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P AM ANT AS AN NG LUNGSOD NG M AY NIL A (University of the City of Manila) Intramuros, Manila

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering

3RD GENERATION OF CELLULAR NETWORK

In Partial Fulfillment of the Course ECE172 Broadcast Engineering and Acoustics

Group Members: CAMACHO, Trixie Jhanine B. CAMINGAWAN, Eledee O. CATALAN, Jasmine A. DE JESUS, John Edward G. DEL ROSARIO, Don Paul P. DUMLAO, Geric Pamela M. SARMIENTO, Annalyn R.

Submitted to: Engr. Leonardo A. Samaniego Jr.

Date Submitted: 10 February 2012

I.

BACKGROUND OF THE SYSTEM

Mobile telephone and data transmission services are mainly provided by the secondgeneration mobile systems that are the domestic standards worldwide. In Japan, the major digital mobile networks are based on the Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) system. On the other hand, a mobile telecommunication service vender has started a commercial service based on the cdmaOne system, which is a North America standard. And in most countries, mobile networks are constructed with the Global Systems for Mobile (GSM) communications system. As the use of 2G phones became more widespread and people began to utilize mobile phones in their daily lives, it became clear that demand for data services (such as access to the internet) was growing. Furthermore, experience from fixed broadband services showed there would also be an ever increasing demand for greater data speeds. The 2G technology was nowhere near up to the job, so the industry began to work on the next generation of technology known as 3G. 3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile

Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. International Mobile Telecommunication- 2000 (IMT-2000) is a new, third-generation mobile network being discussed at international standards organizations to overcome the weak points of second-generation mobile networks. The IMT-2000 standards are being discussed by two organizations: the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and the 3rd Generation Partnership Project2 (3GPP2). The 3GPP aims to construct an IMT-2000 network based on the GSM. On the other hand, the 3GPP2 aims to develop standards for the IMT-2000 network by enhancing the cdmaOne system. The first pre-commercial trial network with 3G was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in the Tokyo region in May 2001. NTT DoCoMo launched the first commercial 3G network on 1 October 2001, using the WCDMA technology. In 2002 the first 3G networks on the rival CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology were launched by SK Telecom and KTF in South Korea, and Monet in the USA. Monet has since gone bankrupt. By the end of 2002, the second WCDMA network was launched in Japan by Vodafone KK (now Softbank). European launches of 3G were in Italy and the UK by the Three/Hutchison group, on WCDMA. 2003 saw a further 8 commercial launches of 3G, six more on WCDMA and two more on the EV-DO standard.

The high connection speeds of 3G technology enabled a transformation in the industry: for the first time, media streaming of radio (and even television) content to 3G handsets became possible. Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5Gand 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of

several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. In the mid 2000s an evolution of 3G technology begun to be implemented, namely High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). It is an enhanced 3G (third generation)mobile

telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, also coined 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.0 Mbit/s. Further speed increases are available with HSPA+, which provides speeds of up to 42 Mbit/s downlink and 84 Mbit/s with Release 9 of the 3GPP standards. By the end of 2007 there were 295 million subscribers on 3G networks worldwide, which reflected 9% of the total worldwide subscriber base. About two thirds of these were on the WCDMA standard and one third on the EV-DO standard. The 3G telecoms services generated over 120 Billion dollars of revenues during 2007 and at many markets the majority of new phones activated were 3G phones. In Japan and South Korea the market no longer supplies phones of the second generation. The main technological difference that distinguishes 3G technology from 2G technology is the use of packet switching rather than circuit switching for data transmission. In addition, the standardization process focused on requirements more than technology (2 Mbit/s maximum data rate indoors, 384 kbit/s outdoors, for example).

ii. DEFINITION OF TERMS


y Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) is a 2G mobile telecommunications standard developed and used exclusively in Japan.

cdmaOne is the brand name for IS-95. It is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard by Qualcomm. It is also a 2G mobile telecommunications standard that uses CDMA.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a digital mobile telephony system for 2G cellphones that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world

International Mobile Telecommunication-2000 (IMT-2000) is a third-generation mobile communication system. It has been established as an international standard to realize advanced services and also overcome the performance limitations of the telephone and data communication services that are based on existing second-generation mobile communication systems (i.e., Personal Digital Cellular [PDC], cdmaOne, and Global Systems for Mobile communications [GSM]). 3G services are designed to offer broadband cellular access at speeds of 2Mbps, which will allow mobile multimedia services to become possible.

3rd

Generation

Partnership

Project

(3GPP) is

collaboration

between

groups

of

telecommunications associations, known as the Organizational Partners. The initial scope of 3GPP was to make a globally applicable third-generation (3G) mobile phone system specification based on evolved Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) specifications within the scope of the IMT-2000

3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is collaboration between telecommunications associations to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT-2000 project. In practice, 3GPP2 is the standardization group for CDMA2000, the set of 3G standards based on

earlier 2G CDMA technology.

Circuit switching is a methodology of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of

the channel and remains connected for the duration of the communication session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit.

Packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet mode computer network. Computer communications links that do not support packets, such as traditional point-to-point telecommunications links, simply transmit data as a series of bytes, characters, or bits alone. When data is formatted into packets, the bitrate of the communication medium can be better shared among users than if the network were circuit switched.

Packet switching is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data regardless of content, type, or structure into suitably sized blocks, called packets. Packet switching features delivery of variable-bit-rate data streams (sequences of packets) over a shared network. When traversing network adapters, switches, routers and other network nodes, packets are buffered and queued, resulting in variable delay and throughput depending on the traffic load in the network.

Universal Mobile Telephone System - UMTS - is a wide area broadband wireless communications system that uses digital radio transmission to provide voice, data, and multimedia communication services. A UMTS system coordinates the communication between mobile devices (user equipment), radio access radio sites (UTRAN), and uses a packet switching core network to connect UMTS devices to other devices or networks.

EVOLUTION PATH OF CELLULAR NETWORK

Both IS-95 and GSM are the most commonly used mobile communication technologies for cellular networks. IS-95, or cdmaOne, and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) are two fundamental technologies enabling today's cellular phone networks. IS-95 and GSM are 2G technologies implemented using CDMA (code division multiple access) and TDMA (time division multiple access) respectively. Approximately 80% of the mobile communications industry uses GSM technology, with IS-95 following at approximately 10-15%. As the market shifts to 3G technologies, GSM is moving towards the implementation of Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA), while the successor of IS-95 is CDMA 2000.

iii.

System ARCHITECTURE

CDMA2000 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE For the third-generation cdma2000 mobile/cellular networks, the packet core network (PCN) is a network architecture being promoted by TIA as the packet-data standard.

Mobile Station (MS) Base Transceiver Station houses the radio tranceivers that define a cell and handles the radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station. In a large urban area, there will potentially be a large number of BTSs deployed, thus the requirements for a BTS are ruggedness, reliability, portability, and minimum cost.

Base Station Controller manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. It handles radio-channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers, as described below. The BSC is the connection between the mobile station and the Mobile service Switching Center (MSC).

The Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) is based on the Connectivity Packet Platform. It is a scalable, high-capacity, and very compact product offering telecom grade availability which connects CDMA2000 RAN with the packet core network

Home Agent (HA) - Forwards all packets destined for the subscriber device (SD) to the PDSN.

AAA commonly stands for authentication, authorization and accounting. o Authentication refers to the process where an entity's identity is authenticated, typically by providing evidence that it holds a specific digital identity such as an identifier and the corresponding credentials. o Authorization function determines whether a particular entity is authorized to perform a given activity, typically inherited from authentication when logging on to an application or service. o Accounting refers to the tracking of network resource consumption by users for the purpose of capacity and trend analysis, cost allocation, billing.

UMTS architecture domains

Mobile Station

Base Station Subsystem

Network Subsystem

Other Networks

SIM

ME

BTS

BSC

MSC/ VLR

GMSC PSTN

EIR

HLR

AUC

PLMN

RNS
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN Internet

USIM

ME

SD

UTRAN

Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes.

A major differentiation of 3G systems over the 2G cellular networks is the provision of multiple datarate services with varying quality requirements and a higher spectrally efficient and flexible radio interface.

UMTS network architecture consists of three domains: 1. User Equipment domain: dual mode and multi-mode handsets, removable smartcards Mobile Equipment (ME) domain: Mobile Termination (MT) entity performing the radio transmission and related functions Terminal Equipment (TE) entity containing the end-to-end application. User Service Identity Module (USIM) domain: contains data and procedures to unambiguously and securely identify itself.

2.

Access network domain: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN)- physical entities managing the access network resources and provide the users with mechanisms to access the core network. a. Node B - is responsible for providing the wireless connection between the handset and the wireless network. It is comprised of a set of radio transmitters and receivers, and antennas to connect the mobile to a cellular network for pursuing the required call handling tasks.

b. Radio Network Controller (RNC) - controls a cluster of cell towers. It is responsible for setting up a voice or data call with the mobile terminal and managing handoff when the phone moves from one cell tower boundary to another, without disruption of service.

3.

Core network domain: physical entities providing support for the network features and telecommunication services: management of user location information, control of network features and services, switching and transmission.

Two domains: y Circuit Switched a. Mobile Switching Center (MSC): The MSC control call signaling and processing, and coordinates the handover of the mobile connection from one base station to another as the mobile roams around. When needed, the MSC can be implemented in two different entities: the MSC Server, handling only signalling, and the CS-MGW, handling users data. A MSC Server and a CS-MGW make up the full functionality of a MSC. b. Gateway MSC (GMSC) - performs the routing function to the actual location of the MS y Packet Switched a. Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) responsible to perform all necessary functions to handle packet switched services to and from the mobile phone. Its tasks include: y y Network Access Control Mobility Management

y Packet Routing and Transfer Its tasks include the classical packet switching aspects, such as relaying, routing, address translation, encapsulation, and tunneling. In contrast to 2G-SGSN, a 3GSGSN is not responsible for ciphering and user data compression. b. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) constitutes the interface between the PLNM and external data networks. Similar to the SGSN, it is responsible for the PS service provisioning. Its tasks include y Entities in both PS and CS domains a. The Home Location Register (HLR).The Home Location Register (HLR) is the location register to which a mobile subscriber is assigned for record

purposessuch as subscriber information. b. The Visitor Location Register (VLR).The Visitor Location Register (VLR) is the location register for Circuit Switched (CS) services, other than the HLR,used by an MSC to retrieve information for, e.g. handling of calls to or from a roaming mobile station currently locatedin its area. c. Equipment Identity Register (EIR)- stores the internationall mobile identities (IMEIs) used in the system.

IV. STANDARDS/PROTOCOLS CDMA2000 CDMA2000, also known as IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier or IS-2000 is the main route for CDMA operators to second-and-a-half (2.5G) and third generation (3G) cellular networks. 3GPP2, the standardsetting body behind CDMA2000, has created a set of standards that define the new air interface and the Radio Access and Core Network changes that will enhance network capacity, improve speed and bandwidth to mobile terminals, and allow end-to-end IP services.CDMA2000 can support mobile data communications at speeds ranging from 144 Kbps to 2Mbps. Versions have been developed by Ericsson and Qualcomm. As of March 2006, the CDMA Development Group reports more than 250,300,000 subscribers worldwide. CDMA2000 is standardized under the specification of IS-2000, which is backward-compatible with IS-95A and B, as well as with J-STD-008 specifications that collectively are called cdmaOne. The IS95 and J-STD-008 specifications make up the existing CDMA mobility systems deployed currently in the world. CDMA2000, while being a 3G specification, is also backward-compatible with cdmaOne systems, allowing operators to make strategic deployment decisions in a graceful fashion.

CDMA2000 IMT-2000

is

unique

radio suite

and of

network access

access platforms

system that

that

is

part

of what

the is

specification

comprise

known collectively as third generation (3G). CDMA2000 is unique in that, while supporting 3G services and bandwidth requirements, it enables a logical migration from the existing 2G platforms to 3G without forklifting the legacy system.

A key component of CDMA2000 systems will be a new Packet Core Network (PCN) that allows for the delivery of packet data services with more speed and security. The CDMA2000 PCN is one of the first steps in the evolution of CDMA2000 systems to All-IP and multi-media architecture.

Some of the 3G applications that are envisioned to be enabled by CDMA2000 are as follows: Wireless Internet Wireless e-mail Wireless telecommuting Telemetry Wireless commerce Longer standby battery life

CDMA STANDARDS
Under CDMA2000-1X, also called 1xRTT, three primary methods are used: 1x, 1xEV-DO, and 1xEVDV, which are not mutually exclusive of each other.

y y y

CDMA2000-1X (1xRTT) 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV

C DMA2 00 0- 1X (1x RT T ) Sing le- C arrier R ad io T rans mis sion T echnolog y

The first phase, CDMA2000 1x, supports an average of 144 kbps packet data in a mobile environment. The 1xRTT utilizes a single carrier requiring 1.25 MHz of radio spectrum, which is the same as the existing cdmaOne systems channel bandwidth requirement. However, the 1xRTT platforms can utilize a different vocoder and more Walsh codes.

1xEV-DO The second release of 1x, called 1x-EV-DO will support data rates up to 2 Mbits/sec on a dedicated data carrier. CDMA2000.1xEVDO means one carrier, which is data-only. CDMA2000 1X EV-DO ("Data Only") will use separate frequencies for data and voice

1xEV-DV Finally, 1x-EV-DV will support even higher peak rates, simultaneous voice and high-speed data, as well as improved Quality of Service mechanisms. It means one carrier that supports data and voice services. CDMA2000 1X EV-DV ("Data and Voice") which will integrate voice and data on the same frequency band.

Data Rate for different Standard:

Standard

Description

Data Rate

1xRTT

Backward

compatible

to

Maximum 144Kbps

cdmaOne network. Works on 1.25Mhz bandwidth cdma2000 1xEV Next evolution of 1X.

Backward compatible to cdmaOne, Chip rate 3.6864 Mbps. Works on 1.25Mhz bandwidth

Phase 1 (data only)

Phase 1, without voice

Rate 1: Forward 1.25 Mbps Reverse 300 kbps Rate 2: Forward 600 kbps Reverse 144 kbps

Phase 2 (Data and voice)

With voice

Rate 1: Forward 1.25 Mbps Reverse 1.25Mbps Rate 2: Forward 600 kbps Reverse 600 kbps

CDMA2000 PROTOCOL ANALYZER

IS-2000 is the signaling standard, which defines protocols for several critical 3G CDMA interfaces pertaining to packet transmission namely A1, A7, A9 and A11. An IS-2000 compliant Mobile Station (MS) can select either packet-switched data (PSD) or circuit-switched data (CSD) transport. CSD has maximum rate of 19.2 kbps and is delivered over traditional TDM circuits. PSD offers higher data rate for multimedia services. For each data session, a PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) session is created between the Mobile Station and the Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN). The CDMA2000 network comprises of the Radio Access Network (RAN) and the Core Network. A Mobile Station accesses the CDMA2000 network through the RAN. The RAN consists of the Air Link, Base Station Transceiver Subsystem (BTS), Base Station Controller (BSC), and a part of Packet Control Function (PCF). The RAN maps the Mobile Station ID to a unique link layer identifier that is used to communicate with the PDSN, validate the MS for access service, and maintain the established transmission links. The BTS connects to the BSC through un-channelized T1s and A-bis protocols (proprietary to a particular vendor) based on HDLC. The BSC routes PSD and CSD messages between the cell sites and the MSC. In addition, the BSC is also responsible for mobility management. It connects to each Mobile Telephone Exchange (MTX)

using channelized T1 lines for voice and circuit switched data; and to un-channelized T1 lines for signaling and control messages to the PDSN using Ethernet protocols. The PCF routes IP data packets between the MS and the PDSN. The PDSN is the Gateway from the RAN into the public and private networks. The PDSN can act as either a standalone Network Access Server (NAS), Home Agent (HA) or a Foreign Agent (FA). GL's CDMA Protocol Analyzer can be used to analyze and view protocols across A1 (between Base Station Controller and Mobile Switching Centre), A3 and A7 (between two Base Station Controllers), A9 (between Base Station Controller and Packet Control Function), and A11 (between Packet Control Function and PDSN) signaling interfaces as depicted in the above figure y y y y y Between BSC and BTS: Abis Between BSC and BSC: A3 and A7 (also known as 'Ater') Between BSC and PCF: A9 (also known as 'Aquinter') Between BSC and MSC: A1 (also known as 'A') Between PCF and PDSN: A11 (also known as 'Aquater')

A1 Signaling y The Base Station Application Part (BSAP) is the application layer signaling protocol that provides messaging to accomplish the functions of the A1 Interface component of the MSC - BS Interface. BSAP is split into two sub-application parts; the BS Management Application Part (BSMAP), and the Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP).

The BS Management Application Part (BSMAP) supports all Radio Resource Management and Facility Management procedures between the MSC and the BS, or to a cell(s) within the BS. BSMAP messages are not passed to the MS, but are used only to perform functions at the MSC or the BS. y The Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) messages are used to transfer call processing and mobility management messages between the MSC and BS. DTAP messages carry information that is primarily used by the MS. The BS maps the DTAP messages going to and coming from the MSC from/into the appropriate air interface signaling protocol.

A3 Signaling y The A3 interface is composed of signaling and user traffic subchannels. It provides the ability to establish and remove A3 traffic connections. The A3 interface also provides support for operational procedures, such as turning on/off voice privacy or changing the -service configuration of a call. A7 Signaling y The A7 interface provides direct BS to BS signaling for the support of an efficient soft handoff procedure. Only a call release procedure interrupts any Handoff procedure.

Multiple concurrent A7 Handoff Add procedures are prohibited for the same physical Channel on the same call. A9 Signaling y The A9 interface carries signaling information between the BS and the PCF. The A8/A9 interfaces support mobility between BSCs under the same PCF. A11 Signaling y The A11 interface carries signaling information between the PCF and the PDSN for packet data services and provides a signaling connection between a PCF and PDSN pair (A11). A11 signaling messages are also used for passing accounting related and other information from the PCF to the PDSN. The A10/A11 interfaces support mobility between PCFs under the same PDSN.

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)


UMTS employs wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators. UMTS specifies a complete network system, covering the radio access network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN), the core network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the authentication of users via SIM cards (Subscriber Identity Module). It is one of the emerging mobile phone technologies known as third-generation, or 3G. Thirdgeneration systems are designed to include such traditional phone tasks as calls, voice mail, and paging, but also new technology tasks such as Internet access, video, and SMS, or text messaging. One of the main benefits of UMTS is its speed. Current rates of transfer for broadband information are 2 Mbits a second.

W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) It is the original and most widespread radio interface. It can support mobile/portable voice,

images, data and video communications at up to 2Mbps or 384Kbps. It is a third generation mobile wireless technology that promises much higher data speeds to mobile and portable wireless devices. TD-CDMA ( Time Division CDMA) It is a channel access method based on using spread spectrum across multiple time slot. It is shown that a mixture of TDMA and CDMA provides better quality of service for multimedia communications in terms of data throughput and voice/video quality. TD-SCDMA ( Time Division Synchronous CDMA) It is an air interface found in UMTS mobile telecommunications networks in China as an alternative to W-CDMA. Supporting data transmission at speeds up to 2Mbps, TD-SCDMA combines support for both circuit-switched and also packet switched data data from the internet. It combines TDMA with an adaptive, synchronous-mode code division multiple access component.

UMTS Protocol
o AAL2 (ITU-T I.366.2) - provides bandwidth-efficient transmission of low-rate, short and variable packets in delay sensitive applications. It supports Variable-Bit-Rate (VBR) and constant-bit-rate (CBR). It is an ATM infrastructure for the wireline interface for real time traffic o AAL5 - The type 5 adaptation layer is a simplified version of AAL3/4. It also consists of message and streaming modes, with the Convergence Sublayer divided into the service specific and common part. It provides point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections. It is used to carry computer data such as TCP/IP. Unlike AAL2, it is for data and signalling o Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) - provides reliable delivery of ordered or unordered packets over a full duplex connection between two streams on top of ip(4). It can guarantee that the data arrives in order, if requested, and retransmits lost packets. It generates and checks a per-packet checksum to catch transmission errors. o Service Specific Coordination Function - Network Node Interface Protocol -receives the SS7 signaling of a layer 3 and maps it to the SSCOP, and vice versa. It performs coordination between the higher and the lower layers.

Broadcast Call Control Protocol- The BCC protocol manages real time allocation and deallocation of the physical timeslots, which is performed during call processing as the PSTN (or future ISDN) calls demand it.

Group Call Control (GCC) protocol - is used by the Voice Group Call Service (VGCS) on the radio interface within the 3GPP system.

GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) - is a GPRS signaling protocol that handles mobility issues such as roaming, authentication, and selection of encryption algorithms

Mobility management protocol - allows mobile phones to work. This protocol is designed to enable the mobile services. The aim of mobility management is to track where the subscribers are, allowing calls, SMS and other mobile phone services to be delivered to them.

Message Transfer Part Level 3B (MTP-3B) are used to enable management message transmission between the signaling points for t h e p u r p o s e o f e n s u r i n g a r e l i a b l e t r a n s f e r o f t h e s i g n a l i n g m e s s a g e s o v e r t h e signaling network in case that signaling links and signaling transfer points fail

Radio Access Network ApplicationProtocol (RANAP) - is the Radio Network Layer signaling protocol for the Iu interface. It provides support for all RANAP Elementary Procedures (EPs) for accomplishing Radio Access Bearer Management, Serving RNS Relocation, Transport of NAS Information between UE and CN, Paging UE and Release of Iu resources. It also provides the signaling channel to transparently pass messages between the User Equipment (UE) and the CN.

Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) - is a network layer protocol that provides extended routing, flow control, segmentation, connection-orientation, and error correction facilities in Signaling System 7 telecommunications networks

3G OPERATIONS
Services currently available on 3G network Video calling Video conference calling Mobile broadband Mobile Internet/Web 3G-roaming 3G-messaging

Video Call P2P video calling (simultaneous transfer of voice and video) Also known as "videophone", this feature lets two people with 3G video phones talk to each other while viewing 2-way live video of each other. Video Conference Videoconferencing is the conduct of a videoconference (also known as a video

conference or videoteleconference) by a set of telecommunicationtechnologies which allow two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware. Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that it's designed to serve a conference or multiple locations rather than individuals. Mobile broadband Mobile broadband is the term for wireless Internet access through a portable

modem, mobile phone, USB Wireless Modem or other mobile devices. Mobile Internet/Web The Mobile Internet/Web refers to the use of Internet-connected applications, or browserbased access to the Internet from a mobile device, such as a Smartphone or tablet computer, connected to a wireless network.

3G-Roaming 3G roaming is the process of using a 3G-enabled device in an area not covered by your service provider. In most cases this means using it abroad, though in some countries it can involve visiting a region which is not covered. 3G-Messaging Sending and receiving text messages via 3G network.