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DE LA SALLE HEALTH SCIENCES INSTITUTE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE CM2 SY 2011-2012

OUTPUT 10: ACTUAL DATA ANALYSIS Exposure to Air-conditioning Systems in Classrooms Leads to Mild Severity of Allergic Rhinitis in Second Year High School Students of Selected Schools in Dasmarias City, Cavite: A CrossSectional Study.

SUBMITTED ON: February 15, 2012

SUBMITTED TO: DR. JOVILIA M. ABONG

SUBMITTED BY: GROUP 1A ARCAIRA, JOSHUA A. ABAD, MARY RAINA ANGELI ANCHETA, JONATHAN BASUL, CHARINE CARAVEO, JULIEN NICOLE CRUZ, SPICA ESPINOZA, FAITH KRISTINE GARCIA, RAY WILSON KALALO, GERARD MICHAEL

OUTPUT 10: ACUTAL DATA ANALYSIS GROUP 1A, DR. JOVILIA M. ABONG

RESEARCH QUESTION: Among second year high school students with allergic rhinitis of selected schools in Dasmarias, Cavite, will exposure to air-conditioned school rooms affect the severity of their allergic rhinitis? RESEARCH OBJECTIVES General Objective: To determine if the exposure to the air-conditioning system affects the severity of allergic rhinitis in second year high school students of selected schools in Dasmarias, Cavite. Specific Objectives: 1. To identify the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among second year high school students of selected schools in of Dasmarias, Cavite based on their classroom conditions (air-conditioned vs. non-air-conditioned). 2. To determine the severity of allergic rhinitis according to ARIA classifications. 3. To identify the risk factors of allergic rhinitis present in the classroom or school, such as the presence of molds, chalk dust, house dust, and cockroaches. 4. Compare the severity of allergic rhinitis in students who are exposed to air-conditioned classrooms and those who are not exposed to air-conditioned classrooms. RESULTS 1. DESCRIPTION OF STUDY POPULATION The study population was high school students screened for allergic rhinitis using an ISAAC questionnaire from two different classroom conditions: with and without air-conditioning systems in their classrooms. Severity of their allergic rhinitis (mild and moderate to severe) were classified according to ARIA classifications. 2. DESCRIPTION OF DATA USING APPROPRIATE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICAL TABLES AND GRAPHS A. Measures of Disease Frequency As mentioned, the data gathered were the number of second year high school students with airconditioned and non-air-conditioned classrooms with Allergic Rhinitis as well as the severity of their condition (mild or moderate-severe). The measure of disease frequency used is point prevalence because by definition, it indicates the proportion of individuals in a population who have a particular disease at a specified point in time wherein our population were second year high school students with allergic rhinitis and the disease measured was the severity of their condition. A frequency distribution table was used in presenting and summarizing the data to show the frequency or the percentage of the students with mild and moderate to severe allergic rhinitis among those with air-conditioned rooms and those without airconditioned rooms. These frequencies were also used to compute for the point prevalence. The bar graph is used to graphically present the frequency distribution for discrete variables, which in this study is the number of the students with mild or moderate to severe allergic rhinitis in classrooms with air-conditioning systems and in those without. This was made to easily show the differences between groups. 2

B. Measures of Central Tendencv The measure of Central Tendency used in the study is the Mode because it is primarily concerned with the frequency of mild allergic rhinitis in students with and without exposure to the aforementioned classroom conditions. The mean and median will not be used because they are not applicable to the study. C. Measures of Association Since this is a cross-sectional study, our measures of association was based on the prevalence ratio, in which the relationship of those exposed to an air-conditioning system in the classroom and the mild severity of the patients Allergic Rhinitis is evaluated using the following equation: ;

Pr evalenceRa = tio

a /(a + b) c /(c + d )

Wherein: A = number of students with mild allergic rhinitis in air-conditioned classrooms B = number of students with moderate-severe allergic rhinitis in air-conditioned classrooms C = number of students with mild allergic rhinitis in non-air-conditioned classrooms D = number of students with moderate-severe allergic rhinitis in non-air-conditioned classrooms Prevalence of Mild Severity AR in air-conditioned classrooms Exposure to Airconditioned classrooms With Mild Allergic Rhinitis Mild A C A+C Moderate Severe B D B+D A+B C+D A+B+C+D TOTAL

(+) (-) Total Prevalence Ratio =

Prevalence of Mild Severity AR in non air-conditioned classrooms

After the prevalence ratio has been computed, the interpretation will be guided by the following: PR Value If PR =1 Significance and Interpretation There is no association between exposure to airconditioned classrooms and the prevalence of mild severity allergic rhinitis. There is an increased probability of presence of mild severity allergic rhinitis if one is exposed to air-conditioned classrooms. Suggests exposure to airconditioned classrooms may be associated with increased prevalence of mild severity allergic rhinitis The probability of presence of mild severity allergic rhinitis among those exposed to airconditioned classrooms is x times more compared to those without the exposure. The probability of presence of mild severity allergic rhinitis among those exposed to airconditioned classrooms is x times less compared to those without the exposure.

If PR > 1

If PR < 1

There is a decreased probability of presence of mild severity allergic rhinitis if one is exposed to air-conditioned classrooms.

Suggests exposure to airconditioned classrooms may be associated with decreased prevalence of mild severity allergic rhinitis.

3. DATA PRESENTED IN STATISTICAL TABLES AND GRAPHS MEASURES OF DISEASE FREQUENCY Table 1. Frequency Distribution Table comparing the number of students in air-conditioned classrooms based on the severity of their allergic Rhinitis. Severity Mild Moderate -Severe n 8 43 % 15.69 84.31 4

Total

51

100

In Table 1, it is readily observed that there are more students with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis compare to those with mild.

Table 2. Frequency Distribution Table comparing the number of students in non-air-conditioned classrooms based on the severity of their allergic Rhinitis. Severity n % Mild 2 40 Mod-Sev 3 60 Total 5 100 In Table 2, it can be seen that there are more students with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis in non-air-conditioned classrooms compared to those with mild. Figure 1. Bar Graph comparing the number of students with mild and moderate to severe allergic rhinitis based on their exposure to air-conditioning systems in their classrooms.

In general, there are more students with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis in both classroom settings. MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY The Mode or the most frequently occurring data obtained was the number of students with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis with a total of 46 students from both exposures. 4. MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION

Exposure to Airconditioned classrooms

With Mild Allergic Rhinitis Mild 8 2 10 Moderate Severe 43 3 46

TOTAL

(+) (-) Total

51 5 56

Table 3. Summary of the number of students based on their exposure to air-conditioned classrooms and presence of mild allergic rhinitis.

The Prevalence ratio is then computed from the values in Table 3, and is shown below:

The prevalence ratio obtained was 0.39, meaning there is a decreased probability of presence of mild severity allergic rhinitis if one is exposed to air-conditioned classrooms. This also suggests that exposure to air-conditioned classrooms may be associated with decreased prevalence of mild severity allergic rhinitis. From this therefore, the probability of presence of mild severity allergic rhinitis among those exposed to air-conditioned classrooms is 39 times less compared to those without the exposure.