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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated

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ASM Files and Volumes The Automatic Storage Management (ASM) feature of Oracle database has been extended in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 to include support for a general purpose cluster le system, the ASM Cluster File System (ACFS). To understand the operation of this feature, some terminology needs to be dened and explained. At the operating system (OS) level, the ASM instance provides the disk group, which is a logical container for physical disk space. The disk group can hold ASM database les and ASM dynamic volume les. The ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM) presents the volume device le to the operating system as a block device. The mkfs utility can be used to create an ASM le system in the volume device le. Four OS kernel modules loaded in the OS provide the data service. On Linux, they are: , the ASM module; oracleadvm, the ASM dynamic volume manager module; oracleasm oracleoks , the kernel services module; and oracleacfs, the ASM le system module. These modules provide the ASM Cluster File System, ACFS snapshots, the ADVM, and cluster services. The ASM volumes are presented to the OS as a device le at /dev/asm/<volume name><number> . The volume device le appears as another ASM le to the ASM Instance and asmcmd utility. The ASM layers are transparent to the OS le system commands. Only the les and directories created in ACFS and the ACFS snapshots are visible to the OS le system commands. Other le system types such as ext3 and NTFS may be created in an ADMV volume using the mkfs command on Linux and advmutil commands on Windows. Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 10 - 3

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ACFS and ADVM Architecture Overview In 10g, Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is both a le system and volume manager built specically for Oracle database les. Oracle 11g Release 2 includes the ASM dynamic volume manager (ADVM) and Oracle ASM cluster le system (ACFS). ADVM provides volume management services and a standard disk device driver interface to clients. Clients, such as le systems and other disk-based applications, issue I/O requests to ADVM volume devices as they would to other storage devices on a vendor operating system. ADVM extends ASM by providing a disk driver interface to storage backed by an ASM le. The administrator can use the ADVM to create volumes that contain le systems. These le systems can be used to support les beyond Oracle database les such as executables, report les, trace les, alert logs, and other application data les. With the addition of ADVM and ACFS, ASM becomes a complete storage solution of user data for both database and non-database le needs. ACFS is intended as a general le system accessible by the standard OS utilities. ACFS can be used in either a single server or a cluster environment. Note: Oracle ACFS le systems cannot be used for an Oracle base directory or an Oracle grid infrastructure home that contains the software for Oracle Clusterware, ASM, Oracle ACFS, and Oracle ADVM components. Oracle ACFS le systems cannot be used for an OS root directory or boot directory.

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ACFS and ADVM Architecture Overview (continued) ASM volumes serve as containers for storage presented as a block device accessed through ADVM. File systems or user processes can do I/O on this ASM volume device just as they would on any other device. To accomplish this, ADVM is congured into the operating system. A volume device is constructed from an ASM le. ASM le extents map the ASM volume le to logical blocks located on specic physical devices. Additional processes are started as part of the ASM instance and serve as intermediaries between the ASM instance and ADVM. To use the ADVM driver, an ASM instance must exist with at least one disk group mounted that can be used to contain an ASM volume le. An ASM volume is an ASM le. It inherits the properties of the ASM disk group and behaves similar to any other ASM le. ASM volume storage is automatically rebalanced whenever a storage conguration change occurs. This reconguration can be performed while an ASM volume is in use. Because ASM uses direct I/O, ASM volumes offer performance equivalent to raw disks. An OS device le is created automatically when an ASM volume is created using either SQL*Plus, ASMCA, or the Enterprise Manager graphical interfaces. On Linux, this device le is directory. You can congure both disk group mount and volume enable created in the /dev/asm operations to occur automatically upon ASM instance startup. The volume device le names are unique clusterwide and persistent across all nodes in the cluster that have an ASM instance running with the disk group mounted and volumes enabled. Upon Linux system startup, the Oracle clusterware startup will load the drivers (oraclesacfs, , and oracleadvm). The ASM instance is started by the ASM cluster registry service oracleoks (CRS) agent, which will also mount the appropriate ASM disk groups and enable volumes. The CRS agent will then mount any ACFS le systems in the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR). Similar actions are performed on Windows. ACFS le systems are accessed through OS le system tools and APIs on UNIX and Linux systems, and accessed through Windows le system tools and APIs on Windows systems. Remote access is supported using standard NAS le access protocols such as network le systems (NFS) and common internet le system (CIFS) in support of heterogeneous le data sharing. The ACFS File System and ADVM components are installed onto each host along with the other ASM components into the Grid Infrastructure home location. The ACFS components consist of drivers that are dynamically loadable OS modules, several command-line tools, and a set of processes that execute within the ASM instance. However, loading the ACFS drivers requires root privileges on UNIX/Linux and Administrator privileges on Windows. So, the conguration and loading of the ACFS drivers is performed by the root scripts associated with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. ACFS le systems are generally mounted on all cluster synchronization service (CSS) cluster members. In the event of a member failure, another cluster member will recover any outstanding metadata transactions on behalf of the failed member. In addition, any lock tokens held by the failed cluster members will be recovered and the failed member will be I/O fenced from the active CSS cluster. Following recovery, access by other active cluster members and any remote client systems may resume.
asmcmd ,

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ADVM Processes A small number of processes will be added to the ASM instance when a volume is enabled. These processes are not started when there are no volumes congured. The Volume Driver Background (VDBG) process forwards ASM requests to lock or unlock an extent for rebalancing, resize the volume, ofine the disk, add or drop a disk, and force and dismount a disk group to the dynamic volume manager driver. The VDBG is a fatal background process so the unplanned death of this process brings down the ASM instance. Volume Background (VBGn) processes wait for requests from the dynamic volume manager driver that need to be coordinated with the ASM instance. An example of such a request would be opening or closing an ASM volume le when the dynamic volume manager driver receives an open for a volume (possibly due to a le system mount request) or close for an open volume (possibly due to a le system unmount request). The unplanned death of any of these processes does not have an effect on the ASM instance. Volume Membership Background (VMB) coordinates cluster membership with the ASM instance.

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ADVM Restrictions Although ADVM provides a standard disk device interface for dynamic volumes, the following restrictions should be noted: Device partitions are not supported on Oracle ADVM dynamic volumes. Dynamic volumes supersede traditional device partitioning. Each volume is individually named and may be congured for a single le system. Oracle ADVM volumes may be created on demand from ASM disk group storage and dynamically resized as required. These attributes make Oracle ADVM volumes far more exible than physical devices and associated partitioning schemes. On Linux platforms, Oracle ADVM volume devices are created as block devices regardless of the conguration of the storage underpinning the ASM disk group. Do not use the raw command to map Oracle ADVM volume block devices into raw volume devices. You should not create multipath devices over Oracle ADVM volume devices. Multipathing should be applied over the disk devices that are initially consumed by ASM to construct the disk group underpinning an ADVM volume. You should not use ASMLIB over an ADVM volume device. You cannot layer ASM over ASM in a recursive fashion as this serves no useful purpose and is not supported.

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ASM Cluster File System The ASM cluster le system (ACFS) extends Automatic Storage Management (ASM) by providing a robust, modern, general-purpose, extent-based, and journaling le system. ACFS provides support for les such as application binaries, report les, trace les, alert logs, and other application data les. With the addition of the ACFS, ASM becomes a complete storage management solution for both Oracle database and non-database les. ACFS scales from small les to very large les (Exabyte) and supports a large numbers of nodes in a cluster. ACFS is an extent-based le system to provide high performance and utilizes a log-based metadata transaction engine for le system integrity and fast recovery. The ACFS on-disk structure supports endian neutral metadata. ACFS le systems can be exported to remote clients through industry standard protocols such as NFS and CIFS. ACFS eliminates the need for third-party cluster le system solutions and simplies management for all le types in single node and grid computing environments. ACFS supports dynamic le system expansion and contraction without any downtime. ACFS makes use of the ASM mirroring and striping features in addition to hardware RAID functionality. Note: ACFS on a single server does not use cluster features, and thus is not a cluster le system. ACFS can be managed with tools familiar to the DBA: Enterpriser Manager, SQL*Plus, and ASMCMD. ACFS is integrated with the native OS le management tools, so the le system is transparent to the users. ASMCMD has UNIX-like syntax and command names that should be familiar to the system administrator and storage administrator. A new graphical tool (asmca) has been introduced to manage ASM and ACFS.
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ADVM Space Allocation ADVM allocates space from an ASM disk group for a volume. The volume allocation unit is the smallest allocation when a volume is created and smallest amount of space that can be added to a volume. The VAU is based on the volume extent and the value of the stripe column. The volume extent is assigned based on the disk group allocation unit (AU). The AU can vary from 1 MB to 64 MB in powers of 2 (2,4,8,,64). The volume extent is assigned based on the AU. The default AU of 1 MB has a volume extent size of 64 MB. The value of the stripe column is the number of volume extents that are allocated in each VAU. Thus VAU is the stripe column multiplied by the volume extent. The volume extents are allocated roundrobin (each on the next disk in the disk group). If the stripe column is set to 1, volume striping is turned off. Example: If the stripe column is 4 and the AU is 1 MB, the volume extent is 64 MB and the VAU will be 256 MB. When the volume is created, multiples of the VAU will be allocated. If you asked for a volume of 300 MB in size, you would get a volume of 512 MB, assuming the space is available in the disk group. If you resized the volume, the space would be added or dropped in 256 MB chunks.

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Striping Inside the Volume Stripe column and stripe width are properties that are set when you create the volume. The stripe column is used both for allocating the initial space for the volume but also for the way the space inside the volume is used. The volume will be formatted for a le system. As the le system allocates space for les, the les will be stored in pieces the size of stripe width. If defaults are used, they are stored in 128 KB pieces. Each piece goes into the next volume extent. Since the volume extents are placed on disks in the disk group in the same manner, as the pieces are placed in the extents, the pieces are spread across the disks in the disk group.

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