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TABLE OF CONTENT:
1. Literature review
1.1Definition of Thermodynamics 1.2First law of thermodynamics 1.3Isothermal process 1.4Adiabatic process 1.5Ideal gas laws 1.5.1. Boyles law 1.5.2. Charles law 1.6Absolute zero 1.7Entropy and 2nd law of thermodynamics 1.8Thermocouple 1.9Piezoelectric material

2. Apparatus 3. Procedure 4. Analysis 5. Results and conclusions 6. Reasons of errors 7. References

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1. Literature review:
1.1. Definition of thermodynamics:
It studies the effect of transfer of heat and the work done on or by the body or radiations on the material bodies.

1.2. 1st law of thermodynamics:

A change in internal energy of a closed thermodynamic system is equal to the differance between the heat supplied to the system and the amount of work done by the system on its surrounding. A more succinct and comprehensible definition might be something like this: Matter/energy may be altered, but not created or destroyed. It teaches that matter/energy cannot spring forth from nothing without cause, nor can it simply vanish.[1]

1.3. Isothermal process:

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: T = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an outside thermal reservoir (heat bath), and the change occurs slowly enough to allow the system to continually adjust to the temperature of the reservoir through heat exchange.[2] In an isothermal process, the value T = 0 but Q 0

An adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic net heat transfer to or from the working fluid is zero.[3]An adiabatic

process is where a system exchanges no heat with its surroundings (Q = 0). In other words, while in an adiabatic process, T 0 but Q = 0.

process in

which

the

1.5. Ideal gas laws:

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation to the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It is a combination of boyles law and Charles law. 1.5.1.Boyles law: Boyle's law describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system. Its mathematical equation is given as

v1p
1.5.2.Charles law: Charles law is stated as At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature on

3 | Page the absolute temperature scale (i.e. the gas expands as the temperature increases).[4] which can be written as: where V is the volume of the gas; and T is the absolute temperature. The law can also be usefully expressed as follows:

The equation shows that, as absolute temperature increases, the volume of the gas also increases in proportion.

1.6. Absolute zero:

Temperature at which a thermodynamic system has the lowest energy, 0 kelvin (K). It corresponds to -459.67F (-273.15C) and is the lowest possible temperature theoretically achievable by a system. A gas at constant pressure contracts as the temperature is decreased. A perfect gas would reach zero volume at absolute zero. However, a real gas condenses to a liquid or a solid at a temperature higher than absolute zero. At absolute zero, the system's molecular energy is minimal and none is available for transfer to other systems. The Kelvin temperature scale has absolute zero as its zero point, and its fundamental unit is the kelvin.
[5]

1.7. Entropy and 2nd law of thermodynamics:

2nd law states that Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location. In tern of entropy 2nd law states that: Entropy always increases or remains constant in a closed system. The entropy of an entire closed system can never decrease within that system.[1] Entropy explains the irreversibility of nature. It has the minimum value at absolute zero

1.8. Thermocouple:
It is a device consisting of two different conductors (usually metal alloys) that produce a voltage proportional to a temperature difference between either end of the pair of conductors. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a heat gradient into electricity. In contrast to most other methods of temperature measurement, thermocouples are self powered and require no external form of excitation.[6]

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1.9. Piezoelectric material:

A material that generates an electric charge when mechanically deformed. Conversely, when an external electric field is applied to piezoelectric materials they mechanically deform.[7]

2. Apparatus:
Heating plate Connecting tube Stand Thermocouple Multimeter Teflon tape Syringe Flask with a cork

1. Procedure:

The apparatus was set. Thermocouple was plugged into the cork of the flask and the flask was made air tight by using the Teflon tape. The syringe and the flask were connected by using the connecting tube. And this apparatus was then clamped in the stand as shown in fig. The thermocouple was plugged in the multimeter so that it can show the temperature measurements due to pressure changes in the flask. The water was boiled in the beaker by placing it on the heating plate. When the water started boiling, the flask was dipped in it.

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Fig 1.2 apparatus setup of verification of Charles law

2. Analysis:
As soon as the flask was dipped into the boiling water, it was noticed that the volume in the syringe tube started increasing and the temperature readings at that instant were noted. By using this procedure two reading were taken. As the volume started increasing, the temperature also showed a linear increase which verified the Charles law i.e. volume is directly proportion to temperature.

3. Results and conclusions:

Initial temperature =T1=293.15K Initial volume =V1=50cm3 Final temperature =T2=313.15K Final volume =V2=54cm3

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Fig1.3 Linear graph representation, verifying Charles law Now, V1T1=V2T2 By placing values in above equation, we get: 50293.15=54313.15 0.170 = 0.172 Hence, the almost equal values on both sides of the above equation clearly verify Charles law.

4. Reasons of errors:
Two errors were observed during the performance of above experiment due to which the graph intercepts the x-axis at -10K.these errors are given below: The flask was not properly air tight. The syringe was not frictionless. The volume measurements were not taken immediately after taking the temperature measurements. There was a difference of a few or more seconds.

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1. References: