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# CENTURION INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING POWER STATION ENGINEERING AND ECONOMY

1. Why is electricity the most convenient form of energy? Ans : Electricity is the most convenient form of energy because it is easy to produce, easy to transport easy to use and easy to control. 2. What are the different types of power plants where electricity is produced in bulk quantities? Ans : The different types of power plants for producing electricity are (i) Thermal (ii) Nuclear (iii) Hydraulic (iv) Gas turbine (v) Geothermal 3. What is doubling time in electricity production? Ans : It is the time required for electrical power production to double. 4. How is the demand for electricity related to the GNP of a country? Ans : The demand for electricity varies as a linear relationship with the gross national product (GNP) of a country. 5. What are two basic parameters to decide while planning a power plant? Ans : The two basic parameters to decide while planning a power plant are (i) (ii) Total power output to be installed Size of the generating units.

6. How the total is installed capacity of a power plant decided? Ans : The total plant capacity depended on the following factor (i) (ii) (iii) First demand (KW max) estimated. Growth of demand anticipated. Reserve capacity required.

7. On what factors does the unit size of a power plant depend? Ans : The unit size of a power plant depends on (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Variation of load during 24 hours. Total capacity of units connected to electric grid. Minimum start-up & shut down periods. Maintenance programmed planned.

8. What do you understand by load factor and capacity factor? When are they numerically equal? Ans : Load Factor = Capacity Factor = When rated capacity of the plant is equal to the peak load, then load factor & capacity factor will be numerically equal. 9. Define reserve factor. What is its usual value? How does it fix the maximum unit size? Ans : Reserve Factor = =

10.What do you mean by diversity factor? Ans : Diversity Factor = 11.How is the load-duration curve constructed? Ans : The load duration curve is constructed with the help of a daily load curve. 12.Explain what you understand by base load peaking load. Why are base load plants loaded heavily? Ans : Base load is the load below which the demand never falls and it is applied 100% of the time.

Peaking Load : It occurs for about 15%. It was for a small fraction of time. Babe loads are heavily loaded because it supplies 100% of time and demand never falls.

13.What are the considerations to be made while selecting the suitable site for a thermal and a nuclear power plant? Ans : Considerations to be made while selecting the suitable site for Thermal power plants are (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Availability of cooling water Availability of fuel Distance from the centre of gravity to load demand. Cost of land Rail & Road connections.

Nuclear Power Plant Two additional factors (i) (ii) Density of population in the vicinity Danger of earth quakes.

14.What are the elements which contribute to the cost of electricity? Ans : Elements contribute to the cost of electricity (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Fixed Cost Operation & Maintenance cost Fuel Cost KWhnet of electricity sent out per year.

15.How is the total annual cost of electricity estimated? Ans : The total annual cost of electricity is estimated based on the following headings (i) Fuel (ii) Operating labor (iii) Maintenance labor and materials (iv) Supplies (v) Supervision (vi) Operating Taxes.

16.What is the forced outage rate? Ans : Forced outage rate : It is a measure for the reliability of a power plant. It is defined as the annual ratio 17.How can the cost of power generation reduced? Ans : The cost of generation is reduced by (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Selecting equipment of longer life & proper capacities. Running PowerStation at high load factor. Increasing efficiency of the power plant. Carrying out the proper maintenance of power plant.

18.What are the expenses which constitute the construction cost of a power plant? Ans : The construction cost of a power plant consist of expenses for (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Planning and design Land and preparation of site Buildings and machinery foundation Plant equipment, including transport to site

19.How does the economy of scale affect the construction cost? The economy scale i.e. construction cost per KW decreases with size. 20.What are fixed cost? Ans : Fixed cost consist of annual cost for interest, depreciation, insurance and taxes on property and estimated income calculated as a percentage of the capital investment. 21.What do you understand by depreciation? How is the depreciation rate determined? Ans : The power plant and equipment in the station will have a certain period of useful life. After years of use, it loses its efficiency or becomes obsolete and need replacement. This is known as depreciation. The depreciation rates are determined by life expectancy of the equipment and

## the method used for calculating the depreciation.

22.What is the straight-line method of determining the depreciation charge? Ans : The straight line method is based on the assumption that depreciation occurs uniformly every year according to straight line law. 23.What do you mean by the sinking- fund method of accumulating the money for the depreciation fund? Ans : In sinking fund method, a sum of money is set aside every year for N years and invested to earn compound interest. 24.How does the fuel cost relate to the cost of power generation? Ans : As the load on prime mover increases, the fuel consumption increases and so does the cost. 25.What do you understand by the present-worth concept? How is it estimated? Ans : The present worth is the value of a sum of money at present time that with compound interest will have a specified value at a certain time in future. PW = 26.What is incremental heat rate? Ans : Let I = heat input The incremental heat rate is defined as IR = L = net output Amount of energy needed to generate an additional unit of output at any given load. It plant output decreases, incremental heat rate decreases. 27.Explain the principle of economic scheduling. Ans : Economic scheduling principle : The load is so distributed that at any moment all generating units will have the same incremental heat rates.

28.Show that for two units running in parallel, the combined energy input will be minimum if the incremental heat rate of unit 1 is equal to that of unit 2. Ans : IC = combined input to unit 1 & 2. LC = combined output of unit 1 & 2. IC is a function of either L1 or L2 for a given combined output LC. When combined input IC is at min =0 IC = I1 + I2

+ =( ) ( )

=0

LC = L1 + L2 = -1 , = =-

29.Explain what you mean by spinning reserve. Ans : Spinning Reserve : The difference between the generating capacity and system load is called as spinning reserve. 30.Explain the effect of load factor on the cost of electricity generated. Ans : As the load factor decreases, the cost per KWh increases.

C.I.T, BBSR