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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation

Stephen Milton 11 June 2007, Lund

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Source Properties of Interest


Brightness Pulse Length Flux Coherence Energy/Pulse Photon Energy Tunability Repetition Rate Costs Size Complexity

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Interesting Sources and Concepts


SASE Seeding HGHG Wavelength Shifting Plasma Accelerators Plasma Undulators Specialized Machines PEP III CW Self-Seeding Plasma Laser Seeds X-Band Accelerators SC Accelerators Multi Harmonic Undulators Dithered Undulator Period Phasing Nonlinear Harmonics SC Guns THz High Power Sources ERL Thomson Scattering Other Short Pulse Coherent Sources Storage Ring HGHG Linac Thomson Source Ring Thomson Source Micro Bunching Instability Sources Attosecond ERL etc. etc

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Ideas a Plenty!!
There are no shortage of ideas
Implementation is where the hard work really is

I cannot cover them all Will limit myself to only a few


Focus more on the somewhat less conventional as well as reducing the size and cost and consider a push to hard x-ray sources as well as to the push to short coherent sources

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Roadmap to Sources
Incoherent Sources
Synchrotron light from individual electrons

Enhancements to Coherent Sources


High-Gain Harmonic Generation
o And Cascades

Compact Sources
Compact x-ray ring Compact x-ray linac Compact Accelerators

Self Seeding

Seed Sources
Conventional Lasers HHG Seeded HHG

Coherent Sources
Light from an assemble of electrons shorter than the wavelength of emission

More Complicated Ideas


Wavelength Shifting Attosecond x-rays

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Historical Trend in the Hard X-rays


Adapted from H. Winick

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Synchrotron Light Sources Around the World

9 14 9

38 Major Operational Synchrotron Light Source Facilities Around the World (The Milton Survey, i.e. not complete)
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Undulator Magnets: Resonant Condition


Resonance occurs when the light wavefront slips ahead of the electron by one optical period in the time that it took the electron to traverse the distance of one undulator period

rad

o K2 = 2 1+ 2 2

Where is the normalized electron beam total energy and

K = 0.934 rad [cm] Bmax [T]


Is the normalized undulator field strength parameter

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

The Advanced Photon Source

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

The Laser Undulator


Table top laser power
1018 - 1019 W/cm2

Kim et al. have shown (NIM A 341 351 (1994))


The effect of the laser on the electron can be treated very similarly to an undulator.

Assume
800 nm wavelength 10 micron focal spot 1018 W/cm2 Then K ~ 0.7

At 10 MeV
Headon the resonant wavelength is ~ 1.5
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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Laser Undulator Exp. Setup

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Thomson Source Comparison

G. Kraftt, 1997 PAC.

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Compact Ring X-ray Source

R.J. Loewen, Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University (2003) Derived from Z. Huang, Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University (1999) Now being commissioned as a commercial venture, Lyncean Technlogies
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Compact Ring X-ray Source

R.J. Loewen, Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University (2003)

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Perspective

R.J. Loewen, Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University (2003)


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MIT Inverse Compton Source Concept


Slide made available by D. Moncton, MIT 7m Injector Power Supply Linac Power Supply Yb:YAG Power Supply
Yb:YAG Pre ampl. Yb:YAG Oscillator
SESA M pum p diod e

Multi-passYb:YAG Amplifier

Diodes

Focusing quadupoles

SRF gun

Solenoid Photoinjector laser

SRF linac

Collimating chicane

1.5 m

LHe Dewar
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LHe Refrigerator
Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

3m

Performance
(S2E) (Ideal) = 0.68 0.30 Photon energy [keV] Total x-ray flux per pulse (5% bw rms) Maximum spectral density per pulse [photons/0.1% bw] Repetition rate [MHz] Time average total x-ray flux @ 10 MHz Average x-ray flux @ 10 MHz (0.1% BW) On-axis spectral width FWHM [keV] Spectral width FWHM [keV] Avg on-axis brilliance [photons / (mm2 mrad2 sec 0.1%)] Peak on-axis brilliance [photons / (mm2 mrad2 sec 0.1%)] RMS Pulse length [ps] RMS size of source [m] RMS opening angle [mrad]
Slide made available by D. Moncton, MIT

12 5.8e6 8.4e3 10 5.8e13 8.4e10 0.4 3.0 (25%) 2e13 4e17 2.1 3.2 3.2 Large Time-Average-Flux Configuration
Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

1.6e7 2.3e4

1.6e14 1e19 0.5 2.2

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SC Linac-Based in Perspective
Now things are starting to look promising for small devices that are designed to produce highquality x-rays. Both these devices are relatively small (compared to sources such as the APS) and on the order of $10M in cost perhaps even less if built in bulk.

SC Linac-based Inverse Compton Source

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Laser Plasma Accelerator


Table top laser systems are now capable of using a laser plasma interaction to generated multi MeV high quality electron bunches within the laboratory. The experiment shown to the right is intriguing as the plasma is used to guide the electron beam. This allows for staged acceleration. Recent results at various laboratories have demonstrated many hundreds of MeV electrons via table top laser systems. W. Leemans et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364 585 (2006). Also see Nature 431 (2004)

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Now Imagine
coupling this table top high-brightness, highenergy electron source to a high powered laser undulator. Have you really gained anything over the previous two sources? In this case maybe not, but I will come back to this later.
Yb:YAG Pre ampl. Yb:YAG Oscillator
SESA M pum p diod e

Multi-passYb:YAG Amplifier

Diodes

1.5 m

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

3m

Multiple Electrons
If the electrons are independently radiating light then the phase of the their electric fields are random with repect ot one another and the electric field scale as the square root of the number of electrons If the electrons are in lock synch are radiate coherently then the electric field grows linear with the number of electrons The power goes as the square of the field and if N is very large one can get an enormous gain in power emitted.

Incoherent Emission

Coherent Emission

This is the essence of the Freeelectron laser.

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Coherent Radiation

Where and

is the total incoherent intensity emitted by the bunch of N particles

is the form factor for the normalized bunch distribution S (r).

Nodvick and Saxon, Phys. Rev. 96 (1954) 180.


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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Interaction Between the Electron and EM Field


If the electron oscillates in phase with a co-propagating EM field of the correct frequency it can pick up or lose a net amount of momentum. Whether it picks up momentum or loses some is depended on the phase relationship. In an assemble of electrons this process can create microbunching within the macroscopic electron bunch.

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

FEL Types: Oscillator, Seeded FEL, SASE

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE)


An intense, highly collimated electron beam travels through an undulator magnet. The alternating north and south Poles of the magnet force the electron beam to travel on an approximately sinusoidal trajectory, emitting synchrotron radiation as it goes.

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE)

The electron beam and its synchrotron radiation are so intense that the electron motion is modified by the electromagnetic fields of its own emitted synchrotron light. Under the influence of both the undulator and its own synchrotron radiation, the electron beam begins to form micro-bunches, separated by a distance equal to the wavelength of the emitted radiation.

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE)

These micro-bunches begin to radiate as if they were single particles with immense charge. The process reaches saturation when the micro-bunching has gone as far as it can go.

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) Exponential Growth


Saturation

Log Radiation Intensity

Microbunching Begins

Start up is from noise signal

Distance
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The Start of Microbunching


Coherent sum of radiation from N electrons

300 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300

6 s

10

12

The SASE light consists of several coherent regions, also known as spikes, randomly distributed over the pulse length of the electron beam.
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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

SASE FELs
Since they are regularly spaced, the micro-bunches produce radiation with enhanced temporal coherence. This results in a smoothing out of the instantaneous synchrotron radiation power (shown in the three plots ) to the right) as the SASE process develops.
Electron Bunch Electron Bunch Micro-Bunching Micro-Bunching Saturation Saturation

Exponential Gain Exponential Gain Regime Regime

Undulator Regime Undulator Regime

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

The LCLS: An X-ray Laser (1.5 )

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

The LCLS
Linac Coherent Light Source The SLAC Site: Home of the LCLS

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Capabilities
Spectral coverage: 0.15-1.5 nm To 0.5 nm in 3rd harmonic Peak Brightness: 1033 Photons/pulse: 1012 Average Brightness: 3 x 1022 Pulse duration: <230 fs Pulse repetition rate: 120 Hz Upgrade more bunches/pulse

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Now Imagine
coupling this table top high-brightness, highenergy electron source to a high powered laser undulator. If the beam quality were sufficient enough and the interaction length long enough then the system could act as a SASE FEL and generate high-power laser-like pulses in the x-rays from a table top device. Now were talkin.
Yb:YAG Pre ampl. Yb:YAG Oscillator
SESA M pum p diod e

Multi-passYb:YAG Amplifier

Diodes

1.5 m

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

3m

Benefits of a Seeded FEL


A seed laser controls the distribution of electrons within a bunch: Very high peak flux and brightness (comparable to SASE FELs) Temporal coherence of the FEL output pulse Control of the time duration and bandwidth of the coherent FEL pulse Close to transform-limit pulse provides excellent resolving power without monochromators Complete synchronization of the FEL pulse to the seed laser Tunability of the FEL output wavelength, via the seed laser wavelength or a harmonic thereof Reduction in undulator length needed to achieve saturation. Giving: Controlled pulses of 10-100 fs duration for ultrafast experiments in atomic and molecular dynamics Temporally coherent pulses of 500-1000 fs duration for experiments in ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy and imaging. Future possible attosecond capability with pulses of ~100 as duration for ultrafast experiments in electronic dynamics

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

High Gain Harmonic Generation - HGHG


seed laser 5 compressor modulator radiator HGHG

planar
Bunching at harmonic

APPLE II
e-beam

More compact and fully temporally coherent source, control of pulse length and control of spectral parameters.
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Li-Hua Yu DUV-FEL

Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

FEL Seeding a Long Bunch


SASE

Seeded FEL Short bunch

Seeded FEL Long bunch


Courtesy of J. Corlett, LBNL

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Cascaded HGHG
2-Stage cascade HGHG

Here one upconverts the frequency by a very large amount. In this example by 25. But at a pricecomplexity. If only the seed wavelength were shorter
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Seeded HHG Source


A problem with using a HHG source as a seed is that the power is not that high. The problems with using a plasma laser are the timing stability, pulse duration, and longitudinal coherence. Combined however they could make an ideal seed for future FELs.

Wang et al., Phys. Rev Lett. 97 123901 (2006)


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Wavelength Shifting
Basic Idea
Modulate in energy at a fixed wavelength the electron bunch Compress the bunch and create a density modulation at a different wavelength than the seed Remove any unwanted energy chirp Pass the beam through an undulator tuned to the new wavelength

Advantages
Allows one to seed with a well controlled fixed source Allows one to set up the major part of the system and then leave untouched
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Wavelength Shifting: Graphically


4 2 0 -2 -4 -20 -10 0 10 20

Modulated beam

Imprint an energy modulation onto the beam. This is identical to the first step in HGHG, i.e. combine an electron bunch with a laser seed pulse within the field of an undulator resonant at the seed wavelength.

50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 -10 0 10 20

Histogram of the above At this point there is no density modulation on the beam and so the beam is not yet suitable for coherent emission

Modulator Undulator

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Wavelength Shifting: Graphically


15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -10 0 10 20

Chirped beam in red

Now pass the beam through an accelerator and add a correlated energy spread to the imprinted beam.

50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 -10 0 10 20

Histogram of the above At this point there is still no density modulation on the beam and so the beam is still not yet suitable for coherent emission.

Accelerator one

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Wavelength Shifting: Graphically


15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -10 0 10 20

Compressed beam in red

The beam now is passed through a chicane and the high energy tail of the beam catches up with the low energy head of the beam.

50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 -10 0

Histogram of the above

Done correctly there is now a significant density modulation on the bunch, but now it is at a different wavelength than the seed. This wavelength is dependent on the seed wavelength and the depth of the initial modulation. The beam is now ripe for coherent emission.
20

10

Dispersive Section

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Wavelength Shifting: Graphically


15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -10 0 10 20

Final WSed beam in red

A second accelerator running off crest is used to remove the energy chirp. Note some of this energy chirp could be left on the beam for further use in compressing the optical pulse duration.

50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 -10 0

Histogram of the above The beam is now ideally bunched at the new desired wavelength. All that was needed in addition to that needed for HGHG are two additional accelerating structures.
10 20

Accelerator Two

Final Radiator Undulator

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Wavelength Shifting Experiment BNL


Tank 4 phase offsets -10 0 -30 +10

HGHG intensity, a.u.

-45

+25

Wavelength, nm
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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Attosecond X-rays

A.A. Zholents, W.M. Fawley, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 224801 (2004); LBNL-54084Ext, (2003).
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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

A Fount of Ideas
Example
E.L. Saldin, E.A. Schneidmiller and M.V. Yurkov, A new technique to generate 100 GW-level attosecond X-ray pulses from the X-ray SASE FELs, Optics Communications, Volume 239, Issues 1-3, 1 September 2004, Pages 161-172

Abstract
We propose a scheme for generation of single 100 GW 300-as pulse in the X-ray free electron laser with the use of a few cycles optical pulse from Ti:sapphire laser system. Femtosecond optical pulse interacts with the electron beam in the two-period undulator resonant to 800 nm wavelength and produces energy modulation within a slice of the electron bunch. Following the energy modulator the electron beam enters the first part of the baseline gap-adjustable X-ray undulator and produces SASE radiation with 100 MW-level power. Due to energy modulation the frequency is correlated to the longitudinal position within the few-cycle-driven slice of the SASE radiation pulse. The largest frequency offset corresponds to a single-spike pulse in the time domain which is confined to one half-oscillation period near the central peak electron energy. After the first undulator the electron beam is guided through a magnetic delay which we use to position the X-ray spike with the largest frequency offset at the fresh part of the electron bunch. After the chicane the electron beam and the radiation produced in the first undulator enter the second undulator which is resonant with the offset frequency. In the second undulator the seed radiation at reference frequency plays no role, and only a single (300 as duration) spike grows rapidly. The final part of the undulator is a tapered section allowing to achieve maximum output power 100150 GW in 0.15 nm wavelength range. Attosecond X-ray pulse is naturally synchronized with its fs optical pulse which reveals unique perspective for pumpprobe experiments with sub-femtosecond resolution
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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Compact, Coherent, as, X-ray source Combine


Laser Plasma Accelerator Seeded HHG from Plasma Source Cascaded HGHG Concept but with laser undulators Wavelength Shifting for Tunability And energy modulator trickery for as pulses

Yeah right;-)

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton

Summary
The interaction of lasers with electron beams is essential for the future of new synchrotron radiations sources based on electron beams Its all about control!!

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Accelerators for Novel Sources of Radiation - 11 June 2007 - Milton