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Spinor Bose-Einstein condensation and Bose ferromagnetism

Qiang Gu Institut fr Laser-Physik, Universitt Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg u a

ABSTRACT We discuss ferromagnetism in spinor Bose gases with eective ferromagnetic (FM) couplings between particles. Some basic problems, including interplay between the FM transition and
Bose-Einstein condensation, the low-lying collective excitations as Goldstone modes, and the structure of the ground state, are considered. We show on the mean-eld level that the FM transition occurs above Bose-Einstein condensation. Under the spin conservation rule, the FM transition corresponds to the domain formation. Our results can be applied to the ultracold 87Rb gas and magnetic dipolar gases.

Ferromagnetism: an overview [1] Weiss molecular-eld theory: for classical particles


The model H = I
ij Si Sj

Stoner mean-eld theory: for fermions


M increases the band energy due to the Fermi surface splitting: M2 Eb = 2 4B N ( F ) N ( F )the density of state

Spin waves as Goldstone modes


The spin-wave in Heisenberg ferromagnets: k = Dk 2, D = ISa2 athe lattice constant

Introducing the molecular-eld: M = Si = Sj Decoupling the interaction: z Si Sj Si Sj + Si Sj Si Sj = 2M Si M 2 The result The molecular-eld energy: (z-the coordination number) Em = H = zN IM 2 0 The FM transition point: 1 kB TF = S(S + 1)zI I 3
I

M leads to a negative molecular-eld energy density: 1 Em = IM 2 2 The Stoner criterion results,


T T F ~ (I - I s)
1/2

The spin-wave in fermionic ferromagnets: k = Dk 2 with the spin-wave stiness 1 2 D= nk Ek 6M N MI


k

T TF ~ I

nk (Ek )2
k

1 I > Is = 2 2B N ( F ) The transition temperature:


2 TF I Is
Is

Summary:

k k 2 gapless at k = 0

Ferromagnetism in spinor Bose gases in the thermodynamic limit [2,3] Phase diagram: a microscopic model [2]
The model Hamiltonian: H = t
ij

Phenomenological analysis [3]


Free energy density of isotropic spin-F Bose-Einstein condensate

Spin waves [3]


Considering uctuations: M = (Mx, My , M + Mz ) = ( + 1 , 0 , 1) 1 We get The density excitation f I (, 1) = 1
k 2 12 k + 1 12 + 12 k

i j I
ij

Si Sj

fb =

~2
2m

+ (T T 0)||2 + 0 ||4 c

Suppose S = (0, 0, S z ) = (0, 0, M ), then we arrive at the mean-eld Hamiltonian: H=


k

s + F F 2

Free energy density of the NORMAL ferromagnetic phase fm = c|M|2 + a (T Tf ) 2 Coupling between two phases fc = g|M| F The total Ginzburg-Landau free energy is ft = fb + fm + fc. Minimizing ft with respect to and M , one gets
0 + g M = T0 + g Tc = Tc c

(k) 1(k) 1 1(k) , (k) 1

( k Hm)nk

|M|2

+b

|M|4 4 with the spectrum

with the kinetic energy k = ~2k 2/2m. m is the mass of the particle. Hm = IM is the molecular eld. The mean-eld equations are given by N 1 n= = V V 1 Hm = I V nk,1 + nk,0 + nk,1
k

~1 =
The spin excitation

2 + 2 2 1 k k

(1) (2)

nk,1 nk,1
k

a [Tf Tc] b

f I (M+, M; , 0) = 0

M+(k) (k) 0

The relation between the chemical potential a and the coupling Im for small Im 4 2 a Im 3 ]) 2 (3[ 2 3 where a and Im are rescaled as a = ( + Hm)/(kB T ), Im = In1/3m/(2 ~2)

At I 0, both Tc = Tc T0 and Tf = Tf T0 tend to zero. So we get Tf (Tc) = Tf 1 T with T = (g/ )2a /b Suppose Tf = CI when I << 1, CI Tc = CI 1 T Thus the phase diagram is reproduced.

k 2 ck 2 + g1 22 g1 M(k) 2M0 0(k) 22 g1 k + gM0

which suggest the spin waves in normal and condensed components are coupled, with the mixed spin-wave spectrum

~0 csk2,

1 2 ~2 1 with cs = c + 2 2 M0 2m

It means that an innitesimal FM coupling can induce a FM phase transition at a nite temperature above the BEC critical point

1. The spectrum has the same momentum-dependance as in usual ferromagnets. 2. The spin-wave stiness contains two parts, implying two uids feature of the system.

Discussions and outlooks Phase diagram of ferromagnets


bosons

Magnetic dipolar Bose gases [5] 0 [m m2 3(m1 )(m2 )] r r Umd = 3 1 4r The dipolar interaction causes ferromagnetism: the dipolar ferromagnetism

T T0

TF - T 0 ~ I
Tc - T 0 ~ I

FM transition corresponding to domain formation Domains formed before BEC Fz =1 and -1 domains spatially separated Fz =0 domains much smaller If not, [6,7] Fz =1,0 and -1 particles miscible Fz =0 bosons condensed earlier than 1 bosons Fz =0 component dominating over others

TF ~ (I - I s)
classical particles

1/2

TF ~ I

fermions

Is

Though the FM interaction is very week, we expect that the FM transition or dipolar ferromagnetism can be observed at a relatively high temperature.

Experimental background
Our results are relevant to current experiments on quantum degenerate atomic bosons. Atomic bosons with FM scattering: 87Rb [4] cs c0 V = n n + S S, 2 2 cs < 0

Spinor Bose gases under experimental conditions


In experiments, the system is away from the thermodynamic limit. Total spin conservation Small particle number Can the spin-rotational symmetry be broken spontaneously? If yes, [2,3,6]

Outlooks
How does the ground state manifest in experiments: the 3 components miscible or spatially separated? To examine this, one can investigate spin dynamics [8] determine fractions of all the components
with K. Bongs, K. Sengstock and R.A. Klemm

References:
[1] P. Mohn, Magnetism in the Solid: An Introduction (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003) [2] Q. Gu and R.A. Klemm, Phys. Rev. A 68, 031604(R) (2003); S. Ashhab, cond-mat/0403720 [3] Q. Gu, K. Bongs and K. Sengstock, cond-mat/0405094, to appear in PRA 70 [4] T.L. Ho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 742 (1998); T. Ohmi & K. Machida, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 1822 (1998)

[5] Q. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025601 (2003); S. Yi, L. You and H. Pu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 040403 (2004) [6] T. Isoshima, T. Ohmi and K. Machida, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 3864 (2000) [7] W. Zhang, S. Yi and L. You, cond-mat/0409680, to appear in PRA [8] H. Schmaljohann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040402 (2004); M. Erhard et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 031602(R) (2004); cond-mat/0406485