lombard, II "Sent.," d. XXX, c. 9. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 7. Cf. Averroes, "Destructio destructionum," disp. met. I, dub. 22; Avicenna, "Metapliysica,"

I, 9.

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Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 88ff. Surius, "Historia seu vita sanctorum," ("Passio sancti Andreae").

Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 8-13.

Cf. ibid., d. 14-22. Jerome, "Epistolae," 130 (alias 8):9. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 14, p. I, dub. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 23. Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 88. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 24, a. 2, q. 2, concl. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 24-25. Peter Lombard, IV "Sent.," d. XXIV, c. 13.

Cf. Isidore, VII "Etymologiarum," 12:3; "De officiis ecclesiasticis," II, 12; and "Epistola ad Ludifredum."
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Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 2, q. 4, scholion. Cf. ibid., IV, d. 24, p. 2, q. 4, concl. Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones . . . de perfectione evangelica," q. 4, a. 3. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 26-42. Justinian, "Institutes," I, 9, "De patria potestate." Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," 7:12. Cf. ibid., loc. cit. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 26, a. 2, q. 2; and d. 31, a. 2, q. 1.

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Cf. ibid., d. 27, a. 2, q. 1f. Cf. ibid., d. 27, dub. 5.

Cf. part III, note 45. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 41, praenotata. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 43, a. 2-3, and d. 48. Cf. Gregory, "Homiliae in Evangelia," II, homily 21:3. Cf. Augustine, "De Trinitate," XIV, 8:11. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," VII, 30. Cf. ibid., 20:14. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 20, p. I. Cf. ibid., d. 44, p. II, a. 3, q. 2. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XXI, 26:4.

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Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 21, p. II, a. 2, q. 1; and a. 1, q. 2. Cf. Augustine, "Enchiridion," 109:29. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 15, p. II. Cf. Gregory, IV "Dialogorum," 55. Augustine, "De cura pro mortuis agenda," 2:4. Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones. . . de perfectione evangelica," q. 4, a. 3, ad 9. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 47, a. 2; d. 48, a. 2. Cf. Bonaventure, "Commentaria in Isaiam," 30:26. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 43, a. 1; and d. 44, p. I.

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Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XXII, 17.

Augustine, "Enchiridion," 88:23.

Cf. Aristotle, "Physica," I, text. 81; and Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," XII, 35:68. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 43, p. I, q. 3, a. 1, concl. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XXII, 14. Aristotle, "De anima," II, text. 26. Cf. Aristotle, "De generatione et corruptione," I, text. 35ff.; and II, text. 50. Cf. part VI, note 31, above. Cf. Aristotle, op. cit., II, text. 70; and "Physica," V, text. 36. Cf. part II, note 39. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 18, a. 1, q. 2.

Cf. ibid., IV, d. 44, p. II.

Cf. ibid., d. 50, p. II, a. 2. Cf. part II, note nr. 25. Bernard, "Sermones," 11 "In Cantica," 5. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," 35:68. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 33, a. 2, q. 3; and d. 49, p. I and II. Cf. part II, note 22. Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones . . . de scientia Christi," q. 4; and II "Sent.," d. 10, a. 2, q. 2.

Cf. Augustine, "De quantitate animae," 36:80; "De musica," VI, 5:13; and "Enarrationes in psalmos," Ps. 145, no. 5.

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Boethius, "De consolatione," III, prosa 2.

Anselm, "Proslogium," 24-25.

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FOREWORD
The "Breviloquium" and "The Journey of the Mind to God" (cf. Vol. I of this series) are generally recognized as St. Bonaventure's masterpieces. They contain the essence of that system of supernatural teaching which the Seraphic Doctor develops fully in his "Commentaries on the Four Books of Sentences," and to which he alludes constantly in "The Triple Way" (cf. Vol. I). When these four works are compared in method and content, the following differences appear: The "Commentaries" ("Commentaria in quatuor libros sententiarum magistri Petri Lombardi"), by far the longest, constitutes over half of the "Opera omnia." It is a SYSTEMATICAL SUMMA of medieval theological knowledge presented as an exposition and enlargement of the works of an earlier master, Peter Lombard. The form is rather technical than literary, and follows an elaborate pattern of divisions and subdivisions closely related to that of the "Summae" of Thomas Aquinas. The main divisions are: The Unity and Trinity of God The Creation and Fall of Angels and Men The Incarnation of the Word and the Restoration of Mankind The Doctrine of Signs or Sacraments The "Breviloquium," next in length, consists of a prologue and seven parts, also covering the whole field of theology, but in a summarized form. It is a DEDUCTIVE TREATISE, one particular aspect of the Godhead being established at the beginning of each chapter as a premise from which conclusions are drawn by logical analysis. But though the method may seem artificial the exposition often rises to poetical and lyrical heights that make the "Breviloquium" rather a sustained canticle of praise than a manual of theology. "The Journey of the Mind to God" ("Itinerarium mentis in Deum") is a subjectively geared EXPOSITION OF THE DIFFERENT WAYS OF SEEING GOD. It comprises an important prologue, and seven chapters dealing respectively with: God Seen through, and in, His Traces God Seen through, and in, His Image God Seen through, and in, His Being

Mystical Ravishment "The Triple Way, or Love Enkindled" ("De triplici via, seu incendium amoris"), the shortest of the four, leads to the same subjective conclusion as "The Journey": mystical union with God. But the division here is based on the STAGES OF SPIRITUAL PROGRESS, meditation, prayer, and contemplation being applied in succession to each of the three ways, purgative, illuminative, and perfective (unitive). The "Breviloquium," then, has none of the inherent disadvantages of a summa. The latter is intended, not for continuous reading, but for consultation and reference, and in contrast the "Breviloquium" reads with ease, being neither overlong nor incomplete. As an exposition of all that is vital and significant in the Christian faith, it admits to comparison few books of its scope, if any at all. As a systematic approach to the love of God, alike practical and mystical, it stands alone. Bonaventure's thought, in all its dense and logical structure, is yet vast and free. Although he frequently insists on the nothingness of man in relation to the transcendent Creator, time and again he emphasizes the power and the glory of man, master of the material universe and heir to the eternal kingdom. His analytical system is used, not to diminish the objects of his study or merely to reduce them to digestible parts, but, on the contrary, to demonstrate their complex magnitude, and, in the case of the Godhead, its immensity beyond comprehension. To realize how lofty Bonaventure's view of man actually is, we need seek no further than the opening pages of the "Breviloquium": "This manner of development (of the Holy Scriptures) was called for by man's capacity of understanding: for the human intellect was made to grasp great things and many things in a grand and manifold way, like some noble mirror made to reflect the whole complex of the created world, not only naturally, but also supernaturally; so that the development of Scripture may be thought of as answering all that man's capacity demands." (Prologue, 3) Great mystical writers have appeared before Bonaventure; others have followed him. Augustine, Anselm, Bernard of Clairvaux and the Victorines whom he so often quotes; the Flemish school with John Ruysbroeck who immediately followed him; the great Italian and Spanish schools led by Catherine of Siena and Teresa of Avila some time later; and, in our times, the little Thrse of Lisieux - all may have penetrated with as deep an insight into the marvels of personal union with God. But the particular glory of Bonaventure is to have reconciled the vision of the mystic with the logic of the theologian, and to have shown that, in matters theological, reason supplemented by infused mystical knowledge is superior to reason alone. Bonaventure has been praised by some, and viewed with suspicion by others, for his Platonism and Augustinism. Much has been written, at times with hitter ink, on the respective merits of the various schools of religious thought, and some of the judgments passed on Bonaventure's philosophy are part of this abundant controversy. There may have been on occasion in this battle of wits a partisan spirit which aimed, with the best of intentions, at exalting a particular champion of truth by stressing the points on which he differs, or is held to differ, from his opponent. But whenever saints do not see eye to eye in their philosophies, it might he more profitable for us to return to deeper study instead of

pitting one holy man against another. There are two roads to truth: the simply rational which proceeds by way of abstraction from sense experience, and the mystical which proceeds by way of intuition or inner apprehension. The first is the natural way, the second, the supernatural. If Bonaventure seems to accept both as natural, it is all to his praise; it is a sign of so deep an immersion in the supernatural that this way, special as it is, appeared to him as being open to all. Platonism and Augustinism are admittedly defective as theories of natural knowledge. But when Bonaventure makes use of their principles, he does so, not as a philosopher, hut as a mystical theologian dealing with matters of that inspired wisdom which, in fact, is infused. Thus, he conveniently and properly applies to this truly infused wisdom Platonic and Augustinian notions originally, and erroneously, intended to explain natural knowledge. Bonaventure is interested, not in the distinction between theology and philosophy, hut in the love of God, revealed in the Scriptures, accessible through reason, hut also communicated directly to loving souls through the channels of mystical grace. J. de V. SCRIPTURAL QUOTATIONS In quoting the Scriptures, the general procedure has been to cite the sacred texts in the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine version, for all books which have reached translation at the time of publication of this volume. They are: the New Testament, the Pentateuch, the books of Josue, Judges and Ruth, the Sapiential books (Job to Sirach-Ecclesiasticus), and the Prophetic books (Isaia to Malachia). All other books are cited in the Challoner-Douay translation. Note also that the Challoner text is used, instead of the Confraternity text, in special cases where it serves Bonaventure's meaning more completely. These special instances show an asterisk after the Scriptural references. NON-SCRIPTURAL REFERENCES The non-Scriptural references, indicated by small roman numerals, are given at the end of the book, pp. 315ff. BASIC TEXT The present translation is based on the Quaracchi Edition of the "Opera Omnia" of St. Bonaventure, by authorization of the Most Reverend Augustine Spinski, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor. CONTENTS

Synopsis Prologue Part I - On the Trinity of God Part II - On Creation Part III - On the Corruption of Sin Part IV - On the Incarnation of the Word Part V - On the Grace of the Holy Spirit Part VI - On the Sacramental Remedy Part VII - On the Final Judgment Non-Scriptural References SYNOPSIS Since the division of the "Breviloquium" into chapters does not always follow the pattern of reasoning, a synopsis of the whole work is given hereunder. PROLOGUE 1. INVOCATION: Eph. 3:14-19 (1) 2. APPLICATION: The origin of Scriptures (2) The development of Scriptures (3) The end of Scriptures (4-6) 3. ANALYSIS OF SCRIPTURES: (1) The breadth of Scriptures (2) The length of Scriptures

(3) The height of Scriptures (4) The depth of Scriptures (5) The methods of Scriptures (6) Interpretation of Scriptures GENERAL DIVISION OF THEOLOGY INTO SEVEN PARTS (ch. 1) I. ON THE TRINITY OF GOD 1. UNITY OF SUBSTANCE AND NATURE RECONCILED WITH PLURALITY OF PERSONS A. The three Persons (ch. 2) B. The right understanding of this faith (ch. 3) C. The Catholic expression of this faith (ch. 4) 2. UNITY OF SUBSTANCE AND NATURE RECONCILED WITH PLURALITY OF MANIFESTATIONS (ch. 5) 3. UNITY OF SUBSTANCE AND NATURE RECONCILED WITH PLURALITY OF APPROPRIATIONS A. Four series of appropriations (ch. 6) B. Development of fourth series a. Omnipotence (ch. 7) b. Omniscience (ch. 8) c. Benevolence (ch. 9) II. ON CREATION 1. GENERAL CONDITIONS OF CREATION (ch. 1) 2. DISTINCT LEVELS OF CREATION

A. Physical nature a. Production (ch. 2) b. Essence (ch. 3) Action (ch. 4) d. Description in Holy Scriptures (ch. 5) B. Heavenly spirits a. Production (ch. 6) b. Apostasy of the demons (ch. 7) Confirmation of the good angels (ch. 8) The human composite a. Production of the soul (ch. 9) b. Production of the body (ch. 10) Production of the whole composite (ch. 11) D. Completion and ordering of the world after creation (ch. 12) III. ON THE CORRUPTION OF SIN 1. SIN IN GENERAL (ch. 1) 2. ORIGINAL SIN A. Temptation (ch. 2) B. Fall (ch. 3) C. Punishment (ch. 4) D. Corruptive effect (ch. 5)

E. Transmission (ch. 6) F. Cure (ch. 7) 3. ACTUAL SIN A. Origin (ch. 8) B. Subdivision a. Capital sin (ch. 9) b. Penal sin (ch. 10) Final sin (ch. 11) IV. ON THE INCARNATION OF THE WORD INTRODUCTION: On the reason why the Incarnation of the Word was necessary and fitting (ch. 1) 1. ON THE INCARNATION AS REGARDS THE UNION OF NATURES A. What was done (ch. 2) B. How it was done (ch. 3) C. When it was done (ch. 4) 2. ON THE INCARNATION AS REGARDS THE FULLNESS OF GRACE A. In the gifts of Christ's will (ch. 5) B. In the wisdom of Christ's intellect (ch. 6) C. In the merits of Christ's actions (ch. 7) 3. ON THE INCARNATION AS REGARDS THE SUFFERING OF CHRIST A. Condition of the Sufferer (ch. 8) B. Nature of the suffering (ch. 9) C. Issue of the passion of Christ (ch. 10)

V. ON THE GRACE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT 1. GRACE AS A GIFT OF GOD (ch. 1) 2. GRACE IN RELATION TO FREE WILL A. A condition of meritorious acts (ch. 2) B. A remedy for sin (ch. 3) 3. GRACE IN RELATION TO THE HABITS OF THE VIRTUES A. As regards the virtues as such (ch. 4) B. As regards the gifts (ch. 5) C. As regards the beatitudes, fruits, and spiritual senses (ch. 6) 4. GRACE IN RELATION TO THE ACQUIRING OF MERITS A. As regards faith (ch. 7) B. As regards love (ch. 8) C. As regards obedience (ch. 9) D. As regards petition (ch. 10) VI. ON THE SACRAMENTAL REMEDY 1. ORIGIN OF THE SACRAMENTS (ch. 1) 2. HISTORY OF THE SACRAMENTS (ch. 2) 3. DIVISION OF THE SACRAMENTS (ch. 3) 4. INSTITUTION OF THE SACRAMENTS (ch. 4) 5. DISPENSATION OF THE SACRAMENTS (ch. 5) 6. REPETITION OF THE SACRAMENTS (ch. 6)

7. NATURE AND INTEGRITY OF THE SACRAMENTS A. Baptism (ch. 7) B. Confirmation (ch. 8) C. Holy Eucharist (ch. 9) D. Penance (ch. 10) E. Extreme Unction (ch. 11) F. Orders (ch. 12) G. Matrimony (ch. 13) VII. ON THE FINAL JUDGMENT 1.THE JUDGMENT IN GENERAL (ch. 1) 2.THE ANTECEDENTS TO THE JUDGMENT A. The pains of purgatory (ch. 2) B. The suffrages of the Church (ch. 3) 3. THE CONCOMITANTS TO THE JUDGMENT A. The conflagration of fires (ch. 4) B. The resurrection of bodies (ch. 5) 4. THE CONSEQUENTS TO THE JUDGMENT A. The pains of hell (ch. 6) B. The glory of paradise (ch. 7) ST. BONAVENTURE: THE BREVILOQUIUM PROLOGUE

FOR THIS REASON 1 bend my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, from whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth receives its name, that He may grant you from His glorious riches to he strengthened with power through His Spirit unto the progress of the inner man; and to have Christ dwelling through faith in your hearts: so that, being rooted and grounded in love, you may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know Christ's love which surpasses knowledge, in order that you may be filled unto all the fullness of God.1 In these words, the origin, development, and end of Holy Scripture, which is called theology,2 are exposed by the great teacher of nations and preacher of truth, filled with the Holy Spirit as a vessel of election and sanctity. He tells us by implication that Scripture originated under the influence of the Holy Trinity; that its development was proportioned to man's capacity; and that its end or fruit consists in the superabundance of overflowing happiness. 2. For the Scriptures ORIGINATED, not in human research, but in divine revelation coming from the Father of Lights3 - from whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth receives its name;4 from whom, through His Son Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit flows into our souls. By this Spirit, who apportions His gifts and allots to everyone according as He will5, faith is given; and through faith, we have Christ dwelling6 in our hearts. It is from such knowledge of Jesus Christ, first of all, that the firmness of our understanding of Scripture comes.7 Hence, no one can penetrate its meaning unless he has first had infused into him faith in Jesus Christ as the lamp, the door, and also the foundation of the entire Scriptures; for while we are . . . exiled from the Lord8, faith is, as regards every supernatural illumination, the foundation that supports us, the lamp that guides us, and the door that leads us in. It is by faith, moreover, that the wisdom given us by God must be measured, lest anyone be more wise than it behoveth to he wise.9 Instead, we should be wise unto sobriety and according as God hath divided to everyone the measure of faith. So, through the instrumentality of this faith, we are given the knowledge of Scripture in the measure of the blessed Trinity's outpouring, as the apostle clearly intimates in the first part of the passage with which we began. 3. Again, in its DEVELOPMENT, Holy Scripture - unlike the other fields of knowledge - has not been circumscribed by the rules of reasoning, defining, and dividing; or by being restricted to only part of the universe.i Rather, it unfolds, by supernatural inspiration, for the sake of providing man the wayfarer with as much knowledge as he needs to save his soul. Using, therefore, a language sometimes literal and sometimes figurative, it sums up, as it were, the content of the entire universe, and so covers the BREADTH; it describes the whole course of history, thereby comprehending the LENGTH; it displays the glory of those finally to be saved, thus showing the HEIGHT; it recounts the misery of the reprobate, and thus reveals the DEPTH, not only of the universe, but also of God's judgment. And in thus describing the breadth, length, height, and depth of the entire universe, in so far as this knowledge serves the purpose of salvation, Holy Scripture itself develops, as will be shown later,10 according to the same fourfold pattern. This manner of development was called for by man's capacity

of understanding: for the human intellect was made to grasp great things and many things in a grand and manifold way, like some noble mirror made to reflect the whole complex of the created world, not only naturally, but also supernaturally; so that the development of Scripture may be thought of as answering all that man's capacity demands. 4. Finally, the END or FRUIT of Holy Scripture is not something restricted, but the fullness of eternal happiness. These Writings which contain the words of everlasting life11 were written, not only that we might believe in, but also that we might possess, that everlasting life, in which we shall see, and love, and be fulfilled of all we desire. Then we shall really know that love which surpasses knowledge12, and thus be filled unto all the fullness of God13. This is the fullness to which the divine Scriptures would lead us, as is truly said in the words of the apostle quoted above. Such, then, must be our goal and our intent in studying and in teaching the Scriptures, and also in hearing them. 5. And that we may attain this fruit and end rightly, by the straight road of Scripture itself, we must begin at the beginning. That is, we must reach out in a spirit of pure faith to the Father of Lights, and kneeling in our hearts, ask Him to give us, through His Son and in the Holy Spirit, the true knowledge of Jesus Christ, and together with knowledge, love for Him. By knowing and loving Christ, by being confirmed in faith and rooted. . . in love, we can know the breadth, length, height, and depth of Scripture, and, through such knowledge, attain unto the all-surpassing Knowledge and measureless Love which is the Blessed Trinity. To this do the saints' desires tend; this is the final state, replete with all that is true and good. 6. Once our desires and intentions have been fixed upon this end of the Scriptures, once we have both believed in their Source and invoked Him, it remains for us to explore their unfolding as regards their breadth, length, height, and depth, following the path and the order of the apostle's text. The BREADTH of the Scriptures refers to the number of their parts; the LENGTH, to their account of the times and periods; the HEIGHT, to their description of the orderly levels of hierarchies; and the DEPTH, to their abundant allegorical senses and interpretations.14 (1) ON THE BREADTH OF HOLY SCRIPTURE 1. If, then, we wish to consider the BREADTH of Holy Scripture, the first thing we discover is that it is divided, of necessity, into two Testaments: the Old and the New. We also find that the Old Testament is composed of a large number of books, legal, historical, sapiential, and prophetical. There are five books in the first group, ten in the second, five in the third, and six in the fourth: a total of twenty-six books.15 The New Testament has corresponding books, also divided in the same fourfold manner. The Gospels correspond to the legal books: the Acts of the Apostles, to the historical; the Epistles, particularly those of St. Paul, to the sapiential; the Apocalypse, to the prophetical. Thus, there is a wondrous concordance between the Old Testament and the New, not only in their content, but also in their fourfold division. This is what was prefigured and cf. signified by the vision of Ezechiel, who saw the wheels of the four faces, each wheel being, as it were, within another. For the Old Testament is contained in the New, and vice versa. Likewise, the face of a lion fits the legal books and the Gospels because of their outstanding authority, the face of an ox fits the historical because of their

examples of moral strength,16 the face of a man fits the sapiential because of their keen wisdom, and the face of an eagle fits the prophetical because of their penetrating vision.17 2. The proper division of Scripture, therefore, is not into theoretical and practical branches, in the manner of philosophy,ii but into Old and New Testaments; since Scripture is essentially based on knowledge stemming from faith, which is the motive power and foundation of morals, justice, and all right living, there cannot be in Scripture any dissociation between knowledge pertaining to faith and that pertaining to morals. Philosophy, on the other hand, is concerned, not only with moral truths, but also with truth as the object of the purely speculative intellect. Thus, since Holy Scripture is a science drawing the soul away from evil and impelling it toward good, and this by appealing to both fear and love, it is divided into two Testaments which, "to put it shortly, differ as fear differs from love."iii 3. Now, there are four ways of prompting someone toward good and drawing him away from evil: namely, by the laws of a Majesty supremely powerful; by the teachings of a Truth supremely wise; by the examples and benefits of a Goodness supremely pure; and finally, by a combination of these three ways. That is why there are four kinds of Scriptural books in both Old and New Testaments; they correspond to these four elements. The legal books compel by the commands of an all-powerful Majesty; the historical, by the examples of an all-perfect Goodness; the sapiential, by the teachings of an all-provident Truth; while the prophetical derive their moving force from a combination of the foregoing, as their content clearly shows. These [prophetical] books are thus in a way a recalling of the whole body of moral and doctrinal precepts. 4. Holy Scripture, then, is like an immense river: the farther it flows, the greater it grows by the addition of many waters. Scripture first consisted only of the legal books. Later, the waters of wisdom of the historical books were added to it: then followed the teachings of Solomon most wise; then, those of the holy prophets; and at last the Gospel teachings, spoken by the lips of Christ incarnate, set down in writing by the evangelists, related by the holy apostles. And when there were added the revelations which the Spirit, descending upon them, taught us through their means, the apostles, thus instructed in all the truth18 by the Spirit, according to God's promise, could teach the Church of Christ the whole truth of salvation, and, by completing Holy Scripture, extend the knowledge of truth. (2) ON THE LENGTH OF HOLY SCRIPTURE In Holy Scripture we find also LENGTH, for Scripture describes all times and periods from the beginning of the world until the day of judgment. It considers the world's course in three phases: under the law of nature, the written law, and the law of grace; and within these phases, distinguishes seven specific periods: the first from Adam19 to Noe, the second from Noe to Abraham, the third from Abraham to David, the fourth from David to the Babylonian exile, the fifth from the exile to Christ, the sixth from Christ to the end of the world; while the seventh, running concurrently with the sixth,20 begins with the placing of Christ in the tomb, and shall last until the universal resurrection.iv Thus, Scripture traverses the greatest conceivable length, since it begins to unfold with the beginning of the world and of time, in the first chapter of Genesis, and continues until the end of the world and of time,

in the closing chapters of the Apocalypse. 2. The full span of time, proceeding under its three laws- the innate (of nature), the imposed (written), and the infused (of grace) - rightly passes through seven ages and comes to a close at the end of the sixth; for thus the course of the world reflects the sequence of its creation, the course of the large world corresponding to that of the small- to the life of man, for whose sake the world was made.v The world's first age or period, when the material universe was formed, the demons fell, and the angels were confirmed in good, fittingly parallels the First Day of creation, when light was made and set apart from darkness. The second age, when the wicked perished in the Flood and the good were saved in the Ark, parallels the Second Day, when the firmament was established, separating the waters. The third age, when Abraham was called and the Synagogue began to be, that it might be fruitful and bring forth offspring for the worship of God, parallels the Third Day, when land appeared and brought forth vegetation. The fourth age, called the age of kingship and priesthood because it was then that King David developed the service of God, corresponds to the Fourth Day, when the heavenly lights and the stars were formed. The fifth age, when the exiles lived and suffered in the midst of several foreign nations, corresponds to the Fifth Day, when the fishes of the waters were created.21 The sixth age, when Christ was born in the form of man who, in turn, is the true image of God, corresponds to the Sixth Day, when the first man was brought to life. The seventh age, which is, for souls, eternal rest, corresponds to the Seventh Day, when God rested from all His work of creation.22 3. These seven ages are thus distinguished on the basis of the signal events that ushered them in, whereby they correspond to the days of the world's creation. The first age is also called infancy, for the Flood deleted all memory of it, as time completely erases the memory of early life.vi The second is called childhood, for then occurred the separation of tongues; correspondingly, in childhood we begin to speak. The third is called adolescence, for then Abraham was summoned to receive circumcision and the promise of offspring; as, in adolescence, the procreative power begins to be active. The fourth is called manhood, for at that time the Synagogue flourished under the kings; similarly, manhood is the age of greater might. The fifth is called decline, for during the exile the Jewish priesthood weakened; as in man's declining years, strength and appearance deteriorate. The sixth is called old age, for the world's sixth age ends with the day of judgment, but is enlightened with the wisdom of Christ's teachings; as man's old age is linked to death, but enlightened with the bright light of understanding.23 4. And so the whole course of the universe is shown by the Scriptures to run in a most orderly fashion from beginning to end, like a beautifully composed poem in which every mind may discover, through the succession of events, the diversity, multiplicity, and justice, the order, rectitude, and beauty, of the countless divine decrees that proceed from God's wisdom ruling the universe.vii But as no one can appreciate the beauty of a poem unless his vision embraces it as a whole, so no one can see the beauty of the orderly governance of creation unless he has an integral view of it. And since no man lives long enough to observe the whole with his bodily eyes, nor can anyone by his own ability foresee the future, the Holy Spirit has given us the book of the Scriptures, whose length corresponds to the whole duration of God's governing action in the universe.

(3) ON THE HEIGHT OF HOLY SCRIPTURE 1. HEIGHT, also, is found in the Scriptures as they unfold. It is seen in the description of the hierarchies and of their ordered ranks: the ecclesiastical, the angelical, and the divine; or, in other terms, the subcelestial, the celestial, and the supercelestial. The first are described plainly, the second somewhat more indirectly, and the third in an even more mysterious way. So Scriptures are high, higher, or most high accordingly as they describe the ecclesiastical, the angelical, or the divine hierarchies. Thus we can say with the prophet: Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; too lofty for me to attain24. 2. And this indeed is true. While things have an objective existence, they exist also in the soul, by [innate or] acquired knowledge, or by grace, or by glory; and they exist in Eternal Art.25 Now, philosophy is concerned with things as they exist in their nature, or again, as they exist in the soul by innate or empirical knowledge; but theology, being a science both based on faith and revealed by the Holy Spirit, is concerned with grace and glory and Eternal Wisdom. It uses philosophical knowledge as its servant, borrowing from the natural order what it needs to make a mirror for the representation of things divine; erecting, as it were, a ladder, whose foot rests upon the earth but whose top reaches heaven.26 And all this is done through the one Hierarch, Jesus Christ, who is Hierarch not only in the hierarchy of the Church by reason of the human nature He assumed, but also in the angelical hierarchy, and again, as the Second Person sharing the supercelestial hierarchy of the most blessed Trinity. Through Him, the grace of unction runs down from the supreme Head, God, not only upon the beard, but even to the skirt of His garment:27 not only upon the heavenly Jerusalem, but even to the Church Militant. 3. There is indeed great beauty in the fabric of the world; but there is much greater beauty in the Church, for it is adorned with the splendor of the holy charismatic gifts; and greater beauty still in the heavenly Jerusalem; and the greatest beauty of all in the supreme and most blessed Trinity. Not only, then, do the Scriptures have a MOST LOFTY subject, which procures delight and raises on high the vision of the mind; they are also MOST BEAUTIFUL, delighting our intellect in a certain special way; and as they deepen this delight more and more, they prepare our souls for the heavenly vision of God's exalted marvels. (4) ON THE DEPTH OF HOLY SCRIPTURE 1. Finally, there is depth in the Scriptures, deriving from their several figurative meanings. Many Scriptural passages have, besides the direct sense, three other significations: the allegorical, the moral, and the anagogical. Allegory consists in this: that one thing signifies another thing which is in the realm of faith; moral teaching, or tropology, in this: that from something done, we learn another thing that we must do; anagogy, or lifting up, in this: that we are given to know what to desire, that is, the eternal happiness of the elect. 2. It is entirely logical for Scripture to have a threefold sense in addition to the literal: such amplitude

consorts with its content, its hearer or disciple, its origin, and its end. It consorts with its CONTENT, for Scriptural teaching is concerned with God, with Christ, with the works of salvation, and with the things of faith. - God is the Being covered by the Scriptures; Christ is the Power; the works of salvation are the action; and the things of faith are the sum of all three aspects. - Now, God is triune: one in essence and trine in the Persons; hence, Scripture, proceeding from Him, has a threefold [figurative] sense beneath one and the same literal text. Again, Christ being the one Word, all things are said to have been made through Him, and all things shine within Him, so that His wisdom is both manifold and one.28 Next, the works of salvation, though many, are all fundamentally related to the one sacrifice of Christ. Finally, the light given forth by the things of faith as such varies with the state of the believer.29 Scripture, then, answering to all these circumstances, gives us a number of meanings from a single text. 3. Scripture's manifold meaning consorts with its HEARER. None but the humble, pure, faithful, and attentive can hear it properly.viii As a deterrent to pride, a mysterious and profound signification is hidden under the shell of its obvious meaning. The very depth that lies beneath the humble word reproves the proud, casts out the unclean, drives away the insincere, and awakens the slothful to search the mysteries.ix The Scriptural teaching is addressed, not to one kind of hearer, but to every kind, and all who would be saved must know something of it. Thus Scripture has a manifold sense, that it may appeal to each separate mind, meeting each at its own level while remaining superior to all, and illuminating and setting afire with its countless shafts every mind that searches it with care. 4. Scripture's manifold sense is proper to the SOURCE whence it comes: God, through Christ and the Holy Spirit speaking by the mouth of the prophets and of the others who committed its doctrine to writing.30 - Now, God speaks not with words alone, but also with deeds, for with Him saying is doing and doing is saying; moreover, all creatures are the effects of God's action, and, as such, point to their Cause. Therefore, in Scripture, which is received from God, both words and deeds are meaningful. Again, Christ the Teacher, lowly as He was in the flesh, remained lofty in His divinity. It was fitting, therefore, that He and His teachings should be humble in word and profound in meaning: even as the Infant Christ was wrapped in swaddling clothes, so God's wisdom is wrapped in humble images. Finally, there was variety in the manner whereby the Holy Spirit brought enlightenment and revelation to the hearts of the prophets. As no mind is able to hide from Him, and as He was sent to teach all the truth, it was fitting that His doctrine should harbor several meanings within a single utterance.31 5. Scripture's manifold sense also accords with its END. It was given to guide man's thoughts and actions so that he might arrive at his true goal; and since all the rest of creation was designed to serve him in his ascent toward his heavenly home, Scripture takes on the very diversity of created things, to teach us through them that wisdom which leads to eternal life. But we cannot be led to eternal life unless our intellect knows what truths to accept, and our will chooses the good that is to be done, and our heart yearns to see God, and to love Him, and to enjoy Him. So the Scriptures, given by the Holy Spirit, take up the book of creation, and adapt it to the final end by a threefold method: by tropology, they teach us how to act as men; by allegory, show us what to believe with faith; by anagogy, reveal to

us what to desire for our eternal delight. Only when we are cleansed by virtuous deeds, enlightened by luminous faith, and perfected by most ardent love shall we finally receive the crown of everlasting happiness. (5) ON HOW HOLY SCRIPTURE PROCEEDS 1. The many types of wisdom found throughout the breadth, length, height, and depth of Holy Scripture proceed in one general way: that of authority. Within it are included the ways of narration, commandment, prohibition, exhortation, instruction, commination, promise, supplication, and praise. All these, however, are dependent upon the one principle of authority, and properly so. 1. The purpose of Scriptural doctrine is that we become virtuousx and attain salvation. This is effected, not by mere speculation, but by a disposition of the will. Hence the divine Scriptures had to be presented in whatever way would dispose us best. Now, our affections are moved more strongly by examples than by mere argumentation, by promised rewards than by reasoning, by devotion than by dogma. That is why the Scriptures were not to proceed by way of definition, analysis, and synthesis in order to prove the properties of some subject matter, as do the other sciences;xi they were to make use of their own modes, adapting themselves to the different mental states that make souls respond differently. For instance, were a man to remain unmoved by a command or a prohibition, he might perhaps be moved by a concrete example; were this to fail, he might be moved by the favors shown him; were this again to fail, he might be moved by wise admonitions, trustworthy promises, or terrifying threats, and thus be stirred, if not in one way then in another, to devotion and praise of God; thereby obtaining the grace that would guide him in the practice of virtue. 3. Now, the narrative modes32 cannot proceed to certitude by way of rational argumentation, since particular facts cannot be formally proved.xii Therefore, lest Scripture appear doubtful and lose some of its moving power, God has given it, in place of the evidence of demonstration through reasoning, the certitude of authority; a certitude so absolute as to surpass any attainable by the keenest human mind. And because the authority of one who is liable to deceive or to be deceived is not absolute, and there is none who can neither be deceived nor deceive but God and the Holy Spirit, therefore Scripture, to be perfectly authoritative, as it must be, was handed down, not through human research, but through divine revelation. 4. No passage of Scripture, then, should be regarded as valueless, rejected as false, or repudiated as evil, for its all-perfect Author, the Holy Spirit, could inspire nothing untrue, trivial, or degraded. That is why heaven and earth will pass away,33 but the words of Scripture will not pass away34 until they are fulfilled. For, in the Saviour's words, "till heaven and earth pass away, not one jot or one tittle shall be lost from the Law till all things have been accomplished. Therefore whoever does away with any Scriptural doctrine, and so teaches men, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever carries them out and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven."

(6) ON EXPLAINING HOLY SCRIPTURE


1. Scripture, having its own way of proceeding, should be interpreted and explained by a method that

exactly corresponds. Since its one wording may cover different meanings, the task of the expositor is to bring hidden things to light;35 that is, once a meaning has been brought forth, to make it clear through another, more direct Scriptural passage. If, for instance, we were to expound this text from the Psalms, Take hold of arms and shield: and rise up to help me36, and we wished to explain what God's weapons are, we would say that they are His truth and good will, and that this can be proved from more explicit biblical texts. For it is written elsewhere: Thou hast crowned us, as with a shield of Thy good will;37 and, His truth shall compass thee with a shield38. No one will find this an easy task unless, by constant reading, he has fixed in his memory the text of the Bible to the very letter; not otherwise shall he ever have the ability to interpret Scripture. As a man who neglects to study the rudiments of language could never understand the exact meaning of words or the rules of composition, so also the man who disregards the literal text of the Scriptures shall never rise to the understanding of their spiritual content. 2. The expositor should realize, however, that he is not to seek allegories everywhere, or give a mystical interpretation to everything. In this regard, it should be noted that Holy Scripture is divided into four parts. The first deals in a literal way with the forms of being in the world, through which it points to our individual restoration, as appears in the accounts of the world's creation. The second covers the deeds and wanderings of the people of Israel, through which it points to the restoration of the whole human race. The third plainly denotes and expresses those matters of faith and morals which pertain to our salvation. The fourth announces the mystery of this salvation, now plainly, now in words enigmatic and obscure. Hence, these different parts of Scripture should not have applied to them a uniform method of interpretation. 3. In blessed Augustine's book "On Christian Doctrine,"xiii there are three rules by which the Scriptural exegete should be guided. The first is this: When the Scriptural words directly signify finite matters that are specific facts of human history, they mean primarily what they say, but in the second place they symbolize the mysteries of our restoration. Whereas when the words directly signify matters of faith or charity, there is no need to seek a symbolical meaning as well. The second rule is this: When the Scriptural words directly signify finite matters pertaining to the people of Israel, the expositor should search in other parts of Scripture for a possible symbolical meaning attaching to these things, and then bring out this interpretation by words which plainly express a truth of faith or a principle of moral behavior. For instance, if a flock of ewes39 are said to be big with twins, he should show that in this passage the ewes signify men, and the twins, mutual love. The third rule is this: When the Scriptural words have a meaning both literal and spiritual, the commentator must know whether to accept them in the historical or in the spiritual sense, in the event they cannot be accepted in both senses. If they can be accepted in both senses, they must be offered in both. But if a choice has to be made, they must be taken in the spiritual sense alone. For instance, such passages as state that the law of Sabbath is perpetual, the [Mosaic] priesthood eternal, the possession of the earth unending, or the pact of circumcision never to be broken, should be understood in no other

way than in their spiritual sense. 4. And, bearing on this: If a man is to make his way securely40 in the forest of the Scripture, cutting through it and opening it out, it is necessary that he first have acquired a knowledge of Scriptural truth in its explicit statements. That is, he should note how Scripture describes the origin, course, and final fate of the two groups, like armies in confrontation: the good who humble themselves in this world but will be exalted forever in the next, and the wicked who exalt themselves in this world but will be cast down forever in the next. Scripture, then, deals with the whole universe, the high and the low, the first and the last, and all things in between. It is, in a sense, an intelligible cross41 in which the whole organism of the universe is described and made to be seen in the light of the mind. If we are to understand this cross, we must know God, the Principle of beings; we must know how these beings were created, how they fell, how they were redeemed through the blood of Jesus Christ, reformed through grace, and healed through the sacraments; and, finally, how they are to be rewarded with eternal pain or eternal glory. 5. These truths are so widely diffused throughout the works of saints and doctors that they could not all be read or heard by Scriptural students even in a long time. Beginners in the study of theology, in fact, often dread the Scripture itself, feeling it to be as confusing, orderless, and uncharted as some impenetrable forest. That is why my companions have asked me, from my own little knowledge, to write a brief summary of true theology. Yielding to their wishes, I have agreed to compose what may be called a "Breviloquium," in which, though the whole subject is not covered, the more important points are touched upon. Some explanatory notes have been added as they suggested themselves in the course of writing. 6. The theme of theology is, indeed, God and the first Principle. Rather, being the highest knowledge and the highest teaching, it resolves everything in God as the first and supreme Principle. That is why, in giving the reasons for everything contained in this little work or treatise, I have attempted to derive each reason from the first Principle, in order to demonstrate that the truth of Holy Scripture is from God, of God, according to God, and for God as an end.42 It will be seen, then, that this science has true unity and is well organized, and that it is not improperly called theology. If anything here is found to be imperfect, obscure, superfluous, or inaccurate, let it be imputed to pressing business, insufficient time, and my own inadequate knowledge; if anything is found to be good, let the honor and glory be rendered to God alone.43 In order to make sure that the development is lucid, I have taken care to give in advance the titles of the different chapters, so that the subject matter would be more clearly understood and more easily remembered. There are in this work seven parts, containing in all seventy-two chapters. END OF PROLOGUE >> >|

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PART I ON THE TRINITY OF GOD CHAPTER 1 - SUMMARY OF THE SEVEN TOPICS OF THEOLOGY
FIRST OF ALL, let us understand that the sacred doctrine, namely theology, dealing primarily with the first Principle, the triune God, comprises seven topics:

THE TRINITY OF GOD-THE CREATION OF THE WORLD - THE CORRUPTION OF SIN - THE INCARNATION OF THE WORD- THE GRACE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT- THE SACRAMENTAL REMEDY- THE LAST STAGE OR FINAL JUDGMENT.
2. The reason is this. Since Holy Scripture, which is to say theology, is a science that imparts as much knowledge of the first Principle as is needed by us wayfarers for attaining salvation; and also since God is not only the efficient and exemplary Cause of things through creation, but also their refective Principle through redemption, and their perfective Principle through remuneration - for these reasons, theology deals not only with God the Creator, but also with the act and product of creation. Now, because the rational creature, which is in one sense the end for which all the others were made, did not stand firm, but fell, and hence needed to be restored, therefore theology deals also with the corruption caused by sin, with the Healer, with the condition of health, and with the medicine; and, finally, with the perfect recovery that is to come about in the state of glory while the wicked are given to punishment. And so theology is the only perfect science, for it begins at the beginning, which is the first Principle, and proceeds to the end, which is the final wages paid; it begins with the summit, which is God most high, the Creator of all, and reaches even to the abyss, which is the torment of hell. 3. Theology is also the only perfect wisdom, for it begins with the supreme Cause, considered as the Principle of all things made. This is the point where philosophical knowledge ends, whereas theology goes on to consider this same Cause as the remedy of sin, the reward of merit, and the goal of desire. All Christians should burn with the longing to attain this knowledge, for it is unto souls perfect savor, life, and salvation. 4. The foregoing shows that theology, though admittedly broad and varied in matter, is nevertheless a single science. Its subject, as the One BY WHOM all things have been made, is God; as the One THROUGH WHOM all things receive their being, is Christ; as that FOR THE SAKE OF WHICH all things are done, is the work of restoration; as that AROUND WHICH all things revolve, is the unique bond of love linking heaven and earth; as that WITH WHICH the whole content of the canonical books is concerned, is the body of faith as such; as that WITH WHICH the whole content of the commentaries is concerned, is the body of faith as intelligible, for according to Augustine's work "On

the Advantage of Believing": "Faith is founded on authority; understanding, on reason."xiv

1. CHAPTER 2 - ON FAITH IN THE TRINITY OF PERSONS AND THE UNITY OF ESSENCE


2. At the outset, three questions must be considered in connection with the Trinity of God: how the unity of substance and nature may be reconciled, first, with the plurality of Persons; second, with the plurality of manifestations; third, with the plurality of appropriations. 3. Concerning the plurality of Persons within the unity of nature, true faith bids us believe that, in the one nature, there are three Persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The First does not originate from any of the others; the Second originates from the First alone through generation; and the Third, from both the First and the Second through spiration or procession. And yet, Trinity of Persons does not exclude from the divine essence a supreme unity, simplicity, immensity, eternity, immutability, necessity, or even primacy; more, it includes supreme fecundity, love, generosity, equality, kinship, likeness, and inseparability; all of which sound faith understands to exist in the blessed Trinity. 4. The explanation of this truth is as follows. Since faith is the first condition of divine worship and the foundation of doctrine which is according to godliness44, it requires that our thinking about God be of the loftiest and most devout order. Now, our thought would not be of the loftiest order if we did not believe that God can supremely communicate Himself; 45and it would not be of the most devout order if, believing Him able, we believed Him unwilling to do so. Thus, if we are to think of God most loftily and most devoutly, we are to hold that He supremely communicates Himself by eternally possessing One who is beloved and One who is Mutual Love, so that He is both one and trine. 4. The fact that faith requires us to have a concept of God of the most devout order is evidenced by the whole Scripture, which is called doctrine . . . according to godliness. For Scripture establishes that God has an Offspring whom He supremely loves; a Word coequal with Him "whom He has begotten in eternity and in whom He has disposed all things";xv by whom He produced and now governs all things. Through the precious blood of this Word made flesh, He in His all-surpassing goodness redeemed man and nourishes him, once redeemed. Through this same Word, He will dispense His supreme mercy at the end of the world, bringing liberation from every misery; so that all the elect will be the children of the supreme Father, through Christ; and thereby all love will be fulfilled: God's love for us and our love for God. 5. Further, in regard to the requirement of faith that we have a concept of God of the loftiest order, this is proved not only by Holy Scripture, but also by the whole of creation. As Augustine writes in chapter four of the fifteenth part of his work "On the Trinity": "The proof of God's existence is founded not only upon the authority of the divine books, but also upon the entire natural universe around us, to which we ourselves belong, and which proclaims that it has a transcendent Creator: a Creator who granted us natural intelligence and reason, by which we are able to judge that living beings are superior to lifeless, sensitive to insensitive, rational to brute, immortal to mortal, potent to powerless; just to unjust, beautiful to ugly, good to evil; incorruptible to corruptible, changeless to mutable, invisible to visible, incorporeal to bodily, blessed to reprobate. And on this very account,

since we certainly place the Creator above His creation, we must proclaim Him as being supremely ALIVE, PERCEIVING all things, and UNDERSTANDING all things; IMMORTAL, INCORRUPTIBLE, and IMMUTABLE; not a bodily being, but a SPIRIT, OMNIPOTENT, utterly JUST, supremely BEAUTIFUL, perfectly GOOD, and completely HAPPY."xvi Here, in these twelve predications, are found the highest excellences of divine Being. But, as Augustine shows in a later passage,xvii they can be reduced to three: eternity, wisdom, and happiness; and these three, to one, wisdom, which comprises the begetting Mind, the begotten Word, and Love, their mutual bond. In these, as faith tells us, the Trinity consists. And because supreme wisdom posits the Trinity, it posits also the attributes listed earlier: oneness, simplicity, and the rest.46 CHAPTER 3 - ON THE RIGHT UNDERSTANDING OF THIS FAITH 1. Sacred doctrine contributes to the right understanding of this faith by teaching that there are, within the Godhead, two modes of emanation, three hypostases, four relations, and five concepts; and yet in all only three personal properties.xviii 2. This should be understood as follows. The first and supreme Principle, by the very fact that He is first, is utterly simple; by the very fact that He is supreme, is utterly perfect. Being utterly perfect, He communicates Himself with complete perfection; being utterly simple, He remains completely undivided. Therefore, within the first Principle there are modes of perfect emanation which leave oneness of nature unimpaired. But the modes of perfect emanation are only two, through nature and through will; the first is generation, the second spiration-procession.47 Hence these are the two modes found here. 3. Now, while two hypostases necessarily result from two substance-producing modes of emanation, we must also posit that the original producing hypostasis does not itself emanate from anything else, for then we should have an infinite series. Hence there are here THREE HYPOSTASES. 4. Again, because each mode of emanation implies a twofold relation, there are here FOUR RELATIONS: paternity and filiation; spiration and procession. 5. By such relations, the divine hypostases are made known to us. But the original producing hypostasis is shown to have no originator, which is the very reason for its characteristic excellence. Hence there are here FIVE CONCEPTS: the four relations indicated above, and unbegottenness. 6. Furthermore, each Person enjoys one property through which He principally is made known. Hence there are here but THREE PERSONAL PROPERTIES, characteristically and principally indicated by the names: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 7. The Father is properly the One without an originator, the Unbegotten One; the Principle who proceeds from no other; the Father as such. Therefore, UNBEGOTTEN ONE designates Him by a

negation, but also affirmatively through inference, since it implies existence within the Father of fullness at its source. PRINCIPLE WHO PROCEEDS FROM NO OTHER designates Him by an affirmation followed by a negation. FATHER designates Him in a proper, complete, and determinate manner by affirmation and the positing of a relation.xix 8. The Son is properly the Image, the Word, and the Son as such. Likewise, therefore, IMAGE designates Him as the expressed likeness, WORD as the expressing likeness, and SON as the personal likeness. Again, IMAGE designates Him as the likeness in the order of form, WORD as the likeness in the order of reason, and SON as the likeness in the order of nature.xx 9. The Holy Spirit is properly the Gift, the mutual Bond or Love, and the Holy Spirit as such. In the same way, then, GIFT designates Him as the One who is given through the will; BOND or LOVE, as the One given through the will who is the Gift par excellence; and HOLY SPIRIT, as the One given through the will, the Gift par excellence, who is a Person.xxi Hence, the three names, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, convey the personal properties of the three Persons. This is what we must hold if we would rightly understand faith in the Holy Trinity. CHAPTER 4 - ON THE CATHOLIC EXPRESSION OF THIS FAITH48 1. To give Catholic expression to this faith, we must also hold, in conformity with the writings of the holy Doctors, that regarding the Godhead two modes of predicationxxii are possible- as substance and as relation; three modes of suppositionxxiii -as essence, as person, and as concept; four ways of expressing substancexxiv- in terms of essence, of substance as such, of Person, and of hypostasis; five modes of assertionxxv- in terms of person, hypostasis, concept, substance, and essence; and three modes of differentiationxxvi - in the order of origination, in the order of predication, and in the order of reason. 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle being both utterly perfect and utterly simple, all that implies perfection may be predicated of Him properly and truly; while all that implies imperfection either is not predicated of Him; or if it is, it is either predicated of the human nature assumed by the Son, or applied to the first Principle in a figurative sense. Now, there are ten ways of predicating: as substance, quantity, relation, quality, action, passion, space, time, position, and possession.xxvii The last five, proper to natures both bodily and mutable, do not apply to God except in an analogical or figurative way. The first five are properly applicable to God in so far as they betoken completeness without contradicting divine simplicity. They are therefore the very thing itself of which they are predicated, so that, in respect to the subject in which they exist, they are said to become substantive.49 The only exception is "relation" which has a twofold reference: the subject in which it exists, and the object to which it points. In the first, relation becomes substantive because there cannot be composition; in the second, it does not, because there must be distinction.50 That is why "substance contains the One, and relation expands into the Three."xxviii

Here, then, are established these two aforesaid sole and distinct modes of predication. Now, this is the rule that governs them:xxix Terms predicated as substances of all three Persons are predicated severally and jointly, and in the singular; while terms predicated as relations cannot be predicated of all three Persons; and if they apply to more than one Person, they are predicated in the plural, designating Them as related, distinct, similar, or equal by reason of Their intrinsic relationship.51 The term "Trinity," however, is predicated both as a substance and as a relation.52 3. And even as there are more Persons than one in one nature, so there can be more relations than one in one Person; distinct concepts, therefore, do not mean separate Persons any more than distinct Persons mean separate natures. Hence, not everything that applies to the essence applies also to the concept or to the Person, and conversely. That is why there are here three modes of suppositing, for which the following rules are generally given: in suppositing the essence, we do not supposit the concept or the Person; in suppositing the concept, we do not supposit the essence or the Person; in suppositing the Person, we do not supposit the essence or the concept: as is clear from examples. 4. Since there is here real distinction between the supposits of a substantial being - though the essence remains one-the substance must be expressed in more ways than one: it must be shown as both common and personal. As common, it is expressed abstractly by the term essence and concretely by the term substance; as personal, it is expressed abstractly by the term hypostasis, which denotes the possibility of distinction, and concretely by the term person, which asserts the actuality of distinction. In other words, "hypostasis" points to the substance as simply distinct, and "person," to the substance as distinct in a definite and completed manner.xxx In the order of creatures, examples of these four would be: humanity, any man, a certain individual, and Peter: the first designating essence, the second substance, the third hypostasis, and the fourth person. 5. Now, within the distinct [divine] Person, we should consider not only the one who is distinct, but also that by which he is distinguished, and such is a property or concept. In this regard, there are, in discussing the Godhead, five modes by which we may assert and inquire: the personal, the hypostatical - which indicates an indeterminate supposit of the substance- the conceptual, the substantial, and the essential. 6. All these modes are rooted in the oneness of the divine essence, for all that exists within God is the sole and only God Himself. These modes, then, do not posit in the Godhead any real difference in the ORDER EITHER OF ESSENCE OR OF EXISTENCE. Therefore there are, as regards the Godhead, but three modes of distinction, namely: in the MODALITIES OF WHETHER EXISTING OR EMANATING,53 as occurs in the distinction between one Person and another; in the MODALITIES OF REFERENCE, as in the distinction between Person and essence- for the Person exists as related to other Persons, and is thus distinct, while the essence is not related to any other essence, and is thus common; and finally, in the MODALITIES of BEING UNDERSTOOD, as one substantive property is distinguished from another, for instance, goodness from wisdom.54 The first distinction is the greatest that may be found in the Godhead, for it exists within the SUPPOSITS, since no one of these may be predicated of any other. The second distinction is less

complete, for it exists within the PREDICATES; for instance, the terms Person and Essence may be said of one another, but do not admit of the same thing being said of both; since the Person is distinct and related to other Persons, while the essence is not. The third distinction is the least, for it exists only within REASON'S INTERPRETATIONS of substantive properties, which are mutually predicable and do admit of the same thing being said of any number of them, but which do not all mean the same thing, and cannot all be fully understood in the light of any one predicate. From the first mode of distinction comes forth the plurality of Persons; from the second, the plurality of predication - either as substance or relation; from the third, the plurality of essential properties and concepts, that is, the distinction between the [names of God] eternal and temporal, literal and metaphorical, common and appropriated.xxxi Examples of what has been said are quite obvious.55 This being understood, we will clearly see both how to think and what to say of the supreme Trinity of the divine Persons. CHAPTER 5 - ON THE UNITY OF DIVINE NATURE IN THE PLURALITY OF MANIFESTATIONS 1. In the second place, concerning the plurality of manifestations, divine doctrine teaches us to hold the following. Although God is uncontainable, invisible, and immutable, He nonetheless dwells in the saintsxxxii in a special way; He appeared to the patriarchs and the prophets;xxxiii He came down from heaven; He sent the Son and the Holy Spirit for the salvation of mankind.xxxiv While in God, the nature, power, and operation of the Trinity are undivided, yet the mission or manifestation of one Person is not the mission or manifestation of another. Although there is here, supreme equality, it belongs to the Father alone to send and not to be sent; it belongs to the Holy Spirit to be only sent, if we consider the Persons in their divinity, though we might say that He sent the assumed man;56 and it belongs to the Son both to send and to be sent, as may be seen from Scripture. 2. This should be understood as follows. Although the first Principle is immense and uncontainable, immaterial and invisible, eternal and immutable, He is nonetheless the Principle of all things material as well as spiritual, natural as well as supernatural; and thus also of all things mutable, sentient, and contained. While the Principle is Himself immutable and uncontainable, He reveals Himself, makes Himself known, through these things. He reveals Himself and makes Himself known in a general way through all the effects which emanate from Him, in which we say that He exists by essence, power, and presence,xxxv extending Himself to all creatures. He also makes Himself specifically known through particular effects which point to Him in a special manner, and by reason of which we say that He indwells, manifests Himself, comes down, is sent, and sends. INDWELLING indicates a spiritual effect and the acceptance of it, as is the case with sanctifying grace which partakes of the life of God, leads back to God, makes God to possess us and be possessed by us, and, through this, also to dwell within us. And since the effect of grace comes from all three Persons, the indwelling is not of one Person without the others, but of the whole Trinity together.57 MANIFESTATION indicates an effect that falls under the senses and has an explicit meaning; as, the

Holy Spirit appearing in the form of a dove.58 And because the divine Persons, being distinct, may be distinctively signified both by signs and names, therefore any one Person as such is able to manifest Himself, and manifestation pertains to all as such, either together or individually. Hence, when the Spirit is described as having appeared in the form of tongues of fire and of a dove,59 this is not because of some new link or identification with the symbolical species, but by reason of the union between the thing signified and the sign specifically destined, both in manner and origin, to express it.60xxxvi DESCENDING indicates either of the aforesaid effects when it is thought of as beginning. God, indeed, is always present in heaven to the blessed angels, for He permanently dwells and is manifest in them. But from sinners on earth He is in a certain way absent, as regards both grace and knowledge. Thus, when He first begins to be manifest and to dwell within us, He who is present in heaven, but as if absent from us, becomes present on earth; and so, even though no change occurs in Him, we say that He comes down to us. 5. To BE SENT refers to the same aforesaid effects when they imply eternal generation: for then only does the Father send the Son when, through revelation or grace, He makes Him present to us, and thus shows that the Son proceeds from Him. And since the Father proceeds from no other, nowhere is it said that He is sent.xxxvii But since the Son both produces and is produced, He both sends and is sent. And since the Holy Spirit is eternally produced but does not produce, except in time,61 it is proper to Him to be sent; but to send applies to Him only in regard to the creature.62 Thus it is clear that the following propositions are improperly expressed, and must be qualified: the Holy Spirit sends Himself; the Holy Spirit sends the Son; the Son sends Himself-unless the object "Himself" here refers to Christ as a man born of the Virgin. It is also clear that to send and to be sent do not pertain to all; for although both imply an effect upon creatures, they are also the signs of an intrinsic relationship, in that to send implies authority, and to be sent subjection to authority in the order of eternal generation within the Godhead. CHAPTER 6 - ON THE UNITY OF DIVINE NATURE IN THE PLURALITY OF APPROPRIATIONS 1. In the third place, concerning the plurality of appropriations, Holy Scripture teaches us to hold the following. Even though all the essential attributes apply equally and without distinction to all the Persons, yet oneness is appropriated to the Father, truth to the Son, and goodness to the Holy Spirit. xxxviii Hilarion indicates another series of appropriations based on this! "Eternity belongs to the Father, splendor to the Likeness, and fruition to the Gift."xxxix From this, in turn, derives a third series of appropriations: In the Father is the efficient principle, in the Son the exemplary principle, and in the Holy Spirit the final principle.xl And from this, lastly, derives a fourth series: of omnipotence to the Father, of omniscience to the Son, and of supreme will or benevolence to the Holy Spirit.xli Now, these are said to be appropriated, not as actually becoming proper, since they are always common, but as leading to the understanding and knowledge of proper realities, that is, the three Persons. 2. This should be understood as follows. Since the first Principle is utterly exalted and utterly perfect, it follows that in Him are found in utter perfection the highest and most universal properties of being.

These properties are: oneness, truth, and goodness. They do not narrow down the concept of being in terms of distinct supposits, but determine it rationally. For "one" describes being in that it is whole, by reason of inner indivision; "true," in that it is intelligible, by reason of indivision between itself and its proper species; and "good," in that it is communicable, by reason of indivision between itself and its proper operation.xlii This triple indivision has an orderly reference to understanding, in the sense that true presupposes one, and good presupposes both one and true. That is why these three, as being perfect and transcendental, are supremely attributed to the first Principle, and, as having an orderly reference, are attributed to the three Persons. Thus, supreme ONENESS is attributed to the Father who is the origin of Persons; supreme TRUTH, to the Son who proceeds from the Father as the Word; supreme GOODNESS, to the Holy Spirit who proceeds from both as the Love and the Gift. 3. The Supremely One is supremely first because He is absolutely without beginning; the Supremely True is supremely conforming and beautiful; the Supremely Good is supremely satisfying and beneficent. From this follows the second mode of appropriation, of blessed Hilarion, according to which ETERNITY is in the Father, since He has no beginning but is first in every respect; SPLENDOR is in the Likeness, that is, in the Word, since He is supremely beautiful; FRUITION is in the Gift, that is, in the Holy Spirit, since He is supremely beneficent and generous. The same is expressed in different words by Augustine: "In the Father, there is oneness; in the Son, conformity; in the Holy Spirit, the harmony of oneness and conformity."xliii 4. Again, supreme oneness and priority imply the concepts of principle and origin; supreme beauty and resplendence, the concepts of expression and exemplarity; supreme beneficence and goodness, the concept of end- for "the good and the end are the same."xliv Hence the third mode of appropriation: EFFICIENCY to the Father, EXEMPLARITY to the Son, and FINALITY to the Holy Spirit. 5. Finally, all power derives from the first and supreme Cause; all wisdom flows from the first and supreme Exemplar; all will tends toward the supreme End. The One who is first must, therefore, be allpowerful, all-wise, and all-loving. Now, first and supreme Oneness, returning upon Itself in a complete and perfect circle, is in fact OMNIPOTENCE; first and supreme Truth, returning upon Itself, is OMNISCIENCE; first and supreme Goodness, returning upon Itself, is utter BENEVOLENCE. The attribution of these three perfections is founded on the order they imply: will presupposes knowledge, and both will and knowledge presuppose an influx of power. "The capacity to know implies a power."xlv Thus, we see what the appropriated attributes are; to whom they are appropriated; and why. Since in the Scriptures the Trinity is more often praised in terms of the last three - omnipotence, omniscience, and benevolence - something more should be said of them, if only briefly and summarily. CHAPTER 7 - ON GOD'S OMNIPOTENCE 1. Concerning God's omnipotence, the following must be held according to the sacred teaching. God is almighty, but in such a manner that acts of culpability, for instance, lying, or intending evil, cannot

be attributed to Him; nor can acts of penalty [for original sin], such as fearing and sorrowing; nor corporeal and material acts, such as sleeping and walking, except figuratively; nor contradictory acts, such as making something greater than Himself, or producing another God equal to Himself, or creating some being that would be infinite in act; and so forth. As Anselm writes, "whatever is contradictory, be it the smallest thing, is not found in God."xlvi Although God cannot do such things, yet He is truly, properly, and perfectly omnipotent. 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle is powerful by a power that is unqualified; therefore the universal "omni" prefacing "potent" covers all those things the power to do which is power unqualified: that is, all things that proceed from a power both complete and orderly. We call COMPLETE a power that cannot disappear, succumb, or be limited. But sin implies a disappearance of power, pain a collapse of power, and bodily operation a limitation of power. Divine power, supreme and utterly perfect, is not created, nor is it dependent upon anything, nor is it wanting in anything. Therefore, it cannot be the subject of culpable, penal, or corporeal acts: and this precisely because it is omnipotent through a power that is complete. 3. Now, there are three senses in which a power can be called ORDERLY: as it is in act; as it signifies potency on the part of a creature; and as it signifies potency on the part of the uncreated Might alone. That which is possible to power in the first sense is not only possible but actual. That which is possible in the second sense but not in the first is simply possible, although not actual. That which is possible in the third sense, but not in the first or second, is possible to God but impossible to creatures. That which is not possible in any of the foregoing senses, i. e., whatever, by reason of primordial and eternal principles and causes, is directly opposed to order,xlvii is simply impossible; as it would be for God to produce something infinite in act, to make something to be and not to be at the same time, to make a past event as never having happened, and so forth. The order and completeness of divine might exclude the possibility of doing such things. This clearly shows the scope of divine might, the meaning of the simply possible and of the simply impossible, and the fact that some impossibility is compatible with true omnipotence. CHAPTER 8 - ON GOD'S WISDOM, PRE-ELECTION, AND FOREKNOWLEDGE 1. Concerning God's wisdom, the following must be held. This wisdom most clearly knows all things, good and evil, past, present, and future, actual and possible. Thus it also knows things beyond our understanding and things eternal. But it knows all these things in such a manner that it is not diversified in itself, although it is given different names. In its awareness of all the possibles, this wisdom is called knowledge or cognition; in its awareness of all that occurs in the universe, it is called vision; in its awareness of all that is done well, it is called approval; in its awareness of all that is to come about, it is called prescience or foresight; in its awareness of what God Himself will do, it is called providence; in its awareness of what is to be rewarded, it is called pre-election; and in its awareness of what is to be condemned, it is called reprobation.xlviii 2. Not only does this wisdom imply the power of knowing: it actually is the very principle of knowing. Therefore, it is called LIGHT as being the principle of knowing all that is known; MIRROR

as being the principle of knowing all that is seen and approved; EXEMPLAR as being the principle of all that is foreseen and disposed; BOOK OF LIFE as being the principle of all that is pre-elected and reproved. In respect to things as they return to Him, God is the Book of Life; as they proceed from Him, He is the Exemplar; as they follow their course, He is the Mirror; and from all viewpoints together, He is the Light.xlix To the Exemplar pertain idea, word, art, and purpose: IDEA, as regards the act of foreseeing; WORD, as regards the act of proposing; ART, as regards the act of carrying out; and PURPOSE, as regards the act of completing, for it adds final intention.l Since all these acts are the same in God, one is often understood for another.63 3. Because of the distinction between the objects of knowledge and their various connotations, divine wisdom is given a variety of names. Yet it is not diversified for any intrinsic reason, for it knows the contingent infallibly, the mutable immutably, the future presently, the temporal eternally, the dependent independently, the created uncreatedly; and all things that are not itself, it knows in itself and through itself.li And since it knows the contingent infallibly, freedom and indetermination of the [created] will are compatible with pre-election and foreknowledge.lii 4. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, because He is first and supreme, has a knowledge which is utterly simple and perfect. On account of this utter perfection, He knows all things most distinctly in all their actual and possible states. Thus, He knows the future things as future, and the present as present; He knows the good as deserving of approbation, the evil, of reprobation. That is why His wisdom is given several names, as explained above. 5. But because, with perfection of wisdom, there coexists utter simplicity, therefore it is in Himself and through Himself that the first Principle knows all things that are distinct from Him. From this it follows that He knows, second, created things uncreatedly; third, dependent things independently; fourth, temporal things eternally; fifth, future things presently;64 sixth, mutable things immutably; and seventh, contingent things infallibly. 6. And so contingent things, while remaining contingent, are infallibly predictable for divine wisdom. This applies to contingent things both in the order of nature and in the order of free will. Thus, if we want to grasp this truth, that freedom of the created will coexists with infallibility of eternal predestination, we should begin our reasoning with the last statement, and work backward through the seven above-mentioned levels until we reach the original proposition: that the first Principle knows all things perfectly through His own Self- a truth of utmost certainty out of which all the conclusions are necessarily deduced. 7. So, certainty in divine knowledge coexists with contingency in the objects known, since divine wisdom is both utterly simple and perfect. Likewise, and for the same reason, oneness is consistent with the multiplicity of determining principles and of ideas. Since divine wisdom is utterly perfect, it knows each thing and every thing in the most distinct fashion, conceiving them all most clearly and perfectly; thus we say that God possesses the determining principles and ideas of all individual beings, as the perfectly expressive likenesses of these same beings. But since God's wisdom is utterly simple, all the likenesses of these beings are one in this same wisdom. Hence, as God produces in time through a single power all things in their complete fullness, even so He expresses them all in eternity

through a single truth. While there is in the most high and omnipotent God a really single operative act, we speak in the plural of creative productions because of the plurality of the things produced. So, too, while there is in God but a single truth contained in a single act of intellection, we speak in the plural of likenesses, ideas, and determining principles because of the plurality of present, future, or possible things to which they apply. Now, these principles and ideas, even though they are one truth, one light, one essence, are not called a single principle or idea. The reason is that, in the order of intellection, the principle or idea is considered in relation to the object, since it designates the likeness of that which is known. This likeness is really in God, but from the viewpoint of intellection, it appears as expressing something that exists in the created object. 8. Were we to seek a parallel to this in creatures, we would fail, for the Exemplar- simple, infinite, and utterly perfect, as explained above- is also unique. Since the Exemplar is utterly simple and perfect, He is pure act; and since He is infinite and immense, He is outside of all genera.liii And that is how something that is really one may still be a likeness representing many. CHAPTER 9 - ON GOD'S WILL AND PROVIDENCE 1. Concerning the will of God,liv the following must be held. This will is so righteous that it could never be made to deviate; it is so effective that it could never be obstructed; it is one, yet it properly manifests itself by many signs. 2. Indeed, the divine will, which is a will of good-pleasure, is manifested through the will of sign,65 according to the fivefold division of signs, that is, through command, prohibition, counsel, fulfillment, and sufferance. Everything that occurs in the universe comes about by this will of good-pleasure. "Indeed, God's will is the first and supreme cause of all species and motions. Nothing visible and sensible ever occurs in the immeasurably vast and comprehensive empire of the created world that does not proceed by either command or permission from the inner, invisible, and rational authority of the supreme Emperor, and that does not conform to ineffable justice in the distribution of rewards and penalties, favors and punishments."lv 3. This rationally organized will is called Providence. It follows, then, that all events in the universe are brought about and regulated by this divine Providence, which is beyond reproach throughout, since it orders, prohibits, and counsels with utter justice, acts with utter goodness, and never permits anything unjustly. 4. This should be understood as follows. Since the first Principle is the Being of the highest order, He both possesses a will, and possesses it in the most noble manner. Now, will in itself indicates, in selfdetermined beings, that by which their deeds are righteous, and their actions effective. God's will, therefore, must be utterly righteous and effective: utterly righteous because in Him will and truth are the same; utterly effective, because in Him will and power or might are identical. Now, since there cannot be in the divine will the slightest deviation from truth, not only is it righteous - it is the very norm of righteousness; and since there cannot be in it the slightest defect of power, not only is it effective - it is the fountainhead and origin of all efficiency, so that nothing can be accomplished

without it, nothing can prevail against it, and there is nothing it cannot do. 5. Now, since God's will is utterly RIGHTEOUS, no one can be righteous without conforming to it;lvi and no one can conform to it unless it has been revealed to him. Hence, God's will must be communicated to us as the norm of righteousness. There is a certain righteousness that is of law, and it consists in doing the good that must be done, and in avoiding evil;66 there is also a righteousness of perfection, and it consists in doing more than must be done. Accordingly, God's will is made known to us through the threefold manifestation of COMMAND, PROHIBITION, and COUNSEL. This means to accept God's good-pleasure as just by doing what divine will commands, abstaining from what it prohibits, and fulfilling what it counsels. These manifestations are the infallible signs of God's will considered as the norm of righteousness. 6. Furthermore, since God's will is utterly EFFECTIVE, no one can effect anything unless that will operates and cooperates with him; and no one can fail or sin unless that will justifiedly forsakes him.67lvii There are two manifestations of God's will which correspond to this: FULFILLMENT, which is the sign of God's will as efficacious, and SUFFERANCE, which is the sign of God's will as justifiedly forsaking man. God may well forsake man in all justice, for it is just that He so administer the things He created as not to infringe upon the laws He Himself established, and that He so cooperate "with the things He has made as to let them move by their own inner powers."lviii And so, if He suffers free will to fall, He does so in all justice, since by the very law of its nature free will is able to turn either way. 7. Likewise, when through grace He helps and sustains someone, He does no injustice to anyone else; He acts not unjustifiedly, neither does He act in strict justice, considering what merit is entitled to: for the merit always falls short of the grace. He acts gratuitously and lovingly, and also, in a certain sense, according to justice, insofar as He acts as fully befits His bounty. When, therefore, He condemns and reproves, He acts according to justice; when He pre-elects, He acts according to grace and love, which do not preclude justice.lix All men, belonging as they did to the throng of perdition, were headed for condemnation. Therefore, more souls are reproved than are elected, in order to show that salvation is by special grace, while condemnation is by ordinary justice. No one, then, has the right to complain about God's will, for it does all things with utter righteousness. We should, instead, give thanks in all circumstances, and exalt the ways of divine Providence. If anyone should ask why the gift of grace is more generously lavished upon one sinner than upon another, this would be the time to silence human talk,lx and exclaim with the apostle: Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God!68 How incomprehensible are His judgments and how unsearchable His ways! For "Who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been His counsellor? Or who has first given to Him, that recompense should be made him?" For from Him and through Him and unto Him are all things. To Him be the glory forever, amen. |< << >> >|

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PART II - ON CREATION
CHAPTER 1 - ON THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE69 HAVING summarily considered the Trinity of God, it is proper to speak next of creation. Briefly, the following must be held. The entire fabric of the universe was brought into existence in time and out of nothingness, by one first Principle, single and supreme, whose power, though immeasurable, has disposed all things by measure and number and weight70. 2. In general, then, concerning the production of creatures,lxi the foregoing must be held, to build up a true concept and avoid error. By saying IN TIME, we exclude the false theory of an eternal universe. By saying OUT OF NOTHINGNESS, we exclude the false theory of an eternal material principle. By saying ONE PRINCIPLE, we exclude the Manichean error of the plurality of principles. By saying SINGLE AND SUPREME, we exclude the error of those who hold that God produced the inferior creatures through the ministry of the spirits. And by adding MEASURE AND NUMBER AND WEIGHT, we indicate that the creature is an effect of the creating Trinity in virtue of a triple causality: efficient, through which creatures are given unity, mode, and measure; examplary, through which they are given truth, species, and number; final, through which they are given goodness, order, and weight. These, as traces of the Creator, are present in all creatures,lxii whether material or spiritual or composites of both. 3. This should be understood as follows. For the sake of perfect order and repose in things, all must be led back to the one Principle, who necessarily must be first in order to procure REPOSE for other beings, and most perfect in order to procure ADDITIONAL PERFECTIONS71 for them. Now, a first Principle in whom there is repose can be nothing else but one: hence, if He creates a world, He must bring it forth out of nothingness, since He cannot possibly make it of His own substance. Moreover, creation out of nothingness implies, on the part of the creature, a state of being subsequent upon a state of non-being, and, on the part of the Principle, a boundless productive power, which is found in God alone: necessarily, then, the universe must be created in time by this same boundless power acting in itself and without intermediary. 4. The utterly perfect Principle from whom flows the perfection of all things must act by His own power and law, and for Himself as an end; for in His action He needs none but Himself. Hence, He must be the threefold cause of all creatures: efficient, exemplary, and final. As a result, every creature must bear the same threefold reference to the first Cause: for every one exists by virtue of the efficient cause, is patterned after the exemplary cause, and ordained toward the final cause. For this reason, every creature is one, true, and good; has mode, species, and order;72 and has measure, distinct existence [number], and weight - for weight is defined as an orderly tendency.lxiii All this applies to every creature in general, whether material, spiritual, or composite, as is human nature. CHAPTER 2 - ON THE ACTUAL PRODUCTION OF PHYSICAL NATURE

1. We shall consider physical nature as regards its actual production, its essence, and its operation. Concerning production, we must specifically hold that physical nature was brought into existence in six days. In the beginning, before any day, God created the heavens and the earth.73 On the first day, light was made; on the second, the firmament in the midst of the waters; on the third, the waters were separated from the land and gathered into one place; on the fourth, the heavens were adorned with lights; on the fifth, the air and the water were furnished with birds and fishes; on the sixth, the earth was completed with animals and men. On the seventh day, God rested; rested, not from activity and work - He continues to act to this very hour- but from creating any new nature, since all things had been created either in their prototypes, as those things that multiply by generation, or in their seminal principle,lxiv as the other things that are brought about in a different way. 2. This should be understood as follows. Since all things flow from the first and utterly perfect Principle, who is omnipotent, all-wise, and all-beneficent, their production must reflect the same three attributes or perfections. Therefore, the divine operation which built the fabric of the universe was threefold: creation, properly reflecting omnipotence; division, reflecting wisdom; and provision, reflecting a most generous bounty. Because creation is out of nothingness, the creative act, foundation of all times and things, came about in the beginning, before any day.lxv 3. Now, since there is a threefold qualitative distinction between cosmic substances, the act of dividing extended over three days. There is a distinction between the luminous, the translucent, and the opaque natures, and this was brought about on the first day through the separation of light from darkness. There is a distinction between one translucent nature and the other, and this was brought about on the second day through the separation of the waters. And there is a distinction between translucent and opaque natures, and this was brought about on the third day through the separation of water from land. Later, 74we shall see how, through these separations, we are given to understand implicitly the division of the heavenly bodies and of the elements. That is why the division was fittingly accomplished in three days. 4. Since provision parallels division, it also was brought about in three days. For there is a provisioning of the luminous nature, and this occurred on the fourth day through the forming of the stars, the sun, and the moon. There is a provisioning of the translucent nature, and this occurred on the fifth day, when fish and bird were made from the waters to people the water and the air. And there is a provisioning of the opaque nature, that is, of the land, and this occurred on the sixth day when the mammals and reptiles were made, and finally, as the crown of all, man. 5. God could have brought all this about in a single instant. He chose instead to act through time, and step by step, and this for three reasons. First, there was to be a distinct and clear manifestation of power, wisdom, and goodness; second, there was to be fitting correspondence between the days or times and the operations; third, the succession of days was to prefigure all future ages, in the same way as, at creation, the seeds of all future beings were planted. So the distinction of the future times -

explained above where we spoke of the seven ages of history75 - stemmed, as if from seeds, from the distinction of the seven days. That is why, to the six days of work, there is added one of rest: a day to which no dusk is ascribed-not that this day was not followed by night, but because it was to prefigure the repose of souls that shall have no end.lxvi Now, if it should be said, in opposition, that all things were made at once,lxvii this is simply considering the seven days from the viewpoint of angels.76 At any rate, the first manner of speaking is more in keeping with the Scriptures and the opinions of the saints, both before and after blessed Augustine. CHAPTER 3 - ON THE ESSENCE OF PHYSICAL NATURE 1. Concerning the essence of physical nature, the following must be held. The entire fabric of the physical world consists in the heavenly and the elemental natures. Heavenly nature comprises three main heavens: the empyrean heaven, the crystalline heaven, and the firmament. Beneath the firmament, which is the heaven of stars, are the seven spheres of the planets: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon. Elemental nature is divided into four spheres: Fire, Air, Water, and Earth. Thus, ranging from the highest heaven down to the center, the earth, there are ten heavenly and four elemental spheres,lxviii which make up in a distinct, perfect, and orderly fashion the whole physical cosmos. 2. This should be understood as follows. If physical nature was to be complete in itself, reflecting also the manifold wisdom of the first Principle, there had to be a multiplicity of forms, such as appears in minerals, plants, and animals. Therefore, some simple essences had to be first established, the various combinations of which would result in this multiplicity. Such simple essence is the nature that is subject to opposition; and this is elemental nature. There had to be also a nature that, in compounds, would adjust the opposition between the elements. Such nature, itself free from opposition, is that of light and of the supercelestial bodies.lxix 3. Since there is no compoundinglxx without active and passive opposition, the opposition in the elements had to be twofold: one, between the active qualities, that is, hot and cold; two, between the passive qualities, that is, wet and dry. Now, any element is both active and passive, and thus has two qualities, one active and the other passive, of which, however, one is always principal and characteristic. That is why there are only four elements, corresponding to the four said qualities in their four combinations. 4. Now, heavenly nature can be motionless and uniform, and such is the empyrean, for it is pure light. It can be mobile and multiform, and such is the firmament. It can be mobile and uniform, and such is the crystalline heaven, between the empyrean and the stellar. The fourth combination-the motionless and multiform - cannot exist because multiplicity of form leads to varied movements, and not to uniform repose.

5. Thus, there are three heavens. The first, the empyrean, is luminous throughout; the second, the crystalline, is translucent throughout; the third, the firmament, is a combination of the first two. There being three incorruptible heavens and four variable elements, God designed the seven spheres of the planets for the sake of due connection, concordance, and correspondence. The planets, through their varied movements and incorruptible forms, act as a bond or junction between the inferior elemental spheres and the superior heavenly spheres. Thus, they perfect and complete the universe. The universe itself is organized in numerical proportions.lxxi It is made up of the ten heavenly and the four elemental spheres. These make the universe so beautiful in its proportions, so complete and orderly, that in its own way it offers an image of its Principle. CHAPTER 4 - ON THE ACTION AND INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL NATURE 1. As regards the influence of physical nature, the following must be held. The heavens influence the earth and the elements by dividing time into days, months, and years. Indeed, the Scriptures say that the heavens should serve as signs and for the fixing of seasons, days and years77. The heavens also influence the efficient production of things that can be generated and corrupted, that is, of mineral, vegetal, and sentient beings, and of the human body.lxxii Yet they enter into the determination of times and the course of events in such a way that they can never be taken as sure signs of future contingent events, nor can they affect free will through the power of the constellations, which some philosophers call fate. 2. This should be understood as follows. The heavenly bodies, so close to the first Principle, have light, motion, heat, and power: light by reason of their form and species; motion, by reason of the influence upon them of a superior agent; heat, by reason of their influence upon an inferior passive element; power, in all the aforementioned ways. This being so, the heavenly bodies, through their light and motion, determine the divisions of time. The day is measured by sunlight and by the heavenly movements; the month, by the course of the moon along its elliptic path;lxxiii the years, by the course of the sun along the same path; and the seasons, by the various motions of the planets, their separation and conjunction, their ascent and descent; their regression and state, for it is these things which cause seasonal variations. 3. As the heavenly bodies prompt, promote, and harmonize through power and heat, they influence the production of those things that are generated from the elements. By a process of conciliation remote from equalization, they influence minerals; by a process of conciliation and to some extent equalization, they influence plants; by a process of conciliation that is largely equalization, they influence sentient beings; finally, by a process of conciliation that is full equalization, they influence the human body, which is fitted to receive the most noble form, the soul.78lxxivAll sentient bodily beings are ordained toward this object and this end: this form fully existing, alive, sensitive, and intellective, by which the sensitive bodily nature of man is to be returned, as in an intelligible circle, to its first Principle in whom it will be completed and beatified. 4. And because the soul tends to its end through free will, by reason of this freedom it is superior to any physical power. That is why all things are subservient to the soul, whose essential nature it is to be under none but God - not fate or any power deriving from the position of the stars.

5. Hence, it is undubitably true that we human beings are the end of all existing things.lxxv All material things are made to serve man, and to enkindle in him the fire of love and praise for the Maker of the universe through whose providence all is governed. Therefore, the fabric of his sensitive body is like a house made for man by the supreme Architect to serve until such time as he may come to the house not made by human hands, . . . in the heavens79. Just as the soul, by reason of the body and to gain merit, now lives on earth, so will the body, by reason of the soul and to gain reward, some day live in heaven.

Chapter 5 - On How These Things Are Described in Holy Scripture


1. It should be clear from what has been said that orderliness exists not only in the way God created things in time and arranged them in space, but also in the way He governs them in their interrelationship. It should be clear, too, that there is order in the way the Scriptures tell us all that we need to know. They do not, however, explicitly describe the different spheres of the heavens and of the elements; they say little or nothing about the motions and effects of the heavenly bodies, or the combinations of the elements and their compounds; and what is more, they say nothing explicitly about the creation of the heavenly spirits in the account of how the present universe was made. 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle opens Himself to our mind through the Scriptures and through creatures. In the book of creatures, He manifests Himself as the effective Principle, and in the book of Scriptures, as the redemptive Principle. Now, the redemptive Principle cannot be known unless the effective Principle also is known. So Scripture, though mainly concerned with the work of redemption, must also deal with the work of creation, as that leads to the knowledge of the first, the effective and redemptive Principle. Hence, this knowledge is both lofty and salutary: lofty, because it is concerned with the effective Principle, the Creator; and salutary, because it is concerned with the redemptive Principle, Christ the Saviour and Mediator. 3. Again, because this knowledge is lofty as it concerns the first Principle and the supreme Being, it does not lower itself to describing the specific beings of nature, or their motions, powers, and differences. It remains on the general level whereon specific beings are only implied, describing the creation of the world in a general manner, as regards the disposition and effect of luminous, translucent, and opaque natures. 4. Because in the first Principle, who is the object of Scripture, there is the order of nature by virtue of His existence, the order of wisdom by virtue of His providence, and the order of goodness by virtue of His operation; and because the order of nature indicates simultaneous existence and equality,lxxvi the order of wisdom, priority and posteriority, and the order of operation, superiority and subordination: therefore, to indicate the ORDER OF NATURE, Scripture makes clear how God was to operate. In the beginning, before time was, the luminous, translucent, and opaque natures were brought from nonbeing into being. This is implied in the words: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth, ... and the spirit of God was stirring above the waters80. Here, the word heavens implies the luminous nature, the word earth, opaque nature, and the word waters, the transparent or translucent nature, whether subject to opposition or elevated above it. Here, also, is implied the eternal Trinity, that is, the Father under the term God creating, the Son under the term the Beginning, and the Holy

Spirit under the term the Spirit of God. It is in this sense that the words He that liveth forever created all things together81 are to be understood; not as meaning, what poets have fantasied, that He created all in utter chaos, for He so created the threefold nature that the first would be on high, the intermediate in the middle, and the last below; nor as meaning that all three natures were in a state of complete distinctness, for while the heavens were perfect, the earth was still unorganized, and the intermediate nature, holding the middle place, had not yet been brought unto a state of perfect separateness.82lxxvii 5. To indicate the ORDER OF WISDOM in disposing, Scripture shows that the threefold nature was not divided and furnished in a single operation. To correspond to the trine-ness of created nature, separation also took three days, and furnishing, another three. Thus, as God in the beginning, before the dawn of time, created a triple nature all at once, even so, when time began its course, he used a triple measure of duration, as it were a triple day, to make a triple division in the triple created nature; and He used another triple day to provide the triply distinct nature with a triple furnishing.83 6. To indicate the ORDER OF GOODNESS in operating, Scripture shows that the three natures were established in the world according to the norm of superior and inferior, as the dignity and influence of each required. Because luminous nature is the brightest, its place is the upper sphere. Opaque nature, having the least splendor, belongs in the lower. Translucent nature, being intermediate, belongs in the middle place. Now, both heavenly and elemental natures have something of translucency and transparency;lxxviii and luminosity also is shared by both. Therefore, it is rightly said that the firmament was established "between the waters." This does not mean that the waters cf. ibid. 1:6 above the firmamentlxxix are fluid, cold, heavy, corruptible: on the contrary, they are subtle, incorruptible, transparent, so sublime as to be free from all opposition. Thus, because of the nobility of their formal constitution, they are of heavenly nature and are to be placed among heavenly things. 7. They are to be placed there also by reason of their power and influence. All physical action of inferior beings receives its rule, origin, and energy from the heavenly nature. Now, there are two active qualities, hot and cold. The heaven of the stars, by reason of its luminosity, is the chief agent of warmth, while another, the crystalline heaven, is the chief agent of cold. And as the heaven of stars is not formally hot, although it acts to produce heat, so the heaven that is called liquid or crystalline is not, in nature, cold. Hence, what the inspired writers say about the waters being put there as a shield against the heat of the higher bodies, and other like statements, are to be taken, not as formal affirmations of essence, but rather as pertaining to efficacy and influence. And so the establishing of creation in the aforesaid order accords with the order both of creating Wisdom and of divine Scripture, which is lofty knowledge. 8. Again, because it is salutary knowledge, Scripture does not specify the work of creation except for the sake of the work of reparation. And because the angels were so created that, once fallen, they were beyond redeeming, as will be seen later,84 nothing is said explicitly and literally about their creation and fall, since no reparation was to follow.

9. Yet, because complete silence concerning the creation of the loftiest creatures would have been inconsistent with the loftiness of Scripture, therefore the sacred writings so describe the creation of things as to impart a lofty and salutary knowledge, but in such a way that the literal account of the whole creation is applied symbolically, in a spiritual sense, to the hierarchies of the angels and of the Church. Hence, in the three natures first to be produced, heaven, according to this spiritual reading, refers to the angelic hierarchy, earth to the ecclesiastical, and water to grace, through which both are refreshed. 10. Again, the seven days mean the seven states of the Church through the succession of the seven ages.85 The same series of seven also means the seven illuminations86 through which the angels rise from the creature to God.lxxx Thus, the foregoing reveals the sufficiency and truth of the Scriptures, according to the various opinions of the saints; that is, Augustine and others. Rightly understood, these opinions are not contradictory, but true. CHAPTER 6 - ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE HEAVENLY SPIRITS 1. In proper sequence, our next topic is the spiritual, incorporeal nature, that is, the nature of angels. We shall speak of the creation of the heavenly spirits, of the fall of the demons, and of the confirmation of the good angels. 2. We must know that, at the very instant of their creation, the angels were endowed with four perfections: simplicity of essence; individuality of person; rationality implying memory, intelligence, and will; and freedom of choice for the election of good and the rejection of evil.lxxxi These four main attributes are accompanied by four others: virtuosity in action, dedication in service, acuteness in understanding, and immutability in the choice of either good or evil. 3. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, for the very reason that He is first, brought forth out of nothingness all the things that exist,lxxxii those that are close to nothingness no less than those that are close to Him. Necessarily, then, He brought forth not only the nature which is at the greatest distance from Him - the physical - but also the one very close to Him, the spiritual and immaterial. This latter nature, being most like God, enjoys simplicity of essence and individuality of person: thus resembling God through its substance, both as specific and as individual.lxxxiii It possesses also a reflection of the Trinity in the mind through memory, intellect, and will. And in this will, it has freedom: thus resembling God through a power that is both natural and elective, a natural power signed with God's image, an elective power signed with freedom of choice. Never could it deserve the prize of beatifying glory were it not for this freedom of choice in the will; and such freedom can exist only in a rational substance endowed with memory, intellect, and will; and where there is reason, there must also exist "an INDIVIDUAL substance of rational nature,lxxxiv a substance spiritual and immaterial, and, consequently, simple and free of any quantitative extension. 4. Such a substance, because it is simple, has virtuosity in action; having virtuosity and personal

distinctness, it has a distinct service to perform; having simplicity and virtuosity, it has a keen power of discernment; having simplicity and keen discernment, and hence a God-conformed intellect, it has also immutability in its choice of either good or evil. All these conditions are found in a general sense to accompany the general condition of the heavenly spirits.

Chapter 7 - On the Apostasy of the Demons


1. Concerning the apostasy of the demons, the following must be held. God made all angels good; in an intermediate position, however, between the supreme Good, Himself, and the commutable good, which is creation. If they turned their love to the Good above, they would rise to the state of grace and glory; but if they turned their love to the commutable good, they would fall through this very act into the evil of sin and penalty, for "the shame of sin cannot remain unredressed by the corrective of justice."lxxxv The first among the angels, the Bearer of Light, over-proud of his personal glory, craved personal excellence and sought to be elevated even higher through further gifts. Therefore he fell, along with the others who were of one mind with him. Falling, he became impenitent, obstinate, and blind. Shut out from the vision of God, deordinated in his function, he is now bent with all his might upon perverting man with countless temptations. 2. This should be understood as follows. Since the first Principle is supremely good, He makes nothing that is not good, for from goodness nothing but good proceeds. What the first Principle made, however, is by that very fact less than its Maker and cannot be supremely good. Thus, God created Lucifer good, but not supremely good: his goodness was to be perfected through his choice of the highest Good. 3. Having free will, Lucifer was able to choose either the supreme Good or his own personal good. The sight of his own beauty and eminence having made him fall in love with himself and his private good, he presumed upon the lofty state already his, to aspire to a further height that he did not possess. Thus, in his presumption, he established himself as his own principle by glorying in himself; in his ambition, he established himself as his own supreme good by seeking his end in himself. Being in fact neither supreme principle nor supreme good, he was bound to fall from his inordinate aspiration; and so were all those who shared it. 4. Since "the shame of sin cannot remain unredressed by the corrective of justice," when he fell into sin, he and his followers lost at once the highest place, the empyrean heaven, and fell into the depth, the gloom of hell. In the freedom of his will, Lucifer had sinned: by the judgment of God, he was punished. Because he was fixed forever after having chosen, he at once became obstinate in evil, and thus blind to truth, lawless in his action, and deficient in his power. His will and action, wickedly averted from God, turned to hating and envying man; his keen mind, averted from true light, turned to deceiving man through false prophecy and fraud; his readiness to serve, averted from true service, turned to seducing man by temptations; his power, lessened and constrained, turned, as much as God

permitted, to performing stupendous feats through sudden changes brought about in matter. Since all this was the disorderly effect of a pride-infected will, the fallen angel perverted everything to feed his pride, expecting men to revere and adore him as if he were God. That is why "all his deeds are evil."lxxxvi God, in His justice, allows all these things to happen now, with the purpose of punishing the wicked and glorifying the good, as will appear at the last judgment. Chapter 8 - On the Confirmation of the Good Angels 1. Concerning the confirmation of the good angels, the following must be held. As the angels who turned away from God were at once fixed in their impenitence, so those who turned toward Him were at once confirmed in their choice through grace and glory; fully enlightened in their intellect through the knowledge of dawn and dusk;87 fully strengthened in their faculties of command and execution; and fully ordered in their activities of contemplation and service. And this, on all three levels of the hierarchy: the higher, the intermediate, and the lower. The higher level comprises the Thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim; the intermediate, the Dominions, Virtues, and Powers; the lower, the Principalities, Archangels, and Angels. Many of the latter group are sent for service,88 appointed to assist and support men by cleansing, illuminating, and perfecting themlxxxvii as God commands. 2. This should be understood as follows. Because of their express likeness, and of their proximity to the first and supreme Principle, the angels were endowed with a deiform intellect and a will that was irrevocably set after the choice had been made. When they turned to the supreme Good with the help of grace, they were both confirmed and perfected in glory, since now they inclined wholly to God. In WILL they became stable and happy, and in INTELLECT clear-sighted, so that they now understood everything, not only in itself, but also in the creating Art. Thus, they had a knowledge of dusk, and more - a knowledge of dawn, and even more - a knowledge of full daylight, through the fullness and absolute purity of that light in comparison to which every created thing may properly be called darkness. In their FACULTIES OF COMMAND AND EXECUTIONlxxxviii they were fully strengthened, whether or not they used an assumed body. In their ACTIVITIES they became so perfectly ordered that they could no longer lose this ordination either in ascending to see God, or in descending to serve man. Indeed, since they see God face to face, they move in God wherever they are sent.lxxxix 3. They indeed move and are moved within a hierarchical orderxc which nature instilled within them and glory brought to full maturity. Glory, by stabilizing free will in the right choice, sharpened their reason, ordered their ministry, and braced their power in the four operations described above. In the contemplation of God, sharpness of reason serves primarily to worship His majesty, to understand His truth, and to desire His goodness. Accordingly, there are three orders in the first hierarchy, for worship pertains to the Thrones, wisdom to the Cherubim, and benevolence to the Seraphim.

Perfect capacity for action implies the power to command, execute, and implement; the first pertains to the Dominions, the second to the Virtues, and the third to the Powers, whose function it is to repel adverse forces. Perfect ministry implies the acts of ruling, revealing, and supporting; the first pertains to the Principalities, the second to the Archangels, and the third to the Angels, for they keep guard lest those who are standing fall, and go to the aid of those who have fallen to help them rise. It is thus evident that all these attributes exist in pure spirits in varying degrees, gradually descending from the highest rank to the lowest; each rank being fittingly named after that which "it has specially received as its charge."xci CHAPTER 9 - ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE HUMAN SOUL 1. Having spoken of the material and the spiritual natures, we shall now speak of the nature that is a composite of both. First we shall treat of the soul, then of the body, and finally of man as a whole. Concerning the rational soul, this in brief must be held according to sacred teaching: the soul is a form endowed with being, life, intelligence, and freedom. A FORM ENDOWED WITH BEING, not of itself nor as an emanation of the divine nature,xcii but as brought into being by God through creation out of nothingness. A FORM ENDOWED WITH LIFE, not through some extrinsic nature, but in its own essence; not for a mortal span, but for eternity.xciii A FORM ENDOWED WITH INTELLIGENCE, grasping not only created essence, but also the Creating Essence,xciv of whom it was made an image through memory, intelligence, and will.xcv A FORM ENDOWED ALSO WITH FREEDOM,xcvi for it is always free from compulsion. In the state of innocence, it was free from misery and sin as well, but in the state of fallen nature this is not so. Freedom from compulsion is nothing else than a joint capacity of will and intellect, the principal faculties of the soul. 2. This should be understood as follows. The supreme Principle, being utterly happy and benevolent, in His sovereign benevolence imparts His happiness to creatures: not only to spiritual creatures close to Him, but also to bodily creatures far removed. However, to the bodily and distant creature, He communicates His happiness indirectly, since divine law provides that "the lower be led to the higher through the intermediate."xcvii89 Thus, God has granted the possibility of beatitude not only to the independent spirit of an angel but also to the spirit combined with a body, the spirit of man: for the rational soul is a form truly capable of beatitude. Now, there would be no great honor in obtaining the prize of beatitude without meriting it, nor can merit be found in anything except what is voluntarily

and freely done.xcviii Hence, the rational soul had to be self-determining and free from all compulsion, for the will, by its very nature, cannot be forced in any way, although it may become, through guilt, the wretched slave of sin90. 3. Again, because a form capable of beatitude is able to receive God through memory, intelligence, and will; and because, being one in essence and trine in power, it is thus an image of the Trinity: therefore, to know God and all [created] things was connatural to the soul which was signed with the image of God. And because beatitude once obtained may never be lost, nothing is capable of beatitude except what is also indissoluble and immortal. By its very nature, then, the rational soul must live an immortal life. 4. Finally, because anything endowed with immortality, but at the same time dependent upon something besides itself for beatitude, is immutable and mutable, immutable as regards the fact of existence, but mutable as regards its quality: therefore the soul, being mutable, proceeds neither from itself nor from the divine essence; and, being immutable and free from decay, it is not made out of some preexisting matter, nor is it engendered through nature. Hence, this form cannot be brought into being by means of birth, for anything that can be born by natural generation is by nature subject to decay.xcix These are the obvious reasons why the final end, beatitude, to which the soul is ordained necessarily imposes the aforementioned characteristics upon it. 5. Since a soul capable of beatitude must be immortal, it is so united to the mortal body that it may be separated from it. Hence, the soul is not only a form, but also "this individual substance";c it is united to the body, not only as a perfection, but also as a mover, so that its essence perfects what its power moves. And since the soul imparts not only being but also life, sensitivity, and intelligence, it must have a vegetative, a sensitive, and an intellective power. Through its vegetative power, the soul is the principle of generation, nutrition, and growth. It is the principle of quiddity in generation, of quality in nutrition, and of quantity in growth.ci Through its sensitive power, it comprehends sensible objects, retains what it has apprehended, combines and sorts what it has retained. It apprehends through the five external senses that correspond to the five principal physical aspects of the world;91 it retains through memory; it combines and sorts through imagination, which is the foremost collating aptitude. Through its intellective power, it discerns truth, rejects evil, and desires good. It discerns truth through reason, rejects evil through the irascible appetite, and desires good through the concupiscible appetite. 6. Again, since discerning the truth is a cognitive act, while rejecting and desiring are affective, the rational faculty is twofold: cognitive and affective. 7. Furthermore, truth may be known under two aspects: truth as such, and truth as a good - that is, a good either eternal and superior to man, or temporal and inferior to him. Hence, the cognitive power,

comprising intellect and reason, is so divided that there is both a speculative and a practical intellect, and also a higher and a lower reason. These distinctions, however, indicate rather a diversity of functions than a diversity of powers.cii 8. Finally, an object may be desired in two ways: through instinct, or through deliberate choice. Hence, the affective power is subdivided into instinctive will and elective will, which is will in the proper sense.ciii Since this elective power is not determined in regard to either of the possible choices, it must proceed from free will. And because such autonomy implies both antecedent deliberation and concomitant volition, freedom of choice is a power of both reason and will, so that, as Augustine explains, it applies to all the aforementioned rational faculties. He says, indeed: "When we speak of freedom of choice, we refer not only to a part of the soul, but most assuredly, to the whole."civ The co-operation of these two faculties - reason reflecting upon itself and will acting in conjunction gives rise to full freedom, the source of merit or demerit accordingly as good or evil is chosen. CHAPTER 10 - ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE HUMAN BODY 1. True faith teaches us to hold the following about the human body in the original state of creation. The body of the first man, formed out of the dust of the ground,92 was created subject to the soul and proportioned to it in its own way. By proportioned, I mean of well-balanced physical constitution, beautiful and highly organized structure, and upright carriage.cv By subject, I mean obedient to the soul without rebellion, reproducing and reproducible without lust, functioning without defect, wholly exempt from the changes of decay, impervious to death. Appropriately, to the being so formed was given the earthly paradise for a peaceful abode. Woman was formed out of the side of man, to be his companion and his assistant in immaculate procreation.cvi They were given the Tree of Life as a means of permanent subsistence and of perfect immutability through perpetual immortality. 2. This should be understood as follows. As the first Principle is most powerful, wise, and good in the act of creation, and as He manifests these attributes in some way in all that He brings forth, He necessarily manifested them most of all in that creature last in the making but first in rank. For God made man last that in him might clearly appear and shine forth the consummation of the divine works. 3. That His POWER might thus be revealed in man, God made him out of two completely opposite principles, combined in a single person or nature. These are the body and the soul, the former being a material substance, the latter a spiritual and immaterial one. Within the genus "substance," these two stand farthest apart. 4. That His WISDOM might be revealed in man, God made the body proportionate in its own way to the soul, the principle of life, motion, and ascension toward beatitude. If the body was to conform to the soul, the giver of life, it had to possess a physical constitution that would be well balanced - not as regards weight or size, but in the equilibrium of natural fitness disposing it for the highest operations of life.cvii If the body was to conform to the soul that moves it through its manifold powers, it had to

be endowed with a manifold organic composition, together with beauty, dexterity, and flexibility, as may be seen in the face and also in the hand, "the organ of organs."cviii If the body was to conform to the soul as the principle of its ascension toward heaven, it had to stand erect with lifted head. The uprightness of the body's carriage was to betoken the uprightness of the soul.cix 5. That, finally, His BOUNTY and benevolence might be revealed in man, God created him free from any stain of sin and any pain or misery. The first Principle being both utterly good and supremely just, He could not in His utter goodness make man otherwise than good, that is, innocent and virtuous; He could not, in His supreme justice, inflict pain upon one wholly without sin.cx Thus, He made for the rational soul a body so completely obedient that it was free from all actual hostility or rebellion, all propensity to lust, all enfeeblement, all mortal dissolution; a body so entirely parallel to the soul that as the soul, from innocence, was yet liable to fall into sin, so also the body, from impassibility, was yet liable to fall into suffering. The body "had the potency to die or not to die,"cxi to thrive or to want, to obey the soul or to rise up against it. 6. In that original state, there was to be in the body a production of seed for procreating offspring with the help of the coproducing female sex; a consumption of nutritive fluid through the action of heat; a restoration through the food obtained from the trees of paradise; while the vital moisture itself was nourished, or rather, preserved by the Tree of Life, a tree that had the virtue to do precisely that. Hence, as Augustine writes, it stood "not only as food, but also as a sacrament."cxii Thus, the actual incorruption and immortality of Adam's body derived principally from the determining and influencing principle, the soul; from the disposing and receiving principle, the good and well-balanced constitution of the body itself; from the nourishing and sustaining principle, the Tree of Life; and, finally, from the principle that preserved it within and protected it without, the governing power of divine Providence. CHAPTER 11 - ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE WHOLE HUMAN COMPOSITE 1. Concerning the whole man placed in paradise,cxiii it must be held that he was given a twofold perception, interior and exterior: of the mind and of the flesh. He was given a twofold capacity of motion: imperative in the will, and executive in the body. He was given a twofold good: one visible, the other invisible. He was given a twofold command: that of nature, and that of discipline; the command of nature: "Be fruitful and multiply";93 the command of discipline: "From the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you must not eat."94 Furthermore, he was given a fourfold assistance comprising knowledge, conscience, synteresis, and grace. All these he received in a degree enabling him to remain and advance in good, and to avoid and reject evil.95 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle created this perceptible world as a means of self- revelation so that, like a mirror of God or a divine footprint, it might lead man to love and praise his Creator.cxiv Accordingly, there are two books, one written within, and that is [inscribed by] God's eternal Art and Wisdom; the other written without, and that is the perceptible world.

Now, there existed a creature, the angel, whose inner perception was fitted to the understanding of the inner book. There existed another, the brute animal, whose perception was entirely external. To complete creation it was suitable that there should be made yet another creature whose twofold perception would be fitted to the understanding of both the inner and the outer books: that of Wisdom, and that of its work. And since, in Christ, eternal Wisdom and its work coexist within a single Person, He is called the Book written within and without96 for the restoration of the world. To every faculty of perception, there corresponds a motion. Hence, man is moved in two ways: by a rational propensity in the mind, and by a sensual instinct in the flesh.cxv If these are to be well ordered, the first must command and the second obey, otherwise the natural order is subverted and the soul falls from its position of authority. 4. Now, to every motion and perception, there corresponds an appetite toward some good. Hence, man was provided with a twofold good: "visible and invisible, temporal and eternal, carnal and spiritual. God has granted the first and promised the second, so that the one would be possessed as a free gift, and the other, sought through merit."cxvi 5. A good is given in vain if it is not preserved; it is promised in vain if it is not obtained. Hence, man was given a twofold command: that of nature for the preservation of the good which was given, and that of discipline for the meriting of the good which was promised.cxvii There is no better way of meriting than pure obedience. Obedience is pure when the command is obligatory of itself, and not for some added reason. Such is a command of discipline. Through this we learn how great is the power of obedience, since it leads our soul to heaven by way of merit, while disobedience casts it down into hell. The command [of discipline] was not given to man as if God had any need of man's submission, but in order to show man how to deserve the crown through pure and willing obedience. 6. Since man was liable to fall because his human nature had been formed out of nothingness and not yet stabilized by glory, the supremely bountiful God granted him a fourfold assistance, comprising two means of nature and two of grace. Into man's nature He instilled a twofold rectitude: one for right judgment which is RECTITUDE OF CONSCIENCE, and the other for right will which is SYNTERESIS, warning against evil and prompting toward good. Further, He added a twofold perfection of grace: ACTUAL GRACE, which is knowledge enlightening the intellect so that man may know himself, his God, and the world that was made for him; and SANCTIFYING GRACE, which is charity, disposing man to love God above all else, and his neighbor as himself. And so, before the fall, man was endowed with perfect natural faculties, further adorned with divine grace. It is clear, therefore, that if man did fall, it was by his own misdeed for having refused to obey. CHAPTER 12 - ON THE COMPLETION AND ORDERING OF THE WHOLE WORLD AFTER ITS CREATION 1. From this we may gather that the universe is like a book reflecting, representing, and describing its Maker, the Trinity, at three different levels of expression: as a trace, an image, and a likeness. The aspect of trace is found in every creature; the aspect of image, in the intellectual creatures or rational spirits; the aspect of likeness, only in those who are God-conformed. Through these successive levels,

comparable to the rungs of a ladder, the human mind is designed to ascend gradually to the supreme Principle who is God.cxviii 2. This should be understood as follows. All creatures are related to their Creator and depend upon Him. They may be referred to Him in three different ways: as He is the Principle who creates, the End who motivates, or the Gift who dwells within. All His creatures are referred to Him in the first way, all rational beings in the second, and, in the third, all righteous souls accepted by Him. All creatures, however little they may partake of being, have God for their Principle; all rational beings, however little they may partake of light, are intended to grasp God through knowledge and love; and all righteous and holy souls possess the Holy Spirit as an infused gift. 3. Now, a creature cannot97 have God for its Principle unless it is conformed to Him in oneness, truth, and goodness. Nor can it have God for its End unless it grasps Him through memory, intelligence, and will. Finally, it cannot have God as an infused Gift unless it conforms to Him through the threefold dowrycxix of faith, hope, and love. The first conformity is distant, the second close, and the third most intimate. That is why the first is called a "trace" of the Trinity, the second an "image," and the third a "likeness." 4. The rational spirit is placed midway between the beings which conform in the first way and those which conform in the last; so that the first manner of conforming is below the rational spirit, the second within it, and the third above it. Thus, in the state of innocence, when the image had not yet been distorted but was conformed to God through grace, the book of creation sufficed to enable man to perceive the light of divine Wisdom. He was then so wise that, seeing all things in themselves, he also saw them in their proper genus as well as in God's creating Art. For this accords with the triple manner in which creatures exist: in matter, that is, in their own nature; in the created intellect, and in the eternal Art. In this, they conform to the three scriptural expressions: Let it be; God made it; and it was made98.99cxx 5. For this triple vision, man was endowed with a triple eye, as explained by Hugh of St. Victor: the eye of flesh, of reason, and of contemplation;cxxi the eye of flesh, to see the world and what it contains; the eye of reason, to see the soul and what it contains; the eye of contemplation, to see God and that which is within Him. Through the eye of the flesh, man was to see the things outside him; with the eye of reason, the things within him; with the eye of contemplation, the things above him. Now, the eye of contemplation cannot see with perfect clearness, except through glory, which man may lose through sin, but restore through grace, faith,cxxii and the study of Scripture. By these means, the human soul is cleansed, enlightened, and perfected for the contemplation of heavenly things, unto which fallen man cannot reach unless he first admits his insufficiency and blindness; and this he cannot do unless he remembers the downfall of human nature. |< << >> >|

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PART III - ON THE CORRUPTION OF SIN


CHAPTER 1 - ON THE ORIGIN OF EVIL IN GENERALcxxiii HAVING briefly clarified certain matters relating to the Trinity of God and the creation of the world, we shall now, with equal brevity, touch upon the corruption caused by sin. What we must hold is summarized thus: sin is not some positive essence, but a defect, a corruptive tendency; that is, a force which contaminates mode, species, and order100 in the created will.cxxiv Hence the corruptive power of sin, while opposed to good as such, yet has no being except in a good, and no origin except from a good; which good is the will's capacity for free choice. And this capacity is not entirely evil,101 for it may tend toward good; nor entirely good, for it may fall into evil. 2. This should be understood as follows. Since the first Principle exists of Himself, and not by another, He must necessarily exist for His own sake: He must be the supreme Good, absolutely free of defect. A first and absolute evil does not and could not exist, for the notion of first Principle implies supreme plenitude, and the notion of supreme evil, utter deficiency. Since the first Principle, the supreme and complete Being, cannot fail either in existence or in operation, He is neither absolute evil, nor any degree of evil, nor can He in any manner be the cause of evil. Because the first Principle is almighty, He is able to draw something good into being out of non-being, even without any pre-existing elements. This is precisely what He did when He formed the creature to whom He granted being, life, intelligence, and will. This creature, proceeding from the supreme Good and innerly conformed to the triple cause,cxxv fittingly has in its substance and will a mode, species, and order: following which mode, species, and order implanted in its nature, it was meant to act by the power of God, in accordance with God, and for God as an end. 3. But man, made out of nothingness, and imperfect as he was by nature, had the capacity of acting for ends other than God; of acting for himself instead of for God, and thus not properly by the power of God, nor according to God, nor for God as an end. That precisely is sin: the vitiation of mode, species, and order. As sin is a defect, it has a cause which is not EF-ficient, but DE-ficient, being the defection of the created will.cxxvi 4. Sin can only be the corruption of a good; and only a corruptible being is subject to corruption; therefore, sin can be found only in some corruptible good. Now, free will, by falling away from the true Good, corrupts its own mode, species, and order; hence, sin as such proceeds from the will as from its source, and resides in the will as in its proper subject: which occurs whenever the will, through fallibility, mutability, and indifference, spurns the indefectible and immutable Good and cleaves to the mutable.cxxvii 5. We understand, then, that "sin is not a desire for evil, but a forsaking of good,"cxxviii which thereby destroys mode, species, and order in the disposition of the will; and thus we understand that "sin is so

directly dependent upon the will that without will, there is no sin."cxxix Before these truths, the impious Manichean teachingcxxx that there exists a supreme evil, the first principle of all evil, manifestly collapses. For it is also clear from what fountain evil flows, and in what subject it resides. CHAPTER 2 - ON THE TEMPTATION OF OUR FIRST PARENTS 1. If we are to understand how the corruptive power of sin entered the world, we must consider the fall of our first parents, the transmission of original sin, and the origin or root of actual sin. As to the fall of our first parents, there are three points to consider: the diabolical temptation, the act of sin itself, and the consequent penalty. 2. Concerning the temptation, the following must be held. God established man in the bliss of paradise, having made two sexes, the male and the female. Then the devil, envious of man, assumed the form of a serpent and addressed the woman, first asking: "Did God say: 'You shall not eat. . . '?";102 then asserting: "You shall not die"; then promising: "You will be like God, knowing good and evil" By this temptation, he sought to bring about the fall of the weaker woman, so that through her he might then overthrow the stronger sex. This, God permitted him to do. 3.This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, as He is utterly powerful in the act of creating, is also utterly just in the act of governing. Therefore, "He so governs the things He has made as to let them move by their own inner powers."cxxxi Now, since man was made in order to win the prize of eternal peace by fighting on to final victory, God, while knowing that man would yield to temptation, could not but let him be tempted by whosoever had the wit, the might, the will to tempt. Now, Satan, wise and just at first, but rendered sly and envious after falling through his act of pride, had the WILL to tempt because he hated; and in his craftiness, he KNEW HOW to tempt. He therefore challenged man with all the MIGHT God would let him use. But by God's will, the tempter had to take a serpent's form, not only that his cunning might be seen, but also that, by such a sign, all Adam's sons might learn how shrewd a tempter Satan is.103 4. The temptation concerned a precept of discipline-again, this was by God's permission. Whether the devil was finally to win or to lose, all human beings were thus to learn the merit of obedience and the evil of rebellion. But it was by the devil's own cunning that he approached the woman first. It is easier to overcome the weak. A clever enemy always attacks a stronghold at its weakest point. 5. The devil was extremely clever also in the manner in which he tempted, for he went about it by probing, prodding, and enticing: probing by his question, prodding by his assertions, and enticing by his promise. First, by asking about the purpose of the command, he awakened doubt in the rational power; when doubt was felt "lest we die,104" he gave reassurance, inducing contempt in the irascible power; finally, he uttered his promise, provoking the concupiscible power to desire.105 By this triple approach, he wrested consent from the free will, a faculty of both intellect and will, and embracing also the rational, irascible, and concupiscible powerscxxxii indicated above. Accordingly, the devil enticed the woman by proposing a triple object: knowledge, appealing to the rational power; godlike

eminence, appealing to the irascible; and the sweet fruit of the tree, appealing to the concupiscible.106 Thus, he tempted everything that could be tempted in the woman,cxxxiii and by every means that could lead her into acquiescence, that is, by the triple worldly lure, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life;107 for all temptation stems from one of these three: the world, the flesh, or the devil. CHAPTER 3 - ON THE SIN OF OUR FIRST PARENTS 1. Concerning the sin of our first parents, the following must be held. The woman, yielding to the temptation of the devil, wished to possess knowledge and a godlike state; she desired also to taste the sweetness of the forbidden fruit. So, in the end, she broke the divine command. Not content with this, she offered the fruit of the forbidden tree to the man, involving him as well. And he, not willing to jeopardize his own delight, did not reprove her, but yielded to her wicked persuasion. Tasting the proffered fruit, he also broke the command. 2. This should be understood as follows. As stated above,108 the first Principle gave the human creature a twofold perception and a twofold desire as regards the two books and the two kinds of good. But possessing freedom of will, this creature could turn either way. Now, the woman, hearing in the external way the serpent's suggestion, failed to read the internal book that was open and quite legible to the right judgment of reason. She kept her mind on the external book instead, and began to be concerned with the external good. Because her mind was not upon the infallible truth, her desire soon began to lean toward the perishable good. And so she set her heart upon what the devil promised, and agreed to do what he proposed. In her craving for superior knowledge, she rose to pride, which drew her into gluttony, which in turn finally cast her down through disobedience. The first act was a thought, the second a feeling, and the third a deed. Temptation began at the bottom and attained the top: it began with hearing, passed through desire, and attained consent. Conversely, disorder began at the top109 and went down to the bottom, consummating the one sin that was to be for human nature the beginning of all sin and the origin of evil. 3. The woman, led astray, beguiled the man. He, too, turned to the external book and to perishable good. In his excessive love for the woman's company and the solace of her presence, he shrank from reproving her lest he endanger his own happiness. Because he did not rebuke where he should have rebuked, the woman's sin was imputed to him. When, out of concern for his own delight, he failed to reject the woman's offering, he committed an act of selfish love that cast him out of the friendship of God, and made him fall into greed and disobedience. 4. Both the man and the woman disobeyed the command, but for different reasons. The woman was deceived, the man was not.110 Yet in both man and woman there occurred a disruption of order in all their powers, from the highest to the lowest: first in their intellect, then in their senses, and finally in their actions. Both fell into disobedience and succumbed to greed because both had risen in pride. In the woman, it was out of avidity and desire for what she had not; in man, out of excessive love and concern for what he had. The woman believed that if she ate, she would be exalted; Adam, relying on his own greatness and God's love, did not expect a heavy punishment: never yet had he experienced the rigor of God's severity.cxxxiv

By their inordinate attempt to rise above what they were, both fell wretchedly below what they were: from the state of innocence to that of guilt and misery. CHAPTER 4 - ON THE PUNISHMENT OF OUR FIRST PARENTS 1. As to the punishment of our first parents, this is what we must believe. Immediately after they had sinned, the man and woman sensed their punishment already beginning in the rebellion and shame of their flesh, for to hide their nakedness, they ... made themselves coverings111. Next, God sentenced the man to the punishment of work and hardship, of hunger and need, of death and return to dust, as Scripture says: "Cursed be the ground because of you,"112 etc. ... Upon the woman fell a punishment twice as heavy, for she was afflicted with the penalties of much distress during pregnancy and cruel pain at childbirth, and of subjection to her husband in their life together. Heavy was the punishment for the sin committed so lightly, the sin of eating the forbidden fruit. 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, who governs all things with perfect foresight and presides over all with perfect justice, tolerates no disorder of any kind in the universe. Because the disorder of sin is properly set aright by punishment, when our first parents fell, the shame of sin was immediately followed by the corrective of justice. Thus, what had become disordered through the forsaking of natural order became subject at once to judicial order: for this twofold ordering enfolds all things so strictly that whatever falls away from the first immediately sinks back into the second.cxxxv 3. Now, both our first parents disobeyed their Master, through spiritual pride and physical gluttony. By a just judgment of God, their own servants then refused to obey them, particularly the organs intended for the generative function. Since this revolt resulted, not from their created nature but from their freely willed sin, they blushed for shame and covered themselves up. 4. Again, because the man had spurned the supreme Delight to seek pleasure in his body, by a just judgment of God he was afflicted with hard work and with the defect of hunger and thirst. 5. Finally, because he had abandoned his soul's true Good for the sake of material satisfaction, by a just judgment of God his soul was condemned to be separated against its will from his body through the body's death and return to dust. In the order of nature, God had given to man a body which should obey the soul, procreate without lust, grow without defect, and remain free from the corruption of death. Now, because man had sinned, God, conforming to the order of justice, took away all the body's gifts and scourged it with the opposite evils. Thus sin would not remain unpunished and uncompensated - a thing which divine Providence could never tolerate. 6. And because it was in the woman that sin first began, her punishment was twice as heavy: for having risen in her pride, she incurred subjection; for having looked upon and craved the sweet fruit of the tree, she incurred suffering; for having shaken off the yoke of obedience, she incurred the burden of multiplied distress.

Hence, it is clear how the rigorous order of divine Providence inflicted many pains upon the man, and twice as many upon the woman, lest "the shame of sin remain unredressed by the corrective of justice."cxxxvi CHAPTER 5 - ON THE CORRUPTION EFFECTED BY ORIGINAL SIN 1. Having spoken of the fall of our first parents, we shall now speak of the transmission of original sin. We shall examine how the corruption comes about, how it is transmitted, and how it is cured. 2. This is how mankind is corrupted by original sin. Everyone generated from the union of the sexes is, by the very nature of this birth, a child of wrath;113 for he is deprived of the righteousness of original justice,cxxxvii in the absence of which our souls incur a fourfold penalty: weakness, ignorance, malice, and concupiscence. These, inflicted because of original sin,cxxxviii are matched in the body by all kinds of pain, imperfection, labor, disease, and affliction. More penalties come later: death and the return to dust, privation of the beatific vision and loss of the heavenly glory, not only for adults, but also for infants who die without baptism. Of all human beings, however, these little ones suffer "the lightest penalty."cxxxix They are deprived of the beatific vision, but are not chastised in their senses. 3. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle acts by His own power, by His own law, and for Himself as an end. He must then be utterly good and righteous, and hence utterly kind and just. That is why all the ways of the Lord are mercy and truth,114 meaning justice. If God had CREATED man wretched from the very beginning, that would have been neither kind nor just, for He would have imposed great miseries upon His handiwork in the absence of sin. Nor would divine Providence have GOVERNED us with kindness and justice had it afflicted us or permitted us to be afflicted with these same miseries in the absence of sin. Now, it is absolutely certain that the first Principle is utterly righteous and merciful both in creating and governing. It follows, then, by necessity that in the beginning He CREATED mankind free from any sin or misery; and it also follows that, in GOVERNING mankind, He cannot permit any misery to exist in us except as a punishment of sin. But it is also absolutely certain that we are burdened from the time of our birth with the penalty of countless miseries: hence it is just as certain that, by natural birth, we are all children of wrath, deprived of the righteousness of original justice. That privation is called original sin.cxl 4. Because all sin implies movement away from the changeless Good and toward a perishable good; and movement away from the changeless Good means forsaking supreme power, truth, and goodness; and movement toward a perishable good means loving that good excessively: therefore, by losing original justice, man incurred weakness, ignorance, malice, and concupiscence. 5. Again, by forsaking the changeless Good in favor of a perishable good, man becomes unworthy of both. Hence, by losing original justice, man in his earthly life loses peace of the body, and is made to suffer in many ways from decay and death; and at the end of his life is deprived of the vision of eternal light, losing the beatific glory in both his body and his soul.

6. Finally, because the absence of this justice in the newly born is not caused by a personal act of their will nor by any actual pleasure, original sin does not demand after this life that they suffer the punishment of the senses in hell; for divine justice, always tempered with superabundant mercy, punishes not more but less than would be just. This we must hold to be Augustine's actual opinion, although, in his detestation of the Pelagian belief in some form of happiness after death for unbaptized infants115 he made use of words that might seem to have a different ring.cxli In his effort to bring the Pelagians back to moderation, he himself went somewhat to extremes. CHAPTER 6 - ON THE TRANSMISSION OF ORIGINAL SIN 1. This is how original sin is transmitted. The soul itself is not handed down, but original sin did pass from the soul of Adam into the souls of his descendants through the flesh born of concupiscence. As Adam's flesh had been tainted by his sinful soul, becoming prone to lust, so the flesh seeded with lust and carrying in itself a virulent infection, taints and vitiates the soul. This infection in the soul is not only a punishment, but also a sin. Hence the spiritual element corrupts the physical, and corrupted physical nature in turn corrupts the spiritual,cxlii while leaving in all things the justice of God unimpaired; for although God infuses a soulcxliii as He creates it, and, through this infusion, attaches it to infected flesh, He yet can never be blamed for the soul's infection. 2. This should be understood as follows. Because the first Principle made man in His image to be an expression of Himself, He created the bodily element of man in such a way that all men would stem from the first man as from a single radical principle; and He created the spiritual element in such a way that, because it was an express similitude as much in nature and duration as in intelligence and love, all rational spirits would stem from Him, God, as from a first and immediate Principle. And because the soul, being superior, is closer than the body to the first Principle, therefore the Creator so formed man that the spirit was pre-eminent over the body, and the body was subordinate to the created spirit as long as that spirit should obey the uncreated Spirit. But were the soul, on the other hand, to disobey God, by God's just judgment the body would revolt against it: and that is what happened when Adam sinned. 3. If Adam had stood firm, his body would have remained obedient to his soul, and he would have handed down that obedient body to his descendants. In such a body, God would have infused a soul which, being united to flesh both immortal and obedient, would have been established in righteousness and exempt from all penalty. But Adam did sin; his flesh did reject the authority of his soul. Hence the body which he must transmit, and into which God, by His own primordial decree, must infuse a soul, was such that this soul, united to this rebellious flesh, was weakened in that order of natural justice wherewith it should have ruled the lower impulses. As soul and body are one being, the soul must, then, lead the body, or be dragged along by it. Because it cannot lead rebellious flesh, it must be led, incurring the disease of concupiscence. Thus it suffers both the loss of due justice and the sickness of disordered passion. In the opinion of both Augustine and Anselm, the twofold movement - the turning AWAY, and the turning TOWARD- is precisely what constitutes original sin.cxliv 4. As explained above,116 the manner of creation of human nature, its intended method of propagation, and the punishment provided in the event of sin are all perfectly conformed to the order

of Providence. Creation, indeed, conforms to the order of wisdom, propagation to the order of nature, and punishment to the order of justice. Hence, the transmission of original sin to posterity is clearly not inconsistent with divine justice. 5. Now, original sin could not be transmitted to the soul unless the punishment for rebellion were already present in the flesh, and there would be no punishment if there had not first been sin. Again, sin came from a will not well-ordered but disordered; hence, from the will, not of God, but of man. Therefore, the transmission of original sin is due to the first man's sin, and not to God; to an offense actually committed, and not to nature as originally created. Rightly, then, does Augustine say; "It is not generation, but lust, that transmits original sin to posterity."cxlv117 CHAPTER 7 - ON THE CURE OF ORIGINAL SIN 1. Finally, the cure of original sin takes place in this way. It is cured as regards guilt, but the temporal punishment remains, as appears in baptized infants; it is cured as regards eternal punishment, but the actual inclination of concupiscence remains; it is cured in the parent, but even so, transmitted to offspring by the very one who was healed in baptism. Its stain is blotted out, but its consequences remain, to be fought against as long as life lasts; for in no human being, assuredly, has concupiscence ever been extinguished by ordinary grace. We say this because in the case of the Blessed Virgin, concupiscence was extinguished by extraordinary grace when she conceived the Son of God.cxlvi 2. This should be understood as follows. As infection is caused in all men by that created principle which is responsible for propagation, that is, the flesh or inferior element, so healing is brought about by the uncreated Principle who is responsible for the infusion of the soul, that is, the higher element or the spirit. As regards the soul, men are unrelated in that one soul is not born of another, but all come directly from God. Healing grace, then, poured into the soul by God, applies to each one considered as a single, individual person, and not as a principle of physical propagation. Consequently, while original sin is a disease infecting both elements, the personal and the physical - the personal through the will and the physical through the flesh - the stain of original sin is blotted out in the soul, while on the other hand the infection and its consequences remain in the flesh. Now, man is a principle of propagation, not in his spirit which is healed, but in his flesh, which remains infected; not as spiritual, but as carnal. Hence, while he himself, a baptized person, is cleansed from original sin, he still hands it down to his offspring. 3. Again, since the guilt deserving eternal damnation concerns the deformity of the person or spiritual principle, while the deed concerns the physical propensity or the flesh, therefore original sin passes away through baptism in regard to guilt, but it remains in regard to the act itself.cxlvii 4. Finally, because temporal affliction denotes a condition which affects the flesh: as the flesh always remains subject to some form of infection, so also it must always remain liable to penalty. Hence, as grace does not remove the penalty and corruption from the flesh, so also the consequences of original sin - concupiscence and bodily weakness-may coexist with healing grace. Concupiscence may gradually decrease, but its roots remain. No wayfarer, then, is completely rid of it, except the most Blessed Virgin, who was relieved by a special favor. Because the Virgin conceived Him who is

Expiation of all sin, she received a privilege that radically freed her from concupiscence, so that her conception of the Son of God would be all-pure and perfect. "It was wholly right that the Virgin should shine with a purity greater than any other that could be thought of under God. For it was to her that the Father determined to give His only Son - born of His heart, equal to Him, and dear to Him as His own Self - to be the one and self-same Son of both the Father and the Virgin; the Son Himself chose to make her His true Mother; and the Holy Spirit willed, and made it be, that the Son from whom He Himself proceeds should be conceived by her and born of her."cxlviii CHAPTER 8 - ON THE ORIGIN OF ACTUAL SIN 1. Having spoken of the transmission of original sin, we shall now consider the origin of actual sin. What must be known concerning this may be summarized as follows. Actual sin is born of the free will of the individual by a process of suggestion, [anticipated] satisfaction, consent, and action. As James says in his first chapter: Everyone is tempted by being drawn away and enticed by his own passion. Then when passion has conceived, it brings forth sin; but when sin has matured, it begets death118. If suggestion and satisfaction remain short of actual consent, the sin is venial; but if they are followed by consent and an action forbidden by divine law is committed, a mortal sin is consummated. There are intermediate cases. If full consent occurs, but without execution, or if an action is intended but prevented by some extrinsic cause, the will is judged as if the deed had been accomplished: it is no less guilty than if it had been caught in the very act. Again, the will may choose, not the act itself, but the subjective satisfaction: in which case the woman eats, but not the man.119 Here the sin, although not fully consummated, is still mortal, because, though the woman alone eats, the whole man deserves condemnation. The clearest examples are the sins of the flesh. 2. This should be understood as follows. Because sin indicates that the will withdraws from the first Principle in some matter in which it should have chosen to be acted upon by Him, in accord with His will, and for Him as an end, every sin is a disorder in the mind, or rather in the will, the source of both virtue and vice.cxlix And so, actual sin is an actual disorder of the will. When the disorder is so serious that it DESTROYS the order of justice, it is called mortal sin, for by its very nature it extinguishes life, separating as it does the soul from God by whom the just spirit is vivified. When the disorder is slight and does not destroy but merely DISTURBS the order of justice, it is called venial, or readily pardonable, for it does not result in total loss of grace or in God's enmity. Now, the order of justice demands that the eternal Good be preferred to the temporal, the good of virtue to that of utility, the will of God to one's own, and right reason to sensuality. Since the law of God prescribes rightful order and forbids disorder, when the temporal is preferred to the eternal, the advantageous to the virtuous, one's own will to the will of God, and sensual appetite to right reason, a mortal sin results. As Ambrose writes, a mortal sin is "a transgression of the divine law, and an act of disobedience to the heavenly commands."cl Sin consists in either omitting what divine law prescribes, or committing what it forbids. There are, therefore, two ways of sinning: by omission and by commission. 3. When a temporal good is loved too much, without being actually chosen over the eternal; when the

advantageous is not actually chosen over the right; when self-will is loved too much but not actually preferred to the will of God; when the flesh is full of desires but not actually preferred to the judgment of right reason: the sin is not mortal but venial, because all this, while outside of the law, is not directly against it.cli In fact, sensual pleasure is never actually preferred to right reason unless reason itself agrees: short of consent, there is no mortal sin. 4. If, however, the senses are unduly aroused, this disorder, unwilled as it may be, disposes man to sin. It is sinful to some extent, for it upsets somewhat the order of justice. In the state of innocence, the senses were moved by reason alone. If man had stood firm, there could have been no venial sin. But now the senses wrestle with reason, whether we like it or not, and inevitably we do commit some venial sins through the reactions of impulse. It would be possible to keep any one of them under control, but not all of them together, for they are not only sins but also penalties of sin. That is why they are properly called venial, for that is precisely why they are pardonable.clii 5. But since reason is not necessarily overcome by such impulses, if, realizing the pleasure, it does acquiesce in the act, then there is full consent and thus a consummated sin; for then it extends to the masculine principle, the higher part of the mind, upon which full consent depends. 6. Now, consent applies not only to acting but also to enjoying, in which case the inferior part of the mind obeys the call of the senses. If in sensual delight reason succumbs to sensuality, then the feminine principle is bowing to the serpent. Right order and justice are subverted, whereby a mortal sin is committed, although it is of lesser gravity; and it is imputable not only to the woman but also to the man, who should have restrained her and prevented her from obeying the serpent. Clearly, then, every personal sin is in a way a copy of the first and original sin, as the eminent doctor Augustine explains in the twelfth chapter of his book "On the Trinity."cliii CHAPTER 9 - ON THE ORIGIN AND DIVISION OF CAPITAL SINS 1. Next, we shall investigate the origin of the different kinds of sin: capital, penal, and final or irremissible; in other words, the initial, the intermediate, and the ultimate. Concerning the origin of capital sin,cliv this is a summary of what must be held. Actual sin has one source, two roots, three incentives, and seven heads: the capital sins. The one source is pride, of which it is written: pride is the beginning of all sin.120 The two roots are fear that unduly restrains, and love that unduly inflames. The three incentives are the three worldly temptations: the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life121. Finally, the seven heads are: pride,122 envy, anger, sloth, covetousness, gluttony, and lust. Among these, the first five are sins of the spirit, the last two, sins of the flesh. 2. This should be understood as follows. Mortal sin is an actual withdrawal from the first Principle.

There is no withdrawing from the first Principle except through contempt, either for Himself or for His commands. Now, contempt for the first Principle is an act of pride. Clearly, then, all mortal sin or offense has its ONE SOURCE in pride. 3. Man never contemns the first Principle or His commands in themselves, but only because he desires to have, or is afraid of losing, something other than God. Hence, sin has TWO ROOTS: fear and love. These are fundamental to all evil, but they are not equally primordial. 4. Fear is born of love, for no man is afraid of losing something unless he loves it.clv Fear, then, thrives on the same food as love. Disordered love occurs only in relation to perishable good. Since perishable good is threefold - the interior good of personal superiority, the exterior good of wealth, and the inferior good of sensual satisfaction - there are THREE FUNDAMENTAL INCENTIVES, as indicated above; from these, when the soul seeks them inordinately, stem all actual sins. 5. Because this may come about in seven ways, there are SEVEN HEADS or capital sins which give rise to all the vices. Our will may be disordered because it either seeks what it should not seek, or rejects what it should not reject. First, it may seek what it should not seek: what appears good now, but is either a temporal good [inordinately sought] or a false one. It may be interior, such as personal superiority, the goal of PRIDE; exterior, such as wealth, the goal of COVETOUSNESS; inferior, such as the pleasure of eating that satisfies the sense of taste and is intended for the preservation of the individual, which appeals to GLUTTONY; or the pleasure of carnal intercourse that satisfies the sense of touch and is intended for the preservation of the species, which appeals to LUST. But our will may be disordered also by rejecting what it should not reject, and this in three ways corresponding to the manners of rejection: perversion of the rational faculty by ENVY; perversion of the irascible appetite by ANGER; and perversion of the concupiscible appetite by SLOTH.123 Since there are four main objects of desire, and three powers prompting the will to rejection, there are in all seven capital sins. 6. Now, the perception of a desirable object is associated with pleasure, and that of a loathsome object, with pain. Thus, the first four of these sins have pleasure attached to them, and the last three, unhappiness and pain. Yet all seven are called capital sins because they are the chief disorders, and each in its own way is the cause of many others. Some of these sins, while they imply rejection, also imply a certain delectation. Envy aims at the exclusive, thus full possession of personal goods;124 anger, at their unopposed, thus peaceful, possession; sloth, at their effortless, thus easy, possession. And since men do not obtain such results readily, these sins bring with them a great host of vices in the pursuit of the objects of love and in the flight from the objects of loathing. It is in reference to such vices that sins are called capital, for they are as headwaters from which flow countless other sins. CHAPTER 10 - ON THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF PENAL SINclvi 1. Concerning penal sin, the following must be held. While the evil of guilt and the evil of penalty are

distinct species of evil, there are some sins that are both sins and penalties of sin. Narrowly considered, these are the sins that imply pain and sorrow, such as envy, sloth, and the like; more broadly considered, they are the sins that imply either the depraving of nature or something shameful, such as those by which the sinner is given . . . up to a reprobate sense;125 and in a general view, they are those that "occur between the first act of unfaithfulness and the final punishment of hell. These are called both sins and penalties of sin,"clvii for, as Gregory says, "crimes are punished with further crimes."clviii While the selfsame thing may be both a sin and a penalty of sin, we must hold that every penalty in so far as it is a penalty is rightful and comes from God, but that no sin as such is ever rightful, nor does it come from God: it comes from free will alone. Penalty which is mere penalty is inflicted by God, but penalty which is sin, or a propensity to sin, is contracted or committed by man. 2. This should be understood as follows. Since evil is a withdrawal from the first Principle, it is damaging to created good; nor can it damage good without robbing it of something. And, since good consists in mode, species, and order,126 every evil is therefore harmful to mode, species, and order.clix Now, there are two kinds of order: that of nature and that of justice. The order of nature pertains to the natural good, the order of justice to the moral. We find natural good in any created essence, but moral good in the will alone. The order of nature, therefore, exists in any created essence, but the order of justice, only in free will. Because the will is "an instrument that moves itself,"clx while nature is not, it follows that the order of justice is not merely established but self-establishing, while the order of nature is merely established. And because evil may be a privation either in the order of justice or in the order of nature, there are two forms of evil: the evil of guilt and the evil of penalty. 3. Again, because the order of justice is an order of the will, it follows that "the evil of guilt is an effect of the will, while the evil of penalty is not."clxi 4. Finally, because the order of justice that exists in the will is a self-establishing order, it follows that "the evil of guilt, which is a privation of righteousness, is an evil we cause, while the evil of penalty is an evil we suffer."clxii Now, since there cannot be any receiving of an effect without antecedent action, nor any performing of an action without consequent effect,clxiii there can exist no penalty without an antecedent guilt that deserved it, nor can there exist any guilt without a consequent penalty. 5. Whatever we do is our own doing, but what we suffer may be caused either by ourselves or by another agent either superior or inferior to us. While sin is always our own doing, not all of our penalties are self-inflicted: some may be so, while others are imposed upon us, and others, again, inherited. 6. It is just that a man suffer what he must for doing what he should not do. Every penalty, in so far as it is a penalty, is just and comes from divine Providence, because it is fitted to the sin and effective in

restoring the order disturbed by sin. 7. The suffering of a penalty consists in the loss either of a natural good only, or of both a natural and a moral good. That is why some penalties are penalties only, while others are both penalties and sins: for the moral good of righteousness is not lost except through unrighteousness, that is, sin. Thus, penalties of the first kind, both as punishments and in the fact of loss, do come from God acting, not as Creator, but as Avenger. Penalties of the second kind, in as much as they are also sins, do not come from God; but in as much as they vindicate order, they do. When these penalties derive from actual sin, they are our own doing; when they derive from original sin, they are inherited. 8. If evil is considered in a limited sense, as a privation of natural good, an effect outside the will, something we merely suffer, then it is not the same as the evil of guilt, although the two go hand in hand. If evil is considered broadly, as a privation in the order either of nature or of the will, whether caused by ourselves or by another, then the two coincide within the same subject, but not in reference to the same object nor from the same viewpoint. For the very thing that is guilt in itself is also a penalty in reference to an earlier sin; and what is a sin when viewed as something done, is also a penalty when viewed as something suffered. Thus it is clear in what way, to what extent, and why something can be called both a sin and a penalty of sin. CHAPTER 11 - ON THE ORIGIN OF FINAL SIN, OR SIN AGAINST THE HOLY SPIRIT 1. Concerning final, or irremissible, sin - that against the Holy Spirit - the following must be held. Generally speaking, every sin is an offense against the triune God. By appropriation, however, some sins are said to be against the Father, others against the Son, and others, finally, against the Holy Spirit. Sin against the Holy Spirit is called irremissible either in this world or in the world to come;127 not because it could not be remitted in this world, but because its guilt is seldom, if ever, remitted here, and its penalty is hardly, if at all, remitted hereafter.clxiv Of this sin there are six different kinds: envy of another's spiritual welfare, rejection of known truth, despair, presumption, obstinacy of mind, and final impenitence. 2. This should be understood as follows. Sin being a withdrawal from the first Principle, trine and one, every sin distorts the likeness of the Trinity and damages the soul itself in its three powers: the irascible, the rational, and the concupiscible; and every sin proceeds from free will, which bears within itself the sign of the Trinity: being a power, it bears the mark of the Father; being rational, the mark of the Son; being free, the mark of the Holy Spirit. 3. In every sinful act, all three concur, but there is always one whose defection brings about the perversion of the others. Now, defection of power is impotence; defection of reason, ignorance; defection of intent, malice. Some sins, then, are due to impotence, others to ignorance, and others again to malice; wherefore, power being attributed to the Father, wisdom to the Son, and will to the Holy Spirit,clxv some sins are said to be against the Father, others against the Son, and yet others against the Holy Spirit. Because there is nothing greater in the will than the will itself,clxvi and sin

originates in it, no sin is as wholly and exclusively voluntary as that which arises from corruption of the will. Only two things can preclude the will's free exercise: constraint and ignorance; the first by a failure in power, the second by a failure in knowledge.clxvii When, therefore, the will has the power to resist, but solely out of its own corruption, chooses to do something recognized as wrong, it is committing what is known as a sin of sheer malice. Such a sin arises from an absolute defection of the free will, and is opposed directly to the grace of the Holy Spirit. Because it derives exclusively from free will, it has not even the color of an excuse, and the man who is answerable for it may count on little or no relief from the ensuing penalty. On the contrary, because a sin such as this directly flouts the very grace of the Holy Spirit by which penalties of sin are remitted, it is called irremissible. It is not beyond all remission, but from its nature it is directly opposed to the very medicine and remedy whereby sins are remitted. 4. The remission of sins is brought about by God through penitential grace within the communion of the Church. Irremissible sins are distinguished accordingly as they directly oppose one of these three; for in truth they directly oppose penitential grace either in itself, or in relation to God by whom it is given, or in relation to the Church in whose communion it is obtained. Now, the communion of the Church consists in two things, faith and love, that is, grace and truth128. Thus there are two possible sins against it: envy of another's spiritual welfare, and rejection of a known truth. Again, in matters of justification, all the ways of the Lord are mercy and truth129. Thus there are two possible sins against God the Giver of grace: despair, which impugns mercy, and presumption, which impugns justice.clxviii Finally, penitential grace lifts man out of past sins, and guards him against future sins. Thus there are two possible sins against penitential grace, in itself or in its purpose: obstinacy of mind, which is opposed to the first, and final impenitence, which is opposed to the second. If by "final impenitence" we understand the intention never to repent, it is in this sense that it is one of the sins against the Holy Spirit. If we understand it to mean the continuation of sin until the very end, it is a consequence of all mortal sins that have not been remitted in the present life, but more specially, of every kind of sin against the Holy Spirit. 5. Every sin, therefore, is born of pride, and tends to its full maturity and end in final impenitence. Whoever reaches this point falls headlong into hell, since no one guilty of mortal sin is able to free himself without the intervening grace of the Mediator Christ.130 Therefore did the throng of those expecting salvation yearn for the incarnation of our Mediator and Lord; to whom be all honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. |< << >> >|

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PART IV - ON THE INCARNATION OF THE WORD


CHAPTER 1 - ON THE REASON WHY THE INCARNATION OF THE WORD WAS NECESSARY, OR FITTING AFTER SPEAKING of the Trinity of God, the creation of the world, and the corruption of sin, we must consider briefly the incarnation of the Word; for through this Word Made Flesh was wrought the salvation and restoration of mankind. Nor was this because God could not have saved and freed the human race in some other way; but because no other way would have been so fitting and so adapted, alike to the Redeemer, the redeemed, and the nature of redemption itself.clxix 2. This should be understood as follows. The creative Principle of all things could not have been, and could not fittingly be conceived as being, any other than God. Now, the restoration of the universe is no lesser task than that of bringing it into existence; for to exist fittingly is no less important than simply to exist.clxx131 It was entirely right, then, that the restorative Principle of all things should be the supreme God. In this way, just as God had created all things through the Word Not Made, even so He restored all things through the Word Made Flesh.132 Again, God does all things with complete power, wisdom, and goodness or benevolence. It was fitting, then, that He so restore all things as to display His power, wisdom, and benevolence. What greater act of power than to combine within a single Person two extremely distant natures?clxxi What more suitable act of wisdom than to bring the universe to full perfection by uniting the First and the last: the Word of God, origin of all things, and the human creature, last to be made?clxxii What greater act of benevolence than for the Master to redeem the slave by taking the nature of a slave?133 This is, in truth, a deed of such unfathomable goodness that no greater proof of mercy, care, and love can be conceived. Assuredly, then, this was the most fitting way for God the Restorer to reveal His power, wisdom, and benevolence. 3. When man sinned, he went astray, rejecting the most mighty, wise, and benevolent Principle. As a result, he fell headlong into weakness, ignorance, and malice. From having been spiritual, he became carnal, animal, and sensual. He could no longer imitate divine power, behold divine light, or love divine goodness. The most perfect way for man to be raised out of this misery was for the first Principle to come down to man's level, offering Himself to him as an accessible object of knowledge, love, and imitation.134 Man, carnal, animal, and sensual, could not know, love, or imitate anything that was not both proportionate and similar to himself. So, in order to raise man out of this state, the Word was made flesh;135 that He might be known and loved and imitated by man who was flesh, and that man, so knowing and loving and imitating God, might be healed of the disease of sin.clxxiii 4. Finally, man could not be completely healed unless he recovered purity of soul, the friendship of

God, and his proper excellence whereby he had been subject to none but God. Since such a thing could not be brought about except by God in the nature of a slave,136 it was fitting that the Word be made flesh. Man could not have recovered EXCELLENCE through any Restorer other than God. Had it been a mere creature,137 man would have been subject to this mere creature, and thus could not have recovered the state of excellence. Nor could man have recovered the FRIENDSHIP OF GOD except through a fitting Mediator, who could touch God with one hand and man with the other, who would be the likeness and the friend of both: God in His divinity, and man in His humanity. Nor, again, could man have recovered PURITY OF SOUL if his sin had not been blotted out, which divine justice could not fittingly bring about except after condign atonement had been made. And because God alone COULD provide atonement for the whole of mankind, and man alone MUST provide it, for man had sinned: therefore the best of ways was that mankind be restored by the Godman, born of Adam's race. Now, since man could not have recovered excellence except through the most excellent Restorer, nor friendship except through the most friendly Mediator, nor purity of soul except through the most superabundant Satisfier; and the most excellent Restorer could be none but God, the most friendly Mediator, none but a man, and the most superabundant Satisfier, none but Him who was both God and man: therefore, it was absolutely the most fitting thing for our restoration that the Word become incarnate. For as the human race came into being through the Word Not Made, and as it sinned because it failed to heed the Word Inspired, so it would rise from sin through the Word Made Flesh. CHAPTER 2 - ON THE INCARNATION AS REGARDS THE UNION OF NATURES 1. Concerning the incarnate Word, there are three points to consider: the union of natures, the fullness of gifts, and the endurance of sufferings for the redemption of man. In order to clarify the mystery of the incarnation, we must consider the union of natures under three subheads: what was done; how it was done; and when it was done. 2. In regard to what was done in the incarnation, Christian faith obliges us to hold the following. The incarnation was brought about by the Trinity, through whom the Godhead assumed flesh, and a union was accomplished between Godhead and flesh in such a way that the assuming was not only of the material flesh, but also of the rational spirit in its three functions, vegetative, sensitive, and intellective; and that the union occurred through oneness, not of nature, but of person; not of a human person, but of a divine; not of the assumed, but of the Assuming; not of any [divine] Person indifferently, but of the Word alone, in whom the oneness is so absolute that whatever may be said of the Son of God may be said also of the Son of Man, and vice versa: excepting, however, such matters as designate the union itself or imply some contradiction.

3. This should be understood as follows. The incarnation is the work of the first Principle seen not only in His creative power but also in His restorative power as the Healer, the Atoner, and the Reconciler. In so far as it means something performed, the incarnation is the work of the first Principle, the Doer by His omnipotence of all that is done. Now substance, power, and operation are absolutely one in the three Persons. That is why the work of the incarnation must necessarily proceed from the whole Trinity. 4. The incarnation derives from the first Principle as it expresses the RESTORATIVE POWER OF GOD THE HEALER. The whole human race had fallen into sin, and was vitiated not only in spirit but also in flesh. Hence, the whole composite had to be assumed so that the whole might be cured. Now, the flesh, the part of our being more evident to us, is the part more distant from God. In order to use the more expressive term, to indicate a greater humiliation and a deeper condescension, we call this work, not "inanimation," but "in-carnation." 5. Again, the incarnation derives from the first Principle as it expresses the RESTORATIVE POWER OF GOD THE ATONER. Atonement can be offered only by a person both obliged to atone and able to do so; and none but man is obliged, and none but God is able. Both natures, then, the divine and the human, must concur in this atonement. Divine nature, however, could not so concur with another nature as to become part of a third that would arise from this concurrence; nor could divine nature change into some other; nor could another nature change into the divine: for divine nature is utterly perfect, simple, and immutable. Hence, divinity and humanity can be joined, not in a union of nature or of accident, but in one that is personal and hypo-static. Now, divine nature cannot subsist in any subject other than its own hypostasis. The union, then, cannot occur in the hypostasis or person of man, but only in that of God. By this union, therefore, the first Principle, in one of His hypostases, became the supposit of human nature. Hence, there is here but one Person, and one personal unity, that is, of the Person who assumed humanity. 6. Finally, the incarnation derives from the first Principle as it expresses the RESTORATIVE POWER OF GOD THE RECONCILER. Such a reconciler is a mediator, and as mediation is proper to the Son of God, so is incarnation also. For it pertains to a mediator to be the channel between man and God for the restoration of man to the knowledge, the likeness, and the sonship of God. But there could be no more fitting mediator than the Person who both is produced and Himself produces, the intermediate One of the Three Persons; nor could there be a more fitting restorer of man to the knowledge of God than the Word through whom the Father reveals Himself, the Word able to be combined with flesh, even as a word with the voice. clxxiv Nor again could there be a more fitting restorer of man to the likeness of God than He who is the Image of the Father. Nor, finally, could there be a more fitting restorer of man to adopted sonship than He who is the Son by nature. Most fittingly, then, did He become the Son of Man who was the very Son of God.clxxv 7. In the incarnation, the Son of God and the Son of Man are the same identical Person, since

"whenever two things are identical to a third, they are identical to each other."clxxvi Thus any predicate of one applies to both, unless it is a term that betokens incompatibility, such as those which express the very union of one nature with the other - for instance, to unite, to be made flesh, to assume, to be assumed; or those which express a negation as regards one nature of something pertaining to the other nature - for instance, to begin to be, to be created, and so forth. In these cases, for the reason here explained, there is an exception to the given rule. CHAPTER 3 - ON HOW THE INCARNATION CAME ABOUTclxxvii 1. Concerning how the incarnation came about, the following must be held. When the angel announced to the Blessed Virgin Mary the mystery of the incarnation to be accomplished within her, she believed it, desired it, and consented to it: whereupon she was sanctified and made fruitful by the overshadowing of the Holy Spirit. Through His power, "virginal was her conceiving of the Son of God, virginal her birth-giving, and virginal her state after deliverance."clxxviii She conceived not only a body, but a body with a soul, a body united to the Word and free from the stain of sin, a body all-holy and immaculate. That is why she is called the Mother of God, and is yet also the most sweet Virgin Mary. 2. This should be understood as follows. The incarnation is the work of the first Principle, whose restorative power is utterly congruous, universal, and complete: for by the law of His essence, His divine wisdom acts congruously, His divine generosity universally, and His divine power perfectly. 3. The incarnation is the work of the first Principle in that He uses the most CONGRUOUS means of restoration. The means are congruous when the medicine specifically corresponds to the disease, the restoration to the fall, and the remedy to the injury. The human race had fallen through the suggestion of the devil, through the consent of a deceived woman, and through a begetting become lustful that handed down original sin to the offspring. Conversely, and most fittingly, there was here a good angel persuading to what was good, a Virgin believing him and consenting to the proposed good, and the love of the Holy Spirit making her both holy and fruitful for a virginal conception. Thus, "evils were healed by their opposites."clxxix As it was a woman deceived by Satan and carnally known and corrupted by her husband's lust who handed down sin, sickness, and death to all, so it was a woman instructed by an angel and made holy and fruitful by the Holy Spirit who gave birth without taint of soul or body to an Offspring, the Giver of grace, health, and life to all who come to Him. 4. Again, the incarnation is the work of the first Principle in that He uses the most UNIVERSAL means of restoration, for through the Word made flesh the fall of both men and angels138 is repaired:139clxxx that is, the fall of the dwellers of heaven and earth. And the fall of man is repaired in both sexes. Hence, if the cure was to be universal, it was wholly becoming that angel, woman, and man should concur in the mystery of the incarnation: the angel as the herald, the Virgin as the conceiver, and the Man as the conceived Offspring. The angel Gabriel was the herald of the eternal Father, the immaculate Virgin was the temple of the Holy Spirit, and the conceived Offspring was the very Person of the Word. The representatives of all three hierarchies-divine, angelic, and human -

concurred in this way in the universal restoration, suggesting not only the Trinity of God, but also the universality of the boon, and the generosity of the supreme Restorer. Now, generosity is appropriated to the Holy Spirit, and so is the sanctification of the Virgin in whose womb the Word was conceived. Therefore, although the incarnation is the work of the whole Trinity, by appropriation we say that the Virgin conceived of the Holy Spirit.clxxxi 5. Finally, the incarnation is the work of the first Principle in that He uses the most COMPLETE means of restoration. Hence, the conception must be complete as regards the Offspring, the manner of conceiving, and the power that effected it. First, there must be completeness in the Offspring. Hence, at the very instant of conception, the seed was not only individuated but also organized, shaped, and vivified by the soul, and deified through union with the Godhead. Thus, the Virgin truly conceived the Son of God, because the flesh was united to the Divinity through the rational soul140 that rendered the flesh susceptible of such union.
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Next, there must be completeness in the manner of conceiving. Of the four possible ways of producing man, three had already been followed: first, out of neither man nor woman, as with Adam; then, out of man but not woman, as with Eve; third, out of both man and woman, as with all those born of concupiscence. For the completion of the universe, a fourth way must be introduced: out of woman without the seed of man, through the power of the supreme Maker.clxxxiii Again, there must be completeness in the power itself. Hence, in the production of the Son of God, three powers concurred: the natural, the infused, and the uncreated. The natural power furnished the material element; the infused power set it apart by cleansing it; the uncreated power brought about instantly what a created power can achieve only gradually.141 Thus, the Blessed Virgin became a Mother in the most complete sense, for, without man, she conceived the Son of God through the action of the Holy Spirit. Because the love of the Holy Spirit burned so intensely in her soul, the power of the Holy Spirit wrought marvels in her flesh, by means of grace prompting, assisting, and elevating her nature as required for this wondrous conception. CHAPTER 4 - ON THE INCARNATION AS REGARDS THE FULLNESS OF TIME 1. Concerning the time of the incarnation, the following must be held. While God could have become man at any time from the very beginning, He chose not to do so before the ages of the law of nature and of prefiguration had ended; that is, the ages of the patriarchs and prophets, to whom and through whom the incarnation had been promised. Then only did He deign to become flesh, in the consummation and fullness of time, as the apostle says: But when the fullness of time came, God sent His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, that He might redeem those who were under the Law.142clxxxiv 2. This should be understood as follows. The incarnation is the work of the first Principle acting as the Restorer. Necessarily and fittingly, then, it would come about in a manner consonant with free will,

with the sublimity of the remedy, and with the final completion of the universe; for, in acting, the Artificer most wise takes all of these into account. FREE WILL requires that there be no compulsion. God was to restore mankind in such a way that those who willed to find the Saviour would be saved, while those who refused to seek Him would not. Now, no one calls a physician unless he knows he is sick; no one employs a teacher unless he knows he is ignorant; no one seeks a helper unless he knows he needs help. Because fallen man yet retained pride of intellect and power, God first established the age of the law of nature to convince him of his ignorance. And because man, convinced of his ignorance, still gloried in his power (as in the saying, "Here is the one who can do, but where is the one who should command?"),143 God added a law teaching moral precepts and multiplying ritual practices. Thereby man, made aware at last of both his duty and his weakness, was led to implore divine mercy and grace: and these were given to us by the coming of Christ. That is why the laws of nature and of Scripture had to precede the incarnation of the Word.clxxxv 3. Again, such a SUBLIME REMEDY must be accepted with the strongest faith and cherished with the most ardent love, as a deep and life-giving mystery. It was most fitting, then, that before the coming of Christ the prophets should appear with their manifold proofs, both explicit in words and implicit in figures. By these numerous and powerful testimonies, what had been hidden became clear and unshakable to belief. Repeated promises and intense longing also were to precede the coming of Christ. As the promised Blessing, He would be expected; as the Expected, He would be long awaited; as the Long Awaited, He would be more intensely desired; as the Desired of the Ages, He would be loved more fervently, received more thankfully, and heeded with greater care. 4. Finally, the perfection and COMPLETION OF THE UNIVERSE require in all things an order of time and place. Since development must proceed from the imperfect to the perfect, and not conversely, the incarnation - the most perfect of all God's works - was to occur in the last age. As the first man, the crowning glory of the whole material world, had been made last, that is, on the sixth day for the completion of that world, so also the Second Man, the Completer of the whole world redeemed - in whom the first Principle is joined to the last, "God, to dust"clxxxvi - was to be born in the sixth and last age: the age meet for the exercise of wisdom and the curbing of concupiscence and the passage from turmoil to peace. These blessings belong to the sixth age of the world's course because of the incarnation in that age of the Son of God. 5. Christ came in the time of the law of grace; as a fulfillment of the promised mercy; and at the beginning of the sixth age. Each of these circumstances indicates plenitude: the law of grace fulfills the law of nature; the giving of what was promised fulfills the promise; and the sixth age - the number six being the number symbolical of perfection-is in itself a sign of completeness. That is why the coming of the Son of God marks the fullness of time: not because time ends with His coming, but because the hidden prophecies of all ages have been fulfilled. Had Christ come at the beginning of time, He would have come too soon; and had His coming been delayed until the very end, He would have come too late. It belonged to Him as the true Saviour to provide the healing-time between the time of sickness and the time of judgment; as the true Mediator,144 to come midway, some of His elect preceding and others following Him; as the true Leader, to come at a time when it was still possible

for man to press on toward . . . the prize145 - that is, in the last age, when the end had not yet come, but the final judgment was close at hand: so that moved by fear of the judgment and urged on by hope of the reward and inspired by perfect example, we may follow our Leader vigorously and wholeheartedly from virtue to virtue146 until we attain the prize of everlasting happiness. CHAPTER 5 - ON THE FULLNESS OF THE GRACE OF CHRIST CONSIDERED IN THE GIFTS OF HIS WILL 1. After examining the union of natures within the incarnate Word, we shall go on to consider the fullness of His spiritual gifts. First, we shall speak of the fullness of grace in His will; then, of the fullness of wisdom in His intellect; lastly, of the fullness of merit in His actions, that is, in the work He performed. 2. Concerning the fullness of grace in Christ's will, the following must be held. From the instant of His conception, Christ wholly possessed all graces: the grace of the particular Person, the grace of headship, and the grace of union. By reason of the GRACE OF THE PARTICULAR PERSON,clxxxvii He was immune to any actual or possible sin, for neither did He sin nor could He have sinned.clxxxviii By reason of the GRACE OF UNION, He merited not only the beatitude of glory, but also the adoration of latria, that is, the reverential worship due to God alone.clxxxix By reason of the GRACE OF HEADSHIP, He prompts and enlightens all those who turn to Him either in simple faith, or through the sacraments of faith;147 that is, all the just, whether they lived before or after His coming. Those who went before Him, and those who followed, kept crying out, saying,148 - "Hosanna to the Son of David!"149 3. This should be understood as follows. Since restoration is the work of the first Principle, flowing from generosity and leading back to Him through conformation, it must be wrought through a gift and through a likening. Now grace, as it flows generously from God, also makes man like unto Him. Because, therefore, it is through grace that the restoring Principle brings about restoration, and because any perfection exists more fully and completely in its fountainhead or origin than elsewhere, our restoring Principle, Christ the Lord, must have possessed the fullness of all grace. Because, moreover, this restoring Principle, in the act of restoration, proceeds not only as the Source, but also as the Means and as the End - as the End, in providing satisfaction; as the Means, in effecting reconciliation; and as the Source, in exercising superabundant influence - there was in Christ of necessity the fullness of grace alike in being the atoning End, the reconciling Means, and the Source of superabundant influence. Now, since what is capable of supplying full atonement must be pleasing to God and therefore free from all sin; and since this can come about only as a gift of divine grace conferred upon an individual man: of necessity, we must posit the presence in Christ of a grace sanctifying and strengthening Him: that grace which we call GRACE OF THE PARTICULAR PERSON. 4. Again, because no being could be a means of reconciliation had he not possessed both natures, the higher and the lower, the adorable and the adoring, the only way this could be done was through a union supremely imparting dignity and grace. Thus, we must posit in Christ a grace above all grace, a grace worthy of all worship. This is what we call the GRACE OF UNION, whereby Christ the Man is,

over all things, God blessed forever150, and is to be adored. 5. Finally, in order to have an effective influence, a being must possess fullness, original and fontal: a fullness not merely sufficient but superabundant. Hence, the Word made flesh was necessarily full of grace and of truth,151 so that of His fullness all the just might receive, as all members receive the impulse of motion and feeling from the head. That is why we call this the GRACE OF HEADSHIP. For as the head has in itself the fullness of the senses, and is coordinated with the other members of the body, presiding over them and giving them the benefit of direction, so also Christ, possessing grace in superabundance and being like unto us in nature, yet holy and just above all others, confers upon those who turn to Him the spiritual benefit of grace, through which love and knowledge are given to spiritual beings. 6. The way to Christ is either through faith, or through the sacrament of faith,152 Yet, faith in Christ is the same in all believers, past, present, and future; and thus Christ's influencing power affects all men those who are gone no less than those living now, or yet to come into being: alike those believing in Christ and those reborn in Him; those bound to Christ by faith, and those who, through an in-pouring of grace, become His members and temples of the Holy Spirit,153 and thus sons of God the Father, joined to one another by the unbreakable bond of love. This bond is not destroyed by the passing of time any more than by distance in space: the just of all times and places constitute the one mystical body of Christ in that they receive both perception and motion from the one Head that influences them, through the fontal, radical, and original fullness of all grace that dwells in Christ the Fountainhead. CHAPTER 6 - ON THE FULLNESS OF WISDOM IN THE INTELLECT OF CHRISTcxc 1. Concerning the fullness of wisdom in the intellect of Christ, the following must be held. Christ our Lord, the incarnate Word, not only knew all things, but knew them in every possible way. As God, Christ knew eternally; as a sensitive being, He knew sensorially; as a rational and spiritual being, He knew intellectually, this latter knowledge being threefold: of nature, of grace, and of glory. Thus He was endowed with wisdom both as God and as man, as possessing the beatific vision and as living on earth, as enlightened by grace and as gifted by nature,154 Christ, then, knew in five distinct ways. One, by His divinity, He knew actually and comprehensively all things, actual and possible, finite and infinite. Two, by glory, He knew actually and comprehensively all things actual and finite; but the infinite He did not know, except perhaps through a knowledge that was virtual or excessive.155 Three, by grace, He knew everything related to the salvation of mankind. Four, by integrity of nature, as it was in Adam, He knew everything related to the structure of the universe. Five, by sensible experience, He knew all that falls under the senses. It is by this last mode that He is said to have learned obedience from the things that He suffered.156 2. This should be understood as follows. The Principle of our restoration restores us as much through provident wisdom as through bounteous grace. What was created according to an order of wisdom cannot be restored without the light and order of that same wisdom. Hence, as Christ was necessarily immune from all sin, so He was free from all ignorance, and thus completely filled with the clarity and all-embracing radiance of divine wisdom itself. Wherefore He enjoyed perfect knowledge according

to both natures in their proper cognitive powers, and according to every mode of existence of beings. 3. Since beings have existence in eternal Art, in the human mind, and in their own concrete reality, Christ accordingly possessed this threefold knowledge. Now, in art, things are known in two different ways: by the artificer, and by the one who sees the work. In the mind, also, besides acquisition which, because of its imperfection, is not characteristic of Christ, things exist and may be known in two different ways: by innate and by infused dispositions. That is why the fullness of wisdom in Christ, God and man, requires a knowledge that is fivefold, as indicated above: in eternal Art, a twofold knowledge, through His divine nature and through the vision of glory; in His created intellect, a twofold knowledge, through innate science due to nature, as had by Adam and the angels, and through infused science due to grace, as had by the saints of God enlightened by the Holy Spirit; finally, in terms of the concrete reality of things, knowledge through sense-perception, memory, and intelligence which, in us, makes known some things not known before,cxci whereas in Christ it made known in one way things already known in another. 4. Because God's substance, power, and action are immeasurable, Christ has in the first way, THROUGH HIS DIVINE NATURE, an actual knowledge of all the countless possibles: for in some ineffable manner, the supremely Infinite sees all the countless possibles as actual. 5. But because even the loftiest creature is limited in its substance, power, and action, and the human mind, though it does not rest except in infinite Good, cannot naturally comprehend that Good - since, to use the term "comprehension" in its full meaning, the infinite cannot be comprehended by the finite: it follows that, in the second way, THROUGH THE VISION OF GLORY, the intellect of Christ grasps everything within the reach of finite nature beatified by the infinite Good to which it is supremely united. Hence, the intellect of Christ knows the finite by actually comprehending it; but the infinite it does not know, except perhaps through a knowledge that is virtual and also excessive.157 For neither in the act of knowing nor in any other act can the created mind be equated with the Word. 6. Now, grace concerns primarily the work of restoration. Wherefore, in the third way, THROUGH PERFECT GRACE, Christ knew158 everything that had to do with our redemption; and He knew it far better and more completely than any prophet or angel could. 7. Furthermore, man IN THE STATE OF NATURAL INTEGRITY was designed to be higher than any other [material] creature, and to know that every other [material] creature was intended for his service. This appears clearly in the creation of the first man. Wherefore in the fourth way Christ understood, much more fully than Adam did, everything that had to do with the organization of the universe. 8. Finally, sense perception is limited to objects actually present.cxcii Through SENSE KNOWLEDGE, therefore, Christ perceived things, not simultaneously, but successively, as much as needed for the work of man's salvation. CHAPTER 7 - ON THE PERFECTION OF MERIT IN THE ACTIONS OF CHRIST

1. In regard to Christ's plenitude of merit, the following must be held. In Christ our Lord, merit was perfect and complete [for seven reasons]. One, the Person who acquired merit was not only Man but also God. Two, the time for His acquiring merit ran from the instant of conception to the instant of death. Three, the means for acquiring merit were the perfect disposition of charity and the perfect practice of virtue in praying, acting, and suffering. Four, the benefit of this merit went not only to Christ Himself but also to us, indeed to all the just. Five, the result for us of this merit was not only glory but also grace and pardon; and not only glory of the soul but also glory of the flesh159 and the opening of the gates of heaven. Six, the result for Christ of this merit was not glorification of soul which He already possessed, but the glorification of His body, the hastening of His resurrection, the honor of His name, and the exaltation of His judicial power. Seven, the manner in which He merited. There are three ways in which a man may be said to merit: by acquiring a claim he did not have before; by increasing his right to what is his due; by acquiring a further claim to what he already has by right. Christ merited in all three ways in our behalf, but for Himself, He merited only in the third way. All this He did through the fullness of the grace of the Holy Spirit, which established Him in beatitude, and at the same time in the state of meriting, so that all our merits are based on His.cxciii 2. This should be understood as follows. Christ our Lord, the Principle of our restoration, necessarily possessed the FULLNESS OF GRACE and wisdom which are for us the source of upright and holy living. Necessarily, then, He also possessed the fullness and perfection of all merit in every way such plenitude was possible. From the instant of His conception, Christ possessed in full the grace of union by which He was God. He enjoyed from this instant both the vision of glory and the use of free will. Hence, His merit was perfect both because of the high dignity of His Person and because His acquisition of merit began so soon. 3. Again, Christ possessed in fullness the grace of the particular Person which established Him firmly in charity and in the perfection of all the virtues, both as habits and as acts. Hence, His merit was necessarily complete through the very means by which it was gained: fundamental charity and the acts of a manifold virtue. 4. Furthermore, He possessed completely the grace of headship, through which He acted with fullest power upon His members. Hence, He acquired full merit, not only for Himself but also for us. As, in His divinity, He poured into us all the spiritual goods we possess, so, in His assumed humanity, He merited for us both the graces of the present life and the beatitude of the life to come. 5. Finally, the fullness of such great gifts necessarily implied in the soul of Christ a SUPREME AND PERFECT BEATITUDE, even though, providentially, for our sake, He lived in the state of pilgrimage. Hence, the merit He acquired for Himself was perfect. He did not merit the glory and beatitude which had been concreated with His soul and existed in Him naturally before any meritorious act: He merited only those things which could not coexist with the state of pilgrimage, that is, the glory of the body along with its exaltation to a high dignity. 6. His merit was perfect also because of the MODE OF MERITING. From the very instant of His conception, He was established in full perfection. He instantly merited all that He was to merit for Himself. He thus acquired a further title to what was already due to Him for a different reason. He

could not grow in holiness because He was utterly holy from the very beginning. Hence it would not be possible for Him to earn FOR HIMSELF some reward to which He had no previous right, or to increase the right He would have had to it. These things, however, He did FOR US Who,160 through His merit, are justified by grace, advance in righteousness, and are crowned with eternal glory. 7. The merit of Christ, then, is the root of all our merits, both those which offset penalties, and those which gain for us eternal life. For we are not worthy to be absolved from an offense against the supreme Good, nor do we deserve to be rewarded with the immensity of the eternal Reward which is God Himself, except through the merit of the God-Man, of whom we can and should say: Lord,... it is You who have accomplished all we have done161. And He indeed is the Lord of whom the prophet speaks: I say to the Lord, "My Lord are You. Apart from You I have no good."cxciv162 CHAPTER 8 - ON THE STATE OF THE SUFFERING CHRISTcxcv 1. We have seen so far the union of natures and the fullness of gifts in the incarnate Word. Let us now consider His suffering. In this regard, we shall examine the condition of the Sufferer, the nature of the suffering, and its issue. 2. As regards the condition of the Sufferer, the following must be held. Christ assumed not only the nature of man, but also the defects of that nature, for He assumed such penalties of the body as hunger, thirst, and fatigue, and such penalties of the soul as sorrow, anguish, and fear. He did not, however, assume all the penalties of body and soul, for He was unaffected by physical disease of any kind, by ignorance, or by the body's war upon the spirit. Nor did He assume unqualifiedly those penalties to which He did consent: for He accepted the necessity of suffering, but no pain was to touch Him against either His divine or His rational will, although the passion did violence to his sensorial and carnal will, as appears from His prayer: "Not as I will, but as Thou wiliest."163 3. This should be understood as follows. The restoring Principle, in His work of reconciliation, was to act as a Mediator. He needed, therefore, to be in harmony with both the estranged parties, as regards not only their natures but also their circumstances. Now, God is in the state of perfect righteousness, beatitude, impassibility, and immortality, while fallen man is in the state of sin, wretchedness, and liability to pain and death. For man to be led back to God, the Mediator between God and men164 had to share with God the state of righteousness and beatitude, and with man the state of passibility and mortality. "Transiently mortal, but permanently in the state of beatitude,"cxcvi Christ could lead man out of his wretchedness into beatific life; just as, conversely, the angel of evil, being immortal but living in the state of wretchedness and malice, became the means of leading man, by suggestion, into sin and misery. Since it belonged to Christ the Mediator to enjoy innocence and the bliss of fruition while being liable to death and suffering, He must have been at one and the same time a pilgrim and a possessor,165 Something of both states existed in Him: wherefore we say that He assumed the sinlessness of the state of innocence, the mortality of the state of fallen nature, and the perfect blessedness of the state of glory.cxcvii 4. Again: since the damaging penalties, which are ignorance, weakness, malice, and concupiscencecxcviii - four of the punishments incurred by original sin - are incompatible with perfect

innocence, Christ could not be subject to them, nor did He in fact assume them. Other penalties, however, which give occasion for the practice of perfect virtue and testify to a humanity that is true, not feigned - penalties such as hunger and thirst in the absence of nourishment, sorrow and fear in the face of opposition - are characteristic of men in common; hence it was fitting for Christ to be subject to them, and He did in fact assume them. 5. Finally, no innocent person is morally obliged to suffer against his will, since this would contradict the order of divine justice; also, no mortal being wishes for death and suffering by natural impulse, for it is his nature to flee death. Christ, then, could assume these penalties only in a qualified manner: He was not to suffer against His rational will, since He not only lived in the state of beatitude and of union with the omnipotent Godhead through which He could repel any evil, but He also possessed perfect innocence which, according to the order of natural justice, cannot be obligated to suffer. Yet He was to suffer against His instinctive will: that is, against the sensible impulse and desire of His flesh. He expressed in His prayer - a rational act - the will of the flesh through which He shrank from suffering, when He said: "Let this cup pass away from Me";166 but He conformed His rational will to the will of His Father, thus placing reason above instinct, when He said: "Not My will but Thine he done."167 One will was not opposed to the other, for "in His divine will, He wished what was just; in His rational will, He consented to justice; and in His natural instinct, while averse to pain, yet He did not contest justice. Each will acted in its field, tending toward its proper object: divine will to justice, rational will to obedience, and sensible will to nature."cxcix And so there was in Christ no conflict or struggle, but peaceful order and orderly peace. CHAPTER 9 - ON THE NATURE OF CHRIST'S SUFFERING 1. Now, concerning the nature of Christ's suffering, the following must be held. Christ suffered a passion most comprehensive, most bitter, and most shameful;cc a passion deadly yet life-giving. I repeat that, even though He could not suffer in His divine nature, He suffered in His human nature a passion most comprehensive, for not only every part of His body was affected, but every power of His soul as well. He suffered a passion most bitter, for besides enduring the anguish of His wounds, He endured the added anguish of grieving for our sins. He suffered a passion most shameful, alike because crucifixion was a punishment set aside for the worst criminals, and because He was placed in the company of evildoers, that is, robbers: He was counted among the wicked168. He also suffered a passion that was deadly,cci for it separated body and soul, although both remained united with the Godhead. Accursed indeed is he who says that the Son of God ever relinquished the nature He had assumed.ccii 2. This should be understood as follows. As the restoring Principle created man in orderly fashion, so must He also restore him in orderly fashion. He must restore him in such a way as to respect not only the freedom of the will, but also the honor of God and the harmonious functioning of the universe.cciii First, the work of restoration must RESPECT FREEDOM OF THE WILL. Christ, therefore, restored man through His all-efficacious example. An example is all-efficacious when it both invites to the summit of virtue and shows the way thither. Now, nothing could show man the way to virtue more clearly than the example of a death endured for the sake of divine justice and obedience: a death,

moreover, not of the ordinary sort but agonizing in the extreme. Nothing could move man to virtue more strongly than the benignity with which the most high Son of God laid down His life for us169 who were not only undeserving, but actually full of guilt. This benignity appears all the greater in that the sufferings He endured for us, indeed, willed to endure, were so cruel and humiliating. For how could God, who has not spared even His own Son hut has delivered Him for us all... fail to grant us also all things with Him?170 We are invited, then, to love Him, and loving Him, to follow His example. 3. Again, the work of restoration must RESPECT THE HONOR OF GOD. Christ, therefore, brought it about by offering to the Father a fully satisfactory obedience. "Satisfaction means the repayment of the honor due to God."cciv Now, the honor taken away from God through pride and disobedience in a matter in which man was obligated could be restored in no better way than through humiliation and obedience in a matter in which man was not bound in the least. Jesus Christ, as God, was equal to the Father through His divine nature; as man, He was innocent, and hence utterly undeserving of death. When, therefore, He emptied Himself,... becoming obedient to death,171 He paid back to God through a fully satisfactory obedience that which He Himself had not stolen, and offered for God's perfect appeasement a supremely pleasing sacrifice. 4. Finally, the work of restoration must RESPECT THE HARMONIOUS FUNCTIONING OF THE UNIVERSE. Wherefore it was achieved by means wholly consonant to that end, for it is most fitting that evils should be healed through their opposites. Man had sinned, aspiring to be as wise as God, desiring to enjoy the forbidden tree; hence, he who had risen in presumption was brought down to the level of lust; and through his sin, the whole of mankind was infected, forfeiting immortality and incurring inevitable death. To heal man by the appropriate remedy, God-made-man willed to be humiliated and to suffer on a tree. As an antidote to universal infection, He willed to suffer a passion most comprehensive; as an antidote to lust, a passion most bitter; as an antidote to pride, a passion most ignominious: as an antidote to death incurred but not willed, He chose to suffer a death not deserved but freely willed. 5. So thorough was the corruption within us that it not only affected our body and soul in a general way but penetrated to every part of the body and every power of the soul. Christ, therefore, suffered in every part of His body and in every power of His soul, even in the loftier part, reason. While this power, as a spiritual principle united with things above, supremely enjoyed the presence of God, as a principle of nature attached to things below, it supremely suffered: for Christ was both pilgrim and possessor. 6. Again, lust had powerfully infected us in body and soul, giving rise to sins of both flesh and spirit. Christ, therefore, suffered not only the cruelest physical pain, but also the bitterest mental torment. As His body was in a state of perfect health, and His senses thus to the highest degree alive, as His soul burned with perfect love for God and supreme concern for His neighbor, His anguish in both body and soul was immeasurable. 7. Furthermore, the disease of swollen pride arises some times from within, because of presumption, sometimes from without, because of vanity and the praise of others. To cure all pride, Christ endured both kinds of debasement: within Himself, as suffering, and from the companions with whom He had

to suffer. 8. Finally, since Christ's divine nature was beyond the reach of pain, all this affected only His humanity; therefore, when He died, though His soul left His body, the oneness of His Person remained, and neither body nor soul was separated from the Godhead. Since it is the union of body and soul that makes a living man, it follows that, during those three days, Christ was not a man, although both body and soul were united with the Word.ccv But because death in Christ's human nature could not bring death to the Person who never ceases to live, death itself perished in life. Through the death of Christ, death is swallowed up in victory;172 the prince of death has been vanquished. Thus man has been freed from death and from the cause of death by the most efficacious means: the merit of the death of Christ. CHAPTER 10 - ON THE ISSUE OF THE PASSION OF CHRIST 1. Concerning now the issue of the passion of Christ and its fruit, the following must be held with undoubting faith. After the passion, the soul of Christ descended into the nether world or limbo, for the liberation, not of all, but of those who had died as members of Christ through living faith or through the sacraments of faith,173 Then, on the third day, He rose from the dead, assuming the same body He had quickened before, but a body no longer in the same state: for what had been subject to pain and death had risen impassible and immortal, to live forever. Forty days later, Christ ascended into heaven where, exalted above all creatures, He is enthroned at the right hand of the Father. These words are not to be understood as having a reference to place, which would not apply to God the Father: they refer, rather, to the summit of all good, meaning that Christ is established in the choicest riches of the Father.ccvi Finally, after ten more days, Christ sent down upon the apostles the Holy Spirit, as promised: by Him the Church was gathered out of all nations and set to function in accordance with the diverse offices and graces given to it. 2. This should be understood as follows. As Christ the uncreated Word had formed all things in perfection, so Christ the incarnate Word must have reformed all things in the same perfection. As the utterly perfect Principle could not allow an imperfect work to leave His hands, so the Principle of man's redemption must have made the remedy fully perfect. And if it was perfect, it must have been utterly sufficient and efficacious. 3. The means used for man's redemption was UTTERLY SUFFICIENT, for it embraced heaven, earth, and the nether world. Through Christ, the souls in the lower regions were recovered, those on earth restored, and the heavenly ranks replenished. The first deed was achieved through mercy, the second through grace, and the third through glory. After the passion, the soul of Christ descended into hell in order to release the souls detained there;174 then He rose from the dead in order to restore life to those dead in sin;175 He ascended into heaven and led captivity captive176 in order to fill the ranks of the heavenly Jerusalem; finally, He sent the Holy Spirit in order to establish Jerusalem on earth. All these acts were necessary conditions and prerequisites of the full restoration of mankind.

4. The remedy was UTTERLY EFFICACIOUS in those who preceded the coming of Christ and those who followed it, those who served Him in the past and those who serve Him now, those who became His members and those who are so now: and such are those who cleave to Him through faith, hope, and love. The remedy, therefore, had to act first upon those who had faith in Christ, hoped out of faith, and loved out of hope. Hence it was fitting that Christ should descend into hell at once to set them free. And so the gates of heaven were opened through the atoning passion of Christ who, by making satisfaction, removed the sword, and, by commuting the divine sentence, led His members out of hell.
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5. In addition, this remedy must be particularly efficacious for those who were to be born after the coming of Christ; by attracting them to faith, hope, and love, it was finally to lead them into heavenly glory. His purpose, then, was to establish in us the FAITH whereby we believe that Christ is true man and true God; whereby we also believe that He has willed to redeem us through His death, and is able to lead us back to life through His resurrection. It was to this end that He willed to rise to an immortal life only after a proper lapse of time - that is, thirty-six hours - thus proving that His death was real. If this period had been shortened and He had risen sooner, it might have been believed that He had not died at all, but had merely feigned death; if it had been longer, and He had continued to lie in death, He might have seemed powerless, and unable to lead others back to life. That is why He rose again the third day178. 6. Next, that He might excite us to HOPE, He rose to that heavenly glory to which we also aspire. Since hope, however, is born only of faith in future immortality, He did not ascend at once, but allowed forty days to elapse during which, through many signs and proofs, He demonstrated the truth of His resurrection; for it was that by which the soul would be strengthened in faith and lifted up to the hope of heavenly glory. 7. Lastly, that He might inflame us with LOVE, He sent down the fire of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. And since no one is filled with this fire who does not ask, seek, and knock with the importunate insistence of desire, He did so, not immediately after His ascension, but ten days later.179 During this interval the disciples, through fasting, prayers, and groanings, prepared themselves for the reception of the Spirit. Thus, even as Christ had chosen the right time to suffer,ccviii so also He appointed the right time to rise from the dead, to ascend into heaven, and to send the Holy Spirit. The times were right both for establishing the three virtues mentioned above, and because of the many mysteries implied in the choice of such times. 8. The Holy Spirit, who is love and is possessed through love, is the origin of all charismata. When He came down, the fullness of these flowed out for the final perfecting of the mystical body of Christ. And because in a perfect body there must be a diversity of members, each member having its own function and office, and each office having its own

charisma, it comes about that to one through the Spirit is given the utterance of wisdom;180 and to another the utterance of knowledge, according to the same Spirit; to another faith, in the same Spirit; to another the gift of healing, in the one Spirit; to another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another the distinguishing of spirits; to another various kinds of tongues; to another interpretation of tongues. But all these things are the work of one and the same Spirit, who allots to everyone according as He will: following in this His most generous providence and most provident generosity. |< << >> >|

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PART V - ON THE GRACE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT


CHAPTER 1 - ON GRACE AS A GIFT OF GOD NOW that we have studied the incarnation of the Word, origin and fountainhead of every free gift, let us speak of the grace of the Holy Spirit, considering it in turn under each of four aspects: as a gift divinely given; in relation to free will; in relation to the habits of the virtues; in relation to the use of merit. 2. Concerning grace as a gift divinely given, the following must be held. Grace is a gift bestowed and infused directly by God. For truly, together with grace and by means of grace, we receive the Holy Spirit, the uncreated Gift, the good and perfect Gift coming down from the Father of Lights181 through the Word made flesh, as John beheld in the Apocalyptic vision: a river . . . clear as crystal, coming forth from the throne of God and of the Lamb182. At the same time, grace is a gift by which the soul is perfected and transformed into the bride of Christ, the daughter of the eternal Father, and the temple of the Holy Spirit: all of which can be brought about only by the ennobling condescension and condescending nobility of the eternal Majesty through the gift of His grace. Finally, grace is a gift that cleanses, enlightens, and perfects the soul; that vivifies, reforms, and strengthens it; that lifts it up, makes it like to God, and unites it with Him, thus rendering it acceptable to Him; a gift of such a kind that it is rightly and properly called "sanctifying grace."ccix 3. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, as Creator, in His supreme benevolence made the rational soul capable of enjoying eternal beatitude; and, as Restorer, repaired that capacity, weakened by sin, for its salvation. Now, eternal beatitude consists in possessing God, the supreme Good, a Good immeasurably surpassing anything man's service could merit. No conceivable man is worthy to attain this supreme Good exceeding in every possible way the limits of human nature, unless he is lifted up above himself through the action of God coming down to him. Not that God would come down in His immutable essence: He does so through an influence that emanates from Him; nor that the soul would rise above itself by physical ascent: it is lifted up through a Godconforming disposition. If, then, the rational soul is to become worthy of eternal beatitude, it must partake of the God-likening flow. Because this inpouring, rendering the soul deiform, comes from God, conforms to God, and leads to God as an end, it restores our spirit as the image of the most blessed Trinity, affecting it not only as part of the order of creation, but also in terms of the righteousness of the will and of the repose of beatitude,183 And since a soul so favored is directly brought back to God and directly conformed to Him, therefore this grace is granted directly by God acting as the Source of grace. Hence, as the image of God comes forth from God directly, so also does the likeness of God, which is the same image but in its God-conformed perfection, and is called, therefore, the image of the second creation.ccx

4. Again, to enjoy God means to possess Him. Hence, together with grace which, by its Godconforming nature, leads to the enjoyment184 of God, there is given to man an uncreated Gift,ccxi the Holy Spirit, to possess whom is indeed to possess God Himself. 5. But he who possesses God must be in turn possessed by Him in a special way; and he who possesses and is possessed by God must love and be loved by Him particularly and uniquely, as one spouse loves and is loved by the other; and he who is loved must be adopted as a child entitled to an eternal inheritance. Therefore, sanctifying graces makes the soul the temple of God, the bride of Christ, and the daughter of the eternal Father. And since this cannot be wrought except through a supremely gracious condescension on the part of God, it could not be brought about through some habit NATURALLY implanted, but only through a free gift DIVINELY infused; as clearly appears if we consider what it means to be God's temple and His child, and to be joined to Him as though in wedlock by the bond of love and grace.ccxii 6. Finally, our soul becomes the likeness of the most blessed Trinity through righteous free will, only by manifesting robust virtue, pure truth, and ardent love; for robust virtue cleanses, strengthens, and elevates the soul, pure truth enlightens and reforms it and conforms it to God, ardent love perfects and vivifies it and unites it with God. When all this is accomplished, man is made pleasing and acceptable to God. Now, while the divine inpouring is the source of all ten above-mentioned effects, it is named only from the last and most complete: it is called "sanctifying grace" because it makes its recipient holy in God's sight. For not only is it given by God, it also conforms to God and leads to God as an end, since its purpose is to return to Him the work that had issued from Him. In this return, comparable to an intelligible circle, the rational being is brought to its final completion. CHAPTER 2 - ON GRACE AS A CONDITION OF MERITORIOUS ACTS 1. Our second consideration regarding the grace of the Holy Spirit is its relation to free will, under two heads: in what way this grace is an aid to meritorious acts, and in what way a remedy against sin. 2. Concerning the grace of God in so far as it aids the gaining of merit, the following must be held. The word "grace" may be considered in a general, a special, or a proper sense. Grace, in a general sense, is understood as being the assistance freely and liberally granted by God to creatures performing any of their acts. Without such concurrence, we could do nothing; could not even continue to EXIST. Grace, in a special sense, is concerned with that particular assistance which helps the soul prepare itself for receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit. This is called "gratuitously given grace."185 In its absence, no man, try as he might, could ever MAKE HIMSELF WORTHY OF SALVATION. Grace, in the proper sense, consists in the divinely given assistance toward the actual acquiring of

merit. This is the gift of "sanctifying grace," without which no one may ACQUIRE MERIT, ADVANCE IN GOOD, OR ATTAIN ETERNAL SALVATION. This grace, the root of all meriting, precedes any actual merit. Hence it is said to "precede the act of willing in order to move the will, and also to follow the act, lest it remain without fruit."ccxiii No one has a strict right to such grace, "yet in itself it deserves to be increased by God here on earth, so that, having been increased, it may deserve also to be perfected"ccxiv in the fatherland and in eternal glory by this same God; for He alone has the power to infuse, augment, and complete our grace in the measure of the co-operation of our will, and in accord with the intent and good pleasure of His eternal decrees. 3. This should be understood as follows. In His omnipotent power and most loving munificence, the first Principle brought all creation into being out of nothingness. Of itself, therefore, the creature is nothing. Whatever it has it is indebted for. Thus it is that the creature, because of its deficiency, always remains dependent upon its Principle; and that this Principle, because of His benignity, never ceases to support the creature.ccxv Now, because brought into being from non-being, the rational spirit is deficient in itself; because limited and wanting by nature, it is bent upon itself in the pursuit of its own interest; because utterly contingent upon God, it is totally subject to God. Being deficient, it tends of itself to nothingness; being bent upon itself, it cannot of itself rise to the righteousness of perfect justice; being totally subject to God,186 and God having no need of anything it can give, it cannot, of itself and through its own power do anything by which God would become its debtor - least of all a debtor of the eternal reward which is God Himself187- except in virtue of God's condescension. This is why, in its deficiency, it has need of God's constant presence, clemency, and influence to MAINTAIN IT IN EXISTENCE. Such concurrence, although it applies to all creatures, is called a grace, for it derives, not from any obligation, but from the liberality of divine bounty. Again, if the rational spirit, bent as it is upon itself, is to PREPARE ITSELF FOR THE GIFT OF SUPERNATURAL GRACE, it requires, particularly in our state of fallen nature, the presence of another gratuitous grace that makes it able to perform good moral acts: meaning acts which, although externally righteous,ccxvi cannot be called good unless they proceed from a right intention. Such are things we do, not for our own sake, but with the supreme Good in view. This summit is accessible to our naturally self-centered spirit only if we are first moved by God through actual grace. Nevertheless, the rational spirit, utterly contingent as it is upon God to whom it owes everything, cannot PERFORM ANY ACTION DESERVING OF ETERNAL REWARD without the gift of sanctifying grace. By this grace God condescends to it, accepting [in it] His own image and will before accepting the deed that flows from grace. For, since "the cause is superior to the effect,"ccxvii no one is able to grow in virtue or to do anything pleasing to God unless he himself first pleases; for God looks to the person before He looks to the gifts. Merit, therefore, is rooted exclusively in sanctifying grace, which alone makes man pleasing to God: hence no one receives it as a matter of absolute right, but only as a well-founded favor. 4. But once sanctifying grace is received, if good use is made of it, it merits its own increase in the

present life. For as regards the influx of grace, God alone is its fontal source; but as regards the increase of grace, God is the source of its growth through infusion, while grace itself is the source of its own growth through merit and worth, and free will is the source of the growth of grace through the co-operating and meriting soul, in that free will, by working with grace, makes what belongs to grace its own. 5. Free will, then, acquires through grace not only a just title to the growth of grace in the present life, but also an absolute right to its perfecting in heaven, and that, for the following reasons: the sublimity of the gift of the Holy Spirit, who helps in the acquisition of merit; the truthfulness of God, who makes the promise; the freedom of the will, that chooses right and perseveres to the end; the hardships of the present state of meriting; the dignity of Christ our Head, who intercedes for us and must be glorified in His members; the bounty of God the Rewarder, with whom it would not consort to give a small prize for faithful obedience; the nobility of a deed born of love, whose value in the eyes of the Judge is measured by the love from which it proceeds: a love that places God above and beyond every creature, and thus deserves to be rewarded with nothing less than God Himself and the supreme Good. For all these things, providing seven reasons, the sevenfold grace makes [the soul] deserve eternal glory by a merit that acts not only as an appropriate foundation for a favor, but as an absolute right.188 CHAPTER 3 - ON GRACE CONSIDERED AS A REMEDY FOR SIN 1. In regard to grace as a remedy for sin, the following must be held. Although free will is "the greatest power next to God,"ccxviii it is by nature liable to rush headlong into sin, out of which it is completely unable to rise without the divine assistance called sanctifying grace. Such grace, in itself a fully sufficient remedy for sin, is not poured into the soul of an adult person without the consent of his free will. Hence we gather that four things concur for the justification of a sinner: the infusion of grace, the expulsion of sin, contrition, and an act of free will. Sin is expelled by the grace of God, not by free will, and yet not without the consent of free will. While it is gratuitous [actual] grace that turns free will away from evil and prompts it toward good, it is free will itself which must agree or disagree; which, when it agrees, receives [sanctifying] grace; and which, having received it, co-operates with it so as finally to obtain salvation.ccxix 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, precisely because first and all-powerful, is the cause of everything that comes about in the universe except sin, which is "a violation of divine law and a revolt against the heavenly commandments."ccxx The only thing to rise insultingly and offensively against God is sin, which by flouting His word and turning us away from the eternal Good, offends Him, distorts free will, destroys the gift of grace, and imposes the obligation of eternal suffering. Since the defacing of God's image and the destruction of grace are, as it were, an annihilation of moral being and of the life of grace; since the gravity of an offense against God is proportioned to His greatness; and since the guilt deserving of eternal punishment has the character of infinity: therefore it is impossible for man to rise from sin unless he is created anew in the life of grace, iniquity is forgiven, and eternal penalty remitted.

He alone, therefore, who was the Principle of creation is also the Principle of re-creation: He who is the Word of the eternal Father, Jesus Christ, the Mediator between God and men;189 He who creates by Himself alone without intermediary, since He creates all things out of nothingness. 3. What was deformed through the evil of sin, He recreates by reforming it through the habits of grace and righteousness; what was bound to penalty, He re-creates by absolving it through fully adequate satisfaction: indeed, He restores us by sustaining for us the penalty in His assumed nature, and by infusing into us reforming grace which, because it links us with its Source,ccxxi makes us members of Christ. By these means, He makes the sinful soul, formerly the enemy of God, the den of the devil, and the slave of sin, to become the bride of Christ, the temple of the Holy Spirit, and the daughter of the eternal Father: all of which is brought about by a free and gracious INFUSION OF THE GIFT OF GRACE. 4. Again, God effects this reformation in such a way as not to impair the laws implanted in nature: ccxxii granting grace to man's free will, but without forcing it, so that freedom of choice remains. Hence, for the EXPULSION OF SIN, not only must grace be introduced, but free will itself must consent to the expulsion through that detestation of all sin which we call CONTRITION. - This applies to adults; in the case of children, the faith of the Church and the merits of Christ make up for their incapacity to will.ccxxiii - In addition, free will must consent to the infusion of grace by approving and accepting the divine gift through what we call an act of VOLITION. These are the four conditions that must concur in the justification of one who has sinned. 5. Finally, because predisposition toward a perfective form must itself be in the likeness of that form: if free will is to open itself to sanctifying grace, it needs the help of actual grace. And because grace by its very nature does not force free will but solicits it, and also because both grace and will by their very nature pass into act: therefore, in our justification, the acts of free will and grace concur in a harmonious and orderly manner. Actual grace arouses free will, and free will must either give or refuse consent to such arousal. When it consents, it prepares itself for the reception of sanctifying grace, and that is the meaning of "the will doing all that it can." Sanctifying grace is then infused in the will thus prepared, which may choose either to cooperate with this grace and thus attain merit, or to obstruct it by sin and thus incur guilt. If the will co-operates until the end, it earns the reward of eternal salvation.190 6. It is true, as Augustine says, that "He who created you without your assistance will not justify you without your consent."ccxxiv Yet it is also true that there is a question not of him who wills nor of him who runs, but of God showing mercy.191 Once more, it is true that no man may take pride in his own merits, for God crowns within us nothing but His own gifts:ccxxv reserving to Himself the generous distribution of the favors of grace, teaching man not to be an ingrate nor to glory in himself as if he had not received, instead of glorying in the Lord.192 Yet, lastly, it is true that, although free will alone could neither fulfill the law nor create grace in itself, it nevertheless is inexcusable if it does not do what it can; for actual grace is always at hand to give warning, and by its aid the will can exert itself to the full. Which being done, it must obtain sanctifying grace; which being obtained, it can fulfill the law and do the will of God; which being accomplished, it must arrive at last at eternal beatitude

because of meritorious works proceeding as absolutely from free will as from grace - even though in the larger measure from grace. For, as Augustine explains, "grace is related to free will as a rider to his mount."ccxxvi This rider, grace, directs free will and leads it on, to bring it at last to the abode of eternal happiness, by training man, through its own sevenfold gift, in the practice of perfect virtue. CHAPTER 4 - ON HOW GRACE BRANCHES OUT INTO THE HABITS OF THE VIRTUES 1. Our third consideration of grace is in its relation to the habits of the virtues.ccxxvii Here, there are three points to develop: the branching out of the one grace into the habits of the virtues themselves; into the habits of the gifts; and into the habits of the beatitudes. 2. Concerning the branching out of grace into the habits of the virtues, the following must be held. Although the grace sanctifying the soul is one, there are seven freely given virtues by which human life is ruled. These are the three theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity, and the four cardinal virtues of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice:ccxxviii the last-named being a common and general virtue in one sense, and a special and particular virtue in another. These seven virtues are distinct, each possessing its proper excellence; yet they are interrelated and of equal import in the individual soul.ccxxix All are freely given and are informed by grace; yet, when a [mortal] sin is committed, all - charity excepted193 - are reduced to a formless existence. They may, however, be reinformed by penance, upon the return of grace, which is their origin, their end, and their form. 3. This should be understood as follows. As, in the act of conveying life in the order of nature, the creating Principle, because of His own supreme perfection, conveys this life not only in its first perfection, which is life as such, but also in its second perfection, which is action; so also, of necessity, in the act of conveying life to the spirit in the order of grace, the restoring Principle conveys it both as being and as action. And because in a single person living one primary life there are found many vital operations leading to the full expression of that life; and since acts differ through their different objects, and the different acts require different habits:ccxxx therefore the one vivifying grace branches out into various habits for the sake of these various activities. Now, some of the moral acts are original, as believing; others are intermediate, as understanding what is believed; others again are final, as attaining the vision of what is understood. Through the first the soul is set aright, through the second it is urged on, through the third it is brought to full perfection. Hence, sanctifying grace branches out into the habits of the VIRTUES, that set the soul aright, those of the GIFTS, that urge it on, and those of the BEATITUDES, that lead it to perfection.ccxxxi 4. Again, for perfect rectitude, the soul must be set aright in both directions, high and low, that is, in regard to the end as such and to the means that lead to it. In the upward direction, the soul, being the likeness of the eternal Trinity, must be set aright through the three theological virtues. As man, in the first creation, resembled God through a trinity of powers with unity of essence, so in the re-creation, he resembles God through a trinity of habits with unity of grace. Through these, the soul is carried straight up to the supreme Trinity in a way corresponding to the appropriated attributes of the three Persons: faith, through belief and assent, leads to the supreme Truth; hope, through trust and expectation, to the loftiest Height; charity, through desire and love, to the greatest Good.

5. On the lower level, also, the soul must be set aright, through the four cardinal virtues. Prudence rectifies the rational faculties, fortitude the irascible appetite, temperance the concupiscible appetite,194 while justice directs all of these powers in their relation to a given person. And because this person may be either one's neighbor or oneself considered as the object of one's own action, or again, God, justice is said to embrace every possible power.ccxxxii That is why it is called, not only a cardinal virtue, but also a general virtue that comprehends the rectitude of the whole soul; wherefore it may be defined as "rectitude of the will."ccxxxiii Justice is not limited to those virtues which concern the neighbor alone - for instance, equity and generosity; it applies also to those which concern oneself - for instance, repentance and innocence - and to those which refer to God - for instance, adoration, dutiful love, and obedience. 6. Finally, the virtues, in that they are gratuitously infused, obtain their rectitude originally and radically from grace; but in that they are means of acquiring merit, their rectitude is proportioned to charity, which, in that respect, is their origin, their form, and their end. Consequently, outside of charity, all virtues dependent upon grace are interrelated as habits and equal in their meriting power. Such habits of the virtues are able to subsist without their form, but charity is not, for charity is the form of the virtues. When the other virtues subsist without grace or charity, in which their life consists, they are formless. But when grace is poured upon them, they regain their form: they are adorned and become acceptable to God. In the same way, colors are invisible in the dark; but when light falls upon them, they become luminous, beautiful, and pleasing to the eye; whence, in terms of cause, light and colors become one, and one light suffices to make several colors shine. Likewise, in terms of merit and supernatural favors, grace becomes one with the formless virtues, now re-informed; and a single grace suffices to convey form and acceptability to the different virtuous habits.ccxxxiv CHAPTER 5 - ON HOW GRACE BRANCHES OUT INTO THE HABITS OF THE GIFTSccxxxv 1. Concerning the branching out of grace into the habits of the gifts, the following must be held. Although there are many gratuitously given gifts, and, in a general sense, it would not be wrong to call all divinely infused habits gifts of God, yet in a particular and proper sense, the term "gift" refers to the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. Isaia lists and names them when he writes of the flower stemming from the root of Jesse, that is, Christ: The spirit of the Lord shall rest upon Him: the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel and of fortitude, the spirit of knowledge and of godliness [piety]. He shall be filled with the spirit of the fear of the Lord195. Here, Isaia names the gifts from the highest down, and in combination, so as to show at one and the same time their difference, interrelationship, origin, and order. 2. This should be understood as follows. In His supreme bounty, the restoring Principle gives grace to us, both to CORRECT the deviations of the vices through the habits of the virtues, and also to DELIVER US from the difficulties of their after-effects through the habits of the gifts. Hence the infused gifts must be sufficient in number to provide aid for this purpose. Now, because the soul needs help in seven instances, there is a sevenfold reason why seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are required.

Indeed, our soul needs help: against the deviations of the vices,196 in its natural powers, in its superadded virtues, in suffering, in acting, in contemplating, and in the last two ways combined. 3. First, there are seven gifts of the Holy Spirit for the sake of repelling in the best possible way the DEVIATIONS OF THE VICES. Fear helps against pride, piety against envy, knowledge against anger which is a kind of insanity, fortitude against sloth which destroys the soul's power for good, counsel against covetousness, understanding against gluttony, and wisdom against lust. 4. Second, the gifts are properly seven to assist the NATURAL POWERS. The irascible power197 needs help toward good in both happiness and misfortune: in happiness it is helped by fear, in misfortune by fortitude. The concupiscible power needs help in loving the neighbor, and finds it in piety; in loving God, and finds it in wisdom. The rational power needs help in considering, choosing, and following the truth: understanding is a help in the consideration of the truth, counsel in its election, and knowledge in its fulfillment. It is through this very gift of knowledge, indeed, that we are able to live righteously in the midst of a depraved and perverse generation.198 5. Third, the gifts are properly seven to help the SEVEN VIRTUES discharge their appointed tasks. Fear leads to temperance, for it restrains the flesh;199 piety to true justice; knowledge to prudence; fortitude to steadfastness or patience; counsel to hope; understanding to faith; and wisdom to charity. And as "charity is the origin and consummation of every virtue,"ccxxxvi so is wisdom of every gift. Hence the wise man truthfully says: All good things together came to me in her company, and countless riches at her hands.200 6. Fourth, the gifts are seven in all for the sake of helping us to SUFFER in the same spirit as Christ. In accepting His passion, the Saviour was moved by the will of the Father, by the needs of men, and by the force of His own virtue. He was moved by the will of the Father, which He knew through understanding, loved through wisdom, and reverenced through fear; He was moved by our needs, which He understood through knowledge and compassionated through piety; He was moved not least by the force of His own virtue, which counsel rendered capable of fore-sighted choice, and fortitude, of vigorous fulfillment. And so the gifts were properly seven. 7. Fifth, seven gifts are given by the Holy Spirit to help us ACT EFFECTIVELY. For if we are to act so, we must be helped to turn away from evil, and this is done by fear. Again, we must be helped to progress in good, both in the way of the law and in the way of supererogation. In the way of the law, we are helped by knowledge directing and by piety effecting; in the way of supererogation, by counsel directing and by fortitude effecting. Lastly, we must find our repose in the Most High, both by knowing the true and by loving the good; the first comes about through the gift of understanding, the second through the gift of wisdom, in which is true repose. 8. Sixth, the gifts of the Holy Spirit are seven in number to help us CONTEMPLATE.201 For the hierarchical and contemplative life requires that the soul be cleansed, enlightened, and perfected. We must be cleansed of concupiscence, malice, ignorance, and weakness or impotency: of the first by fear, of the second by piety, of the third by knowledge, and of the fourth by fortitude. We must be enlightened concerning the works of reparation and of the primordial state; counsel gives the first

knowledge, understanding the second. Moreover, we must be perfected by attaining the Most High who is Oneness; this is done through the gift of wisdom. Hence the mystery202 of contemplation ends at the top, as it were, in a single cubit.ccxxxvii203 9. Seventh and last, the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are needed to facilitate BOTH ACTION AND CONTEMPLATION. Since the contemplative soul looks to the Trinity, it needs three gifts to assist it: fear, to bow before God's majesty; understanding, to perceive His truth; wisdom, to savor His goodness. And since the active soul is concerned with performing and persevering, it needs the assistance of four gifts: piety, to perform; fortitude, to persevere; and knowledge and counsel to direct both. Thus, because assistance must be guided in order to be effective, there must be a combination of gifts; and because the light of knowledge is a powerful help to guide our feet into the way of peace,204 there are several gifts related to the intellect. CHAPTER 6 - ON HOW GRACE BRANCHES OUT INTO THE HABITS OF THE BEATITUDES, AND CONSEQUENTLY OF THE FRUITS AND OF THE SPIRITUAL SENSESccxxxviii 1. Concerning the branching out of grace into the habits of the beatitudes, the following must be held. There are seven beatitudes205 listed by the Saviour in the Sermon on the Mount.206 They are: poverty of spirit, meekness, mourning, thirst for justice, mercy, cleanness of heart, and peacefulness. These in turn bring about, as a completion and a fulfillment,207 the twelve fruits of the Spirit and the five spiritual senses, which do not represent new habits, but states of delight and the enjoyment of spiritual perceptions filling and consoling the souls of just men. 2. This should be understood as follows. The restoring Principle is supremely perfect, achieving perfectly through His gift of grace the works of restoration and reformation. Therefore, the gift of grace which flows from Him must branch out lavishly and abundantly into the habits of the perfections, so closely related to the final end that they are rightly called beatitudes. Their sufficiency, number,ccxxxix and order are derived from the integrity, the modes, and the preliminary dispositions of perfection [the gifts]. 3. First, the INTEGRITY of perfection requires a perfect withdrawal from evil, a perfect progress in good, and a perfect repose in what is the best. Now, evil may stem from the swelling of pride, the rancor of malice, or the weakness due to concupiscence. To effect [the soul's] perfect withdrawal from these three kinds of evil, three beatitudes must concur: poverty of spirit, to deliver it from selfinflation; meekness, to deliver it from rancor; and mourning, to deliver it from lust and the weakness due to concupiscence. Perfect progress in good consists in following the divine example; and since the ways of the Lord are mercy and truth208, there are two beatitudes corresponding to these two ways: thirst or zeal for justice, and the spirit of mercy. Perfect repose in what is best may be achieved either through clear knowledge or through peaceful love. Hence, there are two final beatitudes, namely, cleanness of heart, for the vision of God, and peace of soul, for the perfect enjoyment of Him. 4. Second, the MODES of perfection reveal the need for the seven beatitudes. We may speak of perfection in the religious life, in the holding of offices, and in inner holiness. To reach perfection in

the religious life, we must give up our personal goods, seek our neighbor's welfare, and desire the eternal Good. The first is attained through poverty of spirit; the second, through meekness of disposition; the third, through heartfelt mourning. To reach perfection in the holding of offices, two beatitudes are required: thirst for justice, and the spirit of mercy, for mercy and truth preserve the king;209 these two should guide those in authority in the Church Militant. To reach the perfection of inner holiness, we must have a clean conscience [heart] and complete tranquillity of soul through the peace of God which surpasses all human understanding.210 5. Third, if we consider the PRELIMINARY DISPOSITIONS of perfection, we see the need for seven beatitudes. Now, fear makes a man turn away from evil and from its occasions; and since covetousness is the root of all evils211, fear prepares for poverty of spirit, which combines humility with poverty and delivers the perfect man from the source of all sin: pride and covetousness. That is why poverty of spirit is the foundation of all evangelical perfection. Anyone, therefore, who wishes to attain the summit of perfection should first strive to establish this foundation. As Matthew writes: If thou wilt be perfect, go, sell what thou hast212 - this is perfect poverty that keeps absolutely nothing for itself; and... follow Me - this is humility that makes a man renounce himself, take up his cross, and follow Christ, the very first Foundation of all perfection. Fear, then, prepares for poverty of spirit. Piety prepares for meekness, for a man who is correctly disposed toward another provokes him not, nor is he provoked by him. Knowledge prepares for mourning, because through knowledge we realize that we have been cast out of the state of happiness into the present vale of wretchedness and tears. Fortitude leads to hunger for justice, because the man possessing it craves justice so avidly that he would be deprived of bodily life rather than of this justice. Counsel prepares for mercy because nothing in the Scriptures is more strongly counseled by God than the acts of mercy which He looks upon as the greatest sacrificial offerings.213 Understanding prepares for cleanness of heart, because the consideration of truth cleanses our heart of all evil thoughts. Finally, wisdom prepares for peace, because wisdom unites us to the supremely True and Good in whom all our rational desires find their end and their repose. This peace, once attained, is necessarily followed by the overflowing spiritual delight of the twelve fruits that imply the excess of joy. For twelve, the number of abundance,214ccxl suggests the wealth of spiritual gifts tasted and enjoyed by the holy soul. Then is man apt for contemplation and for the vision and embrace of Spouse and bride which come about through the spiritual senses. The supreme beauty of Christ the Spouse is seen in that He is Resplendence, His supreme harmony heard in that He is the Word, His supreme sweetness tasted in that He is Wisdom comprising both Word and Resplendence, His supreme fragrance inhaled in that He is the Inspired Word within the heart, His supreme delightfulness touched in that He is the Incarnate Word dwelling bodily in our midst,215 offering Himself to our touch, our kiss, our embrace,216 through ardent love which makes our soul pass, by ecstatic rapture, from this world to the Father.ccxli217 6. Assuredly, then, the main task of the habits of the virtues is to prepare man for the labors of his active life; that of the habits of the gifts, to prepare him for the repose of contemplation; that of the

habits of the beatitudes, to prepare him for the perfection of both. Now, the fruit of the spirit is: charity, joy, peace, patience,218 ... longanimity, goodness, benignity, mildness, faith, modesty, continency, and chastity. They express the delights that come in the wake of perfect deeds, while the spiritual senses express mental perceptions of the Truth being contemplated. Now, this contemplation was given to the prophets through revelation according to the three modes of seeing: the sensorial, the imaginative, and the intellective,ccxlii while other just men obtain it through speculation, which starts from the senses, reaches the imagination, proceeds from imagination to reason, from reason to the intellect, from the intellect to understanding, and from understanding to wisdom, that ecstatical knowledge which begins in this life to reach fulfillment in eternal glory.ccxliii 7. Of such successive steps is Jacob's Ladder made,219 with its top reaching to heaven;220 and the throne of Solomon upon which is seated the King most wise, truly peaceful and full of love, the Bridegroom most fair, who is all delight,221 upon whom angels desire to look,222 toward whom holy souls aspire as the hind longs for running waters223. In its burning desire, the soul becomes not only an agile flame swift to rise: it even transcends itself, entering mystical darkness and ecstasy through a certain wise unknowing. Wherefore the soul may not only say with the bride, "We will run after Thee to the odor of Thy ointments,"224 but also sing with the prophet: Night shall be my light in my pleasures225. Experience alone can tell the wonder of this obscure, delightful light;ccxliv divine grace alone can procure such experience; and those alone who strive for it may receive such grace.226 That is why we must now consider grace in relation to the acquiring of merit. CHAPTER 7 - ON GRACE APPLIED TO THE OBJECTS OF FAITH 1. Fourth, we shall consider grace in relation to meritorious practices, and this in four areas: the working of grace as regards what is to be believed, that is, the articles of faith; as regards what is to be loved, determining the ordering of affections; as regards what is to be performed, that is, the precepts of divine law; as regards what is to be prayed for, that is, the petitions laid down in the Lord's Prayer. 2. Concerning the articles of faith, the following must be held. We are bound to believe by faith many things that exceed our reason. As a general rule, we must believe everything that is contained and expressed in the canon of Holy Scriptures. In a specialized and proper sense, however, the term "article of faith" applies to those truths that are listed in the Apostles' Creed. From one viewpoint - in reference to the authors of the Creed - there are twelve articles of faith;227 but if we consider the basic tenets that stand as the foundation of all that we must believe, there are fourteen articles of faith.ccxlv 3. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle is in Himself supremely true and good. In His work, He is supremely just and merciful. To supreme Truth is due firm assent; to supreme Good, fervent love; to supreme Justice, total submission; to supreme Mercy, trusting prayer. Now, it is the function of grace to order our mind to due worship of the first Principle. Hence, it is grace that directs and guides us toward actions both due and meritorious, in matters of faith, love, obedience, and petition, as required by the supreme truth, goodness, justice, and mercy of the blessed Trinity.

4. Any truth demands belief; a greater truth demands stronger belief, and the greatest of all truths, a supreme belief. Now, the truth of the first Principle is infinitely greater than any created truth, and brighter than the light of our intellect. Hence, if our intellect is to be well ordered in its belief, it must have a deeper faith in the supreme Truth than in itself; it must bring itself to the obedience of Christ228. It must believe, then, not only what is accessible to reason, but even what exceeds reason and contradicts sense experience;229 otherwise, it would fail to show due reverence to supreme Truth, preferring its own judgment to the teaching of eternal Light - which necessarily implies the puffing up of pride and of blameworthy conceit. 5. Again, a truth that is above or beyond reason is a truth neither actually seen nor visible, a hidden truth accepted only through an effort of faith. Now, for our faith in such truth to be firm, our soul must be lifted up by the light of truth and strengthened by the testimony of authority. The first is brought about by infused faith, the second by the weight of Scripture. Both faith and Scripture derive from supreme Truth: through Jesus Christ, who is the Brightness [of God's glory]230 and the Word, and through the Holy Spirit, who shows and teaches the truth, and also leads us to believe it. Authority, then, gives support to faith, and faith gives assent to authority. Because authority is found primarily in Sacred Scriptures, all of which are inspired by the Holy Spirit for the sake of guiding the Catholic faith, true faith may never disagree with the Scriptures, but must accept them with an assent that is fully sincere. 6. Finally, that very truth to which we must assent by faith, and which forms the main content of Sacred Scriptures, is not any kind of truth, but truth divine as it exists either in its own proper nature or in the assumed humanity [of Christ] - the understanding of which constitutes both the reward of the fatherland and the merit of the way.231 Wherefore the articles of faith which are the foundations of belief are concerned either with the Godhead, or with the humanity [of Christ]. Now, the Godhead must be seen in the three Persons: the Father begetting, the Son begotten, and the Holy Spirit proceeding; and also in four operations: creation in the order of nature, re-creation in the order of grace, resuscitation for the restoration of life, and beatification through the imparting of glory. That is why the articles dealing with the Godhead are seven in number. Likewise, the humanity of Christ must be seen as conceived of the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin, suffering on the cross, descending into hell, rising from the dead, ascending into heaven, and coming at the final judgment. That is why the articles dealing with the humanity of Christ are also seven in number. In all, then, there are fourteen articles,232 comparable to the seven stars and the seven golden lampstands in the midst of which the Son of Man was seen.ccxlvi 7. Because Christ is one in two natures, the divine and the human, and supreme Truth is also one, the single and only, the first and uttermost, the changeless and timeless, basis of our belief: therefore all the articles of the Creed are accepted through one faith in it, a faith that has never changed in the past and cannot change in the present or future, although it has greater clarity and explicitness for those who came into the world after Christ than for those who lived before His coming. The New Testament, in fact, is clearer than the Old, although both contain the same articles of faith.ccxlvii 8. Using the twelve apostles as the most reliable witnesses, the Holy Spirit built into a single structure the articles of faith contained in the depths of Sacred Scripture; the several articles were compounded into a single Apostolic Creed. Hence, in parallel with the number of apostles composing them, the articles of faith may be said to be twelve, for each apostle in building the faith laid down one article as

a single live stone;233 a thing the Holy Spirit had accurately prefigured in the action of the twelve men who took up twelve stones from the bed of the Jordan river to build an altar to the Lord.234 CHAPTER 8 - ON GRACE APPLIED TO THE OBJECTS OF LOVEccxlviii 1. Concerning what is to be loved, the following must be held. While all the works of God are very good,235 four things only are properly to be loved with charity: God eternal, that which we are, our neighbor, and our body.ccxlix In loving these, a fitting order and measure must be observed, so that God be loved first, above all else, and for His own sake; that which we are second, less than God and for His sake; our neighbor third, as much as ourselves; our body fourth, less than ourselves and our neighbor, as a lesser good. For the attainment of this end there were given a single habit of charity and a twofold commandment upon which depend the whole Law and the Prophets236, as regards not only the Old Testament, but also the New. 2. This should be understood as follows. Because the first Principle, being first, is supreme; being supreme, is supremely good; being supremely good, is supremely happy and also supremely delighting; being supremely delighting, is supremely to be enjoyed: therefore, because He is supremely to be enjoyed, we must supremely cleave to Him through love and rest in Him as in our final end.ccl Since righteous and well-ordered love, called charity, has as its chief object that Good wherein it finds fruition and repose-which Good is the actual reason for lovingccli - charity, therefore, loves Him above all else as being the very Beatifier, and loves as a consequence all other beings which through Him are made fit for beatitude. Now, our neighbor, together with us, is destined to reach beatitude, and so is our body, which is to be beatified together with the spirit. That is the reason why charity has but four objects: God and our neighbor, our spirit and our body.237 3. Again, because God, the supreme Good, is above; our soul, an intrinsic good, within; the neighbor, a kindred good, without; and our body, a lesser good, below: therefore the proper order of loving is to love God first, more than all else and for His own sake; our soul second, less than God but more than any temporal good; the neighbor third, as much as ourselves, as a good of the same degree; our body fourth, less than our soul, as a good of lesser degree. It is here also that we should place our neighbor's body which, like our own, is a lesser good than our soul. 4. Finally, love, which is the gravitational force of the soulcclii and the origin of all spiritual attraction, tends toward self with ease, but reaches out to the neighbor with effort, and to God with still greater pain. Hence, while there are FOUR OBJECTS of love, there are but TWO COMMANDMENTS. The first concerns God, the second, the neighbor. 5. And because all commandments concern either God or the neighbor - that is, the end, or the means toward it-these two contain the sum of all commandments and the fullness of all Scriptures.238 Now, the root, form, and end of virtue, relating all men to the final end and binding all things to one another simultaneously and in orderly fashion, is charity. Charity, then, is the force of properly ordered attraction and the bond of perfect union. It maintains ORDER as regards the different objects of love, in our desire for them and their effect upon us; yet it possesses ONENESS in its inner disposition as regards the one end and the One most to be loved, upon whom depends our love for all other beings

destined to be tied with a bond of love within the one Christ as a body to the Head - a body containing all those to be saved. Such oneness begins on earth, but is consummated in eternal glory, conforming to the prayer of the Lord "that they may be one, even as We are one: I in them and Thou in Me; that they may be perfected in unity."239 With this unity fully completed through the bond of love, God shall be all in all240 throughout an assured eternity and in perfect peace. Through this bond of mutual charity, all things will be set in order, and interrelated within this order, and forever united within this relationship. CHAPTER 9 - ON GRACE APPLIED TO THE FULFILLMENT OF THE COMMANDMENTS AND COUNSELS 1. Concerning the commandments of divine law, the following must be held. That in the law of Moses there were judicial, figurative, and moral precepts, the latter being the Ten Commandments of the Decalogue inscribed241 upon two tablets by God's own finger; that the Gospels dealt with the judicial precepts by removing them, voided the figurative precepts by fulfilling them, perfected the moral precepts by adding to them, providing instructive lessons, incentive promises, and perfective counsels: the counsels of poverty, obedience, and chastity, to whose fulfillment Christ our Lord invites the seeker of perfection.242 2. This should be understood as follows. As the first Principle is supremely good in Himself, so He is supremely just in His works and in the government of the universe. Because it is for the supremely just to be zealous for justice, not only in Himself but also in others, and since justice consists in compliance with the rules of law, therefore divine justice must both impress judicial norms upon the minds of men, and express them, not only through DECLARATIONS of the teaching Truth, but also through DECREES and PRECEPTS of the commanding Will.ccliii And because it is grace that makes our will conform to the will of God, it is grace also that disposes us to accept and follow the rules of justice imposed by the divinely given law. 3. Again, because there are two ways of obeying divine commands - through fear of punishment, and through love of justice, the first pertaining to the imperfect, the second to the perfect - God imposed upon man a twofold law, one of fear and the other of love, one bringing forth children unto bondage243, and the other, unto adoption as sons of God.244 Those who live in a state of fear and imperfection must be impressed by sanctions, guided by signs, and directed by precepts. Hence, the law of Moses - the law of fear-contains judicial, figurative, and moral elements. But the loving and perfect need open teaching of what is written, promises of lofty rewards, and the high perfection of the counsels: hence the law of the Gospels contains all three. The law of Moses, then, differs from that of the Gospels in that one is a law of figures and the other of truth, one of penalty and the other of grace, one of the letter and the other of the spirit, one of death and the other of life, one of fear and the other of love, one of servitude and the other of freedom, one of burden and the other of relief.ccliv245 4. Finally, because the rules concerning the requirements of justice are contained within the

commandments of God, and justice consists in "rendering everyone his due,"cclv therefore, among the moral precepts, some rules must refer to God and others to the neighbor, thus conforming with the twofold command of love. This the Holy Spirit willed to show by the symbolism of the two tablets, wherefore they are said to have been inscribed by God's own finger.246 Now, since God is trine - Father, Son, and Holy Spirit-He must be adored in His supreme Majesty, confessed in His supreme Truth, and received in His supreme Love; and this, through our irascible, rational, and concupiscible powers, by deeds, words, and affections. Wherefore, in parallel with these three, there are on the first tablet three commandments: concerning submissive worship, truthful oaths, and the sacredness of the sabbath. 5. But because our neighbor is an image of the Trinity, and, as an image of the Father, deserves our respect; as an image of the Son, our truthfulness; and as an image of the Holy Spirit, our love: therefore the commandments of the second tablet are seven in number. Two, indeed, concern piety:247 the first - to honor our parents - imposes filial piety; the second - not to kill - forbids impiety. One concerns truthfulness, which is chiefly a matter of the spoken word - the commandment not to bear false witness. Four concern love, the opposites of which, lust and greed, may be either actual or intentional. These four commandments are: not to commit adultery; not to covet our neighbor's wife; not to steal; and not to covet our neighbor's goods.cclvi The order of the commandments corresponds to the damage done to justice, going from the greater to the lesser. That is how the rules concerning the requirements of justice are contained within the commandments of God. 6. Now, because a man attains perfect justice when he has completely forsaken evil, both as a sin and as a cause of sin, and because everything evil arises from one of three roots, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life,248 it follows that there are three evangelical counsels that deliver us completely from this threefold root. They are counsels because, in order to turn us away from evil completely, they detach our soul, not only from things forbidden, but also from things legitimate and permissible which might become occasions of sin. The counsels, therefore, contain justice in a measure not only sufficient but overflowing, as befits the perfection of the evangelical law and the works of perfecting grace. CHAPTER 10 - ON GRACE APPLIED TO THE OBJECTS OF PETITION AND PRAYER 1. Concerning the petitions of the Lord's Prayer, the following must be held. While God is most lavishly generous - readier to give than we are to receive - yet He wills our prayers as so many occasions for bestowing upon us the Holy Spirit's gifts of grace. He wills not only mental prayer, which is "an ascent of the mind toward God," but also oral prayer, which is "an entreaty to God for what is suitable."cclvii He wills not only personal prayer, but also prayer through the saints as through divinely appointed assistants, in order that we may gain through their intercession what our own merit has not deserved. And lest we wander astray in our uncertainty,249 not knowing what to ask or what is good for us, God gave us a

formal prayer composed by Him, in which are contained, under seven requests, all of the things that should be sought. 2. This should be understood as follows. As the first Principle is supremely true and good in Himself, so also He is supremely just and merciful in His work. And because He is supremely merciful, He reaches down most lovingly to the misery of man through an infusion of His grace. However, being also supremely just,250 He bestows the perfect gift only upon the man who desires it, He gives grace only to the grateful, and mercy only to the one who knows his own wretchedness. Thus, freedom of the will is left unhampered, appreciation of the gift undiminished, and respect for divine honor unimpaired. Because, therefore, prayer consists in seeking divine help, adducing one's own incapacity, and giving thanks for a gratuitous favor: therefore prayer prepares for the reception of the divine gifts, and God wills to be prayed to, in order that He may lavish His bounties. 3. Further, if our desire is to rise aloft effectively in its quest for the divine gifts, our love must be warm, our thoughts collected, and our hope sure and strong. And because our heart is often lukewarm, distracted, and fearful by reason of a guilty conscience which makes it afraid to appear of itself before the divine countenance: therefore God willed that we pray not only MENTALLY but also ORALLY, so that the words may arouse our heart and their meaning help us gather our scattered thoughts.cclviii He willed also that we pray through the saints, and that the saints pray for us. This was to give confidence to the fearful, so that those who dare not or cannot ask by themselves may succeed through able intercessors.cclix Hence, in those who prayed, humility would be preserved; in the interceding saints, dignity would be manifested; and in all the members of Christ, that love and unity would be displayed by which the lower have faithful recourse to the higher while the higher generously condescend to the lower. 4. Finally, the just and merciful God must heed our petitions in those matters only which concern His glory and our salvation; and such are reward in the fatherland and provision along the way. Since there are three of the former and four of the latter, the petitions of the Lord's Prayer teaching us what to ask are seven in number. The three points dealing with the glory of God and the reward of heaven are: the perception of truth, the worship of majesty, and the conforming of the will. Or, in other words, they consist in: first, the VISION OF SUPREME TRUTH, inaccessible except to the clean and holy - and this is requested when we say, "Hallowed be Thy name," that is, may the knowledge of Thy name be given to the perfect, holy, and clean; second, the STRIVING TOWARD SUPREME HEIGHT which makes kings and through which kingdom is obtained - and this is requested when we say: "Thy kingdom come"; third, the FRUITION OF THE SUPREME GOOD, which is given but to those who have their will conformed to the will of God - and this is requested when we say: "Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven." The points dealing with our passage through the present life concern either the bestowal of helpful good, or the removal of harmful evil. The bestowal of helpful good is requested in terms of bread, both daily and supersubstantial, covering all we need for the sustenance of our present life, in both

soul and body. The removal of harmful evil is requested in three petitions at the end: for all evil is either past, future, or present; or again, either of sin, of strife, or of penalty. We pray to be delivered from the first by begging pardon for our sins, from the second, by asking victory over temptations, from the third and last, by asking deliverance from the oppression of evil. Hence there are altogether seven petitions through which we request comprehensively everything that we ought to ask; and properly so, for the seven petitions correspond to the seven divine charismatic favors251 and to the gifts of the sevenfold grace. 5. Wherefore we should note that the Holy Scriptures propose to our consideration a sevenfold series of seven things: the capital sins, the sacraments, the virtues, the gifts, the beatitudes, the petitions, and, as will appear later,252 the endowments of glory - three of the soul and four of the body. First, the seven capital sins, from which we must recede; second, the seven sacraments, through which we must proceed; last, the seven endowments of glory, to which we must aspire; last but one, the seven petitions, whereby we must entreat; as intermediary stages, the seven virtues, gifts, and beatitudes, through which we must progress. Thus, praising the name of the Lord and praying to Him seven times a day253, we may obtain the sevenfold grace of these virtues, gifts, and beatitudes, and thereby overcome the sevenfold assault of the capital sins and attain the sevenfold crown of the endowments of glory, with the aid of the sevenfold sacramental medicine divinely instituted for the restoration of mankind. |< << >> >|

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PART VI - ON THE SACRAMENTAL REMEDY


CHAPTER 1 - ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SACRAMENTScclx NOW that we have considered the Trinity of God, the creation of the world, the corruption of sin, the incarnation of the Word, and the grace of the Holy Spirit, there remains in the sixth place to study the sacramental remedy. Seven points are to be developed in this regard: the origin, diversity, division, institution, administration, and renewal of the sacraments, and finally the integrity of each one in particular. 2. Concerning the origin of the sacraments, the following must be held. They are sensible signs divinely instituted as remedies through which "beneath the cloak of material species God's power operates in a hidden manner";cclxi so that, "being likenesses, they represent; from their mode of institution, they signify; being made holy, they are means of conferring a certain spiritual grace"cclxii by which the soul is healed of its weaknesses due to vice. And it is to this as to their final end that they are principally ordained;254 but as subordinate ends, they also procure humility, knowledge, and the practice of virtue. 3. This should be understood as follows. Because the restoring Principle, Christ crucified, the incarnate Word, governs all things most wisely, being God, and heals them most mercifully, being incarnate as God: therefore He must so restore and heal the diseased human race as to conform with the needs of the patient, of the disease, of its occasion, and of its cure. He Himself, the Physician, is the incarnate Word, that is, God invisible existing in a visible nature. Man, the patient, is not pure spirit, nor is he flesh alone, but a spirit in mortal flesh. The disease is original sin, which infects the mind through ignorance, and the flesh through concupiscence. Although the origin of this sin was principally the consent of reason, its occasion was brought about by the bodily senses. Now, that a medicine should fit all these requirements, not only did it have to be spiritual, but it also had to possess something of the nature of sensible signs, in order that, as sensible objects had been the occasion of the fall of the soul, so also they would become the occasion of its rising. But because in themselves the sensible signs [of the sacraments] cannot produce any effect in the order of grace, although they are by nature distant representations of grace, it was necessary that the Author of grace INSTITUTE [appoint] them for the sake of signifying and BLESS them for the sake of sanctifying; so that through natural similitude they would represent, through conjoined institution they would signify, and through superadded benediction they would sanctify and prepare for grace, by which our soul is healed and cured. 4. Again, because curative grace is not granted to the proud, the unbelieving, or the slothful, it was fitting that God give signs which not only would confer sanctification and grace, and thus healing, but would also teach through their signification, humble when received, and prompt to action through their diversity. So that, sloth being removed from the concupiscible power by prompting, ignorance from the rational power by teaching, and pride from the irascible power by humbling, the whole soul

would become open to healing by the grace of the Holy Spirit, which forms us once more, as regards these three powers, in the likeness of the Trinity and of Christ. 5. Finally, because it is through these sensible signs divinely instituted that the grace of the Holy Spirit is received, and within them that those who approach discover it: therefore these sacraments are called the "vessels of grace"cclxiii and likewise its cause; not that grace is substantially present in them or causally effected by them - for grace dwells only in the soul and is infused by none but God - but that, by divine command, we are to draw the grace of our healing from Christ the supreme Physician through and by these sensible signs, "although God has not made His power depend upon the sacraments."cclxiv 6. What has been said so far indicates not only the origin of the sacraments but also their function and their fruit. Their origin is Christ the Lord; their function is to produce a prompting, teaching, and humbling effect; and their fruit is the healing and salvation of men. Also apparent are: their efficient cause - institution by God; their material cause - representation through sensible signs; their formal cause - sanctification through grace; and their final cause - the healing of men through a proper medicine. And because "a thing is named after its form and end,"cclxv these signs are called "sacraments," as being "sacred medicaments." Through them, in very truth, the soul is led away from the filth of vice, and toward perfect holiness. Wherefore these signs, although material and sensible, must be respected as sacred, since they are signs of sacred mysteries, prepare for sacred gifts, were provided by the most sacred God, divinely consecrated through a sacred institution and blessing, and established in the sacred Church for the most sacred worship of God. Hence, they are rightly called "sacraments." CHAPTER 2 - ON THE DIVERSITY OF THE SACRAMENTScclxvi255 1. Concerning the diversity of the sacraments, the following must be held. For the sake of the healing of man, sacraments were instituted from the very beginning, and always ran parallel to his disease, and will last until the end of ages; but they were different at the time of the law of nature, at the time of the law of Scripture, and at the time of grace. Of all these sacraments, the last-named have the most evident signification and the greatest worth because of the grace they impart. Oblations, sacrifices, and tithes existed under the law of nature. Then, under the law of Scripture, circumcision was introduced, expiation added, and an elaborate distinction superadded between the various oblations, tithes, and sacrifices. But under the new law [of grace], "sacraments were imposed, lesser in number but greater in effect and more powerful in virtue,"cclxvii and also higher in dignity: and in these, all the sacraments of earlier days were both fulfilled and voided. 2. This should be understood as follows. The incarnate Word - principle of our restoration, fountainhead and origin of the sacraments - is most merciful and wise. Being most merciful, He saw to it that the rampant disease of sin should not go without sacramental remedy; being most wise, in accord with the immutable wisdom that governs the universe with supreme order, He made use of diverse and various medicines well suited to the changing conditions of the successive ages. Because

"from the very beginning, as time went by and the advent of the Saviour came ever closer, the fruits of salvation and the knowledge of truth grew more and more, therefore it was fitting that the very signs of salvation should vary with the flow of time, so that as divine grace became increasingly effective toward this salvation, the signification of the visible signs might become more and more evident."cclxviii Hence, "the sacrament of expiation and justification was established first as an offering, later as circumcision, and finally as baptismal cleansing, because the form and symbol of purification are somewhat hidden in an offering, more clearly expressed in circumcision, and manifestly revealed in baptism."cclxix And that is why, as Hugh writes, "the sacraments of the early days were like the shadow of truth, those of intermediate times, like its figure or image, and those of the later age, the age of grace, like its very body,"cclxx for when they are taken together they contain the truth and healing grace they represent, and they actually impart what they promise. 3. Again, because the presence of truth and grace,256 demonstrated in the law of grace, could not - by reason of the loftiness and variety of their effects and powers - be properly expressed by any single sign, therefore in every age and law several sacraments were given to manifest this truth and grace: more at the time of the law of figures [i. e., law of Scripture], whose purpose is symbolical, for then the many and varied signs were intended to express in many ways the grace of Christ, and to commend it more forcefully; and, through this manifold commendation, to feed the little ones, train the imperfect,cclxxi and impose upon the stubborn a heavy burden, taming them for the yoke of grace and in a measure softening them. 4. Finally, at the appearance of truth, darkness disappears and the foreshadowing figure attains its destined end, at which point both its use and its existence necessarily cease. Wherefore, at the advent of grace, the ancient sacraments and signs were both fulfilled and abolished, for they were signs ANNOUNCING things to come, so to speak, FORETELLING from afar.cclxxii New sacraments were then instituted DEMONSTRATING the presence of grace, and each in its way COMMEMORATING the passion of the Lord, which is the origin and fountainhead of healing grace, for those who lived before Christ as well as for us: for the former, a price promised; for the latter, a price paid. Now, because grace is not due to a promise of payment except in view of its acquittal; and because it is due more abundantly to the price paid than to the promise of payment: therefore the passion of Christ more immediately sanctifies the sacraments of the time of the new law, and a more abundant measure of grace flows from them. Whence the former sacraments were preparations and guides toward the latter, as the road leads to destination, the sign to the thing signified, the figure to truth, and as the imperfect both prepares for and leads to the perfect. CHAPTER 3 - ON THE NUMBER AND DIVISION OF THE SACRAMENTScclxxiii 1. Concerning the number and division of the sacraments of the new law, the following must be held. There are seven sacraments corresponding to the sevenfold grace which, through the seven ages of time,257 leads us to the Principle, to repose, to the circle of eternity, as to an eighth age, that of universal resurrection. Now, the door to these sacraments is Baptism; then follow Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, and finally Matrimony, which although it occupies the last place because of

the disease of concupiscence attached to it, was yet established in paradise before all the others, and even before sin. 2. This should be understood as follows. Our restoring Principle, Christ the Lord, the incarnate Word, being the power of God and the wisdom of God258, and unto us mercy, would establish His sacraments in the law of grace so powerfully, so wisely, so mercifully, and so fittingly that no means were lacking for our healing in this present life. Now, for the perfect cure of a disease, three things must concur: expulsion of the actual disease, restoration of health, and preservation of the health restored. First, because perfect cure requires the perfect and complete EXPULSION of disease, and the disease [here] is sevenfold, comprising three forms of sin, original, mortal, and venial and four forms of penalty, ignorance, malice, weakness, and concupiscence; and because, as Jerome says, "what heals the foot does not heal the eye"cclxxiv - therefore, seven different remedies are needed to expel completely this sevenfold disease. These are: Baptism, against original sin; Penance, against mortal sin; Extreme Unction, against venial sin; Orders, against ignorance; Holy Eucharist, against malice; Confirmation, against weakness; and Matrimony, against concupiscence, which it tempers and excuses.259 3. Again, there is no perfect cure without RESTORATION of perfect health, and perfect health of the soul consists in the practice of the seven virtues, the three theological and the four cardinal. Hence, for the restoring of their healthful practice, seven sacraments are needed. Baptism leads to faith, Confirmation to hope, Holy Eucharist to charity, penance to justice, Extreme Unction to perseverance which is the complement and summit of fortitude, Orders to prudence, and Matrimony to the preservation of temperance, which is threatened mostly by the weakness of the flesh but is saved through honest marriage. 4. Finally, there can be no perfect healing without PRESERVATION of the health restored. In the battle of life, this health may be preserved only by means of the sevenfold armament of grace, and nowhere else but in the army of the Church as awe-inspiring as bannered troops;260 wherefore there must necessarily be seven sacraments. Since this army consists of elements subject to weakening, in order to be perfectly and permanently strengthened, it needs sacraments to fortify, restore, and revive its members: to fortify the combatants, restore the wounded, and revive the dying. Now, a fortifying sacrament fortifies either those who are entering the battle, and this is Baptism; or those who are fighting, and this is Confirmation; or those who are leaving, and this is Extreme Unction. A restoring sacrament restores either from venial sin, and this is Holy Eucharist, or from mortal sin, and this is Penance. And a reviving sacrament revives either in the spiritual life, and this is Orders, which has the function of administering the sacraments, or in the natural life, and this is Matrimony, which, because it revives the multitude in its natural existence, the foundation of all existence, was the first to be instituted. Because Matrimony is connected with the disease of concupiscence and is the sacrament with the least sanctifying power - even though, in its signification, it is a. great sacrament261 - it is listed as the last and lowest of the spiritual remedies.262 Hence, because Baptism is for those entering the battle, Confirmation for those fighting, Holy Eucharist for those recuperating, Penance for those rising anew, Extreme Unction for those about to

leave, Orders for those bringing in new recruits, and Matrimony for those providing these recruits-it is clear that the sacramental remedies and means of defense are sufficient and orderly. CHAPTER 4 - ON THE INSTITUTION OF THE SACRAMENTS 1. Concerning the institution of the sacraments, the following must be held. Christ, as the Mediator263 and supreme Lawgiver of the New Testament, instituted seven sacraments by the law of grace, that law whereby He called to ternal promises, gave directing precepts, and instituted sanctifying remedies for the soul. For He instituted these sacraments in words and material elements for the sake of conveying clear meaning and effective sanctification; but in such a way that while they would always signify truly, they would not always heal effectively, by reason of a defect, not of their own, but of the recipient. These sacraments Christ instituted in different ways. Some, He confirmed, approved, and brought to full perfection, to wit, Matrimony and Penance; others He established implicitly in their original form, to wit, Confirmation and Extreme Unction; others again, He originated, brought to full perfection, and received in Person, to wit, Baptism, Holy Eucharist, and Orders. He fully instituted these three, and was also their first Recipient.cclxxv264 2. This should be understood as follows. Our restoring Principle is Christ crucified, the incarnate Word. Being the Word, He is coequal and consubstantial with the Father; He is the Word of supreme power, truth, and goodness, and so also of supreme authority. Wherefore it was His proper part to bring forth the New Testament, and to provide a complete and sufficient law as required by His supreme power, truth, and goodness. In His supreme goodness, He made beatifying promises; in His supreme truth, He gave directing commands; and in His supreme power, He established helpful sacraments. Through these sacraments, man may regain strength to obey the directing commands; and through these directing commands, may attain to the eternal promises. All this is effected in the evangelical law by the eternal Word, Christ the Lord, in as much as He is the way, and the truth, and the life.265 3. Again, the restoring Principle is the Word, not only as such, but also as incarnate. In His incarnation, He offers Himself to all, in order to reveal truth, and gives Himself to those who worthily come to Him, in order to impart the grace of healing.266 Wherefore, being full of grace and truth267, He instituted the sacraments in both material elements and words, in order to signify more clearly and to sanctify more effectively. For when, through sight and hearing- the most informative of the senses these elements are seen and these words heard, they clearly reveal the meaning of the sign itself. Also, the words sanctify the material elements and make them more effective for the healing of man. And because this healing is not granted to him who, in the depth of his heart, refuses and opposes the fountain of grace, the sacraments, though so instituted as to have signification always and universally, would bring sanctification only to those who would receive them worthily and sincerely.cclxxvi 4. Finally, while the incarnate Word is the fountain of every sacramental grace, some sacramental graces268 existed before the incarnation, others only after the sending of the Holy Spirit, and still others in between. That is why the sacraments had to be instituted by different methods.

Penitential sorrow and matrimonial procreation existed before the incarnation. Christ, therefore, did not institute as novelties the two corresponding sacraments; but, having already established them and imprinted them in a certain manner upon natural reason, He completed and confirmed them in the evangelical law by preaching penance, attending a wedding feast, and reasserting the law of marriage, as may be gathered from various passages of the Gospel.269 But the Spirit was not given in full for man's strengthening and his public confession of the name of Christ until the Holy Spirit was sent, nor was there, before that time, full spiritual unction to help the soul rise aloft. Christ, therefore, merely originated and shadowed forth the two corresponding sacraments, Confirmation and Extreme Unction: Confirmation, by imposing His hands upon the little ones, and by foretelling that His disciples would be baptized with the Holy Spirit; and Extreme Unction, by sending the disciples to care for the sick whom they anointed with oil270 as is said in Mark.271 In the meantime there was a time of regeneration, of organization of the Church, and of spiritual refection. Christ, therefore, both fully and clearly instituted the three corresponding sacraments: Baptism, Holy Eucharist, and Orders.272 He instituted Baptism first by being baptized Himself, then by determining the form of Baptism, and by making it universal.273 He instituted the sacrament of Orders by giving first the power to bind and absolve the sins of mankind, and then the power to offer the sacrifice of the altar.274 He instituted the Holy Eucharist, by comparing Himself to a grain of wheat, and, immediately before the passion, by consecrating and giving to His disciples the sacrament of His Body and Blood. Wherefore these three sacraments had to be distinctly and entirely established by Christ Himself, and they were frequently prefigured in the Old Testament, being as they were the substantial sacraments of the new law and the proper works of the Lawgiver, the incarnate Word. CHAPTER 5 - ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE SACRAMENTS 1. Concerning the administration of the sacraments, the following must be held. The power of administering the sacraments belongs, as a general rule, to none but men. The administration of any sacrament necessarily implies the proper intention in the mind of the minister.cclxxvii Some sacraments require, besides this proper intention, the presence of either priestly or pontifical Orders: Confirmationcclxxviii and Ordinationcclxxix require pontifical Orders, while the Holy Eucharist,cclxxx Penance,cclxxxi and Extreme Unctioncclxxxii require priestly Orders. As regards Baptismcclxxxiii and Matrimony,cclxxxiv although they are the concern of the priest, they may in fact be administered without priestly Orders,275 particularly in cases of necessity. Once these conditions [intention and Orders] are present, the sacraments may be conferred by either the good or the wicked, the faithful or the heretical, within the Church or outside it: but within the Church, they are conferred both in fact and in effect, while outside it, although conferred in fact, they are not effective. 2. This should be understood as follows. Since it was as God-Man that our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, instituted the sacraments for the salvation of men, He ordained, and properly so, that they were to be dispensed to men through the ministry of men, so that the minister would conform both to Christ the Saviour and to man in need of salvation. Christ the Saviour brought about the

salvation of mankind in a manner befitting the equity of justice, the dignity of order276 and the assurance of salvation itself - for He wrought salvation277 in a just, orderly, and sure way; therefore He entrusted the administration of these sacraments to men in a way that conformed to these three perfections. First, EQUITY OF JUSTICE demands that the actions of man, as man, be not performed unthinkingly; that the actions of man, as minister of Christ, be referred in some way to Christ; and that the actions of man, as minister of salvation, be referred in some general or particular way to salvation. Because the administration of the sacraments is a work of man as rational, as minister of Christ, and as minister of salvation, therefore it must necessarily proceed from intention: an intention by which a man proposes to perform that which Christ has instituted for man's salvation, or at least to do that which the Church does; which would generally include the same purpose, since the Church, as it receives the sacraments from Christ, also dispenses them for the salvation of the faithful. 3. The ORDER OF DIGNITY demands that the greater men be entrusted with the greater sacraments, the lesser men with the lesser, and those of intermediate rank with the intermediate.278 Now, some sacraments are principally concerned with the excellence of virtue or dignity, to wit, the sacraments of Confirmation and Orders; others, with the poverty of need, to wit, Baptism and Matrimony - the former generating, and the latter regenerating, to a life of virtue; others again are mainly concerned with intermediate matters, to wit, Holy Eucharist, Penance, and Extreme Unction. Hence, under general law, the first may be conferred only by bishops and pontiffs; the last, being the least may be administered by those who have received merely the lower Orders, or even by laymen, particularly in case of need - i. e., as regards Baptism; the intermediate may be conferred only by priests, who stand, so to speak, in the middle, between bishops and laymen. 4. Finally, the ASSURANCE OF SALVATION requires that the sacraments be so administered as to exclude any doubt. Now, no one could ever be certain of the morality or faith of the minister, nor could the minister himself be certain whether he is worthy of love, or hatred279. And so, if the administration of the sacraments were reserved to the virtuous, no one would be certain of having received them validly: they would have to be repeated again and again, and one man's sin might hamper the salvation of another. Neither would there be any stability in the hierarchical degrees of the Church Militant, which are founded mainly upon the administration of the different sacraments. It was fitting, therefore, that such administration be entrusted in consideration, not of a man's personal holiness, which depends upon the will, but of his authority, which is essentially constant. Properly, then, this power was given to good and bad alike, to those within the Church and to those without.280 But because none may be saved outside the communion of faith and love which makes us children and members of the Church, whenever the sacraments are received outside it, they are received with no effect toward salvation, although they are true sacraments. They may become effective, however, when the recipient returns to Holy Mother Church, the only Bride of Christ, whose sons are the only ones Christ the Spouse deems worthy of the eternal inheritance. Wherefore Augustine writes against the Donatists:281 "A comparison of the Church with paradise reveals that while strangers to the Church may receive its Baptism, no one outside the Church may receive or possess beatific salvation. For, as the Scriptures testify, the rivers from the fountain of paradise flowed abundantly even on the

outside. Indeed, they are remembered by name, and we all know through which countries they ran, and that they did in fact exist outside of paradise. Yet neither in Mesopotamia nor in Egypt, both washed by these rivers, is there anything left of that blissful life remembered of paradise. The waters of paradise, then, are found outside it, but beatitude only within. Likewise, the Baptism of the Church may be obtained outside it, but the reward of beatific life is found only within this Church built upon a rock; and endowed with the keys to bind and absolve. And this Church is one, and it holds and possesses all the power of its Spouse and Lord, and by virtue of this conjugal power, it may give birth even through slave-girls to children who shall be called to the state of heirs if they are not proud; whereas, if they are proud, they shall remain outside. Even more: because we are fighting for the honor and unity of the Church, let us not give credit to heretics for any of its truth we find in them, but teach them instead by demonstration that they have it through union, and that it shall be of no salutary use to them unless they return to this same union."cclxxxv CHAPTER 6 - ON THE REPETITION OF THE SACRAMENTScclxxxvi 1. Concerning the repetition of the sacraments, the following must be held. Although, generally speaking, none of the sacraments should be conferred several times upon the same person, as regards the same matter,282 and for the same reason, lest there be lack of respect for the sacrament,cclxxxvii there are in particular three sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation, and Orders, which are never to be repeated; for by each of these three a unique inner character is imprinted which is never deleted. Among these characters, that of Baptism is fundamental, for the other two cannot be imprinted unless this has first been given. Thus, if a man goes through the ordination ceremony without having been baptized, nothing is effected, but [after Baptism is conferred] everything has to be done over again: "for when a thing [ordination] in fact was not done in the first place, it cannot be said to be repeated."cclxxxviii 2. This should be understood as follows. Although our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, in His supreme power, wisdom, and goodness never does anything inefficacious, improper, or fruitless in any circumstances, this is true all the more in His most noble works such as those through which the human race is restored. Since the sacraments belong to this category of divine works, it follows that a certain disrespect is shown to them when they are repeated on the same matter and person and for the same reason. For this would indicate that their first administration was inefficacious, improper, and fruitless, which contradicts the requirements of the supreme power, wisdom, and goodness of the restoring Principle, always present and active in and through the sacraments. 3. Again, among the sacraments, whose general purpose is to restore mankind through the efficacy of divine power, there are some which were introduced merely as remedies against disease, and others not only for this purpose but also for the sake of establishing, dividing, and ordaining the hierarchical dignities within the Church. Now, diseases may vary, yield to remedies, and yet recur, but the dignities of the Church must remain firm, solid, and unshaken. That is why the sacraments concerned with recurring diseases have transitory effects, and consequently they may be repeated if a new reason appears; while those concerned with the hierarchical dignities and the different states of faith must necessarily have some effects that remain beyond their remedial action in order to establish a fixed and stable distinction between the dignities and states within the Church. Since this can be attained

neither by natural means nor even by the gift of sanctifying grace, it must necessarily come about through certain signs impressed upon the incorruptible substance, that is, the incorruptible soul, by the incorruptible Principle, according to incorruptible nature, that is, indelibly and gratuitously: and such signs are called characters. These characters, because they are indelible, may never be assumed a second time, nor may the sacraments imprinting them ever be repeated. 4. Finally, there is a threefold functioning of faith whereby a distinction is made among the Christian people, which is to say, among the orderly ranks of the Church: the states of faith born, faith strengthened, and faith multiplied; the first dividing the faithful from unbelievers, the second dividing the strong from the weak or infirm, the third dividing clerics from laymen. That is why the sacraments related to this threefold state of faith always impress a character distinguishing those indelibly marked by it, wherefore these sacraments may never be repeated. And because Baptism concerns the state of faith born whereby the people of God is distinguished from unbelievers, as were the Israelites from the Egyptians; because Confirmation concerns the state of faith strengthened whereby the strong are distinguished from the weak, as are fighters from those who cannot fight; and because Orders concerns the state of faith multiplied whereby clerics are distinguished from laymen,283 as were the Levites from the other tribes: therefore it is only in these three sacraments that a character is imprinted. 5. Moreover, since the distinction between God's people and the others is first and fundamental, it follows that the character of Baptism is the foundation of all the others. Therefore, in the absence of this foundation, nothing may be built, and thus everything [that may have been attempted] must be done anew; while if this character has been laid down, the others may be impressed, each once and for all. The three said sacraments that imprint these characters may not be repeated for any reason whatsoever; and a severe penalty must be imposed upon those who do repeat them for they insult a sacrament of God. The other four sacraments, however, may be repeated without offense when new occasions arise. CHAPTER 7 - ON THE NATURE AND INTEGRITY OF BAPTISMcclxxxix 1. Now, in the seventh place, we come to the consideration of the integrity of each sacrament. Of the seven, we must speak first of Baptism which is the door to the others. 2. Concerning the sacrament of Baptism, the following must be held. For anyone to be validly and fully baptized, the form established by the Lord must be said aloud:284 "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen."285 No word should be omitted, none added, nor should the order given here be changed, nor should the word "name" in the beginning be altered. There must also be immersion or ablution of the whole body, or at least of its most noble part, by means of the element water, in such a way that the immersion [or ablution] and the vocal expression are performed simultaneously by one and the same minister. If these conditions are fulfilled, and if there is no feigning in the one to be baptized, there is given to him a grace that regenerates and rectifies him, and cleanses him of every sin. For the sake of greater effectiveness, a preparatory instruction and exorcism precede the baptism of both children and adults.

In the case of adults, personal faith is required, whereas in the case of children, the faith of another suffices. 3. This should be understood as follows. Because our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, as an utterly perfect and sufficient Principle, must in restoring mankind through remedial sacraments employ nothing superfluous, out of order, or incomplete:ccxc therefore He necessarily made the sacraments of Baptism and the others as complete as required by His power, by our salvation, and also by our disease. Now this power which restores us is the power of the whole Trinity, whom Holy Mother Church accepts in her soul, confesses in words, and professes with signs, under the distinctness and properness, order and natural origin, of three Persons. This power is also the power of the passion of Christ, who died and was buried and rose again the third day286. Hence, in order to express both [the Trinity and Christ] in the sacrament which is the first of all the sacraments, and the one in which this power is first and radically active, there must be in Baptism an expression of the Trinity through a distinct, proper, and orderly mentioning of names; this at least in the common form, for in the early days of the Church, Baptism could be conferred in the name of Christ,287ccxci which comprised the Trinity by implication. The formula of Baptism also must be pronounced in a proper and orderly sequence, concurrently with the threefold immersion [or ablution] fittingly representing Christ's death, burial, and resurrection the third day. And because these powers [of the Trinity and of the passion] act simultaneously and within a single Christ and Saviour, both must be applied by one and the same minister at one and the same time in order to preserve the oneness of the sacrament and to signify the oneness of the Mediator.ccxcii Again, because our salvation required first a regeneration or renovation into the state of grace, that is, the state of spiritual life - a regeneration or renovation through the cleansing of impurity, the expelling of darkness, and the cooling of concupiscence, the downfall of every man born of Adam's seed therefore the first sacrament, which brings about regeneration, most fittingly was performed with that element which applies by its natural signification to the aforesaid threefold effect of the grace initiating our salvation.288 For water cleanses by its purity, transmits light by its limpidity, and cools by its freshness. It is also the commonest of all liquids. That is why the sacrament of our regeneration is fittingly performed with water - any water whatsoever, for "any water is of the same species as any other water";ccxciii and thus also is obviated the danger that someone's salvation might be imperiled through lack of the proper material element. 5. Finally, the disease in us which Baptism radically opposes is original sin. This disease denies to the soul the life of grace; [it denies it] the enabling rectitude of all the virtues; it inclines the soul in a certain measure toward every kind of sin. Being inherited, "it makes a child potentially concupiscent and a man actually so,"ccxciv and also reduces the soul to diabolical servitude, submitting it to the power of the prince of darkness. And so, for the efficient cure of the disease, this sacrament must provide a grace that regenerates, to offset the loss of the spiritual life; a grace that rectifies by means of a sevenfold power, to offset the loss of the enabling virtues; and a grace that cleanses of all sin, to offset every tendency to vicious disorder.

6. Now, because original sin, received from another, makes a child potentially concupiscent and an adult actually so: therefore the adult must necessarily have personal faith and personal contrition, while the child needs no more than the faith and contrition of another, that is, of the universal Church. And because the purpose of Baptism is to deliver both children and adults from the power of the prince of darkness, both should be exorcised, that the hostile spirits may be expelled, and both instructed, that the adults may be delivered from the darkness of error and formed to the faith, and that the godparents representing the children may learn what to teach them; lest the sacrament of Baptism be prevented by human default from achieving its intended end. CHAPTER 8 - ON THE INTEGRITY OF CONFIRMATIONccxcv 1. Concerning the sacrament of Confirmation, the following must be held. For this sacrament to be complete, a formula must be pronounced, usually in these terms: "I sign thee with the sign of the cross, and I confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen."289 The chrism required is made of olive oil and balm. When the bishop anoints the forehead with chrism in the form of a cross while pronouncing the formula of confirmation, the sacrament is received. By this sacrament, a man is strengthened as a soldier of Christ, prepared to confess His name publicly and courageously. 2. This should be understood as follows. As our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, was eternally conceived in the bosom of the Father and temporally appeared to man in sensible flesh, He likewise restores none but the one who also conceives Him is his heart by believing, and who brings forth by fitting confession of faith Him in whom he believes. Now, a fitting confession of faith is one that is sincere and characterized by absolute truthfulness: that is, one that is not only speculative but also practical. It implies not only "conformity between thought, expression, and object,"ccxcvi but also conformation of the whole man to truth, in which the reason understands, the will agrees, and the faculties co-operate, so that the confession of faith comes forth from the whole heart, the whole soul, and the whole mind:290 from a pure heart and a good conscience and faith unfeigned291. And such a confession of faith is whole, acceptable, and courageous: whole in regard to the One of whom it is made, acceptable in regard to the one[s] before whom it is made, and courageous in the one who makes it. But since man is too fainthearted for this without the strengthening hand of heavenly grace, therefore the sacrament of Confirmation was divinely instituted as an immediate complement to Baptism. 3. Now, because "the end determines the means,"ccxcvii for this sacrament to be complete, it must meet the three aforesaid conditions of a proper confession of faith. First, it must be WHOLE, and there is no whole confession of faith unless a man confesses that Christ is true Man crucified for the sake of men, and that He is also true incarnate Son of God, coequal within the Trinity in all respects with the Father and the Holy Spirit. Hence, the formula expresses, not only the act of confirming, but also the sign of the cross itself, and the name of the blessed Trinity.

4. Next, a fitting confession of faith must be ACCEPTABLE to the one[s] before whom it is made that is, God and men. It cannot be acceptable to God unless the mind is enlightened and the conscience purified, nor can it be acceptable to men without the fragrance of a good name and a virtuous life. Hence, the external element [of the sacrament] combines clear olive oil and scented balm in order to signify that the confessing toward which this sacrament disposes and leads must combine clarity of conscience and understanding with the fragrance of a good life and name, lest there be contradiction between words and conscience, or between words and reputation, which would prevent a confession of faith from being accepted by man or approved by Christ. 5. Finally, a fitting confession of faith must be COURAGEOUS. No one should avoid confessing the truth out of reluctance or timidity; nor, in time of persecution, should anyone be afraid or ashamed of publicly confessing Christ ignominiously put to death on the cross, out of fear of suffering pain or disgrace similar to those of the passion. Such shame and fear show mostly in the face, and more particularly on the forehead: that is why a strength-conferring hand is imposed upon us for our strengthening and a cross imprinted upon our brow, so that we may not blush to acknowledge this cross openly, nor fear to confess when we must the name of Christ, come pain or shame - like a true wrestler rubbed with oil before the bout, or a hardy soldier bearing before him the sign of his King, the triumphal standard of the cross, wherewith to penetrate in safety the ranks of the enemy. Indeed, the glory of the cross cannot be preached if there is present any fear of its suffering or shame. This accords with the words of St. Andrew: "As for me, if I were afraid of the disgrace of the cross, I would not be preaching its glory."ccxcviii CHAPTER 9 - ON THE INTEGRITY OF THE HOLY EUCHARISTccxcix 1. Concerning the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, the following must be held. Therein are not only represented but actually contained, under the two species of bread and wine, yet forming not two sacraments but one, Christ's true body and true blood. This is brought about through consecration of the priest, using the vocal form instituted by the Lord: over the bread, "[For] this is My body"; over the wine, "[For] this is the chalice of My blood...." When these words are said by the priest with the intention of consecrating, the substance of the elements is transubstantiated into the body and the blood of Christ. While the species remain unchanged in their sensible form, both contain the whole Christ, not as confining Him in space, but sacramentally. Under these same species, He is offered to us as sustainment. Whoever receives it worthily, eating not merely in fact but also spiritually through faith and love, is more fully incorporated into the mystical body of Christ, being also refreshed and cleansed in himself. But he who approaches it unworthily, without distinguishing the body of Christ, eats and drinks judgment to himself292. 2. This should be understood as follows. Because our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, is utterly sufficient in His power and utterly wise in His expression, therefore He so conferred the sacraments upon us as to conform with the demands of both His wisdom and His sufficiency. Because of His supreme sufficiency, in providing disease-healing remedies and charismatic graces, He instituted sacraments not only to bring us forth to the life of grace, as Baptism; or to increase and

strengthen us in this life once we were born to it, as Confirmation; but also to nourish us in it once we were born and strengthened, and this is the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist. Wherefore these three sacraments are conferred upon all who have attained faith. Now, because nourishment in the life of grace consists for any one of the faithful in preserving devotion toward God, love for neighbor, and inner delight; and devotion toward God is practiced through the offering of a sacrifice, love for neighbor through union within a single sacrament, and inner delight through partaking of the pilgrim's food: therefore our restoring Principle gave us this sacrament of the Holy Eucharist as a sacrificial offering, as a sacramental union, and as sustainment on the way. 3. But because our restoring Principle is not only utterly sufficient but also utterly wise, and as such, does all things in orderly fashion: therefore He so gave us and disposed for us this sacrifice, this sacrament, and this food, as to conform with the time in which grace was revealed, with our state of wayfaring, and with our capacity to receive. First, then, because the TIME in which grace was revealed demanded the offering, not of a victim of any kind, but of one that would be pure, acceptable, and all-sufficient; and none such exists but the One offered on the cross, that is, the body and blood of Christ:293 the body and blood of Christ had to be present in this sacrament, not only figuratively but in reality, as a gift to suit the time. Likewise, because the time of grace demands that the sacrament of union and love not only signify this union and love, but also be a means inflaming the heart toward them so as to bring about what it represents; and because what chiefly inflames toward mutual love, and chiefly unites the members, is the oneness of the Head from whom the stream of mutual affection flows into us through the allpervading, uniting, and transforming power of love: therefore this sacrament contains the true body and immaculate flesh of Christ, in such a way that it penetrates our being, unites us to one another, and transforms us into Him through that burning love by which He gave Himself to us [in the incarnation], offered Himself up for us [in the passion], and now gives Himself back to us, to remain with us until the end of the world. For the same reason, a sustainment fitting for the state [time] of grace must be spiritual, universal, and salutary. Now, the spirit is sustained by the Word of life: wherefore the spiritual soul in the flesh is properly sustained by the incarnate Word, or the flesh of the Word, which is a universal and salutary food; for although one, it is the means of salvation unto all. Because no spiritual, universal, and salutary food can be given, except the body of Christ, it follows that this body must in all reality be contained within the Holy Eucharist for the sacrifice to be perfectly propitiative, the sacrament perfectly unitive, and the food perfectly refective: all of which must occur in the time of the new law, of grace revealed, and of the truth of Christ. 4. Again, because it does not accord with the STATE OF WAYFARING that Christ be seen, since the mystery should be veiled and the merit of faith thereby secured; and because it is unseemly that the flesh of Christ be torn with the teeth, by reason of the loathsomeness of such crudity and the immortality of this same body: therefore it was necessary that the body and blood of Christ be imparted under the veil of the most sacred symbols and by means of congruous and expressive similitudes. Now, nothing is better suited for refection than bread as food and wine as drink, and nothing is a more appropriate symbol of the unity of the body of Christ, physical and mystical, than

the one bread made of a number of the cleanest grains and the one wine pressed from a number of the purest grapes; therefore it was fittingly under these species, in preference to any others, that this sacrament was proffered. And because Christ was to be present under these species by means of a change occurring not in Himself but in them, therefore when the two aforementioned formulas are pronounced, indicating the presence of Christ under the species, there occurs a change of substance of both into His body and blood, while the accidents alone remain as signs containing and expressing them. 5. Since in truth the blessed and glorious body of Christ cannot be divided into its physical parts nor separated from the soul or from the supreme Godhead, therefore under each of the species there is present one Christ, whole and undivided, body, soul, and God. Hence under the two species there is but one utterly simple sacrament containing the whole Christ. And because any portion of the species represents the body of Christ, it follows that He is as fully present in any part as in the whole, whether the species be divided or not: and thus He is not present there in the sense of being spatially confined, as occupying a place, as having a position, or as being perceptible to any of the bodily and human senses: He is hidden to every sense so that faith may have its field and acquire merit. For this reason also - to maintain the mystery - the accidents retain their full operation (although they are not related to that which underlies them) as long as they contain within themselves the body of Christ: and that is as long as they keep their natural properties and are fit to provide nourishment. 6. Finally, because OUR CAPACITY to receive Christ fruitfully resides, not in the flesh but in the spirit, not in the stomach but in the mind; and because the mind does not attain Christ except through understanding and love, through faith and charity, so that faith gives us light to recognize Him and charity gives us ardor to love Him: therefore, if anyone is to approach this sacrament worthily, he must partake in the spirit so as to eat in the acknowledgment of faith and to receive in the devotion of love, whereby he will not be transforming Christ into himself, but instead will be passing over into the mystical body of Christ. Clearly, then, the one who receives with a lukewarm, irreverent, and careless heart eats and drinks judgment to himself,294 because he offends such a great sacrament. Wherefore those who know themselves to be insufficiently clean of bodily or spiritual sin, or lacking in devotion, are advised to wait until they are ready to receive the true and pure Lamb in a manner both devout and attentive. 7. Wherefore also it is commanded that this sacrament be surrounded with great solemnity, of place as well as time, of words and prayers as well as of vestments, in the celebration of Masses; so that both the celebrating priests and the communicants may realize the gift of grace through which they are cleansed, enlightened, perfected, restored, vivified, and most ardently transformed into Christ by rapturous love. CHAPTER 10 - ON THE INTEGRITY OF PENANCEccc 1. Concerning the sacrament of Penance, the following must be held. It is "a life-saving plank after shipwreck,"ccci a plank to which any man drowning in mortal sin may cling as long as he lives, whenever and as often as he chooses to implore the divine mercy.

Integral parts of this sacrament are: contrition in spirit, confession in words, and satisfaction in deed. Wherefore penance is entire when the sinner has abandoned in fact, confessed in word, detested in spirit, every mortal sin he ever committed, and has firmly purposed never to sin again. When these conditions properly concur with absolution by one who possesses Orders, the power of the keys, and jurisdiction, the penitent is absolved of his sin, reunited with the Church, and reconciled with Christ by means of the aforesaid priestly keys; furthermore, to the judgment of this same one [endowed with the keys] pertain matters not only of absolving but also of excommunicating and of granting indulgences, the latter two properly belonging to a bishop as the spouse of the Church. 2. This should be understood as follows. Because our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, being the Word, is the fountainhead of truth and wisdom, and being incarnate, is the fountainhead of kindness and leniency: therefore it belongs to Him to restore humanity through the medicine of the sacraments, and most of all to heal it of its principal disease, mortal sin, as befits the kind High Priest, the able Physician, and the just Judge; so that our healing may demonstrate the supreme mercy, prudence, and justice of the incarnate Word. 3. Our healing from mortal sin through penance demonstrates, in the first place, the supreme MERCY of Christ, most kind High Priest. This mercy more than suffices to offset any human sin, whatever its nature, gravity, or frequency. That is why Christ, in His supreme mercy, receives and pardons sinners, not only once or twice, but as often as they prayerfully beg for God's mercy. Now, because divine mercy is implored sincerely and humbly only when the spirit is sorrowful and repentant; and because the way of repentance is open to man during his whole lifetime, for he is then free to turn toward either good or evil: therefore, whatever the gravity, circumstances, or frequency of his sins, the sinner may always seek refuge in the sacrament of Penance, through which his transgressions will be remitted unto him. 4. Again, our healing must demonstrate the supreme PRUDENCE of Christ, most able Physician. Now, because a physician's prudence consists in applying remedies specific to the disease, removing not only the disease itself but also its cause; and because sins are committed against God through pleasure, assent, and execution, that is, in the heart, in the mouth, and in action: therefore the Physician most prudent ordained that this disease in the affective, expressive, and operative powers of the sinner, originating as it does from hidden acceptance of the pleasure, be cured in terms of the same three powers by means of penitential sorrow conceived in the heart through compunction, expressed orally through confession, and consummated in deed through satisfaction. And because every mortal sin leads away from the one God, opposes the one grace, and distorts the one and essential righteousness of man, therefore, in order to assure the complete sufficiency of the penitential remedy, the sinner must repent of all his misdeeds, regretting those of the past, breaking away from those of the present, and proposing firmly never to commit in the future sins of the same or of any other kind.cccii Hence, by completely withdrawing from sin through Penance, the sinner receives that divine grace which brings about the remission of all sins. 5. Finally, because our healing must demonstrate the true JUSTICE of Christ the Judge, and since He is not to judge in person before the last and final judgment, therefore it was necessary to appoint

judges who would pass particular judgments before the end of time. And because these judges, placed between the offended God and offending man, are like mediators, being close to Christ and appointed over the people; and because priests are particularly close to the Lord and familiar with Him by reason of their office, having been especially consecrated to His ministry: therefore all priests, and none but priests, receive the power of the two keys - the key of knowledge for discerning and the key of binding and loosing for judgment and for imparting the grace of absolution. 6. Now, lest there be confusion, prelates are not appointed indiscriminately over others, for the hierarchy of the Church must be organized according to judiciary power. Hence this [judiciary] use of binding and loosing is granted primarily to a single and sovereign Pontiff, upon whom universal jurisdiction is conferred as upon the supreme head. Thence it is apportioned to the different Churches [dioceses], first to the bishops and thence to the priests. Thus, although every priest possesses ordination and the keys, their use extends only to those subjects who are under his ordinary jurisdiction, except when he receives delegated power over others from one who has jurisdiction over them. Since such jurisdiction exists primarily in the supreme head, then [within his diocese] in the bishop, and finally [within his parish] in the pastor, it may be delegated by any one of them, sufficiently by the lowest in rank, to a wider extent by the intermediate, and most extensively by the highest. 7. Now, this jurisdiction, as it is found in the supreme Pontiff, and also in the bishops, extends not only to matters of the inner conscience in man's relationship with God, but also to matters of public relationship between man and man - for instance, in the case of those who are responsible for the administration and care of the Church, as the spouse is responsible for the bride. Therefore prelates have the power of the sword by which they may strike, through excommunication, in the defense of right, and the power of largess by which they may distribute, through indulgences, the Church's treasures of merit entrusted to their care by both the Head and the members. Thus, as true judges appointed by God, they possess the full power of binding and loosing, of striking the impenitent and cowing the rebellious, of absolving the truly repentant and reconciling them with God and Holy Mother Church. CHAPTER 11 - ON THE INTEGRITY OF EXTREME UNCTIONccciii 1. Concerning the sacrament of Extreme Unction, this, in sum, must be held. It is the sacrament of those who are leaving this life, preparing and disposing them for PERFECT [spiritual] health. It also has the power of obliterating venial sins,295 and of restoring TEMPORAL health if that is for the good of the patient. For this sacrament to be complete, pure consecrated oil must be used, certain prayers must be said, and the patient must be anointed on seven parts of the body: on the eyes, ears, nostrils, lips, hands, feet, and loins.296 And the sacrament must be conferred upon none but adults297 in danger of death who ask for it, and only by the hand and ministration of a priest. Wherefore, between this sacrament and the sacrament of Confirmation there are seven differences: in effect, matter, form, recipient, minister, place, and time.

2. This should be understood as follows. Because our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, restores us as the Mediator between God and men, Himself man, Christ Jesus298, and as it pertains to Jesus [Saviour] to save and to Christ the Anointed to pour upon men the grace of anointment: therefore it is for Him to impart to His members a saving unction. Now, for the sake of perfect healing, the soul needs to be made well in regard to three things - the strife of action, the sweetness of contemplation, and the delight of possession; and the first pertains to the recruits of the Church Militant, the second to its leaders who are to teach others, and the third to those who are leaving this same Church through death. Wherefore the Lord was not content to institute a [first] sacramental unction, as He did in Confirmation, but He also instituted an intermediate one in priestly Orders, and an Extreme Unction at the approach of death. 3. Now, because "the end determines the means,"ccciv this sacrament must act, and be constituted, received, and conferred,299 in a manner to conform to its end. First, therefore, the ACTION of this sacrament must be determined by its end, which is to make the attaining of salvation, that is, eternal happiness, swifter and easier. Now, these effects come about through devotion that lifts up the soul, and through remission of venial sins and their consequences, that drag it down; therefore this sacrament must effectively prompt devotion, remit venial sin, and more easily remove the dross of sin. Moreover, because many are sick who need to live longer in order to increase their merit, this sacrament, while strengthening the soul toward good and disburdening it of evil, often also gives relief from the physical disease. And that is what blessed James means when he says that: the prayer of faith will save the sick man. . . and if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him300. 4. In the second place, the CONSTITUTION of this sacrament must be determined by its end, which is to restore spiritual health through deliverance from sin. Now, such health depends on soundness and purity of the inner conscience upon which the heavenly Judge will pass judgment. Hence, the matter of this sacrament must be oil, pure and consecrated, symbol of a conscience both clean and holy; and since mortal man has not the power to restore spiritual health, the prayer and words must be an appeal for grace. Again, the soul contracts spiritual infirmities in the body through the agency of the four leading powers of that body - the perceptive, the rationally expressive, the generative, and the locomotive: wherefore the organs to be anointed are those serving these same four powers. Now, there are five organs serving the senses - the eyes providing vision, the ears hearing, the nose olfaction, the hands feeling, the mouth both taste and another power, that of rational expression; while the feet provide locomotion and the loins generation (for it would not be proper or modest here to touch or even mention the genitals). Therefore the CONFERRING of the unction must be on the seven parts here named, so that by this sacrament a man may be disposed toward the fullness of spiritual health through the removal of all venial sin. 5. Finally, the RECEPTION of this sacrament must also be determined by the end, which is to make swifter man's passage to heaven by taking away his burden of venial sin and turning his mind to God. Therefore Extreme Unction should be administered to none but adults, that is, those capable of venial

sin; to none but those requesting it with a devout heart; and to none but those in danger of death and almost at the point of passing into another state. And because this is a sacrament of those in danger of death, and, on the other hand, a sacrament whose matter is holy- that is, consecrated oil - in order to avoid any risk,cccv its dispensation is entrusted to priests in general. And, because of the consecration of the oil, it should be touched by none but consecrated hands.301 6. Confirmation and Extreme Unction, differing as they do in their end, differ also in their effect, matter, form, place, occasion, recipient, and minister. In effect: one prepares for a more courageous fight, the other for a swifter ascent; in matter: one uses oil mixed with balm, the other pure oil; in form: one is indicative, the other deprecative; in place: one is applied to the forehead only, the other to several parts; in occasion: one is given in health, the other in sickness; in the recipient: one may be given not only to adults but also to infants,302 the other to adults only; in the minister: one is conferred by a bishop, the other by any priest. All these differences are determined by the difference in the ends, for it is clear that a difference in proximate ends causes a difference in the means to them. CHAPTER 12 - ON THE INTEGRITY OF ORDERScccvi 1. Concerning the sacrament of Orders, this is, in sum, what must be held. "Orders is a certain sign through which a spiritual power is conferred upon the ordained."cccvii Although Orders is but one of seven sacraments, there are within it seven stages: the first, of PORTERS, the second of LECTORS, the third, of EXORCISTS, the fourth, of ACOLYTES, the fifth, of SUBDEACONS, the sixth, of DEACONS, the seventh, of PRIESTS. Below these stages, as preparation, are clerical TONSURE and PSALMODY;303 and above them, as fulfilled states, are EPISCOPACY, PATRIARCHATE, and PAPACY. It is from these [the latter three states] that all Orders derive; and to them it pertains to confer all, under the proper signs both seen and heard, and in accordance with the proper ritual as regards time, place, office, and recipient. 2. This should be understood as follows. Our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, being both man and God, instituted the sacramental remedy for the salvation of man in a way that was ordinating, distinguishing, and power- imparting, thus conforming to the requirements of His goodness, wisdom, and might. Therefore, in entrusting to men the dispensation of this same sacramental remedy, He willed it to be, not haphazard, but in accordance with the demands of order, separation,304 and power. It was fitting, then, that definite persons be distinguished and set apart for the performing of this office, and that the necessary power be given them as a matter of ordinary jurisdiction. And because a distinction of this nature could not be brought about properly except by means of some sacred sign such as a sacrament, therefore a sacrament was properly instituted to be such a sign imparting order, distinction, and power, for the purpose of dispensing the other sacraments in a distinctive, effective, and orderly manner. Hence, Orders is defined as "a certain sign through which a spiritual power is conferred upon the ordained"; which definition contains the three aforesaid characters making up its essential constituents. 3. First, Orders being a sign that DISTINGUISHES a man and sets him apart from others as one totally consecrated to the worship of God, the Orders are preceded by a certain distinctive mark; this

consists in the tonsure or corona, which signifies withdrawal from temporal desires and elevation of the mind toward the eternal, thus indicating that the cleric is entirely devoted to the service of God. Wherefore, on receiving the corona, he says: "O Lord, the portion of my inheritance...."305 And because he should be well versed in the praise of God, which consists primarily in the recitation of the Psalms, the office of Psalmodist also is conferred, as a preamble to the Orders. Isidore, however, in a broad interpretation, considers this function as one of the Orders.cccviii 4. Secondly, because Orders is an ORDINATING sign and is in itself orderly, and Orders consists in a complete distinction and differentiation of ranks, conforming to the sevenfold grace for the dispensation of which the sacrament of Orders is chiefly intended: therefore there are seven Orders gradually rising to culminate in the priesthood, in which is the fulfillment of all Orders:306 for it is the priest who consecrates the sacrament of the body of Christ, in which is the fullness of all graces. Thus the other six degrees are attendants upon this one, and resemble the steps leading to the throne of Solomon.307 There are six degrees here, because of the perfection of that number,cccix six being the first perfect number, and because that number is needed for the perfection and effectiveness of the ministry. For it is fitting that some serve as from a distance, others more closely, and others again very closely so that nothing be lacking in the sacred rites. And because each of these functions may be paired with another according as they concern either cleansing or enlightenment,308cccx it follows that there are six ministering Orders, and the most perfect of all, the seventh, in which the Sacrament of the Altar is performed, and which is consummated as a single Order, as a full and final end.309 5. Finally, because Orders is a POWER-IMPARTING sign as regards the dispensation, not only of the other sacraments, but also of itself; and because such power over power is an excelling power: therefore it implies not only simple power, as found in simple [priestly] Orders, but also the eminence of power, as found in those to whom the conferring of Orders pertains by ordinary jurisdiction. And because the lower the degree of authority, the more widely it is distributed, and the higher the degree, the more narrowly it is concentrated: therefore there are many bishops, a lesser number of archbishops, very few patriarchs, and but one father of fathers, rightly called Pope [Father], as the unique, first, and supreme spiritual father, not only of all fathers, but likewise of all the faithful; as first hierarch, only spouse, undivided head, supreme pontiff, vicar of Christ, fountainhead, origin and law in relation to all the authorities of the Church; the one from whom all orderly power descends as from the summit to the very lowest members of the Church, according to what the loftiest dignity in the hierarchy of the Church demands.cccxi 6. And because such dignity resides chiefly in Orders, therefore this sacrament may be conferred only with great prudence and solemnity, and hence, not indiscriminately through the ministry of any one at random, nor upon any one no matter whom, nor in any place or time indifferently. It is to be conferred upon men who are educated, virtuous, free from impediments, and in a state of fasting; in a consecrated building, during the celebration of Mass, within the time designated by ecclesiastical law; and only by bishops, to whom the dispensation of Orders is reserved because of the eminence of their rank - as also are confirmation by imposition of the hands, the consecration of nuns and abbots, and the dedication of churches; all being functions which, because of their solemnity, may not be performed by any but those endowed with eminent power.

CHAPTER 13 - ON THE INTEGRITY OF MATRIMONYcccxii 1. Concerning the sacrament of Matrimony, this in sum must be held; that "Matrimony is a legitimate union of a man and a woman, establishing an indissoluble community of life."cccxiii This state of union existed not only after the fall, but also before it; though originally the sacrament of union was established solely in view of its function, now it serves not merely in its function, but also as a remedy against the disease of lust.cccxiv In addition, it was originally a symbol of the union of God with the soul; now it further signifies the union of Christ with the Church, and the union of the two natures in the one Person. Matrimony is effected by free consent of the mind on the part of two persons of opposite sex, expressed externally through a certain sensible sign and consummated by physical union. For marriage, which is said to be initiated by words concerning the future and ratified by words concerning the present, is consummated by physical union.310 There are three benefits attached to this sacrament, "faithfulness, offspring, and the sacrament itself."cccxv There are twelve impediments311 which prevent an intended marriage and void a marriage that has been contracted. They are expressed in these verses: "Error, condition, vow, consanguinity crime, disparity of cult, force, Orders, prior marriage, public honesty, affinity, impotency: these prevent intended marriage and void marriage already contracted." 2. This should be understood as follows. Our restoring Principle, the incarnate Word, being the Word of God, ... is the fountain of wisdom312 on high; being incarnate, is the source of mercy on earth. As the uncreated Word, He is, by His supreme wisdom, the formative cause of mankind; and as the incarnate Word, He is, by His supreme mercy, its reformative cause. Therefore He restores mankind through His mercy precisely because, in His wisdom, He had originally made it restorable; for such wisdom required as a condition of supreme order that, in making the human race, God make it able to stand, to fall, and to be restored, as we have shown above.313 Because, then, the Word of God, in His wisdom, did give man the capacity to stand, to fall, and to be restored, as it behooved Him to do: therefore He ordained the continuance of the human race in such a way that in the very [sacramental] means employed man would possess what would lead him to stand firm, and also what he would need as a remedy, since in the very function of propagation there is something of sin, that is, lust, which hands down the disease. Now, man's original perfection consisted in the union of his soul with God through an utterly chaste, SINGULAR, AND INDIVIDUAL union of love; moreover, the remedy came from the union of the divine and the human natures within the oneness of a hypostasis or Person, a oneness, that is to say, effected by divine grace as SINGULAR AND INDIVIDUAL. Therefore God decreed from the very beginning that propagation would be brought about by means of a SINGULAR AND INDIVIDUAL union of male and female. This union was to signify, before the fall, the union of God with the soul, that is, of God with the sub-celestial hierarchy [of spirits]; but after the fall, the union of God with human nature, or of Christ with the Church. Hence, Matrimony was a sacrament both before and after the fall, but it differed as to its meaning and purpose. Since Matrimony was a sacrament before the occurrence of the disease, therefore lust, which appeared later through sin, is something excused by Matrimony rather than something able to vitiate it: for the disease does not vitiate the medicine, but the medicine cures the disease.cccxvi

From this may be clearly seen what Matrimony is, and how it was divinely brought about.314 3. Again, because any one of the said spiritual unions signified by Matrimony consists in the conjunction of [two parties], one active and influencing and the other passive and receiving, this being brought about through the action of a bond of love which proceeds from free will alone: therefore Matrimony must be the conjunction of two persons who differ as agent and patient, that is, as male and female, their union proceeding from consent of the will alone. And because the will is not visible externally except through a sign that manifests it, therefore the mutual consent must be expressed in an external manner.cccxvii Now, a consent regarding the future is not a true consent, but merely the promise of a consent to come; and actual consent without intercourse does not produce complete union, since the parties are not yet one flesh315. Therefore, the WORDS CONCERNING THE FUTURE [i.e., the betrothal] are the inception of marriage, and the WORDS CONCERNING THE PRESENT [i. e., the marriage vows] are its ratification, but the union of sexes alone is its consummation; for then only do the parties become one flesh and one body, and in this only is the union between Christ and ourselves fully signified.cccxviii Then indeed is the body of the one fully surrendered to that of the other, in virtue of each one's respective power toward the procreation of offspring. 4. Thus there are three goods in Matrimony: the sacrament, consisting in the indissoluble bond; faithfulness, in the fulfillment of the conjugal duty; and offspring, in the effect proceeding from both. 5. Finally, because this matrimonial union must result from a free consent of the will, leading to the conjunction, under a single matrimonial obligation, of two persons [properly] distant, and because there are twelve ways in which this may be impeded, therefore there are twelve impediments to marriage, which is evident from what follows. Matrimonial consent implies freedom of the consent itself, freedom in the consenting subject, and fitness for the union. But freedom of consent may be broken in two ways, corresponding to the two causes of involuntary acts, that is, ignorance and violence.cccxix Thus, there are here two impediments: ERROR and FORCE. Freedom in the consenting subject may be destroyed by this, that someone is bound to another, either God or man. If he is bound to God, this may be through a religious vow, or through a state of which a vow is an integral condition; the first is the impediment of vow, the second, the impediment of Holy Orders. If he is bound to man, this may be in two ways, either present or antecedent; the first consists in a contract by which one is bound to a spouse; the second consists in the crime by which an adulterer or adulteress has contrived the death of the legitimate spouse, or promised to marry after his or her death from some other cause. Hence, there are here four impediments: vow, HOLY ORDERS, BOND, and CRIME. Fitness for the union consists in the adequacy of the distance between the parties, and is destroyed by excessive closeness o excessive disparity.

Now, the parties may be too closely related either by reason of a blood tie, or through something similar to it, such as legal or spiritual parenthood; or again, they may be too closely related through the union of the sexes,cccxx or betrothal. Hence, there are here three impediments: PARENTHOOD, AFFINITY, and BREACH OF PUBLIC HONESTY.316 There may be excessive disparity between the parties [in three ways]. These are: matters related to physical nature, such as the inability to consummate the carnal union; or matters related to a situation beyond control by the parties, such as one of them being a slave and the other free; or again, matters related to the Christian religion, such as one party being baptized and the other not. Hence, there are here three impediments: IMPOTENCY, DISPARITY OF CONDITION, and DISPARITY OF CULT. And so there are altogether twelve impediments introduced, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, in the teaching of the Church; for to the Church is entrusted the care of all the sacraments, but in a special way of Matrimony, because of the variations which may occur in relation to it, and because of the concomitant disease, which is the most infectious and the hardest to moderate. That is why it pertains to the Church to determine the acceptable degree of blood relationship as it sees fit at any given time; to determine which persons may or may not validly marry; and to verify separation.317 But the Church may not, and in fact could not, annul a marriage legitimately effected; for what God has united, no man, whatever his power, may set asunder, since all men are to be judged by the judgment of God alone. |< << >> >|

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PART VII - ON THE LAST STAGE, THE FINAL JUDGMENT


CHAPTER 1 - ON THE JUDGMENT IN GENERALcccxxi HAVING briefly spoken of the Trinity of God, the creation of the world, the corruption of sin, the incarnation of the Word, the grace of the Holy Spirit, and the sacramental remedy, we shall now, in the seventh and last place, deal, also briefly, with the last stage, the final judgment. Concerning this stage, the following must be held in sum. It cannot be doubted that there will be a universal judgment in which God the Father, through our Lord Jesus Christ,318 shall judge the living and the dead, the good and the wicked, treating each according to his merits.319 In this judgment, there shall be an opening of books, that is, of consciences, revealing the merits and demerits of every man both to himself and to all others; and this through the power of the Book of Life,320 the incarnate Word, whom the good alone shall see in His divinity, while both good and wicked shall see Him in His humanity, in which same form also He shall pronounce His judgment, appearing to the reprobate in His wrath, but to the just in His loving-kindness.cccxxii321 2. This should be understood as follows. Because the first Principle, being first, exists of Himself, by Himself, and for Himself, He is by this fact the efficient, formal, and final cause, creating, governing, and perfecting all things; so that as He creates in accord with the loftiness of His power, He governs in accord with the rectitude of His truth, and perfects in accord with the plenitude of His goodness. Now, the LOFTINESS OF POWER requires that there be produced creatures that are not only traces, but also images; creatures not only irrational, but also rational; creatures moved not only by natural instinct, but also by free will. Moreover, a creature made to be the image of God is by that fact capable of possessing God and hence is called to the beatific vision;cccxxiii a creature that is rational is capable of distinguishing the truth; and a creature possessed of free will is capable of ordered or disordered actions in terms of the law of justice. Therefore the RECTITUDE OF TRUTH necessarily imposes upon man a law inviting him to beatitude, instructing him in truth, and obliging him to righteousness; yet in such a way as not to force his will, lest he be deprived of the capacity freely to forsake or to follow justice; for God "so governs His creatures as to let them act by their own power."cccxxiv And because the PLENITUDE OF GOODNESS, in its perfecting action, works in accordance with the loftiness of power and the rectitude of truth: therefore that consummation which is the beatific vision is not given by the supreme Goodness except to those who have observed the justice imposed by the rectitude of truth, accepted its discipline, and preferred supreme and everlasting happiness to passing delights. Now, some act in this manner and others do not, according to their different wills, which are hidden, and proceed in this life as they choose. Therefore, in order to manifest the loftiness of power, the rectitude of truth, and the plenitude of goodness, there must necessarily follow a universal judgment bringing about a just distribution of rewards, an open declaration of merits, and an irrevocable passing of sentences; so that the plenitude of supreme goodness may appear in the distribution of rewards to the just, the rectitude of truth, in the open declaration of merits, and the

loftiness of might and power, in the irrevocable passing of sentences. First, therefore, because just retribution concerns either wickedness which deserves punishment, or righteousness which deserves glory; and every son of Adam is in the one state or in the other: therefore all must be judged by a judgment of retribution, so that the just may be glorified and the sinners punished.322 3. Again, an open declaration of merits requires the showing at one and the same time of what free will was obligated to do, and, on the other hand, what it actually did or omitted to do, taking into account the individual circumstances. That is why the books of consciences must be opened, to reveal merits and demerits, and also the Book of Life, to reveal that justice by which these are to be either rewarded or reproved. Now, because this Book of Life is a book in which all things whatsoever have been written, and in the clearest way, and because what is recorded in the consciences is true: therefore, when both books are opened together there occurs an open revelation of all deserts, so that the secrets of each man's heart are made known both to him and to others. And thus, as Augustine says, this Book is "a power by which all things are wondrously brought back to each one's memory,"cccxxv so that the justice of the divine judgments may be clearly seen. 4. Finally, irrevocable sentencing requires a judge who is both heard and seen, and against whom there is no possible appeal; yet the supreme Light cannot be seen by all since darkened eyes cannot behold it, for the face to face323 vision presupposes a God-conformed mind and a joyful heart. Therefore our Judge must appear in creatural form. But no mere creature has supreme authority, authority beyond appeal. Therefore it follows necessarily that our Judge, in order to judge with supreme authority, must be God; and, in order to be seen and to convict the sinners while having human form, must be man. And since it is one voice of judgment that shall terrify the guilty and reassure the innocent, it is one form of the Judge that shall gladden the just and fill the sinners with dread. CHAPTER 2 - ON THE ANTECEDENTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE PAINS OF PURGATORYcccxxvi 1. We shall now consider specific points concerning the state of final judgment: what precedes, accompanies, and follows it. There are two antecedents: purgatory and the suffrages of the Church. 2. First, in regard to the pains of purgatory, the following must be held. The fire of purgatory is a REAL FIRE, which, however, affects the SPIRIT of the just who, in their lifetime, did not sufficiently atone and make reparation for their sins. It affects their spirit in greater or lesser degree, according as they took with them from their earthly life more or less of what must be burned away. They are afflicted less heavily than in hell, but more than in the present world; and yet, not so severely as to be deprived of hope and of the knowledge that they are not in hell, although, by reason of the intensity of the pain, they may at times be unaware of it. By means of this suffering, inflicted by a real fire, the souls are cleansed of the guilt and dross of sin, and also of its sequels. When they are wholly cleansed, they fly out at once and are introduced into the

glory of paradise. 3. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, being first, is supremely good and perfect; and, being supremely good, supremely loves good and abhors evil: for, as supreme goodness suffers no good to remain unrewarded, so also it cannot suffer any evil to remain unpunished. But some of the just die before having completed their penance on earth; and their right to life eternal cannot remain unsatisfied nor their guilt of sin unreproved, lest the beauty of universal order be disturbed. Therefore these must be rewarded in the end, but they must also bear a temporal penalty that fits their guilt and sin. Now, because actual sin offends God's majesty, damages the Church, and distorts the divine image324 stamped on the soul - especially if the sin is mortal, although venial sin will tend to do the same; and because offense calls for punishment, damage for repair, and distortion for purification: therefore this penalty must be justly punitive, duly reparative, and properly cleansing. 4. First, then, the pain of purgatory must be justly PUNITIVE; the soul that spurns the eternal and supreme Good and bows to the lowest good must rightfully be subjected to things of lower order, so as to receive punishment from that which had been the occasion of its sin and the reason why it had spurned God and defiled itself. Therefore the order of divine justice demands that the spiritual soul be punished by material fire. As, in the order of nature, the soul is united to the body for the sake of vivifying it, so, in the order of justice, it is united to material fire in the sense that the one to be punished is united to the punishing agent from which it is to receive its pain.cccxxvii The just, being in the state of grace, deserve but temporal pain; yet the more they have sinned, and the less they have atoned, the more liable they are to this pain: therefore they are punished temporally by material fire - some at great length and others for a short while, some severely and others lightly, according to the measure of their guilt. To quote the great doctor Augustine: "Pain must burn as fiercely as [undue] love had clung."cccxxviii The more deeply a man has loved the things of the world in the inner core of his heart, the harder it will be for him to be cleansed. 5. Again, the pains of purgatory must be REPARATIVE. Now, true reparation implies free will and pertains to the state of life on earth; while on the contrary there is no state of meriting in purgatory, and its pains have nothing to do with free will. Therefore that element of atonement lacking because of absence of freedom in the will sustaining punishment must be compensated by the bitterness of the pain itself. But because those who are being cleansed possess grace which now they cannot lose, they neither can nor will be completely immersed in sorrow, or fall into despair, or be moved to blaspheme. Hence, severe as their punishment may be, it is far other and far milder than damnation; and they know without the possibility of doubting that their state is not the same as the state of those who are tortured irremediably in hell.325 6. Finally, the pains of purgatory must have a CLEANSING effect, and this cleansing applies to the spirit. Therefore, either the fire of purgatory possesses a God-given spiritual power, or else, as I incline to believe,cccxxix the very power of the grace within, assisted by the pain from without, effectively cleanses the soul which is thereby punished for its offenses and relieved of the burden of

its guilt, so that there remains nothing unfit for glory. And because such spirits are fully prepared to receive God-conforming glory, the door being now open and the cleansing achieved, they must take flight, for there is within them a fire of love that lifts them up, and no impurity of the soul or any guilt to hold them down. Nor would it befit God's mercy or His justice further to delay glory now that He finds the vessel to be suitable; great would be the pain if the reward were delayed, nor should a cleansed spirit be punished any longer. CHAPTER 3 - ON THE ANTECEDENTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE SUFFRAGES OF THE CHURCH 1. Concerning the suffrages of the Church, the following must be held. These suffrages benefit the dead; that is, those offered specifically for the dead, such as Masses, fastings, alms, and other forms of prayer and penance performed for the purpose of facilitating and hastening the expiation of their sins. These acts are helpful, not to all the dead indiscriminately, but only to the IMPERFECTLY GOOD, that is, the souls in purgatory. They cannot benefit the ENTIRELY EVIL, the souls in hell, nor the ENTIRELY GOOD,cccxxx the souls in heaven. On the contrary, the merits and prayers of these blessed are sought instead by the Church Militant, for whose members they obtain favors. The apportionment of the benefits of these acts depends both upon the degree of merit of the dead and upon the charity of the living, who may apply them to some souls in preference to others, either to alleviate pain or to hasten relief, as divine providence sees fit for each soul's good. 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, being supremely good, and hence supremely severe against evil, must display a corresponding supreme sweetness toward good. Therefore, while the just in whom there remains some guilt of sin must be cleansed by the pain of purgatory after this life because of the severity of justice, they must also be lifted up and given assistance and comfort because of the sweetness of mercy; all the more so as they are in a state of pain and can no longer help themselves through good works and merits. Hence it was befitting for divine providence to dispose that suffrages be offered for them by those who could still do so; without, however, impairing the rectitude of justice, from which even the sweetness of divine mercy may not and cannot derogate or separate itself in any way. Hence, because the rectitude of justice respects the honor of God, the government of the universe, and the fact of individual merit: therefore the providence of the first and supreme Principle disposed that the dead would be benefited by these suffrages in accordance with mercy, while the dignity of God's honor, the government of the universe, and the fact of human merit would be safeguarded in accordance with justice. 3. First, then, in these suffrages, justice must be observed in its main purpose, which is to safeguard the HONOR OF GOD. NOW, that honor requires the performance of works of reparation and penance to atone to Him for sins; therefore suffrages are to be offered through such acts as best render satisfaction and repay honor to God. There are three such forms of atonement: fastings, prayer together with almsgiving, and the Sacrifice of the Altar, which is the best way of rendering due honor to God because of the acceptability of the Victim. Therefore the suffrages of the Church act through

works of atonement of this nature, and most of all, through the offering of Masses.cccxxxi On this head, Gregory states, in the fourth book of his "Dialogues," that through the benefit of Masses souls are very speedily delivered from heavy pains.cccxxxii But funeral processions, elaborate burials, and the like are not to be counted among the suffrages of the Church. Wherefore Augustine, in his book "On the Care of the Dead," declares that "the pomp of funeral processions, a costly tomb, solemn burial rites, are rather a solace to the living than a help to the dead."cccxxxiii 4. Here, furthermore, that justice applies which conserves the ORDER AND GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSE. This requires that, in the producing of effects, there be manifested order and proportion as between the originators and the beneficiaries of such effects; whereby the lower in rank produces no effect upon the higher, nor [any being] upon any other utterly remote from it Hence the suffrages of the Church cannot in any way be applied to souls in hell, for these are completely separated from the mystical body of Christ. No spiritual effect can reach them, or be of any use to them, any more than the head can have an effect upon members severed from the body. That is also why suffrages cannot help the blessed who, by their state, are at the summit and therefore cannot possibly rise any higher. Instead, it is they and their prayers that are useful to us - for this also they merited in their life on earth. That is why divine order disposes that prayers be offered to the saints of God, that they in turn may intercede for us and obtain for us God's blessings. Hence, the suffrages of the Church are of no help to them, but theirs are of great value to us. Hence the suffrages of the Church [as applied to the dead] are profitable only to the just souls suffering the pain of purgatory. By the fact of suffering without being able to help themselves, they are inferior to the living; but in terms of justice, they are linked to the other members of the Church, so that the merits of the Church may rightly be applied to them because in their case the right proportion and order does exist. 5. Finally, in these suffrages there must be manifested also that justice which WEIGHS WHAT MERITS DESERVE. Therefore such suffrages as are offered for the dead in general, although they are effective for all good souls, each in his own measure, convey a greater effect in regard to those who during their life more richly deserved to be affected and assisted by them. As for the suffrages offered for some souls in particular: because the intention of the petitioner is righteous and Godconformed, and, furthermore, because something the Church instituted cannot possibly go without fruit, therefore particular suffrages are beneficial chiefly to their assigned beneficiaries, although in a certain way they are also communicated to others. But such suffrages cannot procure as many advantages to others as to the intended beneficiaries, for although they are spiritual goods,326cccxxxiv divine justice requires a greater amendment for a greater sin, and a number of amendments for a number of sins. Hence, the example of light, which shines equally upon all those seated at the same table, does not apply. Suffrages should be compared, rather, to redeeming payments than to rays of light shining upon all with equal brightness. Their effect upon any one soul may be determined with certainty by none but the One to whom it pertains to attend to weight, number, and measure in matters of guilt, pain, and suffrages.327 CHAPTER 4 - ON THE CONCOMITANTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE CONSUMING

FIREcccxxxv 1. We shall now explain in brief the events which accompany the judgment. They are two in number: the consuming by fire of all worldly things, and the resurrection of the dead. 2. Regarding the consuming by fire, the following must be held. Fire shall precede the face [presence] of the Judge, and by this fire the face of the earth shall be burned, and this world as we see it328 shall perish in the devouring conflagration of worldly things,329 as it did in the waters of the flood.330 But when it is said that this world as we see it shall perish, this does not mean the total destruction of the sensible world, but that, through the action of fire setting all material beings aflame, all animals and plants will be consumed, the elements will be cleansed and renewed, particularly air and earth, the just will be purified and the wicked suffer in flame.331 All this being done, the motion of the heavens shall cease, and thus, when the number of the elect is completed, the bodies of the universe also shall, in a sense, be renewed and rewarded.332 3. This should be understood as follows. The universal Principle of things, being supremely wise, observing as He does the order of wisdom in all His deeds, must necessarily and more particularly do so in all matters related to their end. In this way, the beginning will be in harmony with the intermediate stage, and the intermediate stage with the end, and in the perfectly congruous order of all things, the ordinating wisdom, the goodness, and the loftiness of the first Principle will be seen. Now, God, in His most orderly wisdom, made this greater material world for the sake of the smaller world - man, who is placed between God and these inferior things. Therefore, in order to make all things congruous one to another and the dwelling harmonious with the dweller, man being created in goodness, this world fittingly existed in a state of goodness and peace. But as man fell, this world also was damaged; and as he was disordered, it became disordered; and with his cleansing, it must be cleansed, with his renewal, renewed, and with his consummation, set at rest.cccxxxvi 4. First, then, this world was DISORDERED, because man was disordered, as it had stood while he stood, and fallen, in a sense, when he fell. And furthermore, it was necessary, in the judgment to come, that in token of the Judge's severity, every heart be struck with fear, and particularly the hearts of the sinners who had spurned the Lord of all; so that all creation should submit to divine zeal, conforming both to the Maker of the world and to him who dwells in it.333 Therefore the very pivots of the world must be shaken to inspire utmost terror.334 And because nothing has a more intense, rapid, and fearsome action upon the other elements than fire rushing in from every side, therefore fire must precede the face of the Judge, not only from one direction, but from all. There will be here a concourse of fires - fires of the elements and of earth, of purgatory, and even of hell. Thus the reprobate shall be tormented by the infernal flames, the just cleansed by the purgatorial, animals and plants consumed by those of the earth, the elements refined by those of elemental fires; and, together with this, all other things shall be shaken, making not only men and demons but even angels tremble at the sight. 5. Again, this world must be CLEANSED as man is to be cleansed. Now, man in his old age must be

washed of the dross of avarice and malice, as in his youth he must be washed of the filth of lust; moreover, he must be cleansed rapidly, and to the very depths, and perfectly. Therefore, as in the beginning the world had been swept and cleansed in a way by the element of water, which is cold and thus opposed to the fire and filth of lust, so in the end it is to be swept and cleansed by fire because of the cooling of charity and the frigidity of malice and avarice which shall reign as in the world's old age. And because such vices adhere to man so strongly, the cleansing agent must be interior, strong, and swift; action found nowhere in the elements except in fire. Therefore, as there had been a flood of waters through the deluge, so also the face of this material world shall be burned by fire. 6. Furthermore, this world must be RENEWED once man is renewed. Now, a thing cannot be recast into a new form unless it has lost the old, and is, in a certain way, prepared through receiving a new disposition. Therefore, since fire has the greatest power to remove the external form, and also a refining power akin to heavenly nature, it is through fire that both cleansing and renovation must come about; so that, of this twin power, one aspect precedes and the other follows the coming of the Judge. Moreover, true renovation leads to a newness which is no longer liable to aging, and such incorruptible newness no creature is able to give. Therefore, although in this cleansing and renovation, fire acts partly through its natural powers, setting aflame, purging, vaporizing, and subtilizing, there must be present, together with these, another power higher than nature: a power by whose command the conflagration is initiated, and by whose might its end will be achieved. 7. Finally, this world must be CONSUMMATED once man is consummated. Now, man shall be consummated when the number of the elect is completed in glory: the state toward which all things tend as to their final end and fulfillment. Therefore, as soon as this number is completed, the motion of the heavenly bodies must end and cease;335 as, likewise, the transmutations [interchanges] of elements; and, consequently, the process of generation in animals and plants; for since all these creatures were ordained toward the more noble form, the rational soul, once souls have attained their final state of rest, all other things besides must come to completion and repose. That is why when the heavenly bodies do finally attain repose and the fullness of luminosity, they are said to have received their reward. Now, the elements as such, which have lost the power of multiplication through interchange, are said to perish: not in their substance, but in their mutual relationship, and most of all in their active powers. And because vegetative and sensitive beings do not have the virtue of perpetual life and eternal duration which is reserved to the higher state, their whole substance is consumed; yet in such a way that they are preserved as ideas; and in a certain manner they survive also in their image, man, who is akin to creatures of every species. All things, therefore, may be said to be renovated and, so to speak, rewarded, in the renovation and glorification of man. CHAPTER 5 - ON THE CONCOMITANTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE RESURRECTION OF BODIEScccxxxvii 1. Concerning the resurrection of bodies, the following must be held. The bodies of all men will rise at the general resurrection, without any interval in time, but with a great difference in the order of dignity. For the wicked will rise with the distortions and pains, the miseries and defects, they incurred in life. But in the good, "nature will be safeguarded and all imperfection removed,"cccxxxviii and they will rise with a body complete, in the prime of life, and well-proportioned, so that all the saints will

come forth to perfect manhood, to the mature measure of the fullness of Christ336. Both good and wicked will rise with the same individual bodies they had before, composed of the same parts, and true to nature, not only in the essential limbs and vital fluid, but even to the hair, and everything else proper to a body.337 Thus, "to whatever wind, to whatever earthly fold, the dust of a human body may have fallen, it shall return to the very soul which had been the original principle of its life and growth."cccxxxix 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, being first and supreme, is utterly universal and sufficient, and thus He is the Principle of natures, graces, and rewards, a Principle allpowerful, all-merciful, all-just. Although, in a certain attributive sense,338 supreme power refers to the creation of natures, supreme mercy to the conferring of graces, and supreme justice to the distribution of rewards, in fact each attribute shares in every work, for supreme power, mercy, and justice are inseparable. Hence, the work of retribution must be brought about in a way which respects the rectitude of justice, the restoration of grace [mercy], and the completion of nature. Now, JUSTICE necessarily demands that a man who has merited or demerited, not in the soul alone nor in the body alone, but in both soul and body, be also punished or rewarded in both. Again, restoration of GRACE demands that the whole body be likened to Christ the Head, whose dead body duly rose because it was inseparably united to the Godhead. Finally, the completion of NATURE [as an act of POWER] demands that man be constituted of body and soul, as matter and form mutually needing and seeking each other.cccxl For all these reasons, there must be a future resurrection to satisfy the requirements of the creation of nature, the infusion of grace, and the retribution of justice - the three [works] that regulate the government of the universe. By these three, all creation proclaims that man is to rise from the dead, so that they render inexcusable those who close their ears to this truth of faith. Rightfully, then, the universe shall war339 against such as these. 3. First, therefore, because resurrection must comply with THE ORDER OF DIVINE JUSTICE; and divine justice renders to everyone his due according to the circumstances of place and time; and, moreover, a soul joined to a body for but a single instant acquires in this union either guilt or merit: therefore all must necessarily rise. Now, the state of retribution must be distinguished from the state of the present life; and it is to the state of retribution mat resurrection looks. Therefore, to avoid any confusion in the order of the universe, to assure that faith shall acquire merit through belief in what has not yet been seen, to make the equity of divine justice appear with greater clearness and certainty, and to complete and reward angelscccxli and men together, divine justice requires, at least as a general law, that all shall rise at the same time. The exceptions are Christ and His blessed Mother, the glorious Virgin Mary. But as the lot of the wicked is pain and woe, and that of the just is glory, although all rise together in time, yet they shall be far apart in dignity. For the wicked, rising shall be, not unto life, but unto torture, and hence they must rise with their weaknesses, deformities, and defects.340 4. Again, resurrection must also comply with THE FULLNESS [RESTORATION] OF GRACE.

NOW, perfect grace conforms us to Christ our Head, in whom there was no physical imperfection, but perfect age, due stature, and comely appearance. Therefore it is fitting that the good be raised in a state as perfect as possible, implying the removal of any imperfection and the fulfillment of natural integrity, any missing portion being restored, any excess growth eliminated, and any malfunctioning corrected. Those who died in childhood are to be raised by divine power at an age corresponding to that of Christ at His resurrection, although not "with exactly the same bodily size."cccxlii The old and the wasted shall be restored to that same age. Giants and dwarfs shall be given proper stature. Thus all shall come forth, whole and perfect, to perfect manhood,341 to the mature measure of the fullness of Christ.342 5. Finally, resurrection must accord with THE COMPLETION OF NATURE. Now, the nature of the rational soul demands that it give life to a body of its own - for "a proper act comes about in its proper matter."cccxliii Therefore the same individual body must be raised from the dead, or else there would be no true resurrection. Moreover, the nature of the rational and immortal soul demands that, as it has perpetual existence, it also have a body in which to infuse life perpetually. Hence, the body united to the soul possesses, by this very union, a disposition toward perpetual incorruption; in such a way, however, that whatever makes up its whole substance - for instance, the principal limbs, the vital fluid, and the flesh according to species - has a necessary disposition [to incorruption], while the other partsthe flesh in its materiality,cccxliv and whatever pertains in general to bodily well-being - has that disposition in terms of fittingness only. The former are thus disposed toward resurrection in the order of necessity, and the latter in the order of congruity. Now, God has imprinted this order upon nature, which cannot fulfill it, since it cannot raise the dead. Yet divine providence can have done nothing in vain.cccxlv Therefore, it is through the power of this providence that the same individual body must be remade: immortal, complete in all its parts, and fully true to nature. [To repeat:] Nature, in regard to these things, has merely the desire, not the power, to bring them about. cccxlvi It cannot restore to life the very same body that had been destroyed, since it does not have full control over the substance of a thing; nor can it make a body immortal, since everything born of nature is doomed to die;cccxlvii nor again can it gather what has been scattered abroad. Therefore resurrection cannot be brought about by seminalcccxlviii or natural causes, but only by the prime Cause; so that it occurs in a wondrous and supernatural way at the command of the divine will. CHAPTER 6 - ON THE CONSEQUENTS TO THE JUDGMENT: THE PAINS OF HELLcccxlix 1. Next, we must speak of the consequents to the judgment, and they are two in number: the pains of hell and the glory of heaven. 2. Concerning the pains of hell, the following must be held. These are suffered in a material place, down below, in which all the wicked, both men and fallen angels, are eternally afflicted. They are tormented by a single material fire which affects both souls and bodies, and yet never consumes these bodies, but tortures them forever - some more, others less, in proportion to each one's guilt. To this pain by fire shall be added affliction in every one of the senses, and also the pain of worms,cccl and

loss of the beatific vision.343. Hence, in these pains there shall be variety, and together with variety, bitterness, and together with bitterness, endlessness; so that, as regards the punishment of the reprobate, the smoke of their torments goes up forever and ever344. 3. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, being first, is also supreme, and hence, whatever He is, He must be to the supreme degree. Therefore He must be supremely just. In the work of retribution He acts according to justice; and since He cannot act against Himself, disown Himself345, or contradict His own justice, it is necessary, by reason of His justice, that sin be punished in proportion to guilt; and punished most of all in those who, spurning the law of mercy, dashed themselves in impenitence against the severity of justice. Also, because severe justice considers the fault, not only in its root, but also in its aggravating circumstances, it is most fitting that the just Judge require of the wicked the payment of the penalty due down to the last penny346, so that there may remain "no disgrace of sin without fitting justice."cccli And as power had been manifested in creation, wisdom in administration, and mercy in restoration, so would supreme justice be manifested in retribution. Since, therefore, divine justice punishes the sinner in proportion to his guilt, and mortal sin followed by final impenitence implies a perpetual disorder, a wanton disorder, and a manifold disorder: therefore it must be punished by means of torments that are perpetual, bitter, and manifold. 4. First, then, the punishment of a perpetual disorder must be PERPETUAL; for a sin which a man commits and never repents remains forever in the soul, and separates it from eternal life, that is, from God. Such sin proceeds from a will intent upon finding its pleasure eternally in sin. And although such transitory pleasure lasts but a moment, yet, because the disorder has a character of perpetuity, the pain corresponding to this disorder must be without end. As the man, in his choice made once and for all, appointed no end to his sinning, so God, in His perpetual will, never suspends the punishment. As the man sinned against the infinite, so also he must suffer an infinite penalty; and since he cannot suffer a pain of infinite intensity, he must suffer one of infinite duration. And as, after death, the will of such a man forever cleaves to evil and never repents, so also God afflicts it endlessly without ever reversing His sentence: necessarily, for in the wicked condemned to hell the disorder is everlasting. 5. Again, the punishment for wanton disorder must be BITTER, for unlawful satisfaction is punished most properly with the pain opposed to it. By sinning, the rational spirit turns to the wanton love of self-serving, temporal, and partial good, thus spurning divine command and sovereignty. In fitting punishment for such unrighteous gratification, which implies, besides gratification, contempt, the sinner, man or angel, must be chastised by being cast down to the lowest place, the most remote from the state of glory, the deepest abyss, that is, hell. Likewise, the sinner must be afflicted there by what is of the lowest nature, and hence must suffer, not from a spiritual substance, but from one that is material and lowly, the very dregs of worldly bodies; must be fettered to this filth, and tormented with fire and brimstone.347 Because the spirit which, by nature, is above the body and has the power of acting upon it and moving it, perverted through sin the nobility of its nature and subjected itself, in a particular way, to the vileness and nothingness of sin: therefore the order of justice demands that the sinner, angel or man,

be fettered to a material fire from which he will receive, not the infusion of life,348 but, by divine command, the pain of suffering. The sinner is thus inseparably shackled to something which he abhors through a divinely instilled fear, and painfully feels through his natural senses, and hence he is most cruelly tortured. Again, since the action of this fire is proportioned to the sin, the guilt, and the stain resulting from the depravity of the self-seeking will, and all sinners are not depraved to the same degree, the same fire shall burn one more severely and the other less so, as the same fire burns straw and wood with different intensity.349 But because in any one soul this distinction, based upon the guilt of sin by which the fire is measured, remains constant, never waxing or waning or undergoing any change, therefore, by divine command, this fire so acts as always to burn but never to consume, always to afflict but never to kill. For its purpose is, not to grow, but to destroy the peace of the soul within the body, and the peace of the incorporeal spirit within itself. Hence, there is no new loss of peace, but a continuation of the loss of it, so that within the same pain bitterness neither annuls eternity nor does eternity destroy bitterness. 6. Finally, the punishment for a manifold disorder must be MANIFOLD. NOW, in any actual mortal sin there is a disorderly aversion from the supreme light and goodness, a disorderly conversion toward mutable good, and the disorder of a will opposing the dictates of right reason. Therefore, all those sinning mortally who will be damned will suffer a threefold punishment: the loss of the beatific vision, because of their aversion from God; the pain of material fire, because of their conversion toward mutable good; and the pain of worms, because of the conflict between reason and will. And so, afflicted by this multiplicity of pains, they will be punished in a manifold way, and bitterly, and eternally; and the smoke of their torments goes up forever and ever350. Amen. CHAPTER 7 - ON THE GLORY OF PARADISE 1. As for the glory of paradise, we must hold, in sum, that it consists of a substantial, a consubstantial, and an accidental reward. The SUBSTANTIAL reward is the vision, fruition, and possession of the one supreme Good, God, whom the blessed shall behold face to face351, that is, plainly and with no interposing veil. They shall enjoy, with eagerness and delight, Him whom they shall behold forever. Thus will be realized the words of Bernard: "To the intellect, God shall give fulness of life; to the will, immense peace; to the memory, everlasting duration."ccclii The CONSUBSTANTIAL reward is bodily glory, the second robe which, when assumed, permits the blessed soul more perfectly to tend "to the highest heaven."cccliii This robe consists of a fourfold gift to the body, that is: luminosity, subtility, agility, and impassibility. All four are granted in the measure of the love that had existed in the soul. The ACCIDENTAL reward is a special and additional honorcccliv called the aureole. In the sacred doctors' opinion, the aureole is due to three meritorious conditions: martyrdom, predication, and

virginity. In all this, different degrees and distinctions apply, according to merit. 2. This should be understood as follows. The first Principle, because He is first, is also supremely one, true, and good. This implies, in turn, that He is supreme power, wisdom, mercy, and justice. His invisible attributes352 are fittingly revealed in visible works. Being the Principle of the sensible world, He produces creatures, He governs them, He restores them, and He rewards and perfects them. Production reflects His supreme power; government, His supreme wisdom; restoration, His supreme mercy; and rewarding, His perfect justice. In order to reveal His POWER, God brought forth all things out of nothingness for His own praise, glory, and honor. A certain part of His creation - material nature - is close to nothingness. Another part - spiritual nature-is close to Himself.ccclv In man, God united the two parts, body and soul, into a single nature and person. In order to reveal His WISDOM, God governs all things most providentially and in the most orderly fashion. The highest part of man - the soul - He rules directly, by illuminating it.ccclvi The lowest part the body - He rules through [man's] free will. Thus the body and all its functions are subject to the spirit, while the spirit is subject to God.ccclvii In order to reveal His MERCY, God restored fallen man by assuming the nature of man with its penalties, and by suffering the ultimate pain itself. Thus, for the sake of delivering man from his wretchedness, supreme Mercy mercifully conformed to the wretched: not only to what was originally noble in man's nature as it was created, but also to the defects attached to that nature after the fall.353 Finally, in order to reveal His JUSTICE, God will give everyone what is his due: eternal pain to the wicked, and eternal glory to the just. These are the requirements of equitable retribution, restoration by grace, well-ordered government, and potent creation: for all these divine acts shall find their consummation in the final end. 3. First, the rewarding of the just is a requirement of EQUITABLE RETRIBUTION and also of POTENT CREATION. Creation by God establishes the rational spirit in the proximity of God and makes it capable of receiving God. Such capacity results from the mighty image of the Blessed Trinity that is stamped on it. The just serve the Trinity with their whole spirit by keeping this image intact. It follows that the rational spirit cannot be rewarded or filled, nor can its capacity be satisfied, with anything less than God. Hence, it receives as reward a God-conforming glory: it becomes like unto God and sees Him clearly through the intellect, loves Him through the will, and retains Him forever through the memory. The soul is then wholly alive, wholly fulfilled in its three faculties, wholly conformed to God, wholly united to Him, wholly reposed in Him. For it finds in Him, as the sum of all goods, peace, light, and everlasting abundance. Established "in the perfect concourse of all goods,"ccclviii and living by the life of eternity, the soul is now called blessed and glorious.

4. Again, rewarding is a requirement, not only of equitable retribution and potent creation, but also of ORDERED GOVERNMENT. When God created the body, He joined it to the soul; He united the two in a natural and mutual relationship, but assigned the government of the body to the soul, willing that in the state of wayfaring the soul should incline to the body and stoop to its level, governing it for the sake of acquiring merit. Hence, the soul cannot be fully happy unless the body is returned to it, for the two have a natural ordination to each other. Nor is government orderly unless the body intended for union with the blessed soul bends and submits to it in all things, as much as a body may conform to a spirit. Since the soul is now enlightened through the vision of eternal Light, the body also must shine with great splendor. Since the soul is now supremely spiritual through the love of the supreme Spirit, the body also must display a corresponding subtility and spirituality. Since the possession of eternal life makes the soul totally incapable of suffering, the body also must become completely impassible, internally as well as externally. And because these three gifts together urge the soul most swiftly toward God, the glorified body must also possess supreme agility. Because the body is both conformed to and subjected to the spirit through these four properties, they are said to be its main gifts. They enable it to follow the spirit even into the heavenly region where the blessed abide. These same properties also assimilate the human body to the heavenly bodies, for in them consists the whole difference between the heavenly bodies and the four elements. Hence, this fourfold gift to the human body not only perfects it in itself but also conforms it to the heavenly dwelling and the Holy Spirit. Through Him, the fullness of delights and the rapture of bliss flow from God the Head down upon the skirt of the garment, the body of man.354 5. Finally, such rewarding is a requirement not only of equitable retribution, potent creation, and ordered government, but also of RESTORATION TO GLORY.355 The different members of Christ receive the gifts of grace in different amounts. These variations regard not only the inner gifts, but also the outer acts; not only the dispositions, but also the states of virtue; not only the perfection of love in the soul, but also the decorum and beauty of its perfect bodily expression. Hence, some members are entitled, in addition to the robe of the soul with its three gifts, and the robe of the body with its four perfections, to exceptional glory and joy because of the outstanding perfection and splendor of their virtuous deeds. Now, there are three kinds of outstandingly perfect, beautiful, and splendid deeds corresponding to the three [basic] forces of the soul.356 Corresponding to the RATIONAL impulse is the preaching of truth which leads others to salvation;357 corresponding to the CONCUPISCIBLE is the perfect rejection of the concupiscences through the perpetual integrity of virginal continence; corresponding to the IRASCIBLE is the suffering of death for the honor of Christ. Therefore there are three categories of just, the preachers, the virgins, and the martyrs, who deserve the special honor of the accidental reward called the aureole. This adorns, not only the soul, but also the body, since it is given, not to the will alone, but also to the external act. It has as its followers the merit and the reward of charity which consists in a sevenfold endowment-treble to the soul and quadruple to the body - containing the

consummation, the integrity, and the fullness of all goods related to the completion of glory. 6. But how great these goods are, and how manifold, I shall show, not in my own words, but in those of Anselm, who writes toward the end of his "Prologue": "And now, my soul, arise, lift up your eyes, and consider with as much attention as you can the immensity and abundance of this Good. If good things are so pleasant even when enjoyed singly, imagine how delightful beyond delight that Good must be which contains the delightful-ness of all goods: not the delightfulness we find in created objects, but as different from it as the Creator differs from the creature. If created life is good, how good is Life Creating! If salvation is joyful once accomplished, how joyful is that Salvation who brings about the salvation of all! If the wisdom that comes from knowing creatures is a thing worth loving, how lovable is that Wisdom who created all things out of nothingness! Finally, if many and great are the delights found in delectable objects, how many and great are the delights to be found in the very Cause of their delightfulness! 7. "What will a man have who possesses that Good, and what will he not have? Assuredly, he will have everything that satisfies him, and nothing that displeases. Eye has not seen nor ear heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man358 what bodily and spiritual goods he will enjoy in heaven. Why, then, servant of God, do you wander so far, seeking delights for your body and mind? Love one single Good in which all goods are found, and that will suffice; desire one simple Good which is all good, and that will be enough. Tell me, my body, what do you love? My soul, what do you seek? Anything you love, anything you desire, is here. Is it beauty that delights you? The just will shine forth like the sun.359 Is it swiftness and might, and a bodily freedom no barrier may contain? The elect will be as angels of God360, for what is sown a natural body rises a spiritual body361, through being empowered assuredly, and not through nature. Is it a long and healthy life? Here is a sound eternity and eternal soundness, for the just live forever362, and the salvation363 of the just is from the Lord364. Is it repletion? You will be satisfied when the glory of God appears.365 Is it inebriation? You will be inebriated with the plenty of His house. Is it melody? Here the choirs of angels sing continuously the praise of God.366 Is it pleasure - pure delight, that is, not unclean lust? Thou, O God, shalt make them drink of the torrent of Thy pleasure367. Is it wisdom? Here the very Wisdom of God shall be displayed before your eyes. Is it friendship? Here the elect shall love God more than they love themselves, and one another as much as themselves, and God shall love them more than they love themselves: for it is through Him that they love Him, and themselves, and each other; and through Himself that He loves Himself and them. Is it peace? They will all be of one will, for to them there will be no will but the will of God. Is it power? They will be all-powerfull in their own will, as God is in His. For as God, in Himself, can do anything He wishes, so can the elect, through God, since they desire nothing different from what He wills, as He, likewise, desires whatever they will; and whatever God wills cannot fail to come about. Is it honor and riches? God will set His good and faithful servants over many; and what is more, they shall be called children of God368, and even gods,369 and gods they shall truly be; and wherever the Son of God shall dwell, there also shall they be found, heirs indeed of God and joint heirs with Christ.370 Is it security? The elect are certain that they could never, in any way, be deprived of these goods, or rather, of this one Good; that they will never lose it by their own fault, that God the Lover will never wrest it from those who love Him; and that no power stronger than God could ever exist to separate Him from them.

8. "How wonderful and great must be the joy whose object is so great and wonderful! O human heart, needy heart! O heart acquainted with tribulation - rather, steeped in it: how much you would rejoice if all this abundance were yours! Ask your deepest self if it could contain the joy of blessedness so great. And yet, if some other soul you love as much as yourself shared this happiness with you, would it not truly be twice as great? For you would be no less happy for this soul than for yourself. And if two or three or many more had part in this same delight, you would rejoice as much for each of them as for yourself. So, in this perfect love possessed by the countless angels and blessed souls, where none shall love another less than he loves himself, every one shall rejoice in every other as much as he rejoices in himself. And if the heart of man shall hardly contain his own joy over such great good, how shall it hold delights so many and so great! "Certainly, the more one loves another, the more one rejoices at his happiness. If, then, in the state of perfect joy, everyone loves God incomparably more than he loves himself and those with him, he shall draw an immeasurably greater joy from God's delight than from his own, or that of his companions. And if the blessed love God with their whole heart, soul, and mind, and yet their whole heart, soul, and mind are not equal to so great a love, they shall certainly rejoice with such intensity that their whole heart, soul, and mind will not suffice to hold the fullness of such joy.371 9. "O Lord, I have not spoken yet, or even thought, of how immense is the joy of these Your blessed ones. Assuredly, they shall rejoice as much as they love, and love as much as they know. How well shall they know You and how greatly love You? Eye has not seen nor ear heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man372 in this life how well he shall know You and love You in the next. O God, I pray that I may know You, and love You, so as to rejoice in You; that, since I could never attain to this fully in this life, I may at least make some progress every day until I reach the perfection of joy; that my knowledge of You may advance here, and there be complete; that my love for You may increase here, and there be full; that here my joy may be in great expectation, and there in actual fulfillment. "O Lord, through Your Son You command us, rather You counsel us, to ask, promising that our joy will be full.373 O God of truth, I pray that I may receive this favor: that my joy may be full. I beg, O Lord, what You counsel through Your admirable Counselor. May I receive what You have promised through Your Truth: that my joy may be full. Meanwhile, let my mind meditate on this joy, let my tongue speak of it, my heart love it, my words express it, my soul hunger for it, my flesh thirst for it, and my whole being desire it, until I enter into this joy of the Lord who is God374 trine and one, blessed forever375. Amen."ccclix376 HERE ENDS THE BREVILOQUIUM OF FRIAR BONAVENTURE |< <<

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1 2

Eph. 3:14-29.

Like other early Scholastics, St. Bonaventure often identifies theology with the Scriptures, as both have revealed truth for their object. See his "Reductio artium ad theologiam" (to be published in Volume III of this series).
3 4 5 6 7

Jas. 1:17. Eph. 3:15. 1 Cor. 12:11. Eph. 3:17.

Scripture originates from the Father of Lights, through the wisdom of the Word, by means of the Holy Spirit who inspired the writers. The readers, in turn, in order that their understanding may be firm, must receive within their hearts faith in Christ the Word, a faith given to them by the Spirit whom they receive through Christ from the Father.
8 9

2 Cor. 5:6. Rom. 12:3* Cf. 6. Jn. 6:69. Eph. 3:19. ibid. 17.

10 11 12 13 14

This explanation of breadth, length, height, and depth is different from that given earlier in paragraph 3. The reason is that in the first explanation, Bonaventure considers these four aspects in relation to the INNER DEVELOPMENT of the Scriptures. Here, he considers them in relation

to their EXTERNAL EXPRESSION, from the viewpoint of the student who is to "explore their unfolding."
15

This division of the Old Testament corresponds to that given in part III, section 32, of the "Centiloquium," a work generally attributed to Bonaventure. The five legal books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The ten historical books are Josue, Judges, Kings, Paralipomena, Esdras, Tobias, Judith, Esther, Job, and Machabees. The five sapiential books are Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus (Sirach). The six prophetical books are Isaia, Jeremia (including Lamentations), Ezechiel, Daniel, the Psalms, and the Minor Prophets. The position occupied in this division by the book of Ruth is not apparent; nor is Baruch clearly placed, since the Minor Prophets cover the twelve prophets from Osee to Malachia. The matter is clarified, however, by a decision of the fourth session of the Council of Trent which established that Esdras would be divided into two books instead of three, the third being replaced by the book of Ruth, and that Baruch would be included with Jeremia. It seems quite probable that the decision to include Ruth with Esdras and Baruch with Jeremia was a return to an earlier division which the author of the "Centiloquium" had in mind. The Douay edition of the Old Testament is divided into forty-six books, since it counts as a separate book each subdivision of Kings, Paralipomena, Esdras, and Machabees, and also counts separately Ruth, Lamentations, and Baruch.
16

In the writings of scriptural commentators, there is great variety-not to say great confusion - as regards the symbolical meaning of the third creature in Ezechiel's vision. The confusion is apparent in the translations of this passage, which make use of three different words: bull (taureau in the French "Bible of Jerusalem"), ox (currently used in English texts, following the Vulgate bos), and calf ( in the Greek Septuagint, and vitulus in several Latin commentaries). The problem is worsened by the fact that the modern symbolism of these three words may be quite different from the allegorical meaning they had in ancient times. To our mind, the bull represents virility, the ox, brute strength, the calf, youth or springtime: three widely different notions. Which of these, if any, did the sacred author intend to convey? It is almost hopeless to seek an answer in medieval writings with their immense variety of interpretations. To limit ourselves to the ox alone, and to Bonaventure's interpretations of it, we find the following: - The yoke of five oxen represents the useless concern of the five senses for the things of the earth (Dominica decima nona post Pentecosten, sermo I:I; Comment. in evangelium Lucae, XIV:42). - The ox signifies prompt obedience (De purificatione beatae virginis Mariae, sermo II, in fine). - The ox is a figure of the Jewish people because of the burden of legal servitude (Comment. in evangelium Lucae, XIII: 35).

- The plowing oxen are symbols of hard labor (Comment. in librum Ecclesiastae, III: v.8). - The oxen are the preachers (Comment. in evangelium Lucae, II:102; Comment. in Ioannem, II:25, quoting Bede). - The ox means the wise preacher, as opposed to the ass (Comment. in evangelium Lucae, XIV:13). - The ox means Christ as a victim (Proemium commentarii in Lucam, 24). All this is no great help when we read in the present passage of the "Breviloquium": in historialibus (libris) est fades bovis propter exempla virtutis. The two main difficulties are: the double meaning of the word virtus, which is either strength, or virtue; and the fact that the historical books seem to contain many more examples of wickedness than of virtue. Our interpretation "examples of moral strength" can be nothing more than a hopeful compromise.
17 18 19

Ez. 1:15ff. Jn. 16:13.

In the medieval mind, the time of the creation of Adam coincided with the time of creation of the material universe, since man was made on the sixth day OF CREATION. When Bonaventure writes that the first age of the world extends from Adam to Noe, he actually means from creation to Noe.
20

Since the death of Christ, the redeemed souls of the dead are in a state different from ours, a state that runs concurrently with our time and that will end on the day of judgment. It is this state of just souls which Bonaventure calls the seventh age OF THE WORLD, because it does in fact coincide with a period of the world's duration. The eighth age, however- the age of resurrection or glory- to which he refers in paragraph 1, is not an age OF THE WORLD since it occurs in heaven alone: but it is the eighth and final age OF MAN.
21

The logical connection between the Jewish exile and the creation of the fishes does not seem to be explained in any of Bonaventure's other works and has not been traced so far to any source.
22 23 24

Gn. 2:3. Here Bonaventure gives no parallel for the seventh age. Ps. 138:6.

25

In Bonaventure's writings, Eternal Art means the wisdom of God as existing in the Word and applying to creation; or again, the perfect representative reason, within the Son, of all that the Father can bring forth, and particularly, of all that He proposes to bring forth by His action ad extra.
26 27 28 29 30 31 32

cf. Gn. 28:12. Ps. 132:2*. cf. Jn. 1:3. cf. Col 2:3. cf. 2 Pt. 1:21. cf. J. 16:13.

The expression "narrative modes" seems to refer to all the modes or ways enumerated in the first paragraph: narration, commandment, prohibition, etc.
33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Mt. 24:35. ibid. 5.18-19. Jb. 28:11. Ps. 34:2*. ibid. 5:13*. ibid. 90:5*. Ct. 4:2.

The Latin word secure may be either an adverb, meaning securely or safely, or the alternate ablative of securis, an axe. In this second sense, the translation would read: "If a man is to make his way in the forest of the Scripture, cutting through it with an axe and opening it out. ..." It is quite possible that this play on words was intended.

41

The branches of this "intelligible cross" are represented by the vertical axis from height to depth, and the horizontal axis from beginning to end, within which all things are contained.
42 43 44 45 46 47

In other words, God is its efficient, formal, exemplary, and final cause. cf. 1 Tm. 1:17. 1 Tm. 6:3. Within His own being. This list of attributes is given in 2.

The first mode of emanation, through nature, comes about in the production of the Son. It is called "generation" in regard to both Father and Son, for the Father engenders and the Son is engendered. It may also be called "begetting," for the Father begets and the Son is begotten. The second mode of emanation, through the will, comes about in the production of the Holy Spirit. It might be called "spiration," for the Father and the Son spirate, while the Holy Spirit is spirated. Bonaventure, however, chose to introduce in the description of the second method the intransitive term "procession" as the counterpart of "spiration." So the two terms "spiration" and "procession" represent here A SINGLE MODE OF EMANATION as seen from the viewpoints, respectively, of Originators and Originated, and are therefore hyphenated; whereas they are used separately in 4 to indicate DISTINCT RELATIONS.
48

The following paragraphs are perhaps the most difficult to translate and also the hardest to understand in the whole "Breviloquium." The two usual obstacles are present- the density of the Latin language, and the technicality of the scholastic terms- but this being a summary of a much more extensive work, the "Commentaries," so much is expressed in so few lines that it implies in the reader a much more complete understanding of the background than is available even to the cultivated mind of our time. Breaking away from the policy expressed in the introduction to the first volume - not to provide explanations of the general principles of Scholastic Philosophy-we feel that a few explanatory footnotes are in order, first concerning two terms, "supposition" and "hypostasis." The terms suppositum or "supposit" and suppositio or "supposition" are used IN THE FIELD OF LOGIC to indicate with what content a word is used. As Bonaventure himself explains, it may be used as designating an ESSENCE (God is the only omnipotent being), an individual PERSON (God is the author of creation), or an ABSTRACT IDEA (God is beyond the power of conceptual representation).

On the other hand, "hypostasis" is used IN THE FIELD OF METAPHYSICS: it signifies the underlying subject within whom properties or qualities are found. Hypostasis differs from person merely in this: the person is determinate, while the hypostasis is not. The person means "this particular rational being in whom properties are found," while the hypostasis means "that rational being, whoever it may be, in whom properties are found." These explanations find their direct application in the translation of the most difficult sentence in this difficult passage: "Quinque modi dicendi, scilicet quis, qui, quae, quod et quid." Literally, this means: "Five manners of speaking, which one, one who, that which (feminine), that which, and what." Such transliteration of jargon would be meaningless. But in the light of our explanations, we may see that quis, (which one) points to a determinate person; qui (one who), to an indeterminate person, or hypostasis; quae (that which - feminine), to the concept, since it is understood to mean quae notio; quod (that which), to the concrete reality of what a thing is, or the substance; and quid (what), to the nature of what a thing is, or the essence. Hence, the translation: "Five modes of assertion, in terms of person, hypostasis, concept, substance, and essence." This is further explained in paragraph 5, where this same series is found literally in the Latin text, serving as a development of the series of relative pronouns.
49

"Transire in substantiam," literally, "to go over into substance," is rendered as "to become substantive." The meaning is that such attributes as substance (real being, thing, etc.), quality (one, true, good, etc.), relation (fatherhood, sonship, etc.), quantity (immense, all-pervading, etc.), and action (creating, loving, redeeming, etc.) cannot be predicated of God ADJECTIVELY, which would imply the presence in God of accidents: they must BECOME SUBSTANTIVE, meaning that God is the supreme Being (and not has supreme Being); that He is Oneness, Truth, and Goodness as such (and not that He is One, True, and Good); that He is the very relation of Fatherhood or Sonship (and not related - see below); that He is Immensity as such (and not immense); and that He is the Creator as such (and not one who creates). Furthermore, everything that is properly said of God must contain implicitly the fullness of His Being, so that when we say, for instance, that God is Goodness, this also means that He is, in fact, everything else besides. But since the human mind cannot conceive God, the all-perfect and simple Being, as a whole, we can think of Him only in terms of distinct attributes between which there is no real distinction, but only a logical distinction due to the weakness of our intellect.
50

For instance, fatherhood exists in the Father as an attribute of the Father, and as such "becomes substantive" by representing implicitly all that the Father is: when we say "Our Father," we refer to the whole Person. But fatherhood refers also to the Son, in which sense it is distinct from the Father and remains relation only; otherwise there would be no distinction between Father and Son. When Christ speaks of His Father, He refers to Their relationship.
51

The complete reasoning would read as follows: Some terms indicating relation may be predicated of one of the Persons only - Father, Son, begotten, spirated, etc. - and only in the singular. Others may be predicated of two of the Persons, in the singular in reference to one, or in

the plural in reference to both: for instance, the Son PROCEEDS from the Father; the Son and the Holy Spirit PROCEED from the Father. Others again may be predicated of all three Persons, in either the singular or the plural: for instance, the Father is related to the Son; all three Persons are related to one another.
52

The attribute "Trinity" may be predicated of God substantially (may "become substantive"), in which case it implies all that God is, while placing the emphasis, by means of a logical distinction, upon the fact of His trineness. In this sense, "Trinity" means "God." But the same term "Trinity" may be applied to God to indicate only the threefold interrelationship between the Persons: in this sense, it is predicated, not substantially, but as a relation. Examples will show this point more clearly: "We adore the blessed Trinity" (substance). "It is in Trinity that the mystery of God's dynamic love is contained" (relationship).
53

Some light may be obtained from a passage of Bonaventure's "Commentaries on the Sentences," where he is speaking of the names of God and goes on to explain: "One manner in which attributes may be predicated in different ways is based upon a difference in the mode of being, secundum modum essendi, that is, a difference between names applying to a being which exists of itself and other names applying to one which exists by accident. And there is no possibility of attributing names to the Godhead according to this distinction, for such diversity presupposes a difference of essence between the beings spoken of. Hence, there is in reference to God but one method of predication [i. e., the substantial]. For all that is said of God is God Himself and His very substance." (I "Sent.," d. 22, a. 1, q. 4, concl.) Now, in the present passage, Bonaventure refers, not to modum essendi (the essential mode of being), but to modos essendi sive emanandi (the variations - within a single mode of being - of the facts of either existing as does the Father, or emanating as do the Son and the Holy Spirit, each in His proper way). In this second sense, says Bonaventure, there is a difference between the names applied to the Godhead.
54

We should note carefully that when Bonaventure gives, as an example of the third mode of distinction, the difference existing between goodness and wisdom, he is using these terms as substantive properties OF THE GODHEAD, and not as appropriated names of the Persons. It is true that, within the Godhead, the difference between goodness and wisdom is merely in the order of reason; but if we consider goodness to be the appropriated attribute of the Holy Spirit and to designate Him alone, and wisdom to be the appropriated attribute of the Son, then there is between these two terms as much difference as there is between the supposits, the Persons: and this would be an application of the first mode of distinction.
55

Bonaventure explains this series of names in I "Sent.," d. 22, dub. 1: "Considering the distinction of names as being threefold, we may reduce them to the following division: every name of God is either literal or metaphorical; if literal, it concerns either the substance or the

Persons. But the Master (Peter Lombard) further develops this distinction, in the sense that any name referring to the one substance may be related either to eternity or to time. The personal names also may refer either to eternity or to time, but they may do so in two ways, being either appropriated, as the name Father, or common, as the name Trinity; and in this sense there are six elements to the division." Hence, the threefold division consists in this: 1) literal names concerning the substance; 2) literal names concerning the Persons; 3) metaphorical names. The sixfold division, which omits the metaphorical names, consists in this: 1) literal names of substance, in relation to eternity (God); 2) literal names of substance in relation to time (the Creator); 3) literal names of the Persons in relation to eternity, and common (the Trinity); 4) literal names of the Persons in relation to time, and common (the revealed Three); 5) literal names of the Persons in relation to eternity, and appropriated (Wisdom) ; 6) literal names of the Persons in relation to time, and appropriated (the Gift). Bonaventure explains that difference IN THE ORDER OF REASON applies to names which differ by being either literal or metaphorical, eternal or temporal, common or appropriated. The difference between the names expressing either substance or Persons is not mentioned here, because such difference is not in the order of reason, but IN THE ORDER OF PREDICATION, according to the second mode of differing.
56 57 58 59 60

That is, Christ, in that He is man by reason of the assumed humanity. cf. Jn. 14:23. cf. ibid. 1:32. cf. Acts 2:3.

Here again the text is a summary of the "Commentaries," so tightly condensed as to be in some points almost unintelligible without expansion. The meaning of "both in manner and origin" is this: the dove and the tongues of fire, considered as general symbols, were destined in their MANNER to represent the Holy Spirit because the dove represents purity and perfection, and fire, the warmth of love; they were destined to do so in their ORIGIN because their symbolical meaning was concreated with their essence. Considered in this particular instance and in their particular MANNER OF BEING, the dove and the tongues of fire precisely represented the Holy Spirit because, in Bonaventure's opinion, both ceased to exist as soon as their function had been completed, and, furthermore, the tongues of fire did not burn. Bonaventure believes that they were real bodily beings, but not a real dove or real flames. He shares this opinion with Albert the Great, Peter of Tarentino, Richard of Middleton, and, in a sense, with Thomas Aquinas (S. I, q. 43, a. 7); although in another passage (S. III, q. 39, a. 7) where the whole question is elaborated, Aquinas concludes that the dove was a genuine dove. Another opinion - that both dove and fire

were an illusion - is disproved by Bonaventure, who explains that they were offered to the senses for the sake of signifying something that was really present, and that an illusion would have been the equivalent of a fraud.
61

Meaning that the Holy Spirit does not beget or spirate any eternal Person, as do the Father and the Son.
62 63

Cf. footnote to page 49.

Humanly speaking, the act of exemplating in God may be understood to consist in four elements: IDEATION, or rational planning; EXPRESSION, or setting forth the pattern in an intelligible form; EXECUTION, or bringing about the realization of the pattern as planned; while, overshadowing these three is the INTENTION, or purpose, by which the exemplated object obtains its final perfection, ordination toward its proper end.
64

This seems to contradict a statement made in the preceding paragraph: that God knows future things as future. However, in paragraph five, Bonaventure is speaking as if God were considering the future from the viewpoint of man: in this sense, He presently knows future things as future. But in paragraph six, Bonaventure considers God in the no-time of His eternal duration: and in that sense, He is correctly said to see future things presently.
65

The meaning of the expressions "will of good-pleasure" and "will of sign" becomes clear in the light of Bonaventure's own explanation: "Therefore, we should realize that, as it is not absurd to call 'understanding' both the power to understand and what is understood, so also 'will' is said of both the power of willing and what is willed. Since the will of God is made known to us through what is willed, which serves as a visible sign - and a sign is something that makes something else come to mind when it offers itself to one of the senses (Cf. Augustine, II, 'De doctrina Christiana,' 1:1) - it follows that we divide the will of God into WILL OF GOOD-PLEASURE, and WILL OF SIGN." (I "Sent.," d. 45, a. 3, q. 1, concl.) Hence, "will of good-pleasure" is God's will as existing in Him subjectively, and "will of sign" is the same will considered objectively in its manifestations or signs.
66 67

cf. Ps. 36:27.

This does not mean that God suddenly ceases to protect man against sin, but that when man, by an act of free will, decides to oppose God's will, the grace of God is taken away from him.
68

Rom. 11:33-36.

69

Bonaventure's description of the universe reflects the physical notions current in his time, borrowed mainly from Aristotle. The picture he thus presents is not, by modern standards, a scientific analysis of physical reality. It is, none the less, an artistically beautiful representation of order and harmony in the universe. Our modern scientific vision is more accurate in many details, and will probably continue to improve as time goes on. Yet, for all we know, it may at its best be almost as remote as this ancient poetry from an actual, full vision and understanding of what time and space contain. Bonaventure's theology, of course, is unaffected by his physical views. As will be noted later, he goes to great pains to avoid the pitfalls of astrology. The wisdom of Bonaventure's position in these matters is clearly shown in a passage where, after discussing the nature of the "waters" that are above the firmament, he concludes: "We might hold this third position as probable, since nothing seems to oppose it. But we must give particular attention to this: not to assert anything as certain in matters that are actually uncertain, for it is better to doubt piously than to make imprudent definitions." (II "Sent.," d. 14, p. I, a. 1, q. 1, conclusion) And, later, when he speaks of the place occupied by the saints in heaven, he concludes: "But this we will know better when we see it." (ibid. a. 2, q. 1, in fine).
70 71

Wis. 11:20.

In Bonaventure's writings, the expression status et complementum occurs several times. It is understandable only in terms of his cosmology, and of his belief that the material universe, and more particularly the "incorruptible" luminous bodies, will be rewarded at the end by ceasing to move and by receiving additional brilliance. The word status (static-ness, the condition of attained repose) indicates the ceasing of accidental motion, and applies also to the rational soul in the state of beatitude: Status est nisi in summo Bono (II "Sent.," a. 1, q. 1, 5) -"There is no repose except in the supreme Good." The word complementum refers to the superadded brilliance or glory which both heavenly bodies and human souls receive in their final state. This whole idea is based on the teachings of Aristotle, II "Metaph.," text. 5, ff.
72

MODE (of being) refers to the creature's dependency upon the efficient cause (a Deo - by the power of God); SPECIES, to the creature's conformity with the exemplary cause (secundum Deum- according to God); ORDER, to the creature's ordination toward the final cause (propter Deum - for God as an end).
73 74

Gn. 1:1ff. Cf. chapters 3 and 5 below.

75 76 77 78

Cf. prologue, p. 9. cf. Ecclus. 18:1*. Gn. 1:14.

This whole theory is so remote from contemporary notions that it is hard to grasp. The basic points are the following: All material beings are composed of the four elements, each of which has its characteristic quality, and is predominantly either active or passive. These elements are: fire (hot, active), air (cold, active), water (wet, passive), earth (dry, passive). There is opposition between the elements because of their natural differences, and these differences result in interactions that depend on their active or passive quality. Opposition, therefore, means little more than "possibility of mutual active/passive action." These elements constitute the lower nature. They can be reconciled (brought together in harmony) only through the influence of an element which in itself is free from opposition because of its own perfection. This reconciling element belongs, not to the lower nature, but to the heavenly. It is sometimes called "light," at other times "quintessence," or fifth essence- the other four essences being the elements themselves. Because the planets are heavenly bodies, they participate in some way in this heavenly harmonious power of light or quintessence, and it is as such that they have an influence on physical bodies. The action of this heavenly power may lead to different degrees of harmony or, as Bonaventure has it, of "equality," which correspond more or less to our notion of individuation. In minerals, the individuation is merely accidental, since any piece of rock may be broken into smaller pieces of rock of the same nature. Plants cannot be so easily divided: they would generally die; animals cannot be divided at all (at least in the medieval conception); and the idea of dividing man is unthinkable.
79 80 81 82 83

2 Cor. 5:1. Gn. 1:1-2. Ecclus. 18:1*. cf. Gn. 1:2, Septuag.

Here, our author yields completely to his trinitarian bent: he manages to cram the notion of triplicity eight times into a single grammatical sentence.
84 85

Cf. chapter 7. Cf. prologue, p. 9.

86

Bonaventure, following Augustine, assumes that each of the seven days of creation - that is, the production of each category of creatures and the final day of repose - brought about a corresponding progress in the rational illumination of the pure spirits and in their affective conversion to God. (Cf. II "Sent.," d. 12, a. 1, q. 2).
87

KNOWLEDGE OF DUSK: that knowledge by which a rational being knows an object in itself through the species. Every creature, in itself, is darkness, while God alone is light. (Jn. 1:5) KNOWLEDGE OF DAWN: that knowledge by which a rational creature sees an object directly in the Word, or Eternal Art; that is, in the Second Person, the Wisdom of God, in the act of creating. KNOWLEDGE OF FULL DAYLIGHT, which is mentioned later, indicates the highest possible degree of knowledge, corresponding to the vision of God face to face.
88 89

Heb. 1:14.

This idea of God's indirect action upon man through intermediate beings (pure spirits), which Bonaventure supports with a quotation from Denis Pseudo-Areopagite, seems inconsistent with the Epistle to the Colossians, 2:4-23, where St. Paul condemns the worship of intermediate beings, the "elements of the world," to which the Colossians seem to have given precedence even over Christ. Although what St. Paul condemns there is the excessive worship of these beings, and not undue belief in their action, he clearly states that in Him [Christ] dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, and in Him who is the Head of all Principality and Power you have received; and he continues by listing the benefits Christ has bestowed directly upon man. Then he writes: Disarming the Principalities and Powers, He displayed them openly, leading them away in triumph by force of it [the cross]. Although it might be said that this text refers only to evil spirits, the footnote to the Confraternity translation confirms the opinion that St. Paul referred to all spirits: "Through Him, not through angels, we may become partakers of the divine nature" (2 Pet. 1:4). (See p. 145.).
90 91

Jn. 8:34

Two early codices contain the following explanation: The earth corresponds to touch, water to taste, air to hearing, fire or vapor to smell, while the fifth essence or "quintessence," which comprises the whole luminous nature with its spheres, corresponds to the sense of sight.
92 93

Gn. 2:7. Gn. 1:28.

94 95 96 97

ibid. 2:17. cf. Ps. 36:27. Ez. 2:9*; Ap. 5:13.

Here, the first condition is universal, the second is based on the nature of the rational soul, the third is moral.
98 99

Gn. 1:3ff.

Bonaventure refers to this same triple biblical expression in his "Journey of the Mind to God." (See volume I of present series, p. 10.) In both instances, he is quoting Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," II, 8:16-20; IV, 29:46 and 31:48. In the accounts of creation, there are three phases: the planning in the eternal Art: Let it be (Fiat); the execution as intelligible to the created intellect: God made it (Fecit); and the end result, or the creature itself: And it was made (Factum est). Accordingly, the creature may be known in three ways: in the eternal Art, in the created mind, and in itself.
100 101

Cf. p. 71, and 2 in fine.

Freedom of the will, which is first said to be good, is now explained to be neither entirely evil nor entirely good. This results from extreme condensation of style. We should supply some such transition as: "Now, to answer the objection of those who claim that free will is entirely evil, and also of those who claim it is entirely good, we must hold that. ..."
102 103

Gn. 3:1, 4, 5.

There is here an amusing logical circle: Bonaventure states that the tempter was permitted to take a serpent's form because of its being a symbol of cunning and evil. But he fails to realize that if all serpents suffer from this aspersion, it is mainly because the Bible teaches us that a serpent was responsible for the fall.
104 105

cf. Gn. 3:3.

The classical Scholastic division of the powers of the soul into the irascible, the concupiscible, and the rational is much easier to understand when the technical terms are replaced by others more familiar to the contemporary mind. In Bonaventure's writings, the "irascible appetite" is that power by which the soul seeks to defend what it has and to overcome opposition in the obtaining of some desired object; the "concupiscible appetite" is that by which it tends toward the desirable object; the "rational appetite" is that by which it seeks to obtain

knowledge of the intelligible object. Hence, the three powers could be more clearly called the AGGRESSIVE, the AFFECTIVE, and the INTELLECTIVE.
106 107 108 109

cf. Gn. 3:6. 1 Jn. 2:16. Cf. part II, chapter 11, page 101.

Meaning that disorder began with the highest faculty, the will, and went down to disturb the harmony of the senses. By saying that disorder "went down to the bottom," Bonaventure indicates that concupiscence of the flesh is a disorder consequent upon original sin, and not to be identified with it. He thus avoids the mistake of several medieval and a few recent theologians who believe that original sin is sexual in essence. He, on the contrary, clearly sees in it an act originating from the superior powers by which man is distinct from animal, an act motivated by pride, and spiritual in essence. Yet, in most of his writings on matters of sex, he seems to imply that, although original sin was not sexual in essence, the sex relationship was essentially vitiated by it. In this he disagrees with his master, Alexander of Hales.
110 111 112 113 114 115

cf. 1 Tm. 2:14. Gn. 3:7. ibid. I7ff. cf. Eph. 2:3. Ps. 24:10*.

The Church presently teaches that infants who die before baptism do enjoy perfect natural happiness.
116 117

Cf. preceding paragraphs; chapter 5; part II, chapter 11.

This statement was made, not by Augustine, but by Fulgentius. Bonaventure exposes the same theory elsewhere: "Original sin is a consequence, not of the conjugal act as such, but of the lust attached to it." ("Quaestiones disputatae," q. 3, a. 1, ad 7) Thomas Aquinas does not make this distinction, but teaches merely that "the first sin of the first man is transmitted to his

descendants by way of origin." ("Summa theologica," la , q. 81, a. 1, thesis) For a fuller comment regarding teachings on this subject, Scholastic and modern, see footnote on pages 271-272 of this volume.
118 119

Jas. 1:14-15.

Early theologians often called sensuality "feminine" (rendered here by mulier, woman), and rationality "masculine" (rendered by vir, man), arguing that the senses must be subject to reason as Eve was subject to Adam. It is interesting to note that Bonaventure, applying this system, seemingly concludes that Eve sinned through the "masculine" principle because she willed the act formally, while Adam sinned through the "feminine" principle because he was more intent upon the sensual purpose than upon the act itself. (Cf. II "Sent.," d. 14, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; d. 24, p. II, a. 2, q. 2).
120 121 122

Ecclus. 10:15*. 1 Jn. 2:16.

The repetition in our translation of the word "pride" as being the source of actual sin, one of the capital sins, and also one of the temptations of the world (the pride of life) is justified by the use in the Latin text of the single word superbia. In the three cases, however, there are nuances of meaning. Pride, as the source of actual sin, is the general tendency to further one's immediate good through one's own means without consideration for the will of God; as a capital sin, it is the exaltation of self over neighbor, or in the case of Luciferian pride, to equality with God; and as a temptation of the world, it is excessive attention to temporal honors and glory. Thomas Aquinas, however, following Gregory, identifies this temptation of the world with the first capital sin, which he calls "vainglory," thus reserving pride in its specific sense as the source of all sin.
123 124

See footnote p. 113.

The capital sin of ENVY implies two notions: resentment toward the neighbor on account of his success, and inordinate desire for his goods. Bonaventure's explanation considers envy in this secondary meaning. SLOTH is to be understood as lack of relish for spiritual goods and apathy in their pursuit.
125 126

Rom. 1:28. See footnote p. 71.

127 128 129 130 131

Mt. 12:32. Jn. 1:17. Ps. 24:10* cf. Tm. 1:17; 2:5.

After quoting Augustine, Bonaventure provides the metaphysical foundation for the difficulty of the work of restoration.
132 133 134

cf. Jn. 1:3, 14. Phil 2:7.

From the order of the Persons of the Trinity (Father/power, Son/wisdom, Holy Spirit/ goodness, corresponding to imitation, knowledge, and love), Bonaventure changes to the order of succession in time, knowledge, love, and imitation.
135 136 137

Jn. 1:14. Phil. 2:7.

The idea that a created being could have acted in some way for the salvation of mankind seems strange to the modern mind. It is, however, but an echo of the Platonic notion of the Demiurge, a secondary being, below God but above man, responsible for creation. St. Paul strongly opposed such a notion (see footnote to p. 94), but it was revived in the works of the Gnostics and condemned again by the Church. The angels properly so called are not saved by men, but, as Bonaventure explains, men, elevated by the grace of Christ, constitute in a sense a tenth angelic choir.
139 140 138

cf. Col. 1:20.

This means that the created soul of Christ acted, not as a necessary bond between the Divinity and the flesh, but as a fitting intermediary. In III "Sent.," a. 3, q. 1-2, Bonaventure gives the explanation 1) that as regards its bulk, the body of Christ was brought to completion gradually, but 2) that as regards the formation and
141

distinction of its members, it was perfect from the instant of conception: A) because it was fitting that Christ possess THE WHOLE of human nature from the beginning; B) because, in this miraculous event, God's power would not be restricted to the successive action of nature, but would act instantly; and C) because as soon as Mary gave her consent, she became the Mother of the whole Christ. These notions coincide with many medieval representations of the Annunciation, where a tiny, perfectly formed human being (homunculus) is shown coming down upon a beam toward the Virgin Mary. (See, for instance, several French editions of the "Book of Hours" and the Flemish "Merode Altarpiece" recently acquired by the New York Metropolitan Museum for the Cloisters.) Byzantine icons of the Mother of God (Theotokos) have the Child in a circle representing the womb; but, probably by the same theological reasoning, the Child is beyond infancy.
142 143 144

Gal. 4:4, 5. cf. Num. 32:25.

The play on the word "Mediator," interpreted here as one who came between two groups of men, is definitely weak, since Christ is fundamentally the Mediator between God and men.
145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152

Phil 3:14. Ps. 83:8* See footnote, page 174. Mk. 11:9. Mt.2l:9. Rom. 9:5. Jn. 1:14, 16.

See footnote p. 174. Several codices have sacramenta, sacraments, which, in the light of the second paragraph of present chapter and of the first paragraph of chapter 10, seems to be a better reading.
153

cf. I Cor. 6:15, 19.

In order to understand how this series of oppositions introduces the explanation that follows, we should realize that each opposition is a development of the last term of the preceding pair, so that the schematical pattern appears thus: Christ is both God and Man. As Man, He is both in the state of beatific vision, and living on earth. As living on earth, He is under the influence of both grace and nature. In the order of nature, He knows through the intellect and through the senses. The words in small capitals indicate the five ways in which Christ is able to know; the brackets show their logical relationship. As explained in "Quaestiones de scientia Christi," q. 7, conclusion, this refers to the "possibles," potentially infinite in number, which the created soul of Christ knew only by an act that EXCEEDED the natural powers of such a soul.
156 157 158 155

154

Heb. 5:8. See footnote p. 161.

The first two methods of knowledge consider Christ in His eternity, and therefore the verbs are in the present tense: "has," and "grasps"; the last three consider Him in His historical humanity, and therefore the verbs are in the past tense: "knew," "understood," and "perceived."
159 160 161 162 163 164 165

In the Latin, stola, "the robe of immortality." cf. Rom. 3:24. Is. 26:22. Ps. 15:2. Mt. 26:39. 1 Tm. 2:5.

The term viator, the wayfarer or pilgrim, is contrasted here with comprehensor, the possessor or embracer, expressing the state of one who enjoys the beatific vision.
166

Mt. 26:39.

167 168 169 170 171 172 173

Lk. 22:42. Is. 53:12. 1 Jn. 3:16. Rom. 8:32. Phil. 2:7, 8. 1 Cor. 15:54.

There is here a classic instance of the difficulties of translating medieval Latin into English. Such expressions as "through living faith or through the sacraments of faith" may sound very good but certainly convey no clear meaning: hence a mere verbal transposition is insufficient, if not accompanied by an explanatory note. Bonaventure himself explains that the sacrament of faith par excellence is Baptism (cf. IV "Sent.," d. 29, a. 2, q. 1); he also lists as sacraments of faith Confirmation (cf. ibid., d. 26, a. 1, q. 3), and Holy Eucharist (cf. ibid., a. 2, q. 1). Furthermore, he believes that all the sacraments of the New Law were prefigured in the Old, and that these prefigurations, although imperfect, were effective to a certain point (cf. ibid., d. 2, a. 1, q. 2). Christ, then, by going down to hell, delivered the souls of those who were justified "through living faith" as such, or through "the sacraments of faith," Baptism, Confirmation, and the Holy Eucharist, or their Old Law prefigurations, which we may assume to be purification, circumcision, and the rites of Passover. There seems to be no reference here to salvation outside of the Church, or to "baptism of desire." For note on limbo, see p. 175. This refers obviously, not to the souls of the damned, but to the souls of the just who were awaiting the merits of Christ and the opening by Him of the gates of heaven. Again, this means, not that all souls in the state of mortal sin were restored to the state of grace, but that restoration to grace was offered by Christ to all the sinful souls who would repent and make use of His merits.
176 177 175 174

Ps. 67:19*. cf. Gn. 3:24.

178 179 180 181 182 183

1 Cor. 15:4. cf. Mt. 7:7; Lk.11:8. 1 Cor. 12:8-11. Jas. 1:17. Ap. 22:1.

The inpouring of grace is a Deo, secundum Deum, and propter Deum, meaning that grace is brought forth by God, conforms to God, and has God as an end. Hence, the rational faculties, by which the soul is an image of God, will be restored to their former perfection as they were originally BROUGHT FORTH BY GOD; restored to righteousness since they now CONFORM TO GOD, and restored to meriting the reward since they are now fit to enjoy GOD AS AN END. See footnote p. 71. In scholastic writings, fruitio means the enjoyment of a good as an absolute end. When medieval writers indicate that created goods cannot be the object of fruitio, they mean, not that they cannot be enjoyed, but that they cannot be sought finaliter, as sources of absolute delight. This corresponds to what modern theologians would call actual grace. It applies to an individual act and disappears with the completion of this act, whereas sanctifying grace remains as a state.
186 187 188 185 184

cf. Ps. 15:2*. cf. Gn. 15:1*.

Bonaventure has indicated here three categories of merit: meritum congrui, meritum digni, and meritum condigni. Meritum congrui is a disposition toward something that fits the nature of the subject, but remains short of its perfect fulfillment. It is founded, not on any right, but on God's benevolence alone, and hence is not a merit properly so called, but AN APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION (for a favor). Meritum digni is a disposition toward something essentially required by the nature of the subject. It is founded on natural justice, and is A JUST TITLE (to a reward).

Meritum condigni is a disposition toward something completely fulfilling the subject. It is founded on divine justice, in the sense that God always remains faithful to His promises. It is, then, AN ABSOLUTE RIGHT (to a reward).
189 190

1 Tm. 2:5.

Bonaventure does not refer here to any particular act (for such are performed with the assistance of actual grace), but to all the future acts of a life influenced by sanctifying grace.
191 192 193

Rom. 9:16. cl. 1 Cor. 4:7.

As explained in paragraph 6 below, since charity itself is the form of all virtues, it cannot exist without a form. In other words, after a mortal sin has been committed, all the other virtues continue to exist formlessly, but charity disappears completely.
194 195 196

See footnote p. 113. Is. 11:2-3*.

Both here and in the beginning of the next paragraph, the Latin has obliquitates vitiorum, the deviations of the vices, which, as indicated in this same paragraph, are overcome by the habits of the virtues. The reader would expect instead, in both places, impedimenta symptomatum, the difficulties of the after-effects, which had been related to the gifts (and not mentioned again). However, in the preceding chapter dealing with the habits of the virtues, these virtues are nowhere paired with opposite vices, as one would have expected from Bonaventure. Apparently, even he who is so subtle in discovering relationships between opposing series seems to have despaired of finding a logical link between the seven virtues and the seven vices. Having failed to link the vices with the virtues which specifically oppose them, he now links them with the gifts. Since he parallels virtues with gifts in 5, he might, by eliminating the middle term - gifts - have gone on to establish the following relationships (the first pair of which seems hard to conciliate): faith/ gluttony, hope/covetousness, charity/lust, prudence/anger, temperance/pride, fortitude/ sloth, justice/envy. The fact that Bonaventure did not draw this final parallelism shows precisely at which point he refuses to submit to an artificial frame.
197 198

See footnote p. 113. Phil 2:15.

There is here an apparent lack of logic, for in paragraph 3, above, Bonaventure, pairing the gifts with the capital sins, states that it is wisdom which helps in overcoming lust.
200 201

199

Wis.7:11.

In the terminology of Bonaventure, the word "contemplation" does not have any connotation of a supernatural activity, as it would have in the present. Contemplation is merely the highest level of intellectual activity by which the mind beholds the truth. Since, however, Bonaventure's philosophy is basically Platonic and Augustinian, this natural contemplation of the truth is the contemplation of something innate and absolute that is not founded upon sense experience. This intellectual contemplation, in the writings of our author, is always preceded by what he calls the "hierarchizing of the soul"; that is, its setting in order by way of purgation, illumination, and union (perfection). This last stage, again, is not mystical union (which begins only beyond this point) but is the summit of the natural operation of the mind. " ... et sic arcanum contemplationis a lato consummatur quasi in cubito." In a play on the word "arcanum," (hidden, secret, closed) contemplation is likened to the "ark" of Noe, broad at the bottom but only one cubit wide at the top. Cf. Septuagint: In building the ark thou shall narrow the breadth and finish it above at a cubit. (Thomson-Muses translation, The Falcons' Wing Press, quoted with permission.) This, in Bonaventure's mind, represents contemplation rising from a broad platform of knowledge to the understanding of the oneness of God.
203 204 205 202

cf. Gn. 6:15-16. Lk. 1:79.

Augustine, Hugh of St. Victor, and others before Bonaventure had held that there were seven, and not eight, beatitudes. The reason seems weak: the beatitudes are seven in number when considered in the order of gradation, that is, of increasingly high level, the supreme level being peace, and the suffering of persecution for the sake of justice being an annex or introduction to this highest state. These same authors do admit, however, that in the order of essence the beatitudes are eight in number. Yet, because of the medieval obsession with the symbolism of numbers and the scholastic fondness for symmetrical developments, they reduce the beatitudes from eight to seven by a trick of logic in order to make them conform and compare with the sevenfold series of the virtues, vices, or capital sins, gifts of the Holy Spirit, etc. (Cf. III "Sent.," d. 36, q. 1, scho.)
206

Cf. Mt. 5:3ff.

207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214

cf. Gal. 5:22f. Ps. 24:10*. Prv. 20:28. cf. Phil 4:7. 1 Tm. 6:10. Mt. 19:21. cf. Osee 6:6*; Mt. 9:13; 12:7.

The number 12 is called a "number of abundance" because the sum of its possible multiples amounts to more than itself. Indeed, 1+2 + 3 + 4 + 6 amount to 16.
215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225

cf. Jn. 1:14. cf. 1 Jn. 1:1. Jn. 13:1. Gal.5:22f. Gn. 28:12. cf. 3 Kgs. 10:18. Ct. 5:16. 1 Pt. 1:12. Ps. 41:1. Ct. 1:3*. Ps. 138:11.

226 227

cf.Ap.2:17.

There seems to be no doubt about the substance of the Creed being of apostolic origin. But the attribution of actual authorship to the twelve apostles - each apostle being supposedly the author of one article - is no more than a pious legend which began in the sixth century and was perpetuated by later religious writers.
228 229 230 231

2 Cor. 10:5. This apparently refers to the species of the Holy Eucharist. cf. Heb. 1:3; Jn. 1:1.

The reason why "the reward of the fatherland" is mentioned here before "the merit of the way" is that, in Bonaventure's mind, the understanding of truth "as it exists in its own proper nature" constitutes the reward of the fatherland, whereas the understanding of truth "as it exists in the assumed humanity of Christ" constitutes the merit of the way.
232 233

cf. . 1:13, 16.

The Latin has lapidem vivum, a live stone, meaning a stone or gem taken from the bedrock and cut to fitting shape (cf. Cornelius a Lapide, "Commentaria," in Pt. 2:4). Bonaventure seems to oppose the "live" stone to the "dead" boulders taken up from the riverbed in the Old Testament story. Incidentally, these boulders were used to erect, not an altar, but a monument at the site where the Twelve Tribes had passed the Jordan. Concerning the supposed authorship of each individual apostle, see footnote p. 207.
234 235 236 237

cf. Jos. 4:2ff. Gn. 1:31. Mt. 22:40.

This enumeration omits the created pure spirits. Perhaps, in Bonaventure's mind, they were included in the category "neighbors." They are certainly included among the "other beings which through Him are made fit for beatitude."
238

cf. Mt. 22:40.

239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251

Jn. 17:22ff. 1 Cor. 15:28. Ex. 31:18. cf. Mt. 19:21. Gal. 4:24. cf. Rom. 8:15. cf. 2 Cor. 3:6; cf. Mt. 11:30; Acts l5:10. Ex. 31:18. Meaning dutiful and reverential love. 1 Jn. 2:16. cf. Rom. 8:26. cf. Jas. 1:17.

The charismatic favors - whose number has been contracted here from nine to seven - are not mentioned in the development that follows. This is more understandable than that they should have been mentioned at all. They are not conditions of salvation - and furthermore, their inclusion would have ruined the sevenfold pattern by adding an eighth category to the series.
252 253 254

See part VII, chapter 8. Ps. 118:164.

This is a surprisingly negative and limited view of the sacraments on the part of an author so generally ample and positive in his interpretations.
255

This implies both historical variations and numerical variety.

256 257 258 259

cf. Jn. 1:17. See Prologue (2), On the Length of Holy Scripture, page 8. 1 Cor. 1:24.

Once again, we have here an example of a systematic parallelism which, to say the least, seems artificial. The last three examples may appear to us as actually inaccurate in their excessively negative approach, but we should remember that Bonaventure is considering the sacraments under their remedial aspect. To us, the remedial is not the sole effect; we place increasing stress on the transforming and elevating union brought about by the reception of the Body and Blood of Christ.
260 261 262

Ct. 6:10. Eph. 5:32*.

Such a view of the sacrament of Matrimony seems characteristic of most Scholastics. See chapter 13, particularly footnote p. 271.
263 264

cf. Heb. 9:15.

It is unthinkable that Christ would have received in fact His own Body and Blood. Bonaventure answers this objection by stating that, as occurred in Baptism, Christ received the Eucharist "sacramentally" but not "spiritually"; that He received it not in rem (in the thing itself); and that the reason for his receiving the Eucharist at all was to induce the disciples to partake after Him of this astounding Food and Drink. (Cf. IV "Sent.," a. 1, q. 4, conclusio.)
265 266

Jn. 14:6.

As Bonaventure explains below, those who come unworthily are deprived, not of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, but of the healing effect of that presence. He makes this point very clear in IV "Sent.," d. 9, a. 2, q. 1, conclusion: "The wicked really partake of the Body of Christ, but without union in the Mystical Body."
267 268

ibid. 1:14.

Bonaventure believes in the existence of sacraments in the Old Testament, prefiguring those in the New. In that sense, it may be said that there existed, before the incarnation, sacramental graces corresponding to penance and procreation.

269 270 271 272 273

cf.Mt.4:17; cf. Jn. 2:1ff.; cf. Mk. 10:2-12. Mk. 6:13. cf. Mt. 19:13; cf. Acts 1:5. This should read: Baptism, Orders, Holy Eucharist.

cf.Mt3:13; 28:19; Mk. 1:9; 16:15; Jn. 3:5; cf. Mt. 3:13; 28:19; Mk. 1:9; cf. Jn. 20:22f.; Lk. 22:19; 1 Cor.11:24f. cf. Jn. 12:24f.
274 275

cf. Mt. 26.26-29; Mk. 14:22-25; Lk. 22:14:20; 1 Cor. 11:23-25.

Bonaventure certainly knew that the parties to a marriage are the ministers of the sacrament of matrimony, while the priest is a witness conferring a sacramental blessing, for this is the teaching of the Church since its early days. We have here just one more example of Bonaventure's condensed style which takes much for granted in the mind of the reader. When Bonaventure writes in the following sentence that the "heretical" may be the ministers of valid sacraments, he refers to those who disagree on matters of dogma but who fully believe in the seven sacraments. In the case of sacraments requiring Orders, he refers to those heretics who possess valid Orders. Hence, we should not confuse them with members of many sects of our times who reject most of the sacraments and have no valid Orders. A further difficulty concerns the phrase "those within the Church or outside it." The logical sequence would seem to indicate that this refers, to the spiritual state, not of the recipients, but of the ministers. On the other hand, the explanation that follows seems to apply, not to the ministers, but to the recipients, for Bonaventure writes later: "If the administration of the sacraments were reserved to the virtuous . . . one man's sin might hamper the salvation of another." Furthermore, there seems to be no clue to indicate the meaning of the phrase itself. Does it mean "Both those in the state of grace and those in the state of mortal sin," or "both the faithful and the heretical"? In the development of this point, page 239, it seems again that "those within the Church and those without" refers, not to the recipients, but to the ministers. But if the effect of sacraments conferred by "those without" is suspended, as explained at the end of the first paragraph, the sin of one man will, in fact, "hamper the salvation of another." The explanation of all this may be hidden somewhere in the depths of the Commentaries; so far, it has not been found.
276

When Bonaventure writes here "the dignity of order," he could not possibly mean "the

relative dignity of sacramental Orders," since he is referring to the ministers of the sacraments, including laymen who are not ordained. Hence, "the dignity of order" should be understood to mean the relative rank of bishop, priest, and layman. It is possible also that "the dignity of order" is merely an erroneous transposition, for in the development, we have "the order of dignity" (see page 239).
277 278

Ps. 73:12.

It seems surprising that Bonaventure should here disregard the fact that the vital function of Orders is to give the powers of consecration and absolution to the ordained. The greatest sacrament being undoubtedly the Holy Eucharist, the present division into three categories seems artificially made up for the sake of symmetry. Likewise, since the first and fundamental sacrament, Baptism, is relegated to the last category, "as being least," there is no way in which the stated order could be accepted. See Bonaventure's own text, pp. 243,244.
279 280 281 282

Eccl 9:1. See footnote to page 200. cf. Gn. 2:8 cf.; ibid. 10ff; cf. Mt. I6:18f.

By "matter" Bonaventure means here: that which is effected within the framework of identical circumstances. This strict division indicates that the notion of the lay apostolate was entirely foreign to the medieval mind.
284 285 286 287 288 289 290 283

cf. Mt. 28:19. The word "Amen" is not found in present-day rituals. 1 Cot. 15:4. cf. Acts 2:38; 8:12, 16;10:48; 19:5. cf. Col 1:13. The word "Amen" is not found in present-day rituals. cf. Mk. 12:30.

291 292 293

1 . 1:5. 1 Cor. 11:29.

By restricting the offering to the body and blood of Christ, Bonaventure is not denying the fullness of the sacrifice of the incarnate Word, but merely employing the words of the institution of the Sacrament: "This is My body. . . . This is My blood. ..." Furthermore, in ancient writings, blood is taken to be the seat of life, and the sacrifice of blood means the complete sacrifice of life.
294 295

1 Cor. 11:29.

The Revised Baltimore Catechism No. 2, Question 446, indicates that Extreme Unction also procures the remission of mortal sins when the sinner had at least imperfect contrition before falling into unconsciousness.
296 297

The rules for the administration of Extreme Unction are at present slightly different.

As the author explains in paragraph 5 below, ''adults" should be understood as meaning those who have attained the age of reason, being "capable of venial sin."
298 299

1 Tm. 2:5; cf. Mt. 1:21; cf. Heb. 1:9.

The order should have been "conferred and received," as in the development which follows, since the reception is dependent upon the conferring, and not vice versa.
300 301

Jas. 5:15.

As so often happens with the "Breviloquium," this dense passage is a summary of a complete article of the "Commentaries on the Sentences," and implies the following line of thought: Extreme Unction would seem to be reserved to the bishop, since its matter is oil consecrated by the bishop. However: 1) unlike Confirmation, it consists, not in an imposition of hands, reserved to the bishop, but in an act of healing, which pertains to the priest; 2) since there is the risk of not obtaining immediately the service of a bishop, its administration is entrusted to all priests; 3) some authors claim that it may be administered by simple laymen: this, however, is not the case, for unconsecrated hands should not touch the holy oil. Bonaventure mentions no age limit. Since Confirmation does not absolutely require a rational act on the part of the recipient, it may be conferred upon infants. In the Oriental Rite, in fact, it is generally administered to infants immediately after Baptism.
302

Canon Law prescribes tonsure where it is not in contrast with local customs. The preparatory state of psalmody no longer exists. In this whole passage, the Latin has sometimes "discretio" and at other times "distinctio." Of the two possible interpretations of each word - the subjective capacity of right judgment, and the objective quality of being set apart - the latter alone is retained. Note also that this condition is the first to be developed below.
305 306 304

303

cf. Ps. 15:5.

This implies no formal pairing, each to each, of the seven sacramental graces dispensed by the ordained priest and the seven stages of Orders, but merely an indication of a general parallelism, both being seven in number and both rising to a culmination: the sacramental grace, to the Holy Eucharist, and the Orders, to the priesthood.
307 308

cf. 3 Kgs. 10:l8ff.

The function of cleansing is attributed to the Porter, the Acolyte, and the Exorcist; that of enlightenment, to the Reader, the Sub-deacon, and the Deacon. In his "Commentaries," Bonaventure himself admits that such a division is artificial since it corresponds to no intrinsic characteristic of the different minor Orders.
309 310

"Consummated as a single Order" is again reminiscent of the Ark of Noe. Cf. footnote p. 201.

The expression "words concerning the future" refers to betrothal, while "words concerning the present" refers to marriage. (Cf. IV, "Sent.," d. 28, a. 1, q. 1, conclusion.) The list of impediments is slightly different since the Council of Trent. Bonaventure's list is expressed in Latin verse.
312 313 314 311

Ecclus. 1:5*. See part I, chapter 1; part II, chapters 9f.; part III, chapter 1.

Several passages of Bonaventure's writings indicate his belief that, after the fall, there was something intrinsically evil in the union of the sexes and even more in the pleasure attached to it. He is in accord with many Scholastics who, in this matter, were content to base their opinion on such writers as Basil, Augustine, Gregory, and Anselm. These Fathers were mainly concerned with protecting the chastity of religious novices, and in their eagerness to adduce every possible argument in defense of their position, were not always immune to the Manichean notion of the wickedness of the flesh and goodness of the spirit. Alexander of Hales and Duns Scotus, on the

other hand, seem to be the chief early theologians to make a clear distinction between the sexual act, good in itself, and its abuses brought about by concupiscence. Even in some modern manuals of high reputation - for instance, Genicot and Salsmans, "Institutiones Theologiae Moralis," vol. 2, no. 497- the distinction is not made, the word "concupiscentia" standing for both lawful sexual desire and its sinful distortions. This lack of distinction necessarily leads to the contradictory statements which follow, that concupiscence must be both satisfied and healed. The teaching of those whose main purpose is to extinguish the flame of passion cannot be considered the best source for a balanced study of the ethics of sex. The Quaracchi editors are well aware of this. It is they who point to the dissenting voices indicated above. Their general conclusion is: "It seems that such (Bonaventure's) teachings are consistent with the doctrines of the Fathers and of the Scholastics concerning the use of Matrimony - doctrines which are somewhat more severe than those now currently taught." (IV "Sent.," d. 31, a. 2, q. 1, scholion.)
315 316

Mt. 19:16.

The expression "union of the sexes" means here that a consummated marriage gives rise to impediments as regards the spouse's blood relations, and corresponds to affinity. The last impediment, "breach of public honesty," merely means that for one who is betrothed it is against justice and decency to marry a first degree relative of his or her affianced as long as the betrothal agreement holds.
317 318

cf. Mt. 19:6.

The statement that God the Father shall judge, through our Lord Jesus Christ, differs in wording from the usual forms of the Creed.
319 320 321 322 323 324

cf. Mt. 16:27; Ap.22.-12. Ap. 13:8 etc. cf. Mt. 25:3lff. Cf. 2 Cor. 5:10. 1 Cor. 13:12.

According to the Baltimore Catechism, venial sin does not deprive the soul of sanctifying grace. The expression "distortion of the divine image" as referring to venial sin means a slight disordering of the soul in regard to its proper end.

In the development of this thought in the same paragraph, Bonaventure links distortion and purification, indicating his belief that venial sin brings about some kind of stain. This does not seem to accord with contemporary thought (cf. Catholic Encyclopedia, under the topic "Sin"). This does not contradict the statement made in paragraph 2 above, that "they may at times be unaware of it." The idea is that, by depriving the souls of the consciousness of the place in which they are, the intense pains of purgatory remove their clear awareness that they are not in hell, without, for that, producing in them any fear that they might be there. Spiritual goods in general are not diminished by being portioned out. Suffrages, however, have a specific value applicable principally to the chosen beneficiary. As to other souls, their remaining debts, lesser or greater, act as proportionate barriers to the full operation of the suffrages.
327 328 329 330 326 325

cf. Wis. 11:20. 1 Cor.7:31. cf. Gn. 7:1ff.; 2 Pt. 2:5; ibid. 3:6ff.

The Quaracchi editors seem to forget that Bonaventure attributes this sentence to Augustine, "The City of God," chapter 20. See IV "Sent.," d. 47, a. 2, q. 1, n. 4.
331 332

cf. Mt. 24:29; Lk. 21:26.

Bonaventure believed that the "bodies of the universe"- meaning the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies which he thought to be incorruptible - would be rewarded first by receiving added brilliance and glory (which theory is based on Isaias 30:26, The light of the moon will be like that of the sun and the light of the sun will be seven times greater); then, by receiving repose (see paragraph 7, below).
333 334 335

cf.Wis.5:17. cf. Mt. 24:29.

Now that the number of the elect is completed, the heavenly bodies, incorruptible by nature and thus eternal, may reach the perfection of immobility. The idea seems to be that their motion had been the measure of time, encompassing the centuries during which men had lived on earth; thus, as soon as time comes to an end, the motion of the heavenly bodies must cease.

336 337 338 339 340 341 342

Eph. 4:13. cf. Lk. 21:18. Cf. part I, chapter 6. Wis. 5:20. cf.Jn.5:29. Eph. 4:13.

The "fullness of Christ," (pleroma) is generally understood in a mystical scnse. Bonaventure seems to interpret this passage in a sense that would make it refer to the physical age of Christ at the time of His resurrection, and to His physical stature.
343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354

cf. Mk. 9:43ff. Ap. 14:11. 2 Tm.2:13. Mt. 5.26. Ap. 14:10; cf. Soph. 1:12. In ancient imagery, fire is considered both as a means of destruction and as a source of life. cf. 1 Cor. 3:12ff. Ap. 14:11. I Cor. 13:12. Rom. 1:20. See above, part IV, chapters 8ff. cf. Ps. 132:2*.

355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373

cf. 1 Cor.; 12:4ff. Cf. footnote p. 113; also text, p. 303. cf. Dn. 12:3. 1 COR. 2:9. Mt. 13:43. ibid. 22:30. 1 Cor. 15:44. Wis. 5:15. The Latin word "salus" means both salvation and health. Ps. 36:39. cf. ibid. 16:15*. cf. ibid. 35:9*. ibid. cf. Mt. 25:21. ibid 5:9; Ps. 81:6; Jn.10:34; cf. ibid. 12:26. Rom. 8:17. Cf. Mt. 22:37. 1 Cor. 2:9. cf. Jn. 16:24.

374 375 376

cf. Mt. 25:21. Rom. 1:25.

This citation from Anselm is used, with some variations, at the end of "The Perfection of Life" (See Vol. I of present series) and of the "Soliloquium." (See Vol. III, to come.)

i ii

Cf. Aristotle, "Analytica posteriora," I, 1ff.; and "Metaphysica," VI, text. 1ff. Aristotle, "Metaphysica," II, text. 3. Augustine, "Contra Adimantum," 17.2. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," 11:21; and "Epistolae," 55, 13:23. Cf. Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 24. Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi contra Manichaeos," I, 23:35. Cf. Augustine, "Epistolae," 138, 1:5. Cf. Augustine, "De doctrina Christiana," II, 41:62f.

iii iv v vi vii

viii ix x xi xii xiii xiv xv

Cf. ibid., 6:7.; also, Clement of Alexandria, "Stromata," VI, 15. Cf. Aristotle, "Ethica," II, 2. Cf. Aristotle, "Analytica posteriora," I, 7. Cf. ibid., 14. Cf. Augustine, "De doctrina Christiana," III, 10:14ff.; and II, 9:14ff. Augustine, "De utilitate credendi," 11:25. "Glossa ordinaria," on Psalm 61:12.

xvi xvii

Augustine, "De Trinitate," XV, 4:6. Cf. ibid., 5, 7:10.

xviii

Concerning the two emanations and three hypostases, cf. Bonaventure, I "Sententiarum," d. 2, q. 4; d. 9, q. 1; and d. 10, a. 1, q. 1; concerning relationships, notions, and properties, cf. ibid., d. 26, q. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 27, p. I, q. 2; and d. 28, q. 1ff. Cf. ibid., d. 27, p. II, q. 1ff; d. 31, p. II, a. 1, q. 1f.; and d. 37, p. II, dub. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 10, a. 1-2; and d. 18, q. 5, particularly ad 4. Cf. ibid., d. 22, q. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 5, a. 1, q. 1; d. 25, a. 1, q. 2, ad 3; and d. 33, q. 2, ad 5. Cf. ibid., d. 23, a. 1, q. 3. Cf. ibid., loc. cit. Cf. ibid., d. 26, q. 1. Cf. Aristotle, "De praedicamentis"; also, Boethius, "De Trinitate," 4ff. Boethius, op. cit., 6; cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 26, q. 2; d. 27, p. I, q. 3, ad 1-3; and d. 33,

xix xx xxi xxii

xxiii xxiv xxv xxvi xxvii

xxviii

q. 1.
xxix xxx xxxi xxxii xxxiii

Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 22, dub. 3; d. 31, p. I, q. 2; and d. 24, a. 3, q. 1f. Cf. ibid., d. 23, a. 1, q. 1-3; and d. 25, a. 1 and 2. Cf. ibid., d. 30, q. 1ff.; d. 22, q. 3; and d. 34, q. 3. Cf. ibid., d. 21, dub. 2; d. 14, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 15, p. II, q. 1ff. Cf. ibid., d. 16.

xxxiv xxxv xxxvi xxxvii

Cf. ibid., d. 15, p. I, q. 1-4. Cf. ibid., d. 37, p. I, a. 3, q. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 16, q. 3. Cf. Augustine, "De Trinitate," II, 5:8. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 31, p. II, a. 1, q. 3.

xxxviii xxxix xl xli xlii

Hilarion, "De Trinitate," II, 1.

Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 31, p. II, a. 2, q. 3. Cf. ibid., d. 34, q. 4; and d. 3, p. I, dub. 3-4.

Cf. ibid., IV, d. 14, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; also, Augustine, "De vera religione," 7:13; "De civitate Dei," XI, 28; and "De Trinitate," VI, 10:12. Augustine, "De doctrina Christiana," I, 5:5.

xliii xliv

Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 31; "Metaphysica," III, and V, text. 3; "Ethica," I, 1; and I, "Magnorum moralium," 2f.
xlv xlvi

Richard of St. Victor, "De Trinitate," VI, 15.

Anselm, "Cur Deus homo," I, 20; and "De fide Trinitatis," 5; cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 42 and d. 43.
xlvii xlviii xlix l li

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 18, a. 1, q. 2. Cf. ibid., I, d. 35, dub. 3; d. 36, dub. 3; and d. 38-42.

Cf. ibid., IV, d. 43, a. 2, q. 1-3.

Cf. ibid., I, d. 27, p. II, q. 3f.; d. 35, q. 1ff.; and d. 36, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 39, a. 2, q. 1-3.

lii liii liv lv lvi

Cf. ibid., d. 38, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 40, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 8, p. II, q. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 45-48. Augustine, "De Trinitate," III, 4:9. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 48. Cf. ibid., II, d. 37, a. 1, q. 1; and a. 2, q. 1. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," VII, 30.

lvii lviii lix lx lxi lxii lxiii lxiv

Cf. Anselm, "Proslogium," 9-11; also, Augustine, "Enchiridion," 99:25. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 41, a. 1, q. 2. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 1, p. I, a. 1-2. Cf. ibid., I, d. 3, p. I, dub. 3. Cf. Augustine, "Enarrationes in psalmos," Ps. 29, 2:10.

On "rationes seminales," cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 7. p. II, a. 2, q. 1; d. 15, a. 2, q. 3, and dub. 3; and d. 18, a. 1, q. 2f.
lxv lxvi

Cf. ibid., II, d. 12, a. 2, q. 2; and d. 1, p. I, dub. 2 and 4.

Cf. Augustine, "Epistolae," 55, 10:19ff.; "De Genesi ad litteram," IV, 9:16ff.; and ibid., 18:31ff.
lxvii lxviii lxix lxx

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 12, a. 1, q. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 2, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; d. 14, p. I, a. 1, q. 1; and p. II, a. 1, q. 3.

Cf. ibid., d. 14, p. I, a. 1, q. 2, fundam. 6; and d. 17, a. 2, q. 2. Cf. Aristotle, "De generatione et corruptione," I, text. 43-90; and ibid., 2, text. 1ff.

Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones de scientia Christi," q. 3, ad 8; and "Itinerarium mentis in Deum," 2:10; also, Boethius, "De arithmetica," I, 1f., and II, 40ff.
lxxii lxxiii lxxiv lxxv

lxxi

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 2, p. II, a. 1, q. 2; and d. 14, p. 2, a. 2, q. 2f. Cf. ibid., d. 14, p. II, dub. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 15, a. 1, q. 3; and d. 17, a. 2, q. 2f.

Cf. Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 24; also, Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 15, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 16, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 20, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 19, p. I q. 4. Cf. ibid., II, d. 12, a. 1, q. 3. Cf. Aristotle, "De anima," II, text. 68.

lxxvi lxxvii

lxxviii lxxix lxxx lxxxi lxxxii lxxxiii lxxxiv. lxxxv lxxxvi lxxxvii

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 14, p. I, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 12, a. 1, q. 2; and d. 13, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor; also, Peter Lombard, II "Sent.," d. III, c. 1. Cf. Augustine, "Confessiones," XII, 7:7. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 3, p. I, a. 1, q. 1; and a. 2, q. 1ff. Boethius. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 25, a. 1, q. 2.

Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," III, 15:44. Peter Lombard, gloss on 2 Cor. 6:15.

Cf. Bonaventure, "Itinerarium," 4:4; "De triplici via," prologue, 1, and chapter 3:14; and "Collationes in Hexaemeron," 22:25-27. Cf. Gregory, "Homiliae in Evangelia," II, homily 34:13; and II "Moralium," 3:3.

lxxxviii

Cf. Augustine, "Confessiones," XIII, 2:3, and 8:9: "De Genesi ad litteram," I, 4:9ff.; IV, 22:39, and 26:43.
xc xci

lxxxix

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 9. Cf. Gregory, "Homiliae in Evangelia," II, homily 34:14; also, Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 9, q.

4.
xcii xciii xciv xcv xcvi xcvii

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 17, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 19, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. Anselm, "Monologium," 13. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 3, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; and II, d. 16. Cf. ibid., II, d. 25, p. I and II.

Denis Pseudo-Areopagite, "De caelesti hierarchia," 4:3 and 8:2; and "De ecclesiastica hierarchia," 5:4.
xcviii xcix c

Bernard, "Sermones," 81 "In Cantica," 6.

Cf. Aristotle, "De caelo et mundo," I, text. 126.

Cf. Aristotle, "Elench.," 6; "De praedicamentis," chapter "De substantia"; "De anima," II, text. 24; also, Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 15, a. 1, q. 1, and d. 17, a. 1, q. 2. Cf. Aristotle, "De generatione et corruptione," I, text. 39ff.; and "De anima," II, text. 47ff.

ci cii

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 24, p. I, a. 2, q. 1f.; also John Damascene, "De fide orthodoxa," II, 22.
ciii civ

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 24, p. I, a. 2, q. 3.

"Hypognosticon," II, 5:7, found among the works of Augustine; cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 25, p. I, q. 3.
cv

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 17, a. 2, q. 1-3.

cvi cvii

Cf. ibid., d. 18, a. 1, q. 1, and d. 20. Cf. ibid., d. 17, a. 2, q. 3. Aristotle, "De anima," III, text. 38.

cviii cix

Cf. Alexander of Hales, "Summa," p. II, q. 81, m. 2, quoting Ovid, "Metamorphosae," I, 8486, and Augustine, "Quaestiones LXXXIII," q. 51, 9.
cx cxi cxii

Cf. Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," III, 18:51. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," VI, 25:36.

Cf. Augustine, op. cit., VIII, 4:8; "De civitate Dei," XIII, 20; and "Opus imperfectus contra Julianum," 30.
cxiii cxiv cxv cxvi cxvii

Cf. Bonaventure, "Itinerarium," in toto. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 17, dub. 2.

Cf. ibid., d. 24, p. II, dub. 3. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, p. VI, 6.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 17, dub. 5; also, Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," VIII, 6:12.
cxviii cxix cxx cxxi cxxii cxxiii

Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 3, p. I, q. 2; p. II, a. 1, q. 1, ad 3; and II, d. 16, a. 2, q. 3.

Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 49, p. I, q. 5. Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," II, 8:16-20; and IV, 29:46, and 31:48. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, 10:2. Cf. ibid., loc. cit. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 25, p. II, q. 3; and d. 34 and 35.

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Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XI, 9. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 3, p. I, dub. 3. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XIV, 11:2.

Cf. Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," II, 19:53; also, Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 35, dub. 6, and d. 34 and 36.
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Augustine, "De vera religione," 14:27.

Ibid., loc. cit. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 1, p. I, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 34, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," VII, 30. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 25, p. I, q. 6, ad 2. Cf. ibid., d. 25, ad 2, and dub. 3. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XIV, 11:2. Cf. Boethius, "De consolatione," IV, prose 6. Cf. part II, note 25. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 30, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 22, dub. 2.

Augustine, "Enchiridion," 93:23; cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 33, a. 3, q. 1f.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 30, a. 1, q. 1.

Actually, Fulgentius, "De fide ad Petrum," 3:36 and 27:70; found among the works of Augustine. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 33, a. 3, q. 1, arg. 1 and 2.
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Cf. Anselm, "De conceptu virginali et originali peccato," 23.

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Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 31, and d. 32, a. 3. Cf. ibid., d. 30, a. 2, q. 1.

Actually, Fulgentius, op. cit., 2:16. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 32, a. 1; and III, d. 3, p. I. Cf. Augustine, "De nuptiis et concupiscentia," I, 26:29. Anselm, op. cit., 18.

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Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 41, a. 2, q. 2; and Aristotle, "De praedicamentis," chapter "De oppositis"; and "Topica," II, 3.
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Ambrose, "De paradiso," 8:39. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 42, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 21, dub. 4; and d. 41, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. Augustine, "De Trinitate," 12:17f. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 42, dub. 3 and 4. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XIV, 7:2; and "De beata vita," 11. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 36. Augustine, "Enarrationes in psalmos," Ps. 57, 9:18. Actually, cf. Augustine, "Contra adversarium legis et prophetarum," 24:51.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 35. Anselm, "De concordantia gratiae et liberi arbitrii," 3:11. Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," 9:26.

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Ibid., 1:1. Cf. Gilbert Porret, "De sex principiis," chapter "De actione." Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 43.

Cf. Gregory, XXV "Moralium," 11:28; Isidore, "De summo bono," 17:3ff.; and Peter Lombard, II "Sent.," d. XXII, c. 4 in fine.
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Cf. Augustine, "De libero arbitrio," I, 12:26; and III, 3:7.

Cf. Aristotle, "Ethica," III, 1; John Damascene, "De fide orthodoxa," II, 24; and Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 22, a. 2, q. 3. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 46, a. 2, q. 3.

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Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 1, a. 2, q. 1 and 3; and d. 20, q. 1, 2 and 6, n. 5. Cf. Augustine, "Sermones," 176 "De verbis Apostoli," 5:5. Cf. Bernard, "Sermones," 3 "in Vigilia Nativitatis Domini," 8; and 2 "In Nativitate Domini,"

4.
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Cf. Irenaeus, "Contra haereses," IV, 20:4. Cf. Augustine, "De vera religione," 16:30ff., and 55:110. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 27, p. II, q. 4. Cf. ibid., III, d. 1, a. 2, q. 3. Aristotle, "Elench," I, 5. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 3-5. Augustine, "Sermones," 196, 1:1; cf. 51, 11:8.

Gregory, "Homiliae in Evangelia," II, homily 32:1; cf. Aristotle, "Ethica," 2:3.

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Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 2, dub. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 4, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 2, a. 3, q. 1.

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Cf. Anselm, "Cur Deus homo," II, 8. Also, sermon "Ad fratres in eremo," 28, found among the works of Augustine.
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Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 1, a. 2, q. 4, and dub. 1. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, quoted in Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 1, p. I, q. 5, fundam. 1. Bernard, "Sermones," 3 "In Vigilia Nativitatis Domini," 8. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 13. Ibid., d. 12, a. 2, q. 1.

Ibid., d. 9, a. 1, q. 1.

Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones . . . de scientia Christi," l:3ff.; 7, conclusio; and III "Sent.," d.

14.
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Cf. Aristotle, "Analytica Posteriora," II, 18; and "Metaphysica," I, 1. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 8, p. I, a. 3, q. 2, ad 5. Cf. ibid., d. 18; and d. 17, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 20, q. 3f.; and ibid., IV, d. 15, p. I, q. 1. Cf. ibid., III, d. 15-18. Cf. ibid., d. 19, a. 2, q. 2, quoting Augustine, "De civitate Dei," IX, 15.

Cf. Boethius, "De una Persona et duabus naturis," 8; also, Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 12, a. 2, q. 1, ad 4, and d. 16, a. 1, q. 3, ad 2.

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Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 22, dub. 2, quoting Bede.

Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De quatuor voluntatibus in Christo"; also, Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 48, a. 2, q. 2, and III, d. 17, a. 1, q. 3.
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Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 16. Cf. ibid., d. 21. Cf. ibid., a. 1, q. 1, fundam. 1, quoting Augustine and John Damascene. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 20, q. 5.

Anselm, "Cur Deus homo," c. 2 and 20; also, Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 15, p. I, q. 1, and p. II, a. 1, q. 1.
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Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 18, a. 2, q. 3. Cf. gloss on Ps. 109:1. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 18, a. 2, q. 3. Cf. Bede, gloss on Mark 15:33.

Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 26, q. 1f. Cf. ibid., q. 3 and 4; also, ibid., I, d. 14, a. 2, q. 2. Cf. ibid., I, d. 14, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., II, d. 29, a. 1, q. 1. Augustine, "Enchiridion," 32:9. Augustine, "Epistolae," 186, 3:10. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 37, p. I, a. 1, q. 1; and II, d. 37, a. 1, q. 1 and 2. Cf. ibid., II, d. 36, dub. 5; and d. 41, a. 1, q. 1.

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Avicenna, "Metaphysica," 6:3. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 3, p. 2, a. 1, q. 2, footnote 6.

Cf. ibid., d. 17, p. I. Cf. part III, note 28, above. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 26, q. 4. Cf. part I, note 45, above. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 4, p. I, dub. 2. Augustine, "Sermones," 169, 11:13.

Augustine, "Enarrationes in psalmos," Ps. 70, c. 2:5; Ps. 102, c. 7; letter 194, 5:19; "Sermones," 170, 10:10; "De gratia et libero arbitrio," 6:15. "Hypognosticon," III, 11; attributed to Augustine. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 27, a. 1, q. 1f. Cf. ibid., III, d. 22-33.

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Cf. ibid., d. 36. Cf. Aristotle, "De anima," II, text. 33. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 34, p. I, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi contra Manichaeos," 10:14. Cf. Anselin, "De conceptu virginali et originali peccato," 3, and "De veritate," 12. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 23, a. 2, q. 5. Cf. ibid., d. 34-35.

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Jerome, "Epistolae," 82 (alias 62):11. Cf. Origen, "Homiliae," 2 "In Genesi," 5; and Gregory, "Homiliae," 4 "In Ezechiel," 16f. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 34, p. I, a. 1, q. 1, and a. 2, q. 1.

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Cf. ibid., d. 36, q. 1, scholion.

Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 2, q. 4, scholion. Cf. "Compendium theologiae veritatis," V, 56. Found among the works of Bonaventure. Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," XII, 6:15ff.

Cf. Bonaventure, "Itinerarium," I, quoting "De spiritu et anima," 10-14, found among the works of Augustine.
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Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 23, a. 2, q. 3, and ad 6; "Quaestiones ... de scientia Christi," 7; "De triplici via," 3, and "Itinerarium," 7. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 23-25. Cf. ibid., d. 25, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 23, a. 1, q. 3; d. 24, a. 1, q. 2; and d. 25, a. 1, q. 1ff. Cf. ibid., d. 28-29.

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Cf. Augustine, "De doctrina Christiana," I, 23:22.

Cf. ibid., 32:35. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 27, a. 1, q. 1-3 and dub. 1. Cf. ibid., dub. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 37, a. 1, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 40, q. 1-3.

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Plato, "De republica," 1; Aristotle, "Ethica," V, 1, and "De virtutibus et vitiis," 2. Cf. Bonaventure, III "Sent.," d. 37, a. 2, q. 1ff. John Damascene, "De fide orthodoxa," III, 24. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 15, p. II, a. 2, q. 3.

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Cf. ibid., d. 45, a. 3, q. 1. Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 1, p. I. Isidore, VI "Etymologiarum," 19:40. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, IX, 2. Ibid., 4. Peter Lombard, IV "Sent.," d. 1, c. 5. Aristotle, "De anima," II, text. 49. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 1, p. II, and d. 2, a. 1, q. 1f.

Augustine, "Contra Faustum," IX, 13; cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, VIII, 12, and XI, 6.
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Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, "De sacramentis," I, XI, 6.

Ibid., loc. cit. Ibid., loc. cit. Ibid., 4. Cf. Bonaventure, IV, "Sent.," d. 1, p. I, q. 2, a. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 2, a. 1, q. 3.

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"Commentaria in Marcum," 9:28; found among the works of Jerome.

Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 3, p. II, a. 1, q. 1; d. 7, a. I, q. 1f.; d. 8, p. I, a. 2, q. 1-3, and dub. 4; d. 17, p. II, a. 1, q. 1-3; d. 23, a. 1, q. 2, etc.
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Cf. ibid., IV, d. 1, p. I, q. 2; and d. 4, p. I, a. 2, q. 2f. Cf. ibid., d. 6, p. II, a. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 7, a. 1, q. 3.

Cf. ibid., d. 25, a. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 13, a. 1, q. 1ff. Cf. ibid., d. 17, p. III, a. 1; and d. 19. Cf. ibid., d. 23, a. 2, q. 2. Cf. ibid., d. 5, a. 1-2. Cf. ibid., d. 27, a. 2, q. 1; and d. 28, q. 5. Augustine, "De baptismo contra Donatistas," IV, 1-2.

Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 6, p. I (particularly, q. 4 and 6); d. 7, a. 3, q. 3; and d. 24, p. II, a. 1, q. 1ff. Cf. Augustine, op. cit., I, 1-2.

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Innocent III, C. "Veniens," (3), X, (Book III, title 43); and C. "Tuae litterae," (1), X, (Book V, title 29).
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Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 3-5; and d. 6, p. II, a. 3.

Cf. Aristotle, "De caelo et mundo," I, text. 32; and "De anima," III, text. 45. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 3, p. I, a. 2, q. 2, scholion.

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Cf. ibid., d. 5, a. 1, q. 1, casus 3. Aristotle, "Topica," I, c. 6. Peter Lombard, II "Sent.," d. XXX, c. 9. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 7. Cf. Averroes, "Destructio destructionum," disp. met. I, dub. 22; Avicenna, "Metapliysica,"

I, 9.
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Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 88ff. Surius, "Historia seu vita sanctorum," ("Passio sancti Andreae").

Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 8-13.

Cf. ibid., d. 14-22. Jerome, "Epistolae," 130 (alias 8):9. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 14, p. I, dub. 4. Cf. ibid., d. 23. Aristotle, "Physica," II, text. 88. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 24, a. 2, q. 2, concl. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 24-25. Peter Lombard, IV "Sent.," d. XXIV, c. 13.

Cf. Isidore, VII "Etymologiarum," 12:3; "De officiis ecclesiasticis," II, 12; and "Epistola ad Ludifredum."
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Cf. Bonaventure, I "Sent.," d. 2, q. 4, scholion. Cf. ibid., IV, d. 24, p. 2, q. 4, concl.

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Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones . . . de perfectione evangelica," q. 4, a. 3. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 26-42. Justinian, "Institutes," I, 9, "De patria potestate." Cf. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," 7:12. Cf. ibid., loc. cit. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 26, a. 2, q. 2; and d. 31, a. 2, q. 1. Cf. ibid., d. 27, a. 2, q. 1f. Cf. ibid., d. 27, dub. 5.

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Cf. part III, note 45. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 41, praenotata. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 43, a. 2-3, and d. 48. Cf. Gregory, "Homiliae in Evangelia," II, homily 21:3. Cf. Augustine, "De Trinitate," XIV, 8:11. Cf. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," VII, 30. Cf. ibid., 20:14. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 20, p. I. Cf. ibid., d. 44, p. II, a. 3, q. 2. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XXI, 26:4.

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Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 21, p. II, a. 2, q. 1; and a. 1, q. 2.

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Cf. Augustine, "Enchiridion," 109:29. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 15, p. II. Cf. Gregory, IV "Dialogorum," 55. Augustine, "De cura pro mortuis agenda," 2:4. Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones. . . de perfectione evangelica," q. 4, a. 3, ad 9. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 47, a. 2; d. 48, a. 2. Cf. Bonaventure, "Commentaria in Isaiam," 30:26. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 43, a. 1; and d. 44, p. I. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XXII, 17.

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Augustine, "Enchiridion," 88:23.

Cf. Aristotle, "Physica," I, text. 81; and Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," XII, 35:68. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 43, p. I, q. 3, a. 1, concl. Augustine, "De civitate Dei," XXII, 14. Aristotle, "De anima," II, text. 26. Cf. Aristotle, "De generatione et corruptione," I, text. 35ff.; and II, text. 50. Cf. part VI, note 31, above. Cf. Aristotle, op. cit., II, text. 70; and "Physica," V, text. 36. Cf. part II, note 39. Cf. Bonaventure, II "Sent.," d. 18, a. 1, q. 2.

Cf. ibid., IV, d. 44, p. II.

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Cf. ibid., d. 50, p. II, a. 2. Cf. part II, note nr. 25. Bernard, "Sermones," 11 "In Cantica," 5. Augustine, "De Genesi ad litteram," 35:68. Cf. Bonaventure, IV "Sent.," d. 33, a. 2, q. 3; and d. 49, p. I and II. Cf. part II, note 22. Cf. Bonaventure, "Quaestiones . . . de scientia Christi," q. 4; and II "Sent.," d. 10, a. 2, q. 2.

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Cf. Augustine, "De quantitate animae," 36:80; "De musica," VI, 5:13; and "Enarrationes in psalmos," Ps. 145, no. 5.
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Boethius, "De consolatione," III, prosa 2.

Anselm, "Proslogium," 24-25.