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I Jagtar student of B.Tech(CSE)-MBA Ist term expressing my deep gratitude to my Physics teacher Mr.Ravi Bushan. I am very much thankful to him. I benefited a lot discussing with him. I am also thankful to my parents who encouraged me and provided such a motivation, so I became able to perform this. I am also thankful to all my friends and those who helped me directly or indirectly in completion of my project. JAGTAR SINGH B.Tech (CSE)MBA Roll no- RK1004b31




ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: When two objects in each other's vicinity

have different electrical charges, an electrostatic field exists between them. An electrostatic field also forms around any single object that is electrically charged with respect to its environment. An object is negatively charged (-) if it has an excess of electrons relative to its surroundings. An object is positively charged (+) if it is deficient in electrons with

Atom in external electric field Electrostatic fields bear some similarity to magnetic fields. Objects attract if their charges are of opposite polarity objects repel if their charges are of the same polarity . The lines of electrostatic flux in the vicinity of a pair of oppositely charged objects are similar to lines of magnetic flux between and around a pair of opposite magnetic poles. In other ways, electrostatic and magnetic fields differ. Electrostatic fields are blocked by metallic objects, while magnetic fields can pass through most metals. Electrostatic fields arise from a potential difference or voltage gradient, and can exist when charge carriers, such as electron, are stationary. Magnetic fields arise from the movement of charge carriers, that is, from the flow of current. When charge carriers are accelerated (as opposed to moving at constant velocity), a fluctuating magnetic field is produced. This gives rise to a fluctuating electric field, which in turn produces another varying magnetic field. The result is a leapfrog effect, in which both fields can propagate over vast distances through space. Such a synergistic field is known as an electromagnetic field, and is the phenomenon that makes wireless communications, broadcasting, and control systems possible


A dielectric material is a substance that is a poor conductor of electricity, but an efficient supporter of electrostatic fields. If the flow of current between opposite electric charge poles is kept to a minimum while the electrostatic lines of flux are not impeded or interrupted, an electrostatic field can store energy. This property is useful in capacitors, especially at radio frequencies. Dielectric materials are also used in the construction of radio-frequency transmission lines. In practice, most dielectric materials are solid. Examples include porcelain , mica, glass, plastics, and the oxides of various metals. Some liquids and gases can serve as good dielectric materials. Dry air is an excellent dielectric, and is used in variable capacitors and some types of transmission lines. Distilled water is a fair dielectric. A vacuum is an exceptionally efficient dielectric. An important property of a dielectric is its ability to support an electrostatic field while dissipating minimal energy in the form of heat. The lower the dielectric loss (the proportion of energy lost as heat), the more effective is a dielectric material. Another consideration is the dielectric constant , the extent to which a substance concentrates the electrostatic lines of flux. Substances with a low dielectric constant include a perfect vacuum, dry air, and most pure, dry gases such as helium and nitrogen. Materials with moderate dielectric constants include ceramics, distilled water, paper, mica, polyethylene, and glass. Metal oxides, in general, have high dielectric constants

EFFECT OF ELECTROSTATIC FIELD ON DIELECTRIC: Most dielectric materials become polarized when they are
placed in an external electric field. In many materials the polarization is proportional to the electric field:

Where is the total electric field. The constant of proportionality, , is called the electric susceptibility. Materials in which the induced polarization is proportional to the electric field are called linear dielectrics. The electric displacement in a linear dielectric is also proportional to the total electric field:

where is called the permittivity of the material which is equal to

The constant is called the dielectric constant K of the material. Consider a volume V entirely filled with linear dielectric material with dielectric constant K. The polarization of this material is equal to

and is therefore proportional to everywhere. Therefore

and consequently

The electric displacement

therefore satisfies the following two conditions:


The electric field generated by the free charges when the dielectric is not present satisfies the following two equations:


Comparing the two sets of differential equations for


we conclude that

The displacement dielectric:

can also be expressed in terms of the total field inside the

These two equations show that

The presence of the dielectric material therefore reduces the electric field by a factor K.

Place a dielectric layer between two parallel charged metal plates with an electric field pointing from right to left. The positive nuclei of the dielectric will move with the field to the right and the negative electrons will move against the field to the left. Field lines start on positive charges and end on negative charges, so the electric field within each stressed atom or molecule of the dielectric points from left to right in our diagram opposite the external field from of the two metal plates. The electric field is a vector quantity and when two vectors point in opposite directions you subtract their magnitudes to get the resultant. The two fields don't quite cancel in a dielectric as they would in a metal, so the overall result is a weaker electric field between the two plates. Capacitors

Let me repeat that the overall result is a weaker electric field between the two plates. Let's do some math. Electric field is the gradient of electric potential (better known as voltage). V Ex = x & Ey = V y & Ez = V z E= V

Capacitance is the ratio of charge to voltage. C= Q V

Introducing a dielectric into a capacitor decreases the electric field, which decreases the voltage, which increases the capacitance. & 1 (Q constant) 1 (d, Q constant)

V E (d constant )



dielectrics with respect to external Temperature, frequency, electric field, and pressure is An important issue in dielectric/ferroelectric physics. In the literature, the dielectric spectra as a function of frequency or temperature have been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically. For instance, analysis of dielectric relaxation is available via the Debye model including Cole Cole equations and related treatments!, and the dielectric relaxation rate can be described by the Arrhenius relation, the Vogel-Fulcher relation, or a complicated relaxation-time distribution function.16 However, the dielectric response as a function of electric field, especially up to high field levels, has been studied less due to such difficulties as ~i! the difficulty Of dielectric measurements under a wide electric field range, especially up to high electric fields, and ~ii! lack of a convenient theory ~for instance, a simple explicit function !to deal with dielectric spectra as a function of electric field in a wide range. In fact, the electric-field dependence of the dielectric response Can provide very useful information on the basic physics of dielectric polarization. In some cases, such information Is critical in understanding the dielectric/ferroelectric behavior in polar dielectrics. In addition, a new type of electronic device making use of the variation of the dielectric constant of polar dielectrics under dc electric fields has been developed recently for allocations in next-generation radar and microwave communication systems.79 Therefore, a study of the dielectric nonlinear behavior under electric fields is also technologically important. In this paper, we first review the Landau- Ginzburg-Devonshire LGD! theory and the existing approximate the electric-field dependence of the dielectric response. It is found that these treatments are insufficient treatments on in describing the observed experimental data, which include more than one polarization mechanism. A multi polarization -mechanism model is suggested by taking

into consideration both the intrinsic lattice polarization and the extrinsic polarization. These equations are tested by experimental data obtained from KTaO3 and Bi-doped SrTiO3 and good agreement between theory and experimental data is achieved.

Energy in dielectric systems

Consider a capacitor with capacitance C and charged up to a potential V. The total energy stored in the capacitor is equal to the work done during the charging process:

If the capacitor is filled with a linear dielectric (dielectric constant K) than the total capacitance will increase by a factor K:

and consequently the energy stored in the capacitor (when held at a constant potential) is increased by a factor K. A general expression for the energy of a capacitor with dielectric materials present can be found by studying the charging process in detail. Consider a free charge held at a potential V. During the charging process the free charge is increased by . The work done on the extra free charge is equal to

Since the divergence of the electric displacement is equal to the free charge density , the divergence of is equal to . Therefore,

Using the following relation

we can rewrite the expression for W as

The first term on the right-hand side of this equation can be rewritten as

since the product of potential and electric displacement approach zero faster than 1/r2 when r approached infinity. Therefore,

Assuming that the materials present in the system are linear dielectrics then

This relation can be used to rewrite

The expression for

can thus be rewritten as

The total work done during the charging process is therefore equal to

Note: this equation can be used to calculate the energy for a system that contains linear dielectrics. If some materials in the system are non-linear dielectrics than the derivation given above is not correct ( for non-linear dielectrics).

A spherical conductor, of radius a, carries a charge Q. It is surrounded by linear dielectric material of susceptibility e, out to a radius b. Find the energy of this configuration. Since the system has spherical symmetry the electric displacement determined by the free charge. It is equal to is completely

Since we are dealing with linear dielectrics, the electric field is equal to . Taking into account that the susceptibility of vacuum is zero and the susceptibility of a conductor is infinite we obtain for :

The scalar product is equal to energy of the system is equal to

since and

are parallel, everywhere. The

Forces on dielectrics
A dielectric slab placed partly between the plates of a parallel-plate capacitor will be pulled inside the capacitor. This force is a result of the fringing fields around the edges of the parallel-plate capacitor . Note: the field outside the capacitor can not be zero since otherwise the line integral of the electric field around a closed loop, partly inside the capacitor and partly outside the capacitor, would not be equal to zero.

Figure: Fringing fields. Inside the capacitor the electric field is uniform. The electric force exerted by the field on the positive bound charge of the dielectric is directed upwards and is canceled by the electric force on the negative bound charge . Outside the capacitor the electric field is not uniform and the electric force acting on the positive bound charge will not be canceled by the electric force acting on the negative bound charge. For the system shown in Figure the vertical components of the two forces (outside the capacitor) will cancel, but the horizontal components are pointing in the same direction and therefore

do not cancel. The result is a net force acting on the slab, directed towards the center of the capacitor.

Figure : Forces on dielectric. A direct calculation of this force requires a knowledge of the fringing fields of the capacitor which are often not well known and difficult to calculate. An alternative method that can be used is to determine this force is to calculate the change in the energy of the system when the dielectric is displaced by a distance ds. The work to be done to pull the dielectric out by an infinitesimal distance ds is equal to

where is the force provided by us to pull the slab out of the capacitor. This force must just be equal in magnitude but directed in a direction opposite to the force exerted by the electric field on the slab. Thus

The work done by us to move the slab must be equal to the change in the energy of the capacitor (conservation of energy). Consider the situation shown in Figure where the slab of dielectric is inserted to a depth s in the capacitor. The capacitance of this system is equal to

Figure: Calculation of . If the total charge on the top plate is Q then the energy stored in the capacitor is equal to

The force on the dielectric can now be calculated and is equal to

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