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RE.

316*4
Numerical Protection and Control Devices
p Operating Instructions

1KHA000835-UEN
Edition October 2004

2004 ABB Switzerland Ltd Baden 1st Edition Applies for software version V6.4 and higher

All rights with respect to this document, including applications for patent and registration of other industrial property rights, are reserved. Unauthorized use, in particular reproduction or making available to third parties without our explicit consent in writing is prohibited. The use is only allowed for the purpose laid down in the contract. This document has been carefully prepared and reviewed. Should in spite of this the reader find an error, he is requested to inform us at his earliest convenience. The data contained herein purport solely to describe the product and are not a warranty of performance or characteristic. It is with the best interest of our customers in mind that we constantly strive to improve our products and keep them abreast of advances in technology. This may, however, lead to discrepancies between a product and its 'Technical Description' or 'Operating Instructions'.

Version 6.4 and higher

1. Introduction 2. Description of hardware

3. Setting the functions

4. Description of function and application

5. Operation (CAP2/316)

6. Self-testing and diagnostics

7. Installation and maintenance

8. Technical data

9. Interbay bus (IBB) interface

10. Supplementary information

12. Appendices

How to use the Operating Instructions for the RE.316*4 V6.4 and higher
What do you wish to know about the device ...
* General theoretical familiarisation

What precisely?
Brief introduction General overview Technical data Hardware Software

Look in the following Chapter (C) / Sections (S):


C 1 (Introduction) C 1, S 2.1. to S 7.1. (all Section summaries) C 8 (Data Sheet, CT requirements) C 2 (Description of hardware) C 3 (Setting the functions) C 4 (Description of function and application) C 6 (Self-testing and diagnostics) C 10 (Software changes) S 7.2.1. S 7.3.1. C 12 (Wiring diagram), S 7.3., S 7.4. to S 7.5.5. C 9 (IBB) S 9.6. (IBB address list) S 5.2.2. S 5.2.3. to S 5.2.4.2., S 7.5.1. S 3.2. to S 3.4., S 5.3., S 5.4., S 5.9. S 3.5. to S 3.8., S 5.3., S 5.4., S 5.9. S 5.2.4.3. S 7.4.6. to S 7.4.10. S 5.5.3. S 7.5.6. S 5.5.4., S 7.6.1. S 7.7. S 7.8. S 5.5.1. S 3.7.4., S 5.5.5. S 5.5.2. S 5.10.

How to install and connect it

Checks upon receipt Location Process connections Control system connections

How to set and configure it

Installing the HMI Starting the HMI Configuration Setting functions Quitting the HMI Checking the connections Functional test Commissioning checks Fault-finding Updating software Adding hardware Sequential recorder Disturbance recorder Measurements Local Display Unit

How to check, test and commission it

How to maintain it

How to view and transfer data

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

October 2004

1.
1.1. 1.2. 1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3. 1.3. 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1.5.2. 1.6. 1.6.1. 1.6.2.

INTRODUCTION
General ..............................................................................................1-2 Safety instructions..............................................................................1-3 Safety instruction indications .............................................................1-3 General rules .....................................................................................1-3 General safety instructions ................................................................1-4 Line Protection REL316*4..................................................................1-5 Application .........................................................................................1-5 Main features .....................................................................................1-5 Transformer Protection RET316*4.....................................................1-8 Application .........................................................................................1-8 Main features .....................................................................................1-8 Generator Protection REG316*4 .....................................................1-10 Application .......................................................................................1-10 Main features ...................................................................................1-10 Control Device REC316*4 ...............................................................1-12 Application .......................................................................................1-12 Main features ...................................................................................1-12

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

1.
1.1.

INTRODUCTION
General The following device types, the Line Protection REL316*4, the Transformer Protection RET316*4, the Generator Protection REG316*4 and the Control Device REC316*4 comprise the new generation of fully digital protection systems, i.e. the analog- process inputs are converted to digital values immediately after the input transformers and the resulting digital signals are processed exclusively by micro-processors. This Operating Instructions is valid for all four device types. The designation 'RE.316*4' is used as the identification for the device family in the following sections. Because of its compact design, the use of only a few different hardware units, modular software and continuous self-monitoring and diagnostic functions, the RE.316*4 family optimally fulfils all the demands and expectations of a modern protection scheme with respect to efficient economic plant management and technical performance. The AVAILABILITY, which is the ratio between fault-free operating time and total operational life, is certainly the most important requirement a protection device has to fulfil. As a result of continuous monitoring, this ratio in the case of RE.316*4 is almost unity. SIMPLICITY of operation, control and commissioning of the device are achieved by the compact design and the interactive, PC based configuration program CAP2/316. Absolute FLEXIBILITY of the RE.316*4 scheme, i.e. adaptability to a specific primary system or existing protection (retrofitting), is assured by the supplementary functions incorporated in the software and by the ability to assign inputs and outputs with the CAP2/316. Decades of experience in the protection and control have gone into the development of the RE.316*4 to provide the highest degree of RELIABILITY, DISCRIMINATION and STABILITY. Digital processing of all the signals endows the scheme with ACCURACY and constant SENSITIVITY throughout its useful life.

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

1.2. 1.2.1.

Safety instructions Safety instruction indications The following symbols are utilised for safety instructions in this Operating Instructions. These apply to person and personal working with the devices as well as the environment. This could involve more than one device of this family.

DANGER: This symbol indicates immediate danger due to high electrical voltage, or a mechanical or other cause. Non-observance can lead to serious injury or even death.

WARNING: This symbol draws attention to a dangerous situation. Non-observance can lead to serious injury to persons or damage to property.

CAUTION ESD: This symbol indicates specific information for the avoidance of equipment damage due to electrostatic discharge. The constructional elements and modules may only be touched by persons who are earthed. CAUTION LASER/LED: This symbol indicates the use of a laser of Class Laser/LED in the product. You should therefore avoid any direct eye contact with the laser.

NOTICE: An important instruction that must be observed.

IMPORTANT: It must be ensured that no possibly damaging situation can arise for the product or for its surroundings.

1.2.2.

General rules The RE.316*4 devices incorporates the latest practices and guidelines and complies with the recognized safety rules. Nevertheless, care must always be taken to avoid danger.

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Only use the RE.316*4 devices when it is in perfect working order and in strict accordance with these Operating Instructions. Dangerous situations can arise if the equipment is used improperly, especially if the user changes the configuration. 1.2.3. General safety instructions DANGER: Live electrical equipment is in the immediate vicinity of RE.316*4. Before working on the system, always ensure that contact with, or proximity to live voltage parts are avoided. The device RE.316*4 can initiate operation of other electrical equipment (circuit-breakers and isolators). Before working on the device, always ensure that unwanted operations are inhibited or have no effect on personnel or equipment. Strictly observe all safety precautions (interlocks, locks and blocking devices), especially those issued for the specific station. WARNING: Only properly authorized, professionally qualified and correspondingly trained personnel, who have also read and understood the operating instructions, may work on the RE.316*4 device.

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1.3. 1.3.1.

Line Protection REL316*4 Application The REL316*4 numerical line protection scheme is designed for the high-speed discriminative protection of lines and cables in distribution and transmission systems. The rated voltage of the line being protected is not a restriction and the protection is applicable to solidly or low-resistance grounded systems, systems with Petersen coils or to ungrounded systems. REL316*4 is suitable for the protection of long or short overhead lines or cables, double-circuit lines, heavily loaded lines, lines with weak infeeds and what are referred to as 'short-zone' lines. All kinds of faults are detected including close-in three-phase faults, cross-country faults, evolving faults and high-resistance earth faults. REL316*4 takes power swings and reversal of fault energy into account. Switching onto an existing fault results in instantaneous tripping of the circuit-breaker. REL316*4 places relatively low requirements on the performance of CTs and VTs and is not dependent on their characteristics (CVTs are permissible). REL316*4 can operate with any kind of communications channel (PLC, optical fibers etc.) between the terminal stations.

1.3.2.

Main features REL316*4s library of protection functions includes the following: Distance protection with overcurrent or underimpedance starters (polygon characteristic) 5 distance stages (independently set polygon characteristics for forwards and reverse measurement) definite time overcurrent back-up protection (including "shortzone" protection) VT supervision power-swing blocking system logic for switch-onto-fault protection overreaching permissive underreaching transfer tripping (also for weak infeed and communications channel failure) permissive overreaching transfer tripping (also for weak infeed, communications channel failure and reversal of fault energy direction)

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blocking scheme (also for reversal of fault energy direction)

sensitive E/F protection for ungrounded systems E/F protection for grounded systems inverse time earth fault overcurrent protection overtemperature protection definite time over and undercurrent protection provision for inrush blocking inverse-time over/undercurrent protection (Current-Inv) directional definite time overcurrent protection directional inverse time overcurrent protection definite time over and undervoltage protection power protection synchrocheck. breaker failure protection longitudinal differential protection binary signal transmission. auto-reclosure supplementary logic functions such as logic timer delay contact bounce filter supplementary user logic programmed using CAP2/316 (function plan programming language FUPLA). This requires systems engineering.

REL316*4 includes the following communication channel functions:

REL316*4 includes the following logic functions:

The following measurement and monitoring functions are also provided: single-phase measuring function UIfPQ three-phase measurement module three-phase current plausibility three-phase voltage plausibility.

An event and disturbance recorder is integrated in the device (with information of fault distance converted to reference length).

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The allocation of the opto-coupler inputs, the LED signals and the auxiliary relay signal outputs, the setting of the various parameters, the configuration of the scheme and the display of the events and system variables are all performed interactively by means of the HMI. REL316*4 is equipped with serial interfaces for the connection of a local control PC and for remote communication with the station control system. REL316*4 is also equipped with continuous self-monitoring and selfdiagnostic functions. Suitable testing devices (e.g. the MODURES test set XS92b) are available for quantitative testing. REL316*4 can be semi-flush or surface mounted or can be installed in an equipment rack.

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

1.4. 1.4.1.

Transformer Protection RET316*4 Application The digital transformer protection RET316*4 is designed for fast selective protection of two and three-winding power transformers. It can also be applied to the protection of autotransformers and generator/transformer units. The unit detects the following faults on power transformers: all phase faults earth faults where the power transformer star-point is solidly or low-impedance grounded inter-turn faults

The RET316*4 places only low requirements on main CT performance. 1.4.2. Main features RET316*4 can be supplied with a desired combination of the following protection functions. The functions are selected from the RE.216 / RE.316*4 library of function modules: The transformer differential protection function (Diff-Transf) is one of the most important and provides fast selective protection of all transformers with ratings above a few MVA. The thermal overload function (Overtemp) protects the insulation against damage due to excessively high temperatures. It is normally equipped with two independently set operating stages and is used especially where oil temperature monitors are not installed. definite time over and undercurrent protection (Current-DT) provision for inrush restraint peak value overcurrent protection (Current-Inst) inverse time-overcurrent protection (Current-Inv) directional definite time overcurrent protection (DirCurrentDT) directional inverse time overcurrent protection (DirCurrentInv) inverse definite minimum time overcurrent function (I0-Invers) definite time over and undervoltage protection (Voltage-DT)

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peak value overvoltage protection (Voltage-Inst) power function (Power) frequency function (Frequency) rate-of-change frequency protection (df/dt) definite time overfluxing (Overexcitat) inverse time overexcitation (U/F-Inv) distance protection (Distance) as backup protection for the power transformer and neighbouring lines breaker failure protection (BreakerFailure) supplementary logic functions such as supplementary user logic programmed with the aid of CAP2/316 (function plan programming language FUPLA). This requires systems engineering. logic delay counter (Count) contact bounce filter

The following measurement and monitoring functions are also provided: single-phase measuring function UIfPQ three-phase measurement module three-phase current plausibility three-phase voltage plausibility disturbance recorder

The device has an integrated event logger. The allocation of the opto-coupler inputs, the LED signals and the auxiliary relay signal outputs, the setting of the various parameters, the configuration of the scheme and the display of the events and system variables are all performed interactively by means of the HMI. RET316*4 is equipped with serial interfaces for the connection of a local HMI (PC) and for remote communication with the station control system. RET316*4 is also equipped with continuous self-monitoring and selfdiagnostic functions. Suitable testing devices (e.g. test set XS92b) are available for quantitative testing. RET316*4 can be semi-flush or surface mounted or can be installed in an equipment rack.

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

1.5. 1.5.1.

Generator Protection REG316*4 Application The REG316*4 numerical generator protection has been designed for the high-speed discriminative protection of small and medium size generators. It can be applied to units with or without step-up transformer in power utility or industrial power plants. REG316*4 places relatively low requirements on the performance of CTs and VTs and is independent of their characteristics.

1.5.2.

Main features REG316*4s library of protection functions includes the following: generator differential transformer differential definite time over and undercurrent provision for inrush blocking (Current-Inst) (Imax-Umin) (Current-Inv) (DirCurrentDT) (DirCurrentInv) (NPS-DT) (NPS-Inv) (Voltage-DT) (Voltage-Inst) (Underimped) (MinReactance) (Power) (OLoad-Stator) (OLoad-Rotor) (Frequency) (df/dt) peak value overcurrent voltage-controlled overcurrent inverse time overcurrent directional definite time overcurrent protection directional inverse time overcurrent protection definite time NPS inverse time NPS definite time over and undervoltage peak value overvoltage underimpedance underreactance power protection stator overload rotor overload frequency rate-of-change frequency protection (Diff-Gen) (Diff-Transf) (Current-DT)

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overexcitation inverse time overexcitation voltage comparison overtemperature 100 % stator ground fault 100 % rotor ground fault pole slipping inverse time ground fault overcurrent breaker failure protection supplementary logic functions such as

(Overexcitat) (U/f-Inv) (Voltage-Bal) (Overtemp) (Stator-EFP) (Rotor-EFP) (Pole-Slip) (I0-Invers) (BreakerFailure)

supplementary user logic programmed using CAP2/316 (function plan programming language FUPLA). This requires systems engineering. logic timers metering debounce.

The following measuring and monitoring functions are also available: single-phase measuring function UIfPQ three-phase measurement module three-phase current plausibility three-phase voltage plausibility disturbance recorder

The device has an integrated event logger. The allocation of the opto-coupler inputs, the LED signals and the auxiliary relay signal outputs, the setting of the various parameters, the configuration of the scheme and the display of the events and system variables are all performed interactively by means of the HMI. REG316*4 is equipped with serial interfaces for the connection of a local control PC and for remote communication with the station control system. REG316*4 is also equipped with continuous self-monitoring and selfdiagnostic functions. Suitable testing devices (e.g. test set XS92b) are available for quantitative testing. REG316*4 can be semi-flush or surface mounted or can be installed in an equipment rack.

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

1.6. 1.6.1.

Control Device REC316*4 Application The numerical control unit REC316*4 is designed to perform data acquisition, monitoring, and control functions in MV and HV substations. It is installed in the individual switchgear bays. The switchgear bay control unit can be configured for SF6 gasinsulated switchgear (GIS), for indoor and outdoor switchgear and for single, double or multiple busbar stations. REC316*4 registers and processes the switchgear position signals, the measured variables and the alarms occurring in a switchgear bay. The corresponding data are then made available to the station control level at the communication interface (IBB). REC316*4 receives control instructions from the station control level or from the local mimic, processes them in relation to the bay control logic and executes them. The interlocks included in the REC316*4 control device prevent inadmissible switching operations, which could cause damage to plant or endanger personnel. REC316*4 checks the synchronisation on both sides of the circuitbreaker before enabling the close command. A frequency protection function is integrated in REC316*4, which enables intelligent load shedding. REC316*4 also provides facility for adding feeder protection functions. REC316*4 measures the currents and voltages at the main CTs and VTs, calculates the corresponding real power, reactive power and frequency and transfers the data to the station control level. REC316*4 is equipped with a communication interface (IBB) for twoway communication via an optical fiber link with the station control level.

1.6.2.

Main features The library of function blocks for the REC316*4 control device includes the following control, protection, measurement and logic functions: Control function: This depends on the particular application for which it is specifically created using CAP2/316 (FUPLA function plan programming language). detection and plausibility check of switchgear position signals switchgear control interlocks generation and monitoring of switchgear commands run-time monitoring detection of alarms and alarm logic

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

integration of the local mimic. definite time overcurrent peak value overcurrent inverse time overcurrent directional definite time overcurrent directional inverse time overcurrent inverse time overcurrent ground fault protection definite time overvoltage peak value overvoltage power function overtemperature frequency function rate-of-change frequency function auto-reclosure synchrocheck function Breaker failure function logic delay counter flatter detection Contact bounce filter. single-phase measuring function for U, I, f, P and Q three-phase measuring function for U, I, f, P, Q and cos three-phase current plausibility three-phase voltage plausibility.

Protection functions:

Logic functions:

Measurement and monitoring functions:

The device has an integrated disturbance recorder and event recorder. The allocation of the opto-coupler inputs, the LED signals and the auxiliary relay signal outputs, the setting of the various parameters, the configuration of the scheme and the display of the events and system variables are all performed interactively by means of the menucontrolled HMI.

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

REC316*4 is equipped with serial interfaces for the connection of a local HMI (PC) and for remote communication with the station control system. REC316*4 is also equipped with continuous self-monitoring and selfdiagnostic functions. Suitable testing devices (e.g. test set XS92b) are available for quantitative testing of measurement and protection functions. REC316*4 can be semi-flush or surface mounted or can be installed in an equipment rack.

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October 04

2.
2.1. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. 2.9.1. 2.9.2. 2.9.3. 2.10.

DESCRIPTION OF HARDWARE
Summary............................................................................................2-2 Mechanical design .............................................................................2-4 Hardware versions .............................................................................2-4 Construction.......................................................................................2-4 Casing and methods of mounting ......................................................2-4 Front of the protection unit .................................................................2-4 PC connection....................................................................................2-5 Test facilities ......................................................................................2-5 Auxiliary supply unit ...........................................................................2-6 Input transformer unit.........................................................................2-6 Main processor unit............................................................................2-7 Binary I/O unit ....................................................................................2-8 Interconnection unit............................................................................2-8 Injection unit REX010 ........................................................................2-9 Injection transformer block REX011 ................................................2-13 REX011............................................................................................2-13 REX011-1, -2 ...................................................................................2-14 Figures .............................................................................................2-18 Testing without the generator ..........................................................2-27

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

2.
2.1.

DESCRIPTION OF HARDWARE
Summary The hardware of the digital protection scheme RE.316*4 comprises 4 to 8 plug-in units, a connection unit and the casing: Input transformer unit A/D converter unit Main processor unit 1 up to 4 binary I/O units or or or Type 316GW61 Type 316EA63 Type 316VC61a Type 316VC61b Type 316DB61 Type 316DB62 Type 316DB63 Type 316NG65 or Type 316ML61a Type 316ML62a

Auxiliary supply unit Connection unit

Casing and terminals for analog signals and connectors for binary signals

The A/D converter Type 316EA63 is only used in conjunction with the longitudinal differential protection and includes the optical modems for transferring the measurements to the remote station. Binary process signals are detected by the binary I/O unit and transferred to the main processor which processes them in relation to the control and protection functions for the specific project and then activates the output relays and LEDs accordingly. The analog input variables are electrically insulated from the electronic circuits by the screened windings of the transformers in the input transformer unit. The transformers also reduce the signals to a suitable level for processing by the electronic circuits. The input transformer unit provides accommodation for nine transformers. Essentially the main processor unit 316VC61a or 316VC61b comprises the main processor (80486-based), the A/D converter unit, the communication interface control system and 2 PCMCIA slots. Binary process signals, signals pre-processed by the control logic, events, analog variables, disturbance recorder files and device control settings can be transferred via the communication interface to the station control room. In the reverse direction, signals to the control logic and for switching sets of parameter settings are transferred by the station control system to the protection. RE.316*4 can be equipped with one up to four binary I/O units.

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There are two tripping relays on the units 316DB61 and 316DB62, each with two contacts and according to version either: 8 optocoupler inputs and 6 signaling relays or 4 optocoupler inputs and 10 signaling relays.

The I/O unit 316DB63 is equipped with 14 optocoupler inputs and 8 signaling relays. The 16 LEDs on the front are controlled by the 316DB6x units located in slots 1 and 2.

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2.2. 2.2.1.

Mechanical design Hardware versions RE.316*4 is available in a number of different versions, which are listed in the data sheet under 'Ordering information'.

2.2.2.

Construction The RE.316*4 is 6 U standard units high (U = 44.45 mm) and either 225 mm (Order code N1) or 271 mm wide (Order code N2). The various units are inserted into the casing from the rear (see Fig. 12.3) and then screwed to the cover plate.

2.2.3.

Casing and methods of mounting The casing is suitable for three methods of mounting. Semi-flush mounting The casing can be mounted semi-flush in a switch panel with the aid of four fixing brackets. The dimensions of the panel cut-out can be seen from the data sheet. The terminals are located at the rear. Installation in a 19" rack A mounting plate with all the appropriate cut-outs is available for fitting the protection into a 19" rack (see data sheet). The terminals are located at the rear. Surface mounting A hinged frame (see data sheet) is available for surface mounting. The terminals are located at the rear.

2.2.4.

Front of the protection unit A front view of the protection and the functions of the frontplate elements can be seen from Fig. 12.2. A reset button is located behind the frontplate which serves three purposes: resetting the tripping relays and where the are configured to latch, also the signaling relays and LEDs and deleting the distance protection display when running the control program resetting of error messages resulting from defects detected by the self-monitoring or diagnostic functions (short press) resetting the entire protection (warm start, press for at least ten seconds) following the detection of a serious defect by the selfmonitoring or diagnostic functions.

These control operations can also be executed using the local control unit on the front of the device. Should the latter fail, the reset button can be pressed using a suitable implement through the hole in the frontplate.

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2.2.5.

PC connection In order to set the various parameters, read events and measurements of system voltages and currents and also for diagnostic and maintenance purposes, a personal computer (PC) must be connected to the optical serial interface (Fig. 12.2).

2.2.6.

Test facilities A RE.316*4 protection can be tested using a test set Type XS92b.

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

2.3.

Auxiliary supply unit The auxiliary supply unit 316NG65 derives all the supply voltages the protection requires from the station battery. Capacitors are provided which are capable of bridging short interruptions (max. 50 ms) of the input voltage. The auxiliary supply unit is protected against changes of polarity. In the event of loss of auxiliary supply, the auxiliary supply unit also generates all the control signals such as re-initialization and blocking signals needed by all the other units. The technical data of the auxiliary supply unit are to be found in the data sheet.

2.4.

Input transformer unit The input transformer unit 316GW61 serves as input interface between the analog primary system variables such as currents and voltages and the protection. The mounting plate of the unit can accommodate up to nine CTs and VTs. The shunts across the secondaries of the CTs are also mounted in the input transformer unit. The input transformers provide DC isolation between the primary system and the electronic circuits and also reduce (in the case of the CTs, with the aid of a shunt) the voltage and current signals to a suitable level for processing by the A/D converters. Thus the input transformer unit produces voltage signals at its outputs for both current and voltage channels. The CTs and VTs actually fitted in the input transformer unit vary according to version. Further information can be obtained from the data sheet.

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2.5.

Main processor unit The main processor runs the control and protection algorithms as determined by the particular settings. It receives its data from the A/D converter unit and the I/O unit. The results computed by the algorithms are transferred either directly or after further logical processing to the binary I/O unit. A 80486-based microprocessor is used in the main processor unit 316VC61a or 316VC61b. The samples taken by the A/D converter are pre-processed by a digital signal processor (DSP). The interfaces for connecting an HMI PC and for communication with the station control system (SPA, IEC60870-5-103) are included. A PCMCIA interface with two slots facilitates connection to other bus systems such as LON and MVB. The flash EPROMs used as program memory enable the software to be downloaded from the PC via the port on the front. A self-monitoring routine runs in the background on the main processor. The main processor itself (respectively the correct operation of the program) is monitored by a watchdog.

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2.6.

Binary I/O unit The binary I/O unit 316DB6x enables binary signals received via optocouplers from station plant to be read and tripping and other signals to be issued externally. All the input and output units provide electrical insulation between the external signaling circuits and the internal electronic circuits. The I/O units in slots 1 and 2 also control the statuses of 8 LEDs each on the frontplate via a corresponding buffer memory. The numbers of inputs and outputs required for the particular version are achieved by fitting from one to four binary I/O units. The relationship between the versions and the number of I/O units is given in the data sheet. The optocoupler inputs are adapted to suit the available input voltage range by choice of resistor soldered to soldering posts. This work is normally carried at the works as specified in the order. The technical data of the optocoupler inputs and the tripping and signaling outputs can be seen from the data sheet.

2.7.

Interconnection unit The wiring between the various units is established by the interconnecting unit 316ML62a (width 271 mm) or 316ML61a (width 225 mm). It is located inside the housing behind the frontplate and carries the connectors and wiring needed by the individual units. In addition, the interconnection unit includes the connections to the local control unit, the reset button and 16 LEDs for status signals.

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2.8.

Injection unit REX010 The injection unit Type REX010 provides the power supply for the injection transformer block Type REX011. The injection transformer block generates the signals needed for the 100% stator and rotor ground fault protection schemes. The signals all have the same waveform (see Fig. 2.3). The injection unit is installed in an REG316*4 casing and therefore the mechanical and general data are the same as specified for the REG316*4. Three versions of the injection unit with the designations U1, U2 and U3 are available for the following station battery voltages:

Battery voltage U1: 110 or 125 V DC U3: 48; 60; 110 V DC

Tolerance +10 % / -20 % 36...140 V DC

Output 110 V or 125 V, 1.1 A 96 V, 1 A 96 V, 1 A

U2: 110; 125; 220; 250 V DC 88...312 V DC

Versions U2 and U3 operate with a DC/DC converter. Newer injection units with the auxiliary supply unit 316NE62 are marked with the code U0 and have only one variant with an voltage range from 36 to 312 V. The frequency of the injection voltage, which corresponds precisely to 14 of the rated frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz, can be selected by positioning a plug-in jumper on PCB 316AI61. The frequency is then 12.5 Hz in position X12 and 15.0 Hz in position X11. Controls and signals: Green LED READY: Auxiliary supply switched on Red LED OVERLOAD: The internal protection circuit has picked up and injection is interrupted. Yellow LED DISABLED: Injection is disabled on the switch on the frontplate or via the optocoupler input. Toggle switch ENABLE, DISABLE: Position 0: Injection enabled. Position 1: Injection disabled. Reset button RESET: The protection circuit latches when it operates and is reset by this button upon which the red LED extinguishes.

Only the green LED is lit during normal operation.

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

The protection circuit guards against excessive feedback from the generator and interrupts the injection for zero-crossing currents 5 A. The protection circuit will not reset, if the fault that caused it to pick up is still present. In such a case, switch off the supply and check the external wiring for short-circuits and open-circuits. Optocoupler input: This has the same function as the reset button and can also be used to disable injection. The latter occurs when the input is at logical '1'. Injection is resumed as soon as the input returns to logical '0'.

IMPORTANT: Ensure that the injection voltage is switched off before carrying out any work at the star-point. The toggle switch on the front of the injection unit REX010 must be set to 'disable' and the yellow LED 'disabled' must lit.
The input voltage, the injection frequency and the optocoupler voltage must be specified in the customers order and are then set in the works prior to delivery. There are no controls inside the unit, which have to be set by the user. Supply failure If the green LED READY is not lit in the case of version U1 although the correct auxiliary supply voltage is applied, check and if necessary replace the fuse on the supply unit 316NE61. The fuse holder is located at the rear next to the auxiliary supply terminals. Fuse type: cartridge 2 A slow 5 x 20 mm

Faulty U2, U3 and U0 units must be returned to the nearest ABB agent or directly to ABB Switzerland Ltd, Baden, Switzerland.

2-10

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

Fig. 2.1

Injection unit REX010 (front view) (corresponds to HESG 448 574)

2-11

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Fig. 2.2

PCB 316AI61 in the injection unit (derived from HESG 324 366) showing locations of X11 and X12

2-12

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

2.9.

Injection transformer block REX011 In conjunction with the injection unit Type REX010, the injection transformer block Type REX011 supplies the injection and reference signals for testing the 100% stator and rotor ground fault protection schemes. The injection transformer block used must correspond to the method of grounding the stator circuit: primary injection at the star-point: secondary injection at the star-point: secondary injection at the terminals: REX011 REX011-1 REX011-2

Each injection transformer type has three secondary windings for the following voltages: Uis: Uir: Ui: stator injection voltage rotor injection voltage reference voltage connected to analog input channel 8 of REG316*4.

The same injection transformer is used for stator and rotor protection schemes. The rated values of the injection voltages Uis, Uir and Ui apply for the version REX010 U1 and a station battery voltage of UBat = 110 V DC. All the voltages are less by a factor of 96/110 = 0.8727 in the case of versions U2 and U3. Thus the primary injection voltage for the stator circuit is 96 V. 2.9.1. REX011 This version is designed for primary injection at the star-point and is available with the following rated voltages:
Uis Uir Ui 110 V 50 V 25 V
*)

Table 2.1

REX011

*) The winding for voltage Uir has a tapping at 30 V. This enables Uir to be stepped down to 30 V or 20 V where an injection voltage less than 50 V is necessary.

2-13

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

2.9.2.

REX011-1, -2 The injection transformers have the following IDs (see Table 2.2 and Table 2.3): HESG 323 888 M11, M12 or M13 for REX011-1 HESG 323 888 M21, M22 or M23 for REX011-2

The injection transformers used for secondary injection of the stator circuit have four injection voltage windings connected in parallel or series to adjust the power to suit the particular grounding resistor. The value of the parallel resistor R'Ps, respectively the maximum injection voltage determine the permissible injection voltage.

R'Ps [m] >8 > 32 > 128

Uis [V] 0.85 1.7 3.4

Version M11 M12 M13

Table 2.2

REX011-1

R'Ps [] > 0.45 > 1.8 > 7.2

Uis [V] 6.4 12.8 25.6

Version M21 M22 M23

Table 2.3

REX011-2

Always select the maximum possible injection voltage. For example, for a grounding resistor R'Ps = 35 m, Uis = 1.7 V is used. In the case of versions M11, M12 and M13, the impedance of the connection between the injection transformer and the grounding resistor R'Ps should be as low as possible. The resistance of both connecting cables should not exceed 5% of R'Ps, e.g. for a grounding resistor of R'Ps = 35 m and a length of the connecting cables of 2 2 m = 4 m, the cables must have a gauge of 40 mm2. Voltages Uir and Ui are the same as for REX011.

2-14

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

The connections to the primary system are made via the two UHV heavy-duty terminals 10 and 15, which are designed for spade terminals. There are four universal terminals 11 to 14 type UK35 between the two heavy-duty terminals that are used for the internal wiring. Depending on the version, the four windings must be connected to the corresponding universal or heavy current terminals. Should the version as supplied be unsuitable for the application, the connections of the windings can be modified as required according to the following diagrams. In the case of versions M12, M22, M13 and M23, shorting links KB-15 must be placed on the universal terminals. How this is done can be seen from the diagram 'Shorting links' at the end of this section. Shorting links and 3 rating plates are supplied with every transformer. The corresponding rating plate must be affixed over the old one following conversion.

Versions M11 and M21


S3
10 11 12

S4
13 14

S5
15

S6
16 17

10

11

12 13

14

15

heavy-duty terminals (UHV) universal terminals (UK)

In the case of versions M11 (REX011-1) and M21 (REX011-2), the two windings S3 and S4 are connected in parallel across the heavy-duty terminals (10, 15). The other two windings are not used and are wired to the universal terminals. The shorting links KB-15 are not needed and must be removed.

2-15

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Versions M12 and M22


S3
10 11

S4
12 13

S5
14 15

S6
16 17

10

11

12

13

14

15

heavy-duty terminals (UHV) universal terminals (UK) shorting links KB-15

In the case of versions M12 (REX011-1) and M22 (REX011-2), two pairs of parallel windings are connected in series. All the universal terminals are connected together using the shorting links KB-15.

Versions M13 and M23


S3
10 11 12

S4
13

S5
14 15

S6
16 17

10

11

12

13

14

15

heavy-duty terminals (UHV) universal terminals (UK) shorting links KB-15

In the case of versions M13 (REX011-1) and M23 (REX011-2), all the windings S3...S6 are connected in series. Terminals M12 and M13 are bridged by a shorting link KB-15.

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

In the following figure the shorting links of the versions M12 and M22 are shown:

Shorting links Terminal screws

Shorting links

Universal terminals Teminals 11 to 14

4 terminal screws, 3 shorting links with offset and 1 flat shorting link are supplied with every transformer. The shorting links are placed in the recesses provided on the universal terminals. Versions M12 and M22: First place the broken off shorting link with the opening downwards on terminal 11 and then fit 3 links one after the other. Each one must be secured using one of the screws supplied. Versions M13 and M23: First place the broken off shorting link with the opening downwards on terminal 12 and then fit 2 links one after the other. Each one must be secured using one of the screws supplied.

2-17

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

2.9.3.

Figures Fig. 2.3 Fig. 2.4 Fig. 2.5 Fig. 2.6 Fig. 2.7 Fig. 2.8 Fig. 2.9 Fig. 2.10 Fig. 2.11 Injection signal Uis Wiring diagram for primary injection at the stator using REX011 Wiring diagram for secondary injection of the stator at the star-point using REX011-1 Wiring diagram for secondary injection of the stator at the terminals using REX011-2 Wiring diagram for rotor ground fault protection using REX011 Wiring diagram for rotor ground fault protection using REX011-1, -2 Wiring diagram for testing without the generator using REX011 Wiring diagram for testing without the generator using REX011-1, -2 Dimensioned drawing of the injection transformer block Type REX011

[V]
110

-110

Injection

Test

320

640

[ms]

Fig. 2.3

Injection signal Uis

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

Generator

REG316*4
T18

REX010
T. T.

X1
Ui1

REX011

X1 6

REs

N12

N11 Us

rest+ rest-

7 6 8 3

Voltage transformer

T17

7
Ui2

RPs

3 10 Ui T15

UBat+ 3 UBat- 2

Ui3 Up8+ Up8-

4 1 2 P8nax

11

T16

1 2

Fig. 2.4

Wiring diagram for primary injection at the stator using REX011 (see Fig. 2.11)

2-19

ABB Switzerland Ltd


R S T

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Generator Voltage transformer N1 Grounding transformator N2 N'12 N'11 Us

REG316*4
T18

R'Es R'Ps

T17

REX010
T. T.

X1
Ui1

REX011-1

T15 X2
10

rest+ rest-

7 6 8 3

Uis
15
Ui2

T16

X1
8
4

Ui3 Up8+ Up8-

4 1 2 P8nax

Ui

UBat+ 3 UBat2

1 2

Fig. 2.5

Wiring diagram for secondary injection of the stator at the star-point using REX011-1 (see Fig. 2.11)

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

Grounding transformator

N1

N2

Voltage transformer N'12 N'11 Us

REG316*4
T18

R'Es R'Ps
Generator

T17

REX010
T. T.

X1
Ui1

REX011-2

T15
X2 10

rest+ rest-

7 6 8 3

Uis
15
Ui2

T16

X1
8
4

Ui3 Up8+ Up8-

4 1 2 P8nax

Ui

UBat+ 3 UBat2

1 2

Fig. 2.6

Wiring diagram for secondary injection of the stator at the terminals using REX011-2 (see Fig. 2.11)

2-21

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

+ Rotor

2x2 uF

8 kV

2x2 uF 2) 1)

8 kV

REG316*4
T14

REX010
T. T.

X1
Ui1

REX011

REr
X1 8

T13

rest+ rest-

7 6 8 3

RPr
9
Ui2

316 GW61

3 10 Ui

T15

UBat+ 3 UBat- 2

Ui3 Up8+ Up8-

4 1 2 P8nax

11

T16

1 2

1) 2)

Injection at both poles Injection at one pole for brushless excitation

Fig. 2.7

Wiring diagram for rotor ground fault protection using REX011 (see Fig. 2.11)

2-22

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

+ Rotor

2x2 uF

8 kV

2x2 uF 2) 1)

8 kV

REG316*4
T14

REX010
T. T.
5

REX011-1, -2
X1
Ui1

REr
6

X1

T13

rest+ rest-

7 6 8 3

RPr
7
Ui2

316 GW61

3 8 Ui

T15

UBat+ 3 UBat- 2

Ui3 Up8+ Up8-

4 1 2 P8nax

T16

1 2

1) Injection at both poles 2) Injection at one pole for brushless excitation

Fig. 2.8

Wiring diagram for rotor ground fault protection using REX011-1, -2 (see Fig. 2.11)

2-23

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

S1

Ck = 4 uF S2 Rf CE = 1 uF

1k 2,5 W

REG316*4
T18

REX010
T. T.

X1
Ui1

REX011

X1 8

22

Us

5 7 6 8 3

T17
150

50 V
9
Ui2

>10 W
T14
Ur

10
4

T13 T15
Ui

Ui3 Up8+ Up8-

4 1 2 P8nax

UBat+ 3 UBat- 2

11

1 2

T16

Fig. 2.9

Wiring diagram for testing without the generator using REX011

S1: Ck: Rf: S2:

Bridging of the rotor coupling capacitor Rotor coupling capacitor Variable ground fault resistor Ground fault resistor = 0

CE: Rotor/stator ground capacitance

2-24

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

S1

Ck = 4 uF S2
Rf

CE = 1 uF

REG316*4
1 k 2,5 W

REX010
T. T.

REX011-1, -2
X1 Ui1
X1

T18

22

Us
T17

5 7 6 8 3

50 V
7
Ui2

150
>10 W

316 GW61
T13

Ur
8

T14 T15
Ui

UBat+ UBat-

3 2

Ui3
Up8+ Up8-

4 1 2

1 2

P8nax

T16

Fig. 2.10

Wiring diagram for testing without the generator using REX011-1, -2

S1: Ck: Rf: S2:

Bridging of the rotor coupling capacitor Rotor coupling capacitor Variable ground fault resistor Ground fault resistor = 0 .

CE: Rotor/stator ground capacitance

2-25

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Fig. 2.11

Dimensioned drawing of the injection transformer block Type REX011 (corresponds to HESG 324 388)

2-26

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

2.10.

Testing without the generator

In order to test the operation of the injection unit Type REX010 plus injection transformer block Type REX011 or REX011-1/-2 and the Stator-EFP and Rotor-EFP protection functions without them being connected to the protected unit, set up the test circuit shown in Fig. 2.9 or Fig. 2.10.The two grounding resistors RE and RP are used for both stator and rotor protection schemes to simplify the circuit. The injection voltage of 50 V is also common to both. The ground fault resistance is simulated by the variable resistor Rf.
Stator ground fault protection:

To test the stator ground fault protection, switch S1 must be kept closed all the time. The grounding resistor RE comprises two resistors of 1 k and 22 . This is a simple method of simulating the ratio of the VT. Settings for MTR and REs: The theoretical value of MTR is determined as follows:

MTR =

110 V 22 + 1000 x = 102 50 V 22

The low injection voltage of 50 V increases the value of MTR by a factor 110 V/50 V. REs = 1022 The settings can also be determined using the setting functions 'MTR-Adjust' and 'REs-Adjust' according to Section 3.5.32. which is to be preferred to the above calculation.
Rotor ground fault protection:

To test the rotor ground fault protection, the switch S1 must be kept open all the time with the exception of when the coupling capacitor is bridged for setting mode 'AdjRErInp'. Settings: The theoretical settings are: REr = 1022 Ck = 4 F The settings can also be determined using the setting functions 'REsAdjust' and 'CoupC-Adjust' according to Section 3.5.33. which is to be preferred to the above calculation.

2-27

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

October 2004

3.
3.1. 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.2.1. 3.1.2.2. 3.1.2.3. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. 3.2.5. 3.3. 3.4. 3.4.1. 3.4.2. 3.4.3. 3.4.4. 3.4.5. 3.5. 3.5.1. 3.5.2. 3.5.2.1. 3.5.2.2. 3.5.2.2.1. 3.5.2.2.2. 3.5.2.2.3. 3.5.2.2.4. 3.5.2.2.5. 3.5.2.2.6. 3.5.2.3. 3.5.2.3.1. 3.5.2.3.2. 3.5.2.3.3. 3.5.2.3.4. 3.5.2.3.5. 3.5.2.4. 3.5.2.5. 3.5.2.6. 3.5.2.7. 3.5.2.8.

SETTING THE FUNCTION PARAMETERS


General ..............................................................................................3-5 Library and settings............................................................................3-5 Control and protection function sequence .........................................3-5 Repetition rate....................................................................................3-5 Computation requirement of protection functions ..............................3-6 Computing requirement of the control functions ..............................3-10 Control and protection function inputs and outputs..........................3-10 Analog / Digital Converter ................................................................3-10 Binary inputs ....................................................................................3-11 Signalling outputs.............................................................................3-11 Tripping relay outputs ......................................................................3-12 Measured variables..........................................................................3-12 Frequency range..............................................................................3-13 System parameter settings ..............................................................3-13 Relay configuration ..........................................................................3-13 Configuration of the A / D Converter................................................3-16 Entering comments for binary inputs and outputs............................3-18 Masking binary inputs, entering latching parameters and definition of 'double indications' .......................................................3-18 System I / O .....................................................................................3-19 Protection functions .........................................................................3-23 HV distance protection function .......................... (HV-Distance)......3-23 Distance protection ................................................... (Distance)......3-25 General ............................................................................................3-47 Starters ............................................................................................3-48 Overcurrent starters .........................................................................3-48 Underimpedance starters.................................................................3-48 Current enable .................................................................................3-50 E/F detector .....................................................................................3-51 Phase preference logic ....................................................................3-51 Undervoltage starters.......................................................................3-52 Measuring units................................................................................3-52 Determining the distance zones.......................................................3-52 Directional element ..........................................................................3-58 Overreaching zone...........................................................................3-59 Reverse zone...................................................................................3-59 Time steps .......................................................................................3-59 Definitive zone .................................................................................3-60 Back-up overcurrent protection........................................................3-61 VT supervision .................................................................................3-62 Tripping logic....................................................................................3-63 Power-swing blocking ......................................................................3-65
3-1

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

3.5.2.9. 3.5.2.10. 3.5.2.11. 3.5.2.12. 3.5.3. 3.5.4. 3.5.4.1. 3.5.4.2. 3.5.4.3. 3.5.4.4. 3.5.4.5. 3.5.4.6. 3.5.4.7. 3.5.4.8. 3.5.4.9. 3.5.4.10. 3.5.4.11. 3.5.5. 3.5.5.1. 3.5.5.2. 3.5.5.3. 3.5.5.4. 3.5.5.5. 3.5.5.6. 3.5.5.7. 3.5.5.8. 3.5.5.9. 3.5.5.10. 3.5.5.11. 3.5.5.12. 3.5.5.13. 3.5.6. 3.5.7. 3.5.8. 3.5.9. 3.5.10. 3.5.11. 3.5.12. 3.5.13. 3.5.14. 3.5.15.

Allocation of CT and VT inputs ........................................................3-65 Allocation of binary inputs ................................................................3-65 Allocation of tripping commands ......................................................3-67 Signals .............................................................................................3-67 Sensitive earth fault protection for ungrounded systems and systems with Petersen coils......... (EarthFaultIsol)......3-69 Auto-reclosure................................................... (Autoreclosure)......3-75 General ............................................................................................3-90 Connections between auto-reclosure and distance functions ............................................................................3-90 Connections between auto-reclosure and overcurrent or differential functions..................................................3-92 Redundant schemes ........................................................................3-94 Master/follower logic ........................................................................3-96 Duplex logic .....................................................................................3-98 Timers ............................................................................................3-100 External binary inputs ....................................................................3-103 Close CB and signalling outputs ....................................................3-105 Timing diagrams ............................................................................3-107 Checking the dead times ...............................................................3-117 Sensitive earth fault protection for grounded systems..............................................(EarthFltGnd2)....3-119 Coordination with the distance protection ......................................3-125 Choice of operating mode..............................................................3-126 Choice of transfer tripping scheme ................................................3-126 Setting the enabling pick-up levels ................................................3-130 Setting the characteristic angle 'Angle' ..........................................3-131 Setting the basic time 't Basic' .......................................................3-131 Circuit-breaker delay......................................................................3-132 The comparison time 't comp' ........................................................3-132 Setting the waiting time 't Wait' ......................................................3-132 Setting the transient blocking time 't TransBlk' ..............................3-132 CT/VT inputs of the function ..........................................................3-133 Binary inputs of the function...........................................................3-133 Outputs ..........................................................................................3-134 Inverse definite minimum time earth fault overcurrent function .................................................. (I0-Invers)....3-135 Definite time over and undercurrent...................... (Current-DT)....3-141 Peak value overcurrent ........................................ (Current-Inst)....3-147 Inverse time overcurrent ....................................... (Current-Inv)....3-153 Directional definite time overcurrent protection ...........................................................(DirCurrentDT)....3-159 Directional inverse time overcurrent protection ...........................................................(DirCurrentInv)....3-167 Definite time NPS.......................................................(NPS-DT)....3-179 Inverse time NPS .......................................................(NPS-Inv)....3-183 Voltage-controlled overcurrent...............................(Imax-Umin)....3-187 Definite time over and undervoltage protection .............................................................. (Voltage-DT)....3-195
3-2

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

3.5.15.1. 3.5.15.2. 3.5.15.3. 3.5.16. 3.5.17. 3.5.18. 3.5.19. 3.5.19.1. 3.5.19.2. 3.5.19.3. 3.5.20. 3.5.21. 3.5.22. 3.5.23. 3.5.24. 3.5.25. 3.5.26. 3.5.27. 3.5.28. 3.5.29. 3.5.30. 3.5.31. 3.5.32. 3.5.33. 3.5.34. 3.6. 3.6.1. 3.6.1.1. 3.6.1.1.1. 3.6.1.1.2. 3.6.1.1.3. 3.6.1.1.4. 3.6.1.1.5. 3.6.1.1.6. 3.6.1.1.7. 3.6.1.2. 3.6.2. 3.6.3. 3.6.4. 3.6.5. 3.6.6. 3.6.7. 3.7. 3.7.1. 3.7.2. 3.7.3. 3.7.4. 3.7.5.

Definite time stator earth fault (95 %) ............................................3-200 Rotor E/F protection.......................................................................3-210 Interturn protection.........................................................................3-212 Peak value overvoltage........................................ (Voltage-Inst)....3-213 Power............................................................................(Power)....3-217 Overtemperature protection ................................... (Overtemp.)....3-231 Synchrocheck function.......................................(SynchroChck)....3-239 General ..........................................................................................3-247 Settings ..........................................................................................3-249 Binary inputs of the function...........................................................3-255 Breaker failure protection................................ (BreakerFailure)....3-259 Transformer differential protection function ........... (Diff-Transf)....3-273 Generator differential .................................................(Diff-Gen)....3-297 Frequency protection ............................................. (Frequency)....3-303 Rate-of-change of frequency protection........................... (df/dt)....3-307 Overfluxing............................................................ (Overexcitat)....3-311 Inverse time overfluxing ............................................... (U/f-Inv)....3-315 Balanced voltage ................................................. (Voltage-Bal)....3-323 Underimpedance................................................. (Underimped)....3-329 Loss Of Excitation ............................................ (MinReactance)....3-337 Stator overload.................................................. (OLoad-Stator)....3-349 Rotor overload ................................................... (OLoad-Rotor)....3-355 Stator ground fault ................................................ (Stator-EFP)....3-361 Rotor Ground Fault (Injection Principle) protection ............................................................... (Rotor-EFP)....3-383 Pole slipping..............................................................(Pole-Slip)....3-393 Control functions ............................................................................3-405 Control function........................................................... (FUPLA)....3-405 Control function settings - FUPLA..................................................3-407 General ..........................................................................................3-408 Timers ............................................................................................3-409 Binary inputs ..................................................................................3-409 Binary signals.................................................................................3-409 Measurement inputs ......................................................................3-410 Measurement outputs ....................................................................3-410 Flow chart for measurement inputs and outputs............................3-410 Loading FUPLA..............................................................................3-410 Logic .............................................................................. (Logic)....3-411 Delay / integrator............................................................(Delay)....3-415 Counter ...................................................................... (Counter)....3-419 Contact bounce filter ...............................................(Debounce)....3-421 Signal flutter detector ............................................(Defluttering)....3-423 LDU events ........................................................... (LDUevents)....3-427 Measurement functions..................................................................3-429 Measurement function .................................................. (UIfPQ)....3-429 Three-phase current plausibility............................(Check-I3ph)....3-433 Three-phase voltage plausibility ......................... (Check-U3ph)....3-437 Disturbance recorder ................................... (Disturbance Rec)....3-441 Measurement module .......................... (Measurement Module)....3-455
3-3

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

3.7.5.1. 3.7.5.2. 3.7.5.3. 3.7.5.4. 3.8. 3.8.1. 3.8.1.1. 3.8.1.2. 3.8.1.3. 3.8.1.4. 3.8.2. 3.8.2.1. 3.8.2.2. 3.8.3.

Impulse counter inputs...................................................................3-461 Impulse counter operation .............................................................3-462 Impulse counter operating principle ...............................................3-462 Interval processing.........................................................................3-463 Data transmission ..........................................................................3-465 Principle of operation of the A/D converter 316EA63 ....................3-465 Introduction ....................................................................................3-465 Synchronisation principle ...............................................................3-465 Data transmission principle............................................................3-465 Consequences of transmission errors ...........................................3-465 Longitudinal differential protection .............................(Diff-Line)....3-467 Setting instructions for lines with a power transformer in the protected zone ....................................3-473 Setting instructions for lines without a power transformer in the protected zone ....................................3-483 Binary data transmission....................................... (RemoteBin)....3-489

3-4

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

3.
3.1. 3.1.1.

SETTING THE FUNCTION PARAMETERS


General Library and settings RE.316*4 provides a comprehensive library of protection and control functions for the complete protection of lines, feeders, transformers, and generators. The setting procedure is carried out with the aid of a personal computer and is extremely user-friendly. The number of protection and control functions active in a RE.316*4 system is limited by the available computing capacity of the processing unit. In each case, the control program checks whether sufficient computing capacity is available otherwise an error message is displayed. The maximum number of protection functions is 48. The settings and the software key determine which functions are active. This facilitates configuration of different protection scheme: Only functions that are actually needed should be activated. Every active function entails computing effort, which can influence the operating time. Many of the functions can be used for multiple purposes, e.g.: to achieve several stages of operation (with the same or different settings and time delays) for use with different input channels.

Other functions can only be configured for one specific purpose in each set of parameter settings: binary signal transmission disturbance recorder contact bounce filter (Debounce) IEC 60870-5-103.

Functions active in the same set of settings can be logically interconnected, e.g. for interlocking purposes.

3.1.2. 3.1.2.1.

Control and protection function sequence Repetition rate The protection system software controls the operating sequence of the individual functions. The latter are divided into routines, which are processed cyclically by the microprocessor. The frequency of the processing cycle (repetition rate) is determined by the technical requirements of the application.

3-5

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

For many functions, this depends on the permissible or desired tripping delay. From this follows that the faster tripping should take place, the higher will be the repetition rate. Typical relationships between tripping delay and repetition rate can be seen from Table 3.1.
Repetition rate 4 2 1
1) for 50 Hz or 60 Hz

Explanation 4 times every 20 ms 1) 2 times every 20 ms 1 time every 20 ms

Delay time < 40 ms 40 ... 199 ms 200 ms

Table 3.1

Typical protection function repetition rates

The repetition rates of some of the functions do not depend on their settings, e.g. the distance protection always has a repetition rate of 4 and the auto-reclosure 1. The scanning of the binary inputs and the setting of the signalling and tripping outputs takes place at the sampling rate of the analog inputs. While the operating speed of the various protection functions is more than adequate for their purpose, they do operate in sequence so that the effective operating times of output signals such as 'Start' and 'Trip' are subject to some variation. This variation is determined by the repetition rate controlling the operation of the function. Typical values are given in Table 3.2.
Repetition rate 4 2 1 Variation -2...+5 ms -2...+10 ms -2...+20 ms

Table 3.2

Variation in the operating time of output signals of protection functions in relation to their repetition rates

3.1.2.2.

Computation requirement of protection functions The amount of computation a function entails is determined by the following factors: complexity of the algorithms used. This is characteristic for each protection function. Repetition rate: The faster the operating time of a protection function, the higher its repetition rate according to Table 3.1. The computation requirement increases approximately in proportion to the repetition rate.

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Already active protection functions: The protection system is able to use certain intermediate results (measured variables) determined by a protection function several times. In consequence, additional stages of the same protection function with the same inputs generally only involve a little more computation for the comparison with the pick-up value, but not for conditioning the input signal.

The computation requirement of the RE.316*4 protection functions can be seen from Table 3.3. The values given are typical percentages in relation to the computing capacity of a fictitious main processing unit. According to Table 3.1, the computation requirement of some of the functions increases for low settings of the time delay t and therefore a factor of 2 or 4 has to be used in some instances. When entering the settings for a function with several stages, the one with the shortest time delay is assumed to be the first stage. The computing performance of a RE.316*4 is 250 %, providing a 316VC61a or 316VC61b central processor is fitted. This applies to all devices equipped with the local control unit on the front. The computing performance of older devices with a 316VC61 central processing unit is limited to 200 %. The computing load can be viewed by selecting 'List Procedure List' from the 'List Edit Parameters' menu and is given for the four sets of parameters in per thousand.

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Function 1ph Distance (min.) starters Z< Meas Bward VTSupNPS Power Swing HV distance (min) Meas Bward VTSupNPS Power Swing EarthFltIsol Autoreclosure EarthFltGnd2 I0-Inverse Current-DT with Inrush Blocking Current-Inst Current-Inv DirCurrentDT DirCurrentInv NPS-DT NPS-Inv Imax-Umin Voltage-DT Voltage-Inst Voltage-Bal Underimped MinReactance Oload-Stator Oload-Rotor Power Overtemp. Frequency df/dt Overexcitat U/f-inv Stator-EFP Rotor-EFP Pole-Slip Diff-Gen Diff-Transf SynchroCheck Diff-Line RemoteBin SS-Umschalt BreakerFailure FUPLA 34 ----5 2 3 4 6 6 4 -5 12 15 50 15 25,5 3 4 2

1st stage 3ph 50 20 5 3 15 70 5 3 15 5 1 10 4 3 5 4 7 19 21 6 8 8 3 4 9 17 17 7 6 14 15 --

2nd and higher stages 1ph 3ph

Factor t < 40 ms

(**) t < 200 ms

ditto ditto ditto 3 1 5 2 3 ditto ditto 1 3 2 1 2 ditto 4 4 3 3 3 ditto 3 5 --ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto 40 50 ditto ditto ditto ditto (*) ditto 46 ditto ditto 8 11 11

4 4 4

2 2 2

4 4 4 4

2 2 2 2

40 40 20

16 50 8 30

1/2/4 (***)

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Function 1ph IEC60870-5-103 Logic Delay Counter Debounce Defluttering Analog RIO Trig LDU events UifPQ MeasureModule Voltage/CurrentInp Cnt Check-I3ph Check-U3ph DisturbanceRec without binary I/P with binary I/P (*) can only be set once

1st stage 3ph 1 4 8 8 0.1 4 2 4 5

2nd and higher stages 1ph (*) ditto ditto ditto (*) ditto ditto ditto ditto 3ph

Factor t < 40 ms

(**) t < 200 ms

10 8 5 5

ditto ditto ditto ditto

20 40

(*) (*)

(**) always 1 for delays 200 ms

(***) depends on repetition rate (low / medium / high)

Table 3.3

Computation requirement of protection functions (in percent)

Example: Table 3.4 shows the computation requirement according to Table 3.3 of a simple protection scheme with four active functions. Since functions 1 and 2 use the same analog inputs, the amount of computing capacity required for function 2 is reduced to that of a second stage.

Function No. 1 2 3 4 Total Type Current-DT Current-DT Current-DT Voltage-DT

Input channel 1 (,2,3) 1 (,2,3) 4 7 Phases three three single single

Settings Pick-up 10.0 IN 2.5 IN 3.5 IN 2.0 UN Time 30 ms 100 ms 300 ms 50 ms

Percentage incl. factor 3% 4 = 12% 1% 2 = 2% 2% 1 = 2% 2% 2 = 4% 20%

Table 3.4

Example for calculating the computation requirement

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3.1.2.3.

Computing requirement of the control functions The computing requirement of the control functions cannot be directly represented as a percent of the total computing capacity. The size of the code, the type of control logic also determines the computing requirement. The protection and control function load on the main processor can be checked after loading the program by selecting 'Display AD Channels' from the 'Monitor' menu and checking the value of the 'Loop time'.

Fig. 3.1

Display of the computing time

The 'Loop time' is a measure of the computing requirement. When all the functions are active, i.e. none are disabled, this number must not exceed 20000. The value must be read when the device is in the normal operating state and not during a trip. Set the cycling time of the high-priority task to 20 ms (default, see Section 3.6.1.1. 'Control function settings - FUPLA'). This ensures the correct processing of the protection and control functions.

3.2. 3.2.1.

Control and protection function inputs and outputs Analog / Digital Converter
(see Section 5.4.2.6.)

The protection scheme can include three types of input transformers, which can also have different ratings: protection CTs metering CTs (core-balance) VTs.

The number and arrangement of the input transformers are defined either by sub-code K.. in the ordering code or by transformer type entered for K=0. Before being processed by the protection functions, the currents and voltages coming from the input transformers are digitised in the analog section of the main processor unit. Every analog input channel is designated either single or three-phase: CTs: three-phase protection single-phase protection single-phase metering (core-balance)

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VTs: three-phase Y connected 3-phase, delta connection single-phase

A protection function can only be used in a three-phase mode, if a corresponding three-phase group of CT/VT input channels is available. All protection function settings are based on the input values (secondary ratings) of the RE.316*4. The fine adjustment to suit the effective primary system quantities is accomplished by varying the reference settings of the analog inputs.

3.2.2.

Binary inputs
(see Section 5.4.2.1.)

RE.316*4 recognises one of the following values: logical '0' (fixed value) or FALSE logical '1' (fixed value) or TRUE binary input value (316DB6.) binary control and protection values as defined by the function number and the corresponding signalling output binary values from the station control level binary values from the distributed input units (500RIO11) binary values with interlocking data.

All the above can also be set as binary inputs of control and protection functions. All the binary addresses set may be used either directly or inverted.

3.2.3.

Signalling outputs
(see Section 5.4.2.3.)

All the control and protection signalling outputs provide the following facilities: external signalling via LEDs external signalling via relays event recording control of tripping relays external signalling via the communications interface external signalling via distributed output units (500RIO11) output of interlocking data.

The following applies to external signals via a signalling relay or a LED: A signalling relay or LED can only be activated by a one signal. Every signalling relay and LED can be individually set to latch.

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A signal can activate up to two output channels, e.g.: 2 signalling relays 1 signalling relay and 1 LED 1 signalling relay and 1 tripping relay

An output each can also be configured for the communication interface, the distributed output units, interlocking data and event recording. Important signals are duplicated, e.g. 'General Trip' and 'General Trip Aux'. 3.2.4. Tripping relay outputs
(see Section 5.4.2.4.)

All protection functions can directly actuate the tripping relays. A tripping logic matrix is provided for this purpose, which enables any function to be connected to any tripping channel. A tripping channel can be activated by any number of protection functions. Only the binary I/O units 316DB61 and 316DB62 are equipped with tripping relays. Each unit has two relays each with two contacts for a total of four contacts. 3.2.5. Measured variables
(see Section 5.5.2.)

Apart from being processed internally, the analog variables measured by the RE.316*4 protection functions can also be viewed externally as: a value: The input variables measured by the protection functions are available to the station control system via the communication interface. They can also be viewed locally on a PC (personal computer) running the operator program or on the local display unit (LDU) on the frontplate. Their values are referred to the secondary voltages and currents at the input of the RE.316*4. a recorded event: The instant a protection function trips, the value of the corresponding measured variable is recorded as an event.

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3.3.

Frequency range The protection functions can be set to operate at a power system frequency fN of either 50 Hz or 60 Hz. The algorithms, which execute the protection functions, have been optimised to produce the best results at the rated frequency fN. Discrepancies from the rated frequency cause an additional error.

3.4. 3.4.1.

System parameter settings Relay configuration Summary of parameters:


Unit Nominal Frequency A/D Converter Slot Nr. 1 Slot Nr. 2 Slot Nr. 3 Slot Nr. 4 AD Config K SWVers SX... SWVers S.XXX Hz Default 50 on VC61 not used not used not used not used 0 X 100 Min. 50 (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) 0 (Select) 1 999 1 999 1 Max. 60 Step 10

Significance of the parameters: Nominal Frequency Determination of the rated frequency: 50 Hz or 60 Hz. A/D Converter defines the type of A/D converter: on VC61: A/D converter on 316VC61a resp. 316VC61b EA62 : Line differential protection with the older A/D converter 316EA62 EA63 : Line differential protection with the newer A/D converter 316EA63 EA6. Master .: Master device EA6. Slave .: Slave device EA6. Master Fox .: Master device for data transmission via FOX EA6. Slave Fox .: Slave device for data transmission via FOX EA6. ..... S: Short data transmission distance EA6. ..... L: Long data transmission distance

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The setting of the data transmission distance is normally determined by the attenuation of the optical fibre cable between the two units. However, when using FOX optical fibre equipment, the setting is determined by the connection between the RE.316*4 and the FOX equipment. The data transmission distance setting influences the output power of the transmission diode. It must therefore be selected such that the receiver diode at the remote end is not overloaded. To make sure that the setting is correct, measure the optical signal strength while commissioning the system. The output power must be in the respective range given in the following table (MM = Multi-mode optical cable 50/125m, SM = Single-mode optical cable 9/125 m):
Setting OFL Type MM SM EA6..S -26 -20 dBm -32 -22 dBm EA6..L -16 -13 dBm -20 -17 dBm

Select the setting such that taking the attenuation to be expected due to the optical cable into account, the power at the receiving end is between 34dBm to 22dBm. Measure the signal strength at the receiving end to make sure that it is within this range. Instead of measuring the optical power at the receiving end one can check the value of the received power in the diagnosis menu ( see Section 6.6). The value should be between 400 ... 15000. The transmission functions reliably outside this range, as long as no modem errors are reported. In spite of this in order to have a reserve against aging of the components (Optical cable, Transmit and Receive diodes), after the commissioning the received power should be in the range of 400 ... 15000

NOTICE: Take care when measuring the output power to set the level for the correct type of optical cable in use. One device must be configured as master (or 'EA6. Master Fox .') and the other as slave (or ' EA6. Slave Fox .'). If an A/D converter Type 316EA62 is installed, the 'A/D Converter' parameter must be set to 'EA62' even if the optical fibre link is not in operation yet.

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AD Config K: Version and type of input transformer unit: 0 ... 999: K0: A/D converter freely selectable K1 ... K9: Standard variant for REL316*4 without longitudinal distance protection K15 ... K17: Standard variant for REL316*4 with longitudinal distance protection K21 ... K24: Standard variant for RET316*4 K41 ... K47: Standard variant for REC316*4 K61 ... K67: Standard variant for REG316*4 K80 ... K999: Project specific A/D converter unit, A/D converter freely selectable A list of input transformer unit codes is to be found in the data sheet (Section 8).

NOTICE: This parameter must be set before configuring the protection functions and cannot be changed subsequently. The setting must agree with the type of the I/P transformer actually installed in the device. The hardware is not checked.
Slot Nr. 1: Defines the type of I/O board in slot 1: not used, 316DB61, 316DB62 or 316DB63. Slot Nr. 2: Defines the type of I/O board in slot 2: not used, 316DB61, 316DB62 or 316DB63. Slot Nr. 3: Defines the type of I/O board in slot 3: not used, 316DB61, 316DB62 or 316DB63. Slot Nr. 4: Defines the type of I/O board in slot 4: not used, 316DB61, 316DB62 or 316DB63. SWVers SX...: First part (letter) of the software code. SWVers S.XXX: Second part (figures) of the software code. A summary of the protection functions according to software codes is given in the data sheet (Section 8).

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3.4.2.

Configuration of the A / D Converter


(see Section 5.4.2.6.)

Channel type If for the hardware configuration K is set to 0 or 80999, CT and VT channels can be entered in any order, providing a corresponding input transformer unit is fitted. The codes K80 upto K999 are project specific, and are documented in the respective project schematics. In the following tables the configuration possibilities and their significance are explained. Some types of A/D converters are only utilized for specific devices.
Channel Type Not used UT 1ph 0.57 IT 1ph ITM 1ph UT 1ph 1.00 UT 1ph 0.15 Description of the A/D converter channels To be selected, in case no A/D converter is used in this channel. VT 1-phase. Range 0 ... 1.3 UN Protection CT 1-phase Metering CT 1-phase VT 1-phase. Range 0 ... 2.2 UN VT 1-phase with UN = 15 V. Used for the Stator- and Rotor-ESS (for REX010/011) (Ui, Ustator). VT 3-phase in Star connection. Measurement of the phase earth voltage. Range 0 ... 1.3 UN VT 3 phase in Star connection. Measurement of the phase earth voltage. Range 0 ... 2.2 UN Protection CT 3-phase Metering CT 3-phase VT 3-phase in Delta connection. Measurement of the phase-to-phase voltage. Range 0 ... 1.3 UN VT 3-phase in Delta connection. Measurement of the phase-to-phase voltage. Range 0 ... 2.2 UN Device type ALL REL316*4 REC316*4 ALL ALL RET316*4 REG316*4 REG316*4

UTS 3ph 0.57

REL316*4 REC316*4 RET316*4 REG316*4 ALL ALL REL316*4 REC316*4 RET316*4 REG316*4

UTS 3ph 1.00

IT 3ph ITM 3ph UTD 3ph 0.57

UTD 3ph 1.00

Table 3.5

Configuration options and significance for channel type, device type and description of the A/D converters

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Nominal value Enter the rated values for the CTs and VTs in the input transformer unit (1 A, 2 A, 5 A, 100 V or 200 V). S and T phases of three-phase channels assume the same value as R phase. In order that the resolution of the impedance setting for a rated current of 5 A is meaningful, the impedance setting range for 5 A is automatically reduced by a factor of 10.

NOTICE: The ratings must be set at the beginning and not changed afterwards. This applies especially in the case of the distance function.
Setting instructions for the longitudinal differential protection: The rated current settings of the channels in the remote station (channels 7, 8 and 9) must agree with the effective rated currents of the CTs in the remote station. Edit A/D prim/sec ratio This setting is utilised to correctly display the primary value in the measurands display of the HMI and LDU, for the evaluation of the disturbance records, and for the IEC60870-5-103-Protocol. S and T phases of three-phase CT and VT channels assume the same value as R phase. Edit A/D channel ref. value The reference values of the CT and VT channels enable the device ratings to by matched to those of the protected unit. They are a factor that can be set in the range 0.5 to 2. S and T phases of three-phase channels assume the same value as R phase. Example: Rated voltage = 110 V Reference value of the voltage channel =

110 V = 1.100 100 V

Effects of changing the reference values: With the exception of the impedance settings for the distance function, the protection function settings (parameters expressed in relation to 'IN' and 'UN') are automatically adjusted to the new reference values. In the case of the distance function, however, adjusting just the currents and not the voltages will change the impedance pick-up values. For this reason the reference values for the current inputs should not be changed.
Edit A/D channel comment

Facility is provided for the user to enter a comment for each analog channel, which is displayed together with the channel type when the corresponding CT or VT input parameter of a protection function is selected.
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3.4.3.

Entering comments for binary inputs and outputs

By clicking on the 'Edit' button for the resp. slot card in the window 'Relay Configuration' the user can enter comments for each of the binary inputs (see Section 5.4.2.1), LED (see Section 5.4.2.5), signalling outputs (see Section 5.4.2.3) or tripping output (see Section 5.4.2.4.).
3.4.4. Masking binary inputs, entering latching parameters and definition of 'double indications'

Binary channels can be 'masked' by clicking on the 'Edit' button for the resp. slot card in the window 'Relay Configuration' (see Section 5.4.2.1), so that they do not appear in the event list. Every LED (see Section 5.4.2.5), every signalling relay (see Section 5.4.2.3)and tripping relay (see Section 5.4.2.4) can be set to latch. LEDs will only latch, however, providing the 'LED Sig Mode' parameter is also set for latching beforehand. Note that the green LED1 ('Activ') cannot be set to a latching mode. Two consecutive binary inputs can be combined to form a 'Double Indication' (see Section 5.4.2.2). Up to 30 double signals can be defined and a runtime supervision can be activated for each pair.

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3.4.5.

System I / O
(see Section 5.4.4.)

The system parameters apply to all the protection and control functions of the device: Summary of parameters:
Text LED Sig Mode TimeSynchronisation By PC Relay Ready General Trip General TripAux General Start General StartAux Inj. Test Output Test active MMI is ON InjTest Enable Ext. Reset Enable Test Remote Setting ParSet2 IN ParSet3 IN ParSet4 IN ParSet1 OUT ParSet2 OUT ParSet3 OUT ParSet4 OUT Modem Error Quit Status MVB PB Warning MVB PB Crash Process Bus BA1 Ready Process Bus BA2 Ready Process Bus BA3 Ready Process Bus BA4 Ready Process Bus LA Faulty Process Bus LB Faulty SignalAddr SignalAddr ER SignalAddr SignalAddr ER SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr ER BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr T BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER Unit Default Min. Max. Step

AccumSigAll (Select) on (Select)

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Explanation of parameters:

LED Sig Mode Select the display mode for LED signaling: 'AccumSigAll' Signals will not be reset, but accumulated. It should be noted that signals from different events could be superimposed. 'ResetSigAll' Reset with 'General Start'. The signaling LEDs will be reset by a 'General Start' pick-up. All subsequent signals will be displayed and maintained i.e. the signals correspond to the last fault. 'ResetSigTrip' Reset with 'General Start'. All signaling LEDs are reset by a start. New signaling will only be dispayed and maintained if tripping takes place. 'NoLatch' The LED signals are not latched.

In all three latching modes, the LEDs can be reset either by selecting the menu item 'Latch Reset' in the 'RESET menu' on the LDU or by briefly activating the 'Ext. reset' binary input. Only those LEDs will latch in the on state if they are configured according to Section 3.4.4. Time Synchronisarion By PC switches on / off the synchronisation of the RE.316*4 clock by PC clock when the HMI is started. Relay Ready Signal that the relay is ready to operate. General Trip, General Trip Aux General tripping signal generated via an OR function of all tripping signals assigned to the tripping logic. General Start, General Start Aux Signal for 'General Start'. This signal is the OR of all start signals configured as events. Inj Test Output (see Section 7.9.1.3.) Tripping signal for the test set. When the device is set to the test mode, the output signal 'Inj. Test Output' is assigned to the distance protection signal 'Trip CB'. Although it is possible to allocate this signal to two outputs, only one should be assigned. This signal is normally assigned to the auxiliary relay S102.

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Test active (see Section 5.5.3.) Signal indicating that the device is in the test mode. This signal remains set as long as the HMI menu 'Test functions' is open. MMI is on Signal indicating that the control PC is connected and serviceable. Inj Test Enable (see Section 7.9.1.3.) Input for switching to and from the test mode. It is normally used in conjunction with the test adapter Type XX93 or 316 TSS 01 and assigned to the binary input OC 101. This input has to be inverted when using the test plug casing Type XX93. F: operating mode T: test mode xx: all binary inputs
Caution:

An active input does not influence the LED 'Activ' (green LED). When the input is active, the Baud rate of the HMI interface is switched to 9600 bps.

Ext. Reset Input for remote resetting the signalling LEDs and relays: F: no external reset xx: all binary inputs Enable Test Input for enabling the test functions controlled by the MMI: F: test functions blocked T: test functions enabled xx: all binary inputs Remote Setting (see Section 5.9.1.) Input for switching between sets of parameters. F: Sets of parameters can only be switched by applying signals to the inputs 'ParSet 2 IN... ParSet 4 IN'. T: Sets of parameters can only be switched by signals from the station control system. xx: all binary inputs ParSet 2 IN...ParSet 4 IN (see Section 5.9.1.) Inputs for switching between different sets of parameters. ParSet 1 OUT...ParSet 4 OUT (see Section 5.9.1.) Signal indicating the active set of parameters.

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Modem Error Signals errors in the optical data transmission link between two line differential relays. This signal is output without any delays in the event of an error (see Section 3.8. Data transmission). The diagnostic function reports this error after a delay of 80 ms, i.e. only when it is certain that the communications channel is permanently disturbed. Quit Status signals the operation of the reset button on the front of the device. MVB PB Warning, MVB PB Crash, Process Bus BA1 Ready... Process Bus BA4 Ready, Process Bus LA faulty, Process Bus LB faulty These messages are only generated when using an MVB process bus (see Operating Instructions for the remote I/O system RIO580, 1MRB520192-Uen).

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3.5. 3.5.1.

Protection functions HV distance protection function (HV-Distance)

The HV distance protection is optimised for applications in EHV power systems. The main difference compared with the standard distance protection function is improved phase selection to achieve a better response to evolving faults on parallel circuits. Refer to the standard distance relay function in Section 3.5.2. for the setting procedure. However, note must be taken of the following differences (the parameters in Section 3.5.2. that do not apply to the HV distance protection or have a different significance are marked): The HV distance function is only equipped with underimpedance starters, i.e. the overcurrent starters have been omitted. As a consequence, the parameters 'Start Mode' and 'I start', the binary input 'Ext UZ Blk' and the signals 'Start OC' and 'Start UZ' do not exist. The function is only applicable to solidly grounded systems. Also the 'Phase Sel Mode' parameter has different settings. In addition to the non-directional starter mode available up to the present, the 'Phase Sel Mode' parameter also permits the direction and reach of the overreach zone to be selected. This is only effective, however, for phase selection in the first time step and has no influence on (non-directional) signals. The 'Phase Sel Mode' parameter can be set to one of the following: non-directional (default) forwards overreach An earth fault detector with negative phase sequence restraint I2 is now included in addition to the existing restraint using the largest phase current Imax. The settings 'Blocked' and 'I0 AND U0' are no longer available for the parameter 'Gnd Fault Mode'. The settings are therefore (the corresponding earth fault criteria are given on the right, IE = 3 I0 being referred to as the neutral current): I0: I0 OR U0: I0(I2): I0(I2) OR U0: (IE > '3I0min') AND (IE > 0.25 Imax) (IE > '3I0min') AND (IE > 0.25 Imax) OR (UE > '3U0min') (IE > '3I0min') AND (IE > 0.23 I2) (IE > '3I0min') AND (IE > 0.23 I2) OR (UE > '3U0min')

The slope of the measurement characteristic for the first zone is changed from 7 to 14 if the load current exceeds the setting of the new parameter 'I Load' and power is flowing from the relay location towards the remote end of the line (overreaching due to the semaphore effect). The setting range for 'I Load' is 0...2 IN in steps of 0.01 IN (default setting = 0.5 IN), where:

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'I Load' = 0.01...1.99 IN: 'I Load' = 0 IN: 'I Load' = 2 IN:

Characteristic switches as described above. Fixed slope of 14 Fixed slope of 7

The setting 'BlockZ1' in the 'Measurement' sub-menu has been dropped and a binary input 'Ext. Block Z1' provided instead. In the case of short lines and a large line-to-source impedance ratio, a better response for phase-to-phase faults can be obtained by correcting the phase-angles of US and UT. Calibration is performed during commissioning as follows: Inject the same voltage (0.5 UN) into all three phases in parallel. Read the phase error of S and T phases (in relation to R phase) in the 'List AD channels'. Enter the values of the readings for the parameters 'SR Error' and 'TR Error' in the sub-menu 'Analog inputs'.

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3.5.2.

Distance protection (Distance) A. Application

Distance protection for the high-speed discriminative protection of long or short overhead lines or cables, double-circuit lines, heavily loaded lines, lines with weak infeeds and what are referred to as 'short-zone' lines. The protection is applicable to solidly or low-resistance grounded systems, systems with Petersen coils or to ungrounded systems. All kinds of faults are detected including close-in three-phase faults, cross-country faults, evolving faults and high-resistance earth faults. The protection remains stable in the presence of power swings and reversal of energy direction. Switching onto an existing fault results in instantaneous tripping of the circuit breaker. The distance function can also act as back-up protection for the power transformer and neighbouring lines. Most of the logic described in this Section (e.g. the transmission of signals) is not used for these applications.
B. Features

Overcurrent or underimpedance starters (polygon characteristic) 5 distance stages (independently set polygon characteristics) Definite time overcurrent back-up protection also applicable for protecting short zones (teed section in 1 breaker schemes (see Section 4.2.1.5.4.)) VT supervision Power-swing blocking Tripping logics for: switch-onto-fault protection overreaching zone permissive underreaching transfer tripping (also for weak infeed and communications channel failure) permissive overreaching transfer tripping (also for weak infeed, communications channel failure and reversal of energy direction) blocking scheme (also for reversal of energy direction)

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C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

Three-phase currents Three-phase voltages Neutral current Neutral current of the parallel circuit

II. Binary inputs:

Reversal of measuring direction Distance function blocking Underimpedance starter blocking Power-swing blocking Overcurrent back-up blocking (I O/C) Dead line Manual CB close Zone extension Isolator open Communication receive Communication channel failure Single-phase auto-reclosure ready Tripping condition blocking for the switch-onto-fault protection Incoming PLC blocking signal First zone blocking

III. Binary outputs:


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R+S+T starters RST starter R starter S starter T starter E starter I0 starter U0 starter Starter Z< starter Overcurrent back-up starter (I O/C) Switch-onto-fault starter Single-phase starter CB trip RST trip R trip S trip T trip Three-phase trip Single-phase trip Overcurrent back-up trip (I O/C) Switch-onto-fault trip Trip with transfer trip signal

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'short-zone' protection trip Time 2nd step Zone 1 time Zone 2 time Zone 3 time Zone 4 time Final zone time Measurement Overreaching measurement Forwards measurement Reverse measurement 'weak infeed' trip Distance protection blocked Delayed distance protection blocked Power-swing blocking VT supervision Delayed VT supervision Communication send PLC boost Memory frequency deviation

IV. Measurements:

Impedance loop RE Impedance loop SE Impedance loop TE Impedance loop RS Impedance loop ST Impedance loop TR

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D. Distance protection function settings - Distance

Summary of parameters:
Text GENERAL Reference Length CT Neutral Reset Events Fupla Directory CT/VT INPUTS U input I input I0 input I0P input CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr 0 0 0 0 ohms/phase 01.000 Line side all DISTSTD 0.01 (Select) (Select) 30.000 0.001 Units Default Min. Max. Step

STARTING (see 'Measurement' for final zone settings)


1) Start Mode 2) Phase Sel Mode 2) Gnd Fault Mode 1) I start

OC Solid Ground I0 IN IN IN UN 004.00 000.20 000.20 000.00

(Select) (Select) (Select) 0.5 0.1 0.1 0 0 -999 0 -999 0 0 0 10 2 2 2 999 0 999 0 999 90 2 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.01

I min 3I0 min 3U0 min XA XB RA RB RLoad Angle Load Uweak MEASUREMENT X R RR RRE k0 K0 Angle Delay (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

ohms/phase 000.0 ohms/phase 000.0 ohms/phase 000.0 ohms/phase 000.0 ohms/phase 000.0 deg UN 45 000.00

ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 1 deg s 001.00 000.00 000.000

-300 -300 -300 -300 0 -180 0

300 300 300 300 8 90 10

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.001

1) Not

available on HV distance function. settings for the HV distance function.

2) Different

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Text

Units

Default

Min.

Max.

Step

X R RR RRE RRE k0 K0 Angle Delay X R RR RRE k0 K0 Angle Delay X R RR RRE k0 K0 Angle Delay X R RR RRE
*) Delay

(2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (4/OR) (4/OR) (4/OR) (4/OR) (4/OR) (4/OR) (4/OR) (BACK) (BACK) (BACK) (BACK) (Def)

ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 1 deg s 001.00 000.00 000.00

-300 -300 -300 -300 -300 0 -180 0 -300 -300 -300 -300 0 -180 0 -300 -300 -300 -300 0 -180 0 -300 -300 -300 -300 0 0 -90 0.01 (Select) (Select) (Select)

300 300 300 300 300 8 90 10 300 300 300 300 8 90 10 300 300 300 300 8 90 10 0 0 0 0 10 8 90 2

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 1 deg s 001.00 000.00 000.00

ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 1 deg s 001.00 000.00 000.00

ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 ohms/phase 000.00 s 1 deg UN 002.00 000.00 000.00 000.05 Trip non-dir off

k0m k0 Angle(m) UminFault Mem Dir Mode


*) Def Dir Mode 1) Block Z1

*) These parameters belong to the final zone.

The starting and measurement values the settings (in columns Min., Max. and Step) the parameters with unit 'Ohm/Phase' have to be divided by 10 for relays with a rated current of 5 A. They do not change for rated currents of 1 A and 2 A.

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Text

Units

Default

Min.

Max.

Step

O/C BACK-UP PROTECTION I O/C Delay O/C VT SUPERVISION VT Sup Mode VT Sup Blk Del VT Sup Deb Del U0min VTSup I0min VTSup U2min VTSup I2min VTSup TRIP SCHEMES ComMode TripMode SOTF Mode SOTF10sec Weak Unblock Echo Trans Block t1 Block t1 Trans Block t2 Trans Block t1 Evol Faults s s s s off 1Ph trip off off off off off off 000.04 000.05 003.00 003.00 (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) 0 0 0 0 0.25 0.25 10 10 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 UN IN UN IN off off off 000.20 000.07 000.20 000.07 (Select) (Select) (Select) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 IN s 000.00 005.00 0 0 10 10 0.01 0.1

POWER SWING BLOCKING Time PS block BINARY INPUTS Change Meas. Dir. Ext. Block Dist 1) Ext UZ Block Ext Block PSB Ext Block O/C DeadLine Manual Close ZExtension Isolator open Com Rec BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr F F F T F F F F F F s 000.00 0 10 0.01

1)

Not available on HV distance function.

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Text

Units

Default

Com Fail 1 Pol AR Ext Block SOTF Ext Block HF Zextension AR Ext. Block Z1 CB COMMANDS Trip CB R Trip CB S Trip CB T SIGNAL OUTPUTS Start R+S+T Start RST Start RST Aux Start R Start R Aux Start S Start S Aux Start T Start T Aux Start E Start E Aux Start I0 Start U0 Start O/C Start SOTF Start 1ph Trip CB Trip RST Trip RST Aux Trip CB R Trip CB S Trip CB T Trip CB 3P Trip CB 1P

BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr

F T F F F F

Trip Chan Trip Chan. Trip Chan

00000000 00000000 00000000

SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr

ER ER ER ER ER

ER

ER

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Text

Units

Default

Min.

Max.

Step

Trip O/C Trip SOTF Trip Com Trip Stub Delay >=2 Delay 1 Delay 2 Delay 3 Delay 4 Delay Def Meas Main Meas Oreach Meas Fward Meas Bward Weak Infeed Dist Blocked Del Dist Blocked Power Swing VT Sup VT Sup Delay Com Send Com Boost Freq Dev
1) Start OC 1) Start UZ

SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr

ER

ER ER ER ER

ER ER

ER

ER

ADDITIONAL LOGIC BOOL_IN1 : BOOL_IN8 TIMER_1 : TIMER_8 BOOL_OUT1 : BOOL_OUT8 ms : ms SignalAddr : SignalAddr BinaryAddr : BinaryAddr F : F 0 : 0 0 : 0 30000 : 30000 1 : 1

1)

Not available on HV distance function.

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Explanation of parameters: GENERAL

Reference Length (see Section 3.5.2.1.) Reactance (secondary value) to be used as reference length of the line. CT neutral (see Section 3.5.2.1.) Side of the CTs on which the star-point is formed (current direction): busbar side (old BBC diagram) line side (standard today, see wiring diagram in the Chapter 12) This parameter only influences the distance function and only the display of the system variables. It does not influence the values of the A/D channels. Reset Events (see Page 3-45) Determination of whether all the distance function events in the event list which have been reset should be displayed: All Partly Fupla directory The sub directory for the distance protection logic is selectable. The default directory name 'DISTSTD' is valid in case the standard distance protection logic is utilised, which is situated in the HMI sub directory. A different configuration is necessary only if instead of the standard distance logic a special distance protection logic is utilised. The procedure in this case has to be obtained from the associated logic description.
CT/VT INPUTS (see wiring diagram in the Chapter 12)

U input indicates the first of the VT inputs assigned to the three phase voltages. I input indicates the first of the CT inputs assigned to the three phase currents. I0 input indicates the CT input assigned to the neutral current (if fitted and activated). This is used for the external acquisition of the neutral current of the line. If the I0 input is not used, the neutral current is derived from the phase currents.

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I0P input indicates the CT input assigned to the neutral current of the parallel circuit (if fitted and activated). This is used for the neutral current of the parallel circuit of a double-circuit line.
Note:

The CT input (I0P) should be wired in the same sense as the neutral current input (I0) (e.g. terminals 9 and 10 correspond to terminals 7 and 8 respectively).

STARTING (see Section 3.5.2.2./ 4.2.1.1.)

Start Mode 1) Definition of the starters used: OC - overcurrent UZ - underimpedance PhaseSelMode 2) Phase preference for cross-country faults in systems with Petersen coils and ungrounded systems: solidly grounded (no phase preference) RTS(R) cyclic TRS(T) cyclic RTS acyclic RST acyclic TSR acyclic TRS acyclic SRT acyclic STR acyclic Gnd Fault Mode 2) Method of detecting ground faults: I0 I0 OR U0 I0 AND U0. Blocked (only phase-to-phase loop measured, e.g. with only two CTs and V connected VTs) I Start 1) Pick-up value of the overcurrent starters. I Min Current level for enabling the protection. 3I0 Min Current level of the neutral current (3I0) for enabling the protection (ground fault detector).

1) 2)

Not available on HV distance function. Different settings for the HV distance function.

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3U0 Min Voltage level of the neutral voltage (3U0) at which the E/F measurement is enabled (ground fault detector). XA Reactive reach of the impedance characteristic in the tripping direction. XB Reactive reach of the impedance characteristic in the restraint direction. RA Resistive reach of the impedance characteristic in the tripping direction. RB Resistive reach of the impedance characteristic in the restraint direction. RLoad Resistive reach for avoiding load encroachment. Angle Load Limit phase-angle for avoiding load encroachment. Uweak (Phase) Voltage pick-up value for determining the 'weak infeed' or 'dead line' conditions for enabling manually energisation of the line. A setting of zero disables the function.

MEASUREMENT (see Section 3.5.2.3. / 4.2.1.2.)

X (n) Pick-up line reactance for Zone (n): X < 0 for the restraint direction X = 0 disables the zone (Zone 1 cannot be disabled) R (n) Pick-up line resistance for Zone (n); the sign must be the same as for X (n). RR (n) Resistive reach (incl. arc resistance) of Zone (n) for phase faults; the sign must be the same as for X (n). RRE (n) Resistive reach (incl. arc resistance) of Zone (n) for E/Fs; the sign must be the same as for X (n). k0 (n) Value of the zero-sequence compensation factor for E/Fs in Zone (n); (Z 0 Z1) / (3 x Z1) .

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k0 Angle (n) Phase-angle of the zero-sequence compensation factor for E/Fs in Zone (n); Arg [(Z0 Z1) / (3 Z1)] .

Delay (n) Operating time for Zone (n). X (BACK) Pick-up line reactance for the reverse zone: X = 0 zone disabled. R (BACK) Pick-up line resistance for the reverse zone. RR (BACK) Resistive reach for phase faults in the reverse zone. RRE (BACK) Resistive reach for E/Fs in the reverse zone. Delay (Def) (see Section 3.5.2.4.) Operating time for the final zone (starter reach). k0m Value of the zero-sequence compensation factor for a parallel circuit (ratio of the mutual impedance to three times the positivesequence impedance); Zm0 / (3 Z1) . The mutual impedance is not taken into account for a setting of zero. k0 Angle(m) Phase-angle of the zero-sequence compensation factor for a parallel circuit Arg Zm0 / (3 x Z1) . Umin Fault (see Section 3.5.2.3.2.) Minimum voltage at which the fault voltage is used for determining fault direction. Mem Dir Mode Procedure to be followed after decay of the memory voltage and no voltage is available for measurement: Protection blocks Protection trips Conditional trip: Only trips, if the directions during the present and the preceding times steps are in opposition. Def Dir Mode (see Section 3.5.2.4.) Response at the end of the final time step (definitive time): Non-directional: Trips for faults in both directions. Forwards: Trips only for faults in the forwards direction.

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Block Z1 1) Zone 1 measurement blocking: off on

O/C BACK-UP PROTECTION (see Section 3.5.2.5. / 4.2.1.4.)

I O/C Pick-up value of the definite time back-up overcurrent function. Delay O/C Time delay for the definite time back-up overcurrent function.
VT SUPERVISION
(see Section 3.5.2.6. / 4.2.1.3.)

VT Sup Mode 0 off 1 ZeroSeq 2 3 4 NegSeq Zero*NegSeq Special

[U0 I0] [U2 I2] [(U0 I0) + (U2 I2)] [U2 (I0 + I2)]

VT Sup Blk Del Delayed blocking of the distance function (12 s) for operation of the VT supervision. off immediate blocking on delayed blocking VT Sup Deb Del Delay (1 s) for resetting blocking by the VT supervision. off immediate reset on delayed reset U0 min VT Sup Pick-up setting of the neutral voltage (U0) for VT supervision referred to the rated VT voltage 100/ 3 or 200/ 3 .
I0 min VT Sup Pick-up setting of the neutral current (I0) for VT supervision.

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U2 min VT Sup Pick-up setting of the negative sequence voltage (U2) for VT supervision referred to the rated VT voltage 100/ 3 or 200/ 3 . I2 min VT Sup Pick-up setting of the NPS current (I2) for VT supervision.

TRIP SCHEMES (see Section 3.5.2.7. / 4.2.1.5.)

Com Mode Type of transfer tripping scheme: off PUTT NONDIR PUTT FWD PUTT OR2 POTT BLOCK OR Trip Mode Type of tripping (single or three-phase): 1PhTrip - single-phase tripping (for single-phase autoreclosure) 3PhTrip - three-phase tripping in all cases

3PhTripDel3 - single-phase tripping (for single-phase autoreclosure) up to the end of 'Delay (3)' then three-phase tripping SOTF Mode Operating mode of the switch-onto-fault function: off non-dir. non-directional underimpedance starting (recommended setting) forward UR2 directional with overreaching (Zone 2, if overreaching disabled) and non-directional after decay of any memory voltage

SOTF 10sec Enables the 10 s delay for the switch-onto-fault function: off (t = 200 ms) on (t = 10 s) Weak Enables 'Weak infeed' logic for the PUTT or POTT transfer tripping modes (Uweak must also be set): off on

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Unblock Deblocking logic enable: off on (only suitable for PLC) Echo 'Echo' logic enable for the POTT transfer tripping mode: off on Trans Block Enables 'Transient blocking' logic (stabilisation for reversal of power direction on double-circuit lines) for the POTT and BLOCK OR (overreaching blocking scheme) transfer tripping modes: off on t1 Block Time allowed for receiving a blocking signal in the BLOCK OR (overreaching blocking scheme) mode. t1 Trans Block Time 1 for the TRANSBL (transient blocking) mode. Delay for faults after a fault was detected in the reverse direction. t2 Trans Block Time 2 for the TRANSBL (transient blocking) mode. The logic remains enabled for the time t2 after a fault was detected in the reverse direction. t1 Evol Faults Time for discriminating evolving faults (three-phase trip for evolving faults during this time setting).

POWER-SWING BLOCKING (see Section 3.5.2.8. and 4.2.1.6.)

Time PS Block Maximum time during which the power-swing blocking function is effective. The function is disabled when set to zero.

BINARY INPUTS (see Section 3.5.2.10.)

Change Meas. Dir Input for changing the direction of measurement. Ext. Block Dist. Input for blocking the distance protection function: F: not blocked xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

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Ext. UZ Block 1) Input for blocking the underimpedance starters: F: underimpedance starters enabled T: underimpedance starters disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Ext. Block PSB External disable for the power-swing blocking function: F: power-switch blocking enabled T: power-switch blocking disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Ext. Block O/C External disable of the back-up overcurrent function F: enabled T: disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Deadline Line de-energised signal (auxiliary contact on the circuit-breaker when the VTs are on the busbar): F: input not used xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Manual Close Circuit-breaker manual close signal: F: input not used xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) ZExtension External zone extension control signal: F: external zone extension disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Isolator Open Isolator open signal for activating the 'short-zone' logic and protection (T section in 1 breaker schemes): F: disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Com Rec Input for PLC signal from the remote station: F: input not used xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

1)

Not available on HV distance function.

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Com Fail Input for PLC failure signal: F: input not used xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

1 Pol AR Single-phase trip enable (used in conjunction with the autoreclosure function): F: three-phase trip only T: single and three-phase trip (depending on type of fault) xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

Ext Block SOTF Input for blocking the tripping condition for the switch-onto-fault logic: F: enabled T: disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Note: The input does not disable the switch-onto-fault starting signal.

Ext Block HF Input for blocking a received PLC signal (controlled, for example, by a sensitive E/F scheme using the same PLC channel): F: input not used xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

Zextension AR Input for enabling the overreaching zone by the auto-reclosure function: F: zone extension by the auto-reclosure function disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

ExtBlock Z1 Input for blocking measurement in the first zone: F: enabled T: disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

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CB COMMANDS

Trip CB R Tripping logic for the R phase pole of the circuit-breaker. This signal is not generated while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection. Trip CB S Tripping relay for the S phase pole of the circuit-breaker. This signal is not generated while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection. Trip CB T Tripping relay for the T phase pole of the circuit-breaker. This signal is not generated while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection.
SIGNALLING

Start R+S+T General distance protection starting signal (OR logic for all starting signals excluding 'weak infeed'). Start RST (StartRSTAux) General distance protection starting signal (OR logic for all starting signals including 'weak infeed'). Start R (Start R Aux) Distance protection R phase starting signal (including 'weak infeed'). Start S (Start S Aux) Distance protection S phase starting signal (including 'weak infeed'). Start T (Start T Aux) Distance protection T phase starting signal (including 'weak infeed'). Start E (Start E Aux) Distance protection E/F starting signal (U0 or I0). Only generated together with a phase starter. Start I0 Neutral current starting signal (I0). Start U0 Neutral voltage starting signal (U0). Start O/C Back-up overcurrent pick-up signal. Start SOTF Enabling signal for the switch-onto-fault protection. Start 1ph Indicates that the distance protection was started by a single phase.
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Trip CB General circuit-breaker tripping signal. This signal is disabled while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection. Trip RST (trip RST Aux) General tripping signal. This signal is not disabled while a blocking signal is being applied. Trip CB R Circuit-breaker R phase trip signal. This signal is disabled while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection. Trip CB S Circuit-breaker S phase trip signal. This signal is disabled while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection. Trip CB T Circuit-breaker T phase trip signal. This signal is disabled while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection. Trip CB 3P Three-phase trip signal. This signal is disabled while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection. Trip CB 1P Single-phase trip signal. This signal is disabled while a blocking signal is being applied with the exception of a trip by the back-up overcurrent protection. Trip O/C Back-up overcurrent trip signal. Trip SOTF Switch-onto-fault trip signal. Trip Com Signal for tripping either enabled by the receipt of a permissive signal or the non-receipt of a blocking signal. (This signal is disabled while a blocking signal is being applied.) Trip Stub 'Short-zone' protection trip signal. Delay >= 2 Signal for starting in Zone 2 or higher. Delay 1 Signal for starting in Zone 1.

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Delay 2 Signal for starting in Zone 2. Delay 3 Signal for starting in Zone 3. Delay 4 Signal for starting in Zone 4 (excepting when Zone 4 is being used as an overreaching zone). Delay Def Signal for starting in the final zone. Meas Main Measurement by the distance function (Zones 1, 2, 3, 4 or the final zone). Meas Oreach Measurement in the distance protection overreach zone. Meas Fward Measurement by the distance protection in the forwards direction. Meas Bward Measurement by the distance protection in the reverse direction (reverse zone). Weak Infeed Tripping by the 'weak infeed' function. Dist Blocked Signal indicating that the distance protection is blocked. DelDistBlk Signal delayed by 12 s indicating that the distance protection is blocked. Power Swing Power-swing blocking function picked up. VT Sup VT supervision picked up. VT Sup Delay Delayed operation of the VT supervision after 12 s. Com Send Signal generated when a transfer trip signal is transmitted. Com Boost Signal for boosting PLC transmitting power. Freq dev Signal indicating a deviation of the memory voltage frequency.

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Start OC 1) Overcurrent starting signal. Start UZ 1) Underimpedance starting signal.

ADDITIONAL LOGIC

The following settings are only of consequence when a special logic is loaded instead of the standard distance protection logic. Refer to the description of the corresponding logic for their significance. BOOL_IN1, BOOL_IN2...BOOL_IN8 Additional binary inputs for the special distance protection logic. TIMER_1, TIMER_2...TIMER_8 Additional timer settings for the special distance protection logic. BOOL_OUT1, BOOL_OUT2...BOOL_OUT8 Additional signals for the special distance protection logic.
Behaviour of the signals at the signalling relay outputs and in the event list

Some of the signalling relay outputs remain excited until the entire distance protection function has reset (i.e. until 'Start R+S+T' resets) and others reset as soon as the particular condition disappears. The parameter 'EventRecFull' (event recorder full) enables a choice to be made, whether all operation and reset events have to be recorded in the event list (essential when the protection is integrated in a station control system) or whether the less important reset events may be omitted. The behaviour of the signals can be seen from the following list.
Output:

H NH

signal latches signal does not latch Pick-up (COMES) and reset (GOES) are recorded. Only pick-up (COMES) is recorded pro viding 'some' is set for 'EventRecFull'.
Event list

Event list:

AR A

Signal

Output

Start R+S+T Start RST Start RSTAux Start R Start R Aux

NH NH NH H H

AR A A A A

1)

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Signal

Output

Event list

Start S Start S Aux Start T Start T Aux Start E Start E Aux Start I0 Start U0 Start OC Start UZ Start O/C Start SOTF Start 1ph Trip CB Trip RST Trip RST Aux Trip CB R Trip CB S Trip CB T Trip CB 3P Trip CB 1P Trip O/C Trip SOTF Trip Com Trip Stub Delay >= 2 Delay 1 Delay 2 Delay 3 Delay 4 Delay Def Meas Main Meas Oreach Meas Fward Meas Bward Weak Infeed Dist Blocked Del Dist Blocked Power Swing VTSup VTSup delay Com Send Com Boost Freq Dev

H H H H H H NH NH NH H NH H NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH H NH H NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH

A A A A A A AR AR AR AR AR AR AR A A A AR AR AR A A AR A A A A A A A A A A AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR A AR

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E. Setting instructions 3.5.2.1. General

The first parameter in the sub-menu 'General' is 'Ref length' which is needed to indicate the distance to a fault in the event of a trip, but otherwise bears no influence in the protection function. The parameter gives the reactance of the reference length (in secondary /ph per unit length) and may be defined in km, miles, percent line length etc., i.e. distance = e.g.: a) In km Secondary reactance per km Ref. length Xmeas. ref. length

0.2 /ph
= 0.2 /ph

b) In percent line length Secondary reactance of the line length (1 % Ref. length = 0.25 /ph

25 /ph 0.25 /ph)

The setting of the parameter 'CT neutral' depends on whether the star-point of the main CTs is on the line side or the busbar side. There are thus two possible settings 'Bus side' or 'Line side'. The 'Line side' option is the one to choose, providing the protection is connected according to the wiring diagram in the appendix. This setting only applies to the distance protection function. It does not influence the power direction in all the other functions or the displays of the A/D channels.

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3.5.2.2.

Starters
(see Section 4.2.1.1.)

The distance function provides for two methods of starting, i.e. overcurrent or underimpedance. The desired method is selected by appropriately setting the parameter 'Start Mode' in the 'Starting' submenu. Depending on the setting of the parameter 'Def Dir Mode', a starter can also trip on its own after the time 'Delay (Def)'. (see Section 3.5.2.4.)
3.5.2.2.1. Overcurrent starters
(see Section 4.2.1.1.2.)

Selecting OC for the parameter Start Mode enables the overcurrent starters. The pick-up level of the overcurrent starters is determined by the setting of the parameter 'Istart'. The corresponding setting range is from 0.5 to 10 IN, in steps of 0.01 IN. The setting of 'Istart' must be sufficiently above the maximum load current to avoid any risk of maloperation under normal load conditions. Note that all currents greater than 80% of the highest phase current (and also the enabling current 'Imin') are taken into account by the phase selection function. When determining the maximum load current it must be considered that

in the case of a double-circuit line, the load current IB can briefly reach double its normal value when one circuit is tripped. E/Fs can cause additional balancing currents IA in the healthy phases.

It is equally important for an overcurrent starter, which has picked up, to reliably reset at the maximum load current IBmax, if for example the fault is tripped by a downstream protection. Taking due account of the reset ratio of 0.95, the lowest permissible setting is given by: (Istart ) min > 1.25 IB max + IA 0.95 IN

The maximum setting (Istart)max is derived from the minimum fault current IK for a fault at the end of the next section of line: (Istart ) max < IK min / IN Should the above relationships result in (Istart)max being lower than (Istart)min, the underimpedance starters must be used instead.
3.5.2.2.2. Underimpedance starters
(see Section 4.2.1.1.3.)

Selecting UZ as the Start Mode parameter enables the underimpedance starters. The following parameters then have to be set:

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XA XB RA RB RLoad AngleLoad The characteristic of the underimpedance starters and the corresponding setting parameters can be seen from Fig. 3.2. The parameters 'RLoad' and 'AngleLoad' define the permissible load area.
X
XA UNDERIMPEDANCE CHARACTERISTIC

RB

-RLoad

AngleLoad

RLoad

RA

XB

HEST 935 049 C

Fig. 3.2

Underimpedance starting characteristic

Because of the method used to represent impedances by the processor program, the impedance settings should not be set higher than absolutely necessary, otherwise the resolution for low impedances will be reduced.
Minimum permissible reach of the starters

The starting units must reliably pick-up for a fault towards the end of the next section of line (back-up zone). Should back-up protection of the adjacent section of line not be necessary, the starters must be set to at least 1.3 times the impedance of the protected line. In the case of short lines, fault resistance becomes a factor to be taken into account.

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Maximum permissible reach of the starters

The setting must take account of the considerable increase in the load current of the healthy circuit of a double-circuit line, when a fault on one circuit is tripped. To ensure that the phase selection is correct for single-phase autoreclosure, the starters in the healthy phases must not pick up for an E/F on one of the phases (in spite of any balancing currents which may occur).

The corresponding limits can be expressed mathematically as follows: Solidly grounded systems

Z set

U 2 (IB max + IA )

/ph

Ungrounded systems or system with Petersen coils

Z set where: Zset

2 IB max 1.25

Uv

/ph

maximum value of the impedance, i.e. the maximum value of the expression:
XA 2 + RA 2 or XB2 + RB 2

lowest phase voltage of the healthy phases for an E/F on one phase (U = 0.85 x min. system voltage). The factor 0.85 takes account of a negligibly small zero sequence source impedance. lowest phase-to-phase system voltage safety factor

Uv 1.25

2 factor, which takes account of the fact that phase currents and not phase-to-phase currents, are used. These requirements are generally fulfilled without difficulty for most applications. Should, however, the first inequality not be satisfied, the right-hand side must be expressed vectorially and compared with the underimpedance starting characteristic in relation to the setting 'RLoad' etc. The healthy phases must be checked for the case of a single-phaseto-ground fault.
3.5.2.2.3. Current enable

Before a phase can take part in phase selection, it must be conducting a current higher than 'Imin'. The recommended setting is 0.2 IN.

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3.5.2.2.4.

E/F detector

There are three alternative operating modes for the E/F detector, the desired one being chosen by the setting of the parameter 'Gnd Fault Mode'. E/F detection can be based on measurement of the neutral current alone or in combination with the neutral voltage. The fourth possibility is not to measure the ground loop at all, i.e. only the phase-tophase loop is measured. The following alternatives are available for selection: blocked I0 I0 AND U0 I0 OR U0 (only measures the phase-to-phase loops)

The criterion for the highest '3I0min' setting is: the E/F detector must pick-up for all E/Fs in solidly grounded systems and for all cross-country faults on ungrounded systems or systems with Petersen coils, providing they lie within the reach of the underimpedance starters.

The criteria for the lowest '3I0min' setting are: the E/F detector must not pick up for an E/F on ungrounded systems or systems with Petersen coils, the E/F detector must not pick up for phase faults, although CT errors can cause false neutral currents.

The recommended setting is '3I0min' = 0.5 IN. Should it not be possible to find a setting, which satisfies both these conditions, the neutral voltage (3U0min) must be used for measurement in addition to the neutral current.
3.5.2.2.5. Phase preference logic
(see Section 4.2.1.1.4.)

The desired phase preference logic for cross-country faults is chosen with the aid of the parameter 'PhaseSelMode'. In solidly grounded systems, the 'PhaseSelMode' parameter is disabled by setting it to 'solid ground'. It is essential for all the relays in ungrounded systems and systems with Petersen coils to be set to the same phase preference logic. The logic in use in a system must therefore be known before one of the 8 alternative schemes can be selected: RTS(R) cyclic TRS(T) cyclic RTS acyclic RST acyclic TSR acyclic TRS acyclic SRT acyclic STR acyclic
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3.5.2.2.6.

Undervoltage starters
(Uweak)

The undervoltage starters are used in conjunction with the switch-ontofault function and the transfer tripping schemes POTT and PUTT NONDIR (see Section 3.5.2.7.). The corresponding pick-up value is set in relation to the rated voltage with the aid of the parameter 'Uweak', which has a setting range of 0 to 2 UN in steps of 0.01.
3.5.2.3. Measuring units
(see Section 4.2.1.2.)

All the settings for the impedance measuring zones are to be found in the 'MEASUREMENT' sub-menu.
3.5.2.3.1. Determining the distance zones

Before it is possible to determine the reaches of the distance zones, the impedances and phase-angles of the line sections during faults must be known. Typical settings for the various zone reaches along the line are given below:
Z3 = 0.85 (a + k b2) Z2 = 0.85 (a + k b1) Z1 = 0.85 a ZAZ = 1.2 a b2 b1

HEST 935 050 C

Fig. 3.3

Typical settings for the reaches of distance relay zones (grading table)

where: Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4 ZOR k1 impedance reach of the various zones [/ph] impedance reach of the overreaching zone [/ph] factor to take into account the apparent increase of line impedance 'seen' by a relay due to an intermediate infeed impedance of the corresponding section of line []

a, b

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A
1 2 3

B
4

I A' + I

B'

C D

~
Fig. 3.4

I A'

~
HEST 935 051 C

Example for calculating k. The overreach must be checked for k > 1 when the infeed B is not in operation.

k=
where: IA' IB' 1...5

IA ' + IB ' 1 IA

maximum fault current possible minimum fault current possible distance relays

Calculating the secondary line impedances

The primary values calculated from the grading table for the line impedances have to be converted to secondary values. These are obtained by applying the following relationship:
ZLs = ZLp ZLP = KZ KU K I

where: ZLp ZLs KU KI KZ primary positive-sequence line impedance secondary positive-sequence line impedance main VT ratio main CT ratio impedance ratio

The same applies to the conversion of the resistances and reactances. The impedance characteristic is defined independently for each of the four distance zones (Zone 4 is used alternatively for the overreaching zone) by the following parameters (i = 1 to 4): X R RR RRE k0 k0Ang Delay (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

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The reactance and resistance of the line or cable are set in the proper units using the parameters 'R' and 'X' (see Fig. 3.5).
X
X 7
Zone 1 (2, 3, 4, OR, BWD)

27

-X/8

R 27 -RR/2 -RRE/2

RR

RRE

HEST 915 019 C

Fig. 3.5

Distance measurement characteristic

At a rated current of 1 or 2 A, the impedance parameters 'X', 'R', 'RR' and 'RRE' have setting ranges of -300 to +300 /ph in steps of 0.01 (-30 to +30 /ph in steps of 0.001 for a rated current of 5 A). A zone is disabled when 'X' is set to zero regardless of the settings of the other parameters. In this case, the other zones are also blocked with the exception of the last one. Zone 1 can only be disabled by the parameter 'Block Z1' or the binary input 'ExtBlock Z1'. The direction of measurement is reversed for negative values of 'X', 'R', 'RR' and 'RRE'.
Allowing for fault resistance

Provision is made with parameters 'RRE' and 'RR' for allowing for the fault resistance in an E/F loop and in a phase-to-phase loop. The setting takes the E/F resistance comprising the resistance of the arc and the pylon footing resistance in relation to the line resistance into account. Typical settings lie in the range RR(E)/X = 0.5...3. The arc resistance RB can be calculated according to A.R. van C. Warrington as follows:

RB =

28700 d I1.4

where:

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d I RB

length of arc in m current in A arc resistance in

Since the unit is /ph, the fault resistance appears differently in the impedance plane according to the type of fault. Where the value of the fault resistance RF is known in (see Fig. 3.6), it has to be entered in the R/X diagram as follows: E/F: phase-to-phase fault: three-phase fault: R=RF/(1+k0) R=RF/2 R=RF/ 3

It is for this reason that fault resistance is compensated separately for E/F and phase-to-phase loops using the parameters 'RRE' and 'RR'. The parameter 'RR' will generally be set lower than 'RRE', because the phase-to-phase fault resistance is normally very low.

RF

RF

RF RF

RF

HEST 915 029 C

E/F

Phase-to-phase fault

Three-phase fault

Fig. 3.6

Fault resistance

Load current (area)

The load area defined by the underimpedance parameters 'RLoad' and 'AngleLoad' is taken into account be starting and measuring characteristics. It follows from this that the relay can only trip, if the fault impedance measured lies within the underimpedance starting characteristic.

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Underimpedance characteristic

Zone 3

OV ERRE ACH ZO NE

Zone 2

Zone 1

RLoad
AngleLoad

REVERSE ZONE

HEST 935 053 C

Fig. 3.7

Relay characteristics

Note that the load impedance area is only formed when the underimpedance starter (UZ) is in operation. It does not exist when starting is provided by the overcurrent starter (OC).

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Zero-sequence compensation of the protected line

The magnitude and phase-angle of the zero-sequence compensation factor are set individually for each zone using parameters 'k0' and k0Ang'. The latter are calculated from the positive-sequence impedance ZL and the zero-sequence impedance Z0L of the line: k 0 =1/ 3 x ( Z0L ZL ) ZL

k 0 = 1 / 3 x (Z 0L ZL ) / ZL )
Range: 0 to 8 in steps of 0.01

k 0Ang = arctan (X 0L XL ) / (R0L RL ) arctan(XL / RL )


Range: -180 to +90 in steps of 0.01
Zero-sequence compensation for cables

Depending on the type of cable and the application, k0 is set between 10 and 130. If a complex setting is made for k0, the polygon characteristic is rotated in the R-jX diagram. At k0 angles higher than 20, a slight setting error causes severe under or overreaching. The setting is often incorrect because the cable data are not known exactly measured data are only accurate for through faults, but scarcely ever accurate for internal faults

A setting of 0 or 180 (corresponds to negative values) is therefore recommended for k0: k0 = 1/3 (X0L XL) / XL k0Ang = 0 for X0L > XL k0Ang = -180for X0L < XL Note that the value of R must be set at least to (2 RL + R0L) / 3 and the desired RRE is increased by (2 RL + R0L) / 3.

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jX

(2 RL + R0L) / 3

k0 XL XL - k0 XL ZL 2 ZL + Z0) / 3 k0 ZL

Ph-Ph Ph-E

RR

RRE

Fig. 3.8

Relay characteristics

Zero-sequence compensation of double-circuit lines The magnitude and phase-angle of the zero-sequence compensation factor for a double-circuit line are set using parameters 'k0m' and 'k0 Angle(m)'. This compensation only applies to Zones 1 and 2, the overreaching zone and the reverse zone.
3.5.2.3.2. Directional element
(see Section 4.2.1.2.4.)

Each distance zone has its own directional measuring element. The voltage used for measurement depends on the amplitude of the fault voltage in relation to the parameter 'UminFault'. The fault voltage is used, providing it is higher than the setting of 'UminFault', and a voltage derived from the healthy voltage and the memory voltage is used when it falls below. The recommended settings are 0.1 UN for conventional VTs. Should correct determination of direction not be possible (reference voltage too low or memory voltage decayed), the setting of the parameter 'MemDirMode' determines whether the protection blocks or trips: Block Trip Cond. trip protection blocks all zones (definitive zone only if directional) protection trips Protection blocks unless the instantaneous and preceding zones are in opposite directions, in which case the protection trips.

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3.5.2.3.3.

Overreaching zone
(OR)

The settings including the designation '4/OR' ('X (4/OR)' ... 'Delay (4/OR)') can be used either for a fourth measuring zone or a completely independent overreaching zone (but not for both at the same time) by appropriately setting the parameter 'Delay (4/OR)' (see Section 3.5.2.3.5). In applications requiring a fourth zone, the measuring unit of the second zone is used for overreaching. An overreaching zone is necessary for the switch-onto-fault and zone extension logics and for overreaching transfer tripping schemes.

3.5.2.3.4.

Reverse zone
(BACK)

A reverse measuring zone is used in a blocking scheme and also the logic for detecting a reversal of fault energy direction. It is set using the parameters 'X (BACK)', 'R (BACK)', 'RR (BACK)' and 'RRE (BACK)' which have setting ranges from 0 to -300 /ph. Note that: for underimpedance starting ('UZ'): With the exception of the load discrimination defined by the parameters 'RLoad' and 'AngleLoad', the reverse zone operates independently of the starters. for overcurrent starting ('OC'): The reverse zone is only in operation when an overcurrent starter ('Istart') has picked up. the binary input ('Ext. UZ Block') blocks operation regardless of the starter mode for the reverse zone. Signal output: Meas Bward. Measurement of the reverse zone only takes place while the first zone is active, i.e. the 'Meas Bward' signal resets, when 'Delay (2)' has elapsed.

3.5.2.3.5.

Time steps
(Delay)

The operating time of every activated distance zone (parameter 'X' <> 0) is determined by the parameter 'Delay', which has a setting range of 0 to 10 s in steps of 0.01. The parameter 'Delay (4/OR)' is also associated with a logic, which determines whether it applies to Zone 4 or to the overreaching zone, i.e. if 'Delay (4/OR)' < 'Delay (2)', it applies to the overreaching zone, otherwise to Zone 4.

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The set times must satisfy the following relationships: Delay (1) < Delay (2) < Delay (3) < Delay (4) < Delay(Def), Delay (OR) < Delay (2).

When grading the operating times of several distance relays, the minimum grading time should not be less than the sum of the circuitbreaker operating time plus 150 ms (reset time + operating time of the measuring system + safety margin). Recommended timer settings: Zone 1: normally instantaneous. Zone 2: 'Delay (2)' is normally set to the sum of relay and circuitbreaker operating times, arc extinction time, signal transmission time and a tolerance margin, which amounts to about 0.25 to 0.5 s. The tolerance includes an allowance for sequential tripping. Zone 3: 'Delay (3)' is set to about 2 'Delay (2)'. Zone 4: 'Delay (4)' or Delay (Def) is normally set to at least 4 'Delay (2)'.

Special cases may require settings, which deviate considerably from the above recommendations. The time steps of zones 1 to 4 must have settings less than 'Delay(Def)'.
3.5.2.4. Definitive zone
(Def)

The definitive (or fifth) zone is subject to the same parameters as the underimpedance starters (i.e. XA, XB, RA, RB, RLoad and AngleLoad). The corresponding time step is defined by the parameter 'Delay (Def)'.

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X
XA Definitive Zone

27

RB

-RLoad

AngleLoad

RLoad

RA

R
27
Directional (in tripping direction)

XB

HEST 935 054 C

Fig. 3.9

Definitive zone characteristic

The parameter 'Def Dir Mode' determines the response at the end of the definitive time. It can be set to be either directional (in tripping direction) or non-directional (see Fig. 3.9).
NOTICE: There is still a definitive zone even using the overcurrent starter (OC), but only with respect to the parameters 'Delay (Def)' and 'Def Dir Mode'.

3.5.2.5.

Back-up overcurrent protection


(O/C Back-up Protection) (see Section 4.2.1.4.)

The settings for the back-up overcurrent protection are made via the sub-menu 'O/C BACK-UP PROTECTION'. The setting of the parameter 'I O/C' determines the pick-up level, which can be chosen in steps of 0.1 IN between 0 and 10 IN. The associated time delay is set in steps of 0.1 s between 0 and 10 s by means of the parameter 'Delay O/C'.

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The pick-up signal of the overcurrent unit is also used by the STUB protection. If the function is being used for this purpose, i.e. the binary I/P 'Isol open' is at logical '1', the tripping time is fixed at 25 ms. The back-up overcurrent is always active. In case the STUB protection is not utilized, and; the 'O/C BACK-UP PROTECTION' should only be active when the distance protection is blocked, then connect the inverted signaling output 'Dist Blocked' from the distance protection to the blocking input 'Ext Blk OC' of the O/C backup protection.
3.5.2.6. VT supervision
(see Section 4.2.1.3.)

The parameters for setting the VT supervision function are located in the sub-menu 'VT SUPERVISON'. One of four different operating modes can be chosen using 'VTSupMode'. The function processes zero and negative-sequence components, which are either used on their own ('ZeroSeq' and 'NegSeq') or combined ('Zero*NegSeq' and 'Spec'). ZeroSeq NegSeq Zero*NegSeq Spec

[U0 I0] [U2 I2] [(U0 I0) + (U2 I2)] [U2 (I0 + I2)]

The four pick-up values are the settings of the parameters 'U0min VTSup', 'U2min VTSup', 'I0min VTSup' and 'I2min VTSup'. They can be set between 0 and 2 UN (or IN) in steps of 0.01. The basic settings are 0.2 UN for the voltage and 0.07 IN for the current. Only the 'NegSeq' or 'Spec' options are available in ungrounded systems.
Upon operating, the VT supervision function is normally required to immediately block the distance protection function (see Section 4.2.1.5.2.). Provision is made, however, for blocking the distance function after a delay of 12 s by setting the parameter 'VTSupBlkDel'. This parameter is normally set in cases where only the overcurrent starters are in use.

If the VT supervision function remains picked up for longer than 12 s, it resets only after a delay (1 s). Should a fault give rise to zero or negative-sequence current components, it resets immediately. The parameter 'VTSupDebDel' (deblocking) enables the reset delay to be continuously enabled regardless of current.

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Recommended setting:
Parameter VTSupDebDel Grounded system enabled Ungrounded system disabled

The signal 'VTSup' indicates that the distance function is being blocked by the VT supervision and 'VTSupDel' that the 12 s delay is running.

3.5.2.7.

Tripping logic
(see Section 4.2.1.5.12)

The parameters for determining the tripping logic are grouped in the sub-menu 'Trip Schemes'. The various transfer tripping schemes are selected by setting the parameter 'ComMode' (3 PUTT, POTT and OVERREACHING BLOCKING schemes). The possible settings are given below. The settings for the different schemes only appear after has scheme has been selected.
PUTT NONDIR

Permissive underreaching transfer tripping (non-directional) 'Weak' - enables the weak infeed logic.
PUTT FWD

Permissive underreaching transfer tripping (in line direction) No other parameters.


PUTT OR2

Permissive underreaching transfer tripping (overreaching zone/Zone 2) 'Unblock' - selects the enabling logic for communications channel failure.
POTT

Permissive overreaching transfer tripping 'Weak' 'Unblock' 'Echo' 'Trans Block' - enables the weak infeed logic. - selects the enabling logic for communications channel failure. - enables the echo logic. - enables the logic for reversal of fault energy

't1 Trans Block' - min. holding time for the wrong energy direction signal. This has to be set at least 50 ms longer than the maximum reset time required by the communication channel.

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't2TransBl'

- max. holding time for the wrong energy direction signal. This has to be set at least 0.4 s longer than the dead time setting to make sure that blocking is still effective should an attempt be made to reclose the faulted line.

BLOCK OR

Blocking scheme 'TransBlock' 't1 Block' - enables the logic for reversal of fault energy - time allowed for the receipt of a PLC signal

't1 Trans Block' - min. holding time for the wrong energy direction signal. This has to be set at least 50 ms longer than the maximum signal transmission time. 't2 Trans Block' - max. holding time for the wrong energy direction signal. This has to be set at least 0.4 s longer than the dead time setting to make sure that blocking is still effective should an attempt be made to reclose the faulted line.
TripMode

Depending on the setting of the parameter 'TripMode', tripping is either phase-selective, controlled by the binary input '1PolAR' (for '1phTrip'), always three-phase (for '3phTrip') or three-phase after the time 'Delay (3)' (for '3phTripDel3').
SOTF Mode

Access is gained to the switch-onto-fault logic settings by selecting the parameter 'SOTF Mode'. The alternatives presented are whether the switch-onto-fault logic should trip on the basis of the non-directional underimpedance starters or the overreaching zone. This logic is enabled either by the undervoltage function delayed by 10 s or 200 ms (see Section 3.5.2.2.6.) or the binary inputs 'Deadline' and 'Manual close'. Two signalling outputs 'Start SOTF' and 'Trip SOTF' are associated with the switch-onto-fault logic. 'Start SOTF' is intended for blocking the auto-reclosure function and 'Trip SOTF' signals that tripping took place as a result of the switch-onto-fault logic.
SOTF 10 sec

The parameter 'SOTF 10sec' determines whether the undervoltage function and the binary input 'Deadline' are enabled after 10 s ('on') or after just 200 ms ('off'). 'off' indicates switching onto a fault after fast auto-reclosure (Fast OR). Tripping in this case is thus based on the decisions of the starters alone.

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t1EvolFaults

The setting of the parameter 't1 Evol Faults' determines the time during which an evolving fault once detected results in a three-phase trip.
3.5.2.8. Power-swing blocking
(see Section 4.2.1.6.)

Only the parameter 'Time PS block' for the time during which the power-swing blocking signal is maintained has to be set in the 'POWER-SWING BLOCKING' sub-menu. The setting range is 0 to 10 s in steps of 0.01. Tripping is enabled again at the latest at the end of this time. The power-swing blocking function is disabled when 'tPSblock' is set to zero or a logical '1' is applied to the binary input 'Ext Blk PSB'.
3.5.2.9. Allocation of CT and VT inputs
(see Section 5.4.7.5.)

The parameters for allocating CT and VT input channels are grouped in the 'ANALOGUE (CT/VT) CHANNELS' sub-menu.
3.5.2.10. Allocation of binary inputs
(see Section 5.4.6.)

The parameters for allocating binary inputs are grouped in the 'BINARY INPUTS' sub-menu. All binary inputs can be allocated to external signals or the outputs of other functions.
Change Meas Dir

Applying a signal to this input reverses the direction of measurement for the entire distance protection function (all zones).
Ext Block Dist

This input blocks the entire distance protection function. Blocking is signalled by 'Dist Blocked' and after 12 s by 'Del Dist Blocked'. Only the back-up overcurrent protection (I O/C) then remains active.
Ext UZ Block

This input blocks the underimpedance starters, the neutral voltage starter (U0), the measurement for 'Weak' and the reverse measurement. The overcurrent starters (OC) remain in operation.
Ext Block PSB

This input blocks the power-swing blocking function.


Ext Block O/C back-up

This input blocks the back-up overcurrent protection (O/C Back-up Protection).
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Deadline

The signal applied to this input is needed by the switch-onto-fault logic to indicate to the distance function that the line is without voltage before the circuit-breaker is closed. It is used for the switch-onto-fault logic providing the VTs are on the busbars.
Manual Close

Prior to manually closing the circuit-breaker, this signal enables the switch-onto-fault logic and blocks the VT supervision function.
Zextension, ZExtension AR

The overreaching logic permits instantaneous tripping within the overreaching zone. It is enabled via the binary input 'Zextension' or 'ZExtension AR'. For this purpose, the output 'Zextension' of the auto-reclosure function is connected to the input 'ZExtension AR'.
Isolator open

This input is required by the STUB protection to ascertain whether an isolator is open or not (see Section 4.2.1.5.4.).
Com Rec

This input is needed for the external signal 'Com Rec' (signal received by PLC, optical fibre link or point-to-point radio).
Com Fail

This input signals to the protection that the PLC channel has failed.
1 Pol AR

This input permits single-phase tripping to take place and is used in conjunction with single or three-phase auto-reclosure schemes. Refer to the Section 'Auto reclosure' for the connection to the auto-reclosure function.
Ext. Block SOTF

This input is needed in cases where the switch-onto-fault logic is not enabled after an auto-reclosure. Refer to the Section 'Auto reclosure' for the connection to the autoreclosure function.

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Ext. Block HF

This input blocks the reception of an intertripping signal. It is used for coordinating communication channel signals when in a solidly grounded system, the distance protection and the E/F protection use the same channel. It must be connected to the 'RecBlk' signal of the E/F function.
Ext Block Z1

This input blocks measurement in zone 1.


3.5.2.11. Allocation of tripping commands
(see Section 5.4.7.5.)

The parameters for allocating tripping commands are grouped in the 'CB COMMANDS' sub-menu. The allocation of the output signals depends on whether single or three-phase tripping has been set (parameter 'TripMode'). In the case of three-phase tripping, the three tripping outputs are allocated to the same auxiliary tripping relay. Single-phase tripping ('TripMode' set to '1PhTrip' or '3PhTripDel3') requires three separate auxiliary tripping relays, i.e. the protection has to be equipped with at least two binary I/O units Type 316DB61/62.
3.5.2.12. Signals
(see Section 5.4.5.2)

The parameters for allocating binary outputs to auxiliary signalling relays are grouped in the 'SIGNALLING' sub-menu. Some signalling outputs latch until the entire distance protection function resets (i.e. until 'Start R+S+T' resets, see Section 3.5.2.).

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3.5.3.

Sensitive earth fault protection for ungrounded systems and systems with Petersen coils (EarthFaultIsol) A. Application

The sensitive E/F protection detects E/Fs on overhead lines in radial systems. It is suitable for application in ungrounded systems, systems with Petersen coils and in resistance grounded MV and HV systems. The scheme monitors the neutral voltage and current of the protected line. Depending on the characteristic angle chosen, it responds to either the real or apparent value of the neutral power.
B. Features

Adjustable characteristic angle Compensation of CT phase errors Suppression of DC component in voltage and current signals Suppression of harmonics in voltage and current signals

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

Neutral current Neutral voltage

II. Binary inputs:

Blocking signal

III. Binary outputs:

Tripping signal Starting signal

IV. Measured variable:

Zero-sequence power

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D. Sensitive earth fault protection settings - EarthFaultIsol

Summary of parameters:
Text Trip P Setting Angle Drop-Ratio Delay PN Phi-Comp Current Inp Chan Voltage Inp Chan BlockInp Trip Start Units Tripping chan. PN degrees % s UN*IN degrees CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Default 00000000 0.050 0.00 60 0.50 1.000 0.00 0 0 F ER ER Min. 0.005 -180.00 30 00.05 0.500 -5.00 Max. 0.100 180.00 95 60.00 2.500 5.00 Step 0.001 0.01 1 0.01 0.001 0.01

Explanation of the parameters:

Trip Tripping logic (matrix). P Setting Pick-up power setting. Angle Characteristic angle for the power measurement. 0 = real power forwards 180 = real power backwards -90 = apparent power forwards 90 = apparent power backwards All angles between -180 and 180 can be set. Drop-Ratio Reset ratio of the measuring trigger. Delay Delay between the protection picking up and the protection tripping. The delay setting also influences the reset time of the function. For t > 100 ms, the protection resets after 50 ms. Resetting is not otherwise intentionally delayed. PN Rated power given by UN*IN. Phi-Comp Compensation of CT and VT phase errors. The setting concerns only the difference between the two errors.

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Current Inp Chan Defines the CT input channel used for the neutral current. Only single-phase CT inputs can be set. Voltage Inp Chan Defines the VT input channel used for the neutral voltage. Only single-phase VT inputs can be set. Block Inp Input for blocking the sensitive E/F function. F: protection enabled T: protection disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Trip Tripping signal. Start Out Starting signal.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:

Pick-up power Characteristic angle Reset ratio Delay Phase error compensation Rated power

P Setting Angle Drop-Ratio Delay Phi-Comp PN

The value entered for 'P Setting' is the power at which the function picks up referred to rated power 'PN'. The parameter 'P Setting' has a setting range of 0.005 to 0.100 in steps of 0.001. The setting of the parameter 'Angle' determines the characteristic angle of the measurement. Its implications are explained below under 'Real power' and 'Apparent power'. The desired reset ratio is set as a percentage of the pick-up value using the parameter 'Drop-Ratio'. To ensure that the reset ratio is adequate for low values of 'P Setting', the following condition is checked: ' Drop - Ratio' < 100 50 100 ' P Setting' + 1

An angle to compensate the relative phase errors of CTs and VTs can be entered using parameter 'Phi-Comp'. The effective characteristic angle is the sum of the parameters 'Angle' and 'Phi-Comp'. The setting for the rated power is left at PN = 1.000. The corresponding reference value in the 'ANALOGUE CT/VT CHANNELS-AD CHANNEL REF VAL' menu must be adjusted for rated voltages other than 100 V.
Real power

The real power component (real power component = proportion of real power current x displacement voltage) of the zero-sequence power is monitored to detect E/Fs in systems with Petersen coils and highresistance grounded systems. The neutral component of the current in the healthy phases resulting from their capacitances to ground and the inductive Petersen coil current unite at the fault location and return to the source via the faulted phase. A power relay is installed at both ends of every line with the exception of stub lines, which only require a relay at the source end. If the E/F current is too low and has to be artificially increased, an overvoltage relay is fitted to detect the displacement voltage and connect a grounding resistor temporarily to the star-point. To avoid any incorrect response of the power relays while this is being done, they are enabled after a short delay. The section of the line with the fault is determined by comparison of the relay directions.

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The real power component of the E/F current is determined by the resistive losses of the lines, the Petersen coils and the grounding resistors. A typical value for the charging current of overhead lines is around 2.5 A / 10 kV and 100 km. In the case of cable systems, it can be determined from the cable data. The minimum real power component of the current at the minimum voltage at which the power relay has to operate can be determined according to the above procedure. The power at which it must pick up must be set somewhat lower to allow for phase and ratio errors of the CTs. The parameter 'Angle' must be set to 0 to measure real power in the forwards direction, respectively 180 to measure real power in the reverse direction.
Note:

The connections are made in strict accordance with the ABB wiring diagram.
Example of how to determine the setting

Assuming an overhead line system with an E/F current (sum of the three phase currents) of 30 A and a real power current component of 5 A. The core-balance CT has a ratio of 125:1. The star-point VT has a secondary voltage of 100 V for a solid E/F at the generator/power transformer terminals. Therefore: PN = 1 A 100 V = 100 VA It is required to detect E/Fs down to 50 % of the displacement voltage. The E/F current flows only from one side, so that no division of the current takes place. The real power component of the current of 5 A results in a secondary current of: IW = 5 A 1/125 = 0.04 A IW = 0.04 A 0.5 = 0.02 A P = 0.02 A 50 V = 1 VA This corresponds to 1 % referred to the rated power PN of 100 VA. A setting of 0.5 % PN is possible, but the accuracy of the CTs must be checked before deciding whether such a sensitive setting is permissible. The real power can be increased by adding a grounding resistor. at maximum displacement voltage at 50 % displacement voltage

The required pick-up power is thus:

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Apparent power

The apparent power component of the neutral power is monitored to detect E/Fs in ungrounded systems. Every feeder is equipped with a relay. During an E/F, the capacitive E/F current of the entire system less that of the faulted line flows into the faulted line. Only the E/F relay of the faulted line indicates power flowing into its line. The minimum capacitive E/F current available to operate the relays is the total capacitive E/F current of the whole system for the smallest configuration to be expected less that of the faulted line. Of this capacitive current, only the percentage corresponding to the assumed minimum displacement voltage at which the protection is still required to operate may be considered. If there are any double-circuit lines, the division of current between the circuits must also be taken into account. To allow for the CT errors at such low current levels, the pick-up value set on the relay must be less than the product of the minimum current determined above and the minimum voltage. The parameter 'Angle' must be set to -90 pick up for E/Fs in the forwards direction and 90 for the reverse direction.
Note:

The connections are made in strict accordance with the ABB wiring diagram.
Time delay

The delay required between the picking up of the relay ('start') and tripping ('Trip') is set by means of parameter 'Delay'. The setting range provided is 0.05 to 60 s in steps of 0.01.
CT/VT inputs

The two CT and VT input channels 'CurrentInp' (current) and 'VoltageInp' (voltage) have to be configured for the purpose. The current input channel may only be allocated to a single-phase metering (corebalance) CT and the voltage channel to a single-phase VT.
Binary inputs and outputs

The tripping output may be allocated to either a tripping relay or a signalling relay (different parameters) and the starting signal to a signalling relay. Operation of the sensitive E/F protection can be inhibited by applying a signal to the 'BlockInp' input.

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3.5.4.

Auto-reclosure (Autoreclosure) A. Application

The function can be configured for single or three-phase auto-reclosure. The unit can operate in conjunction with any of the three protection functions (distance, longitudinal differential and overcurrent protection) and either an internal or external synchrocheck function. However, an additional standard FUPLA logic T142 as detailed in the document 1KHF600220 is necessary for single-phase reclosing in 1 breaker applications.
B. Features

Up to 4 fast or slow reclosure attempts First cycle with up to 4 individually configurable single and/or three-phase reclosure attempts Independent operating indicators for each reclosure cycle Wide dead time setting range Provision to control bypassing of the synchrocheck unit and extending the dead time for the first zone by external signals Clearly defined response to changing fault conditions during the dead time (evolving faults) Logic for 1st and 2nd main protection (redundant), duplex and master/follower schemes

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

None

II. Binary inputs:


*)

Start Redundant start Redundant start Three-phase trip Redundant three-phase trip Redundant three-phase trip General trip Redundant general trip Redundant general trip CB ready for open/close/open cycle CB2 ready for open/close/open cycle

(Start) (Start 2) (Start 3) (Trip CB 3P) (Trip CB2 3P) (Trip CB3 3P) (Trip CB ) (Trip CB2) (Trip CB3) (CB ready) (CB2 ready)

*) *) *) *) *) *) **)

2 and 3 denote the I/Ps of protection functions 2 and 3 or relays 2 and 3 in a redundant protection scheme (see Fig. 3.13). 2 denotes the I/Os for CB2 in a duplex scheme (see Fig. 3.16). 3-75

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CB ready for close/open cycle CB2 ready for close/open cycle CB open CB2 open CB2 preferred circuit-breaker Synchrocheck Synchrocheck 2 Dead line Dead line 2 External blocking input Conditional blocking input Manual close blocking input External synchrocheck bypass External extension of dead time (1st attempt) Delay from master CB Block from master CB Block reclosure by follower (redundant scheme) External 1P-1P selector for 1st AR External 1P-3P selector for 1st AR External 1P3P-3P selector for 1st AR External 1P3P-1P3P selector for 1st AR

(CO Ready) (CO Ready 2) (CB open) (CB2 open) (CB2 Priority) (SynchroChck) (SynchroChck2) (Dead Line) (Dead Line2) (Ext. Block AR) (Cond. Block AR) (Manual Close) (Ext.SCBypas) (Extend t1) (MasterDel) (MasterUnsucc) (Inhibit Inp)

**) **) **) **) **)

(MD1_EXT_1P_1P) (MD1_EXT_1P_3P) (MD1_EXT_1P3P_3P) (MD1_EX_1P3P_1P3P)

III. Binary outputs:

CB close signal CB2 close signal Overreach switching signal Definitive trip Prepare trip of all three phases Block Follower CB Delay Follower CB Block for Follower. recloser Reclosure function ready Reclosure function blocked Reclosure cycle running 1st single-phase reclosure in progress 1st three-phase reclosure in progress 2nd Reclosure in progress 3rd reclosure in progress 4th reclosure in progress

(Close CB) (Close CB2) (ZExtension) (Def. Trip) (Trip 3-Pol) (BlkFlwr) (DelFlwr) (Inhibit Outp) (AR Ready) (AR Blocked) (AR in prog.) (First AR 1P) (First AR 3P) (Second AR) (Third AR) (Fourth AR)

**)

IV. Measurements:

None

**)

2 denotes the I/Os for CB2 in a duplex scheme (see Fig. 3.16).

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D. Autoreclosuresettings - Autoreclosure

Summary of parameters:
Text Units GENERAL PARAMETER 1. AR Mode 1P3P-1P3P 2..4. AR Mode off Command Close CB Tripping chan. 00000000 FUPLA Directory AURESTD TIMERS t Dead1 1P t Dead1 3P t Dead1 Ext. t Dead2 t Dead3 t Dead4 t Oper t Inhibit t Close t Discrim. 1P t Discrim. 3P t Timeout t AR Block s s s s s s s s s s s s s 1.20 0.60 1.00 1.20 5.00 60.00 0.50 5.00 0.25 0.60 0.30 1.00 5.00 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0.10 0.10 0,05 0,05 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 (Select) (Select) Default Min. Max. Step

BINARY INPUTS Start Trip CB 3P Trip CB Start 2 Trip CB2 3P Trip CB2 Start 3 Trip CB3 3P Trip CB3 CB Ready CO Ready CB Open Dead line Ext. Block AR Cond.Block AR Manual Close Inhibit Inp. Extend t1 MD1_EXT_1P_1P BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F) off (F)

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Text
MD1_EXT_1P_3P MD1_EXT_1P3P_3P
MD1_EXT_1P3P_1P3P

Units

Default

Min.

Max.

Step

BinaryAddr off (F) BinaryAddr off (F) BinaryAddr off (F)

SIGNAL OUTPUTS Close CB Trip 3-Pol Def. Trip Inhibit Output AR Ready AR Blocked AR in Progress
First AR 1P in Prog. First AR 3P in Prog. Second AR in Prog. Third AR in Progress Fourth AR in Prog. First AR completed 2...4. AR completed

SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr

SYNCHROCHECK SCBypas 1P first AR SCBypas 1P3P first AR Ext. SC Bypas Synchro Check Blocked off off BinaryAddr off (F) BinaryAddr off (F) (Select) (Select)

ZONE EXTENSION ZE Prefault ZE 1. AR ZE 2. AR ZE 3. AR ZE 4. AR ZExtension SignalAddr on off off off off (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select)

MASTER-FOLLOWER LOGIC Master mode MasterDelay Mast.noSucc DelayFlwr. Block to Flwr. off BinaryAddr off (F) BinaryAddr off (F) SignalAddr SignalAddr (Select)

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Text DUPLEX LOGIC CB2 Ready CO Ready 2 CB2 open SynchroChck2 Dead line 2 Close CB2 Close CB2 CB2 Priority

Units

Default

Min.

Max.

Step

BinaryAddr off (F) BinaryAddr off (F) BinaryAddr on (T) BinaryAddr off (F) BinaryAddr off (F) Trip Chan SignalAddr BinaryAddr off (F) 00000000

ADDITIONAL LOGIC P INPUT1 : P INPUT16 TMSEC Timer1 : TMSEC Timer8 P OUTPUT1 : P OUTPUT8 ms SignalAddr SignalAddr 0 0 30000 1 BinaryAddr off (F) BinaryAddr off (F) ms 0 0 30000 1

Remarks on the signal designations: The I/O signals specifically for redundant or duplex schemes include the figure '2', respectively '3' in their designations. The signals belonging to the basic configuration (1 protection function and 1 auto-reclosure function) do not necessarily include the figure '1' in their designations.

Explanations of parameters: GENERAL PARAMETER

1. AR Mode Type of first reclosure 1. 1P-1P single-phase trip and reclosure for earth faults (single-phase dead time), no reclosure for phase faults 1. 1P-3P single-phase trip followed by three phase trip after approx. 20 ms, three-phase reclosure for earth faults (three-phase dead time initiated by single-phase trip), no reclosure for -phase faults

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1. 1P3P-3P 1. 1P3P-1P3P

Ext. Selection

three-phase trip and reclosure for earth and phase faults (three-phase dead time) single-phase trip and reclosure for earth faults (single-phase dead time), three-phase trip and reclosure for phase faults (threephase dead time) External selection by the binary inputs MD1_EXT_1P_1P, MD1_EXT_1P_3P, MD1_EXT_1P3P_3P and MD1_EX_1P3P_1P3P.

2..4. AR Mode Maximum number of reclosure attempts (all three-phase) off no 2nd, 3rd or 4th reclosure 2 AR 2 reclosures 3 AR 3 reclosures 4 AR 4 reclosures Close CB Signal relay output for the command to close the circuit breaker. FUPLA Directory The sub directory for the auto reclose logic is selectable. The default directory name 'AURESTD' is valid in case the standard auto recluse protection logic is utilised, which is situated in the HMI sub directory. A different configuration is necessary only if instead of the standard autoreclose logic a special autoreclose logic is utilised. The procedure in this case has to be obtained from the associated logic description.
TIMERS

t Dead1 1P Dead time for first single-phase reclosure. t Dead1 3P Dead time for first three-phase reclosure. t Dead1 Ext. Extension of 1st dead time for single or three-phase reclosure (effective as long as a logical '1' (pulse or continous) is applied to the 'Extend t1' I/P before the dead time finishes (falling edge.) t Dead2 2nd dead time. t Dead3 3rd dead time. t Dead4 4th dead time.

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t Oper Maximum duration of a fault for which a reclosure attempt is made. t Inhibit Period (CB recovery time) from the falling edge of the last reclosure attempt during which the autoreclosure function is blocked and after which the function is reset. In the event of an evolving fault between discrimination and dead times, the period commences at the instant of another trip occurring between the two times. The inhibit timer is also started if the protection trips after the fault duration time 't Oper' has elapsed. t Close Duration of CB close signal. t Discrim. 1P Evolving fault discrimination time for single-phase reclosure. t Discrim. 3P Evolving fault discrimination time for three-phase reclosure. t Timeout Period following the dead time during which the CB close signal has to occur. If it does not, the 'Def. Trip' signal is generated. t AR Block Time during which reclosure is blocked. 't AR Block' is started by every blocking signal ('Ext.Blk AR', 'Cond.Blk. AR', 'Manual Close', 'Inhibit Inp' and 'MasternoSucc').
BINARY INPUTS

Start *) I/P for signalling the start of a reclosure cycle. This I/P is connected to the 'General start' signal of a protection function. Trip CB 3P *) I/P for the three-phase trip signal. The three-phase trip from a protection function is connected to this I/P. Trip CB I/P for the general trip signal The general trip from a protection function is connected to this I/P. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed.

*)

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Start 2 I/P for the AR start signal. In redundant protection schemes, the general start signal from the 2nd protection is connected to this I/P. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. Trip CB2 3P I/P for the three-phase trip signal. In redundant protection schemes, the three-phase tripping signal from the 2nd protection is connected to this I/P. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. Trip CB2 I/P for the general trip signal. In redundant protection schemes, the general start signal from the 2nd protection is connected to this I/P. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. Start 3 I/P for the AR start signal. The general start signal from the 3rd protection can be connected to this I/P. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. Trip CB3 3P I/P for the three-phase trip signal. The three-phase tripping signal from the 3rd protection can be connected to this I/P. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. Trip CB3 I/P for the general trip signal. The general start signal from the 3rd protection can be connected to this I/P. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. CB Ready I/P excited by a signal from the CB when it is ready (open/close/open). Set to 'on' ('T' or 'True'), if not needed or not fitted. I/P logic: 'CB ready' OR 'CB2 ready' In a duplex scheme, either an active 'CB ready' or 'CB2 ready' I/P enables an auto-reclosure cycle. Resetting of this input is delayed internally by 100 ms.

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CO Ready I/P excited by a signal from the CB when it is ready for a close/open cycle. Set to 'on' ('T' or 'True') if not needed, not fitted and 'Dead line' or 'ExtSCBypas' not used. I/P logic for enabling the closing command: [('synchrocheck' AND 'CO Ready') OR 'Dead line' OR 'ExtSCBypas']. CB Open I/P excited by a signal from the CB when it is open. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. To avoid the operation of fast circuit-breakers from being blocked unintentionally, the effect of this input is delayed internally by 100 ms. Dead line I/P indicating that the line is de-energised ('CB open' input if the VTs are on the busbar side). Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. An active I/P overrides the following logical relationship of the I/Ps: 'synchrocheck' AND 'CO Ready'. Ext. Blk. AR I/P for blocking the internal auto-reclosure function. Even an autoreclosure cycle that is in progress is immediately blocked by a signal applied to this input. The output signals 'Trip 3 Pol' and 'Def Trip' are generated and a three-phase definitive trip takes place. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. Cond. Blk. AR I/P for a conditional blocking signal. Blocking only takes place providing an AR cycle is not in progress. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. When tripping is by the distance protection SOTF logic or a directional E/F PLC signal, the corresponding signals can be connected to this I/P to prevent auto-reclosure. Manual Close Blocking I/P excited by the manual CB close signal. Even an autoreclosure cycle that is in progress is immediately blocked by a signal applied to this input. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed.

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Inhibit Inp. I/P for blocking the follower reclosure function in a redundant scheme. The follower is blocked from the end of the master closing signal until the end of the reclaim time. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. Extend t1 Input for conditionally extending the dead time (single and threephase) for the first (fast) reclosure. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. MD1_EXT_1P_1P, MD1_EXT_1P_3P, MD1_EXT_1P3P_3P and MD1_EX_1P3P_1P3P Inputs for externally selecting the mode for the first reclosure. They are only effective when the parameter '1. AR Mode' is set to 'Ext. select'. Unused inputs must be set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'). If a signal is applied to more than one input, the next mode in the list is the one that is active. The auto-reclosure function is blocked if none of the inputs is used.
SIGNAL OUTPUTS

Close CB Indication 'Close command CB'. Trip 3-Pol Signal to the distance function so that it can only carry out a threephase trip. This signal is inverted and connected to the distance protection I/P '1P AR'. This signal is active in many situations, but particularly when the AR function is blocked, the CB is not ready for AR, the CB is open, the single-phase discrimination time 't 1P Discrim' finishes or the output signal 'First AR 3P' is active. It resets at the end of reclaim time. Def. Trip Signal initiating lock-out tripping of the CB. This signal is normally active when the protection trips again after the last programmed reclosing shot or trips while the AR function is blocked. The signal resets after a fixed time of 500 ms. Inhibit Output Signal for blocking the follower AR function in a redundant scheme. This signal is active from the end of the close command from the master AR function to the end of the reclaim time.

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AR Ready Signal indicating that the AR function is ready for a reclosure cycle. This signal is active when the AR function is ON and standing by and also during the closing command. AR Blocked Signal indicating that the auto-reclosure relay is blocked. AR in Progress Signal indicating that a reclosure cycle is in progress. This signal is active from the beginning of the dead time until the end of the last reclosure attempt. First AR 1P in Prog. Signal indicating that the 1st single-phase reclosure attempt is in progress. First AR 3P in Prog. Signal indicating that the 1st three-phase reclosure attempt is in progress. Second AR in Prog. Signal indicating that the 2nd reclosure attempt is in progress (always three-phase). Third AR in Progress Signal indicating that the 3rd reclosure attempt is in progress (always three-phase). Fourth AR in Prog. Signal indicating that the 4th reclosure attempt is in progress (always three-phase). First AR completed Signal indicating that the 1st reclosure is completed. 2...4. AR completed Signal indicating that the 2nd, 3rd and 4th reclosure is completed.
SYNCHROCHECK

SCBypas 1P first AR Bypass of the synchrocheck and close/open ready signals for the first single-phase reclosure: 'on' First single-phase reclosure not enabled by synchrocheck and close/open ready signals (bypass always active). 'off' First single-phase reclosure enabled by the synchrocheck and close/open ready signals (bypass inactive).

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SCBypas 1P3P first AR Bypass of the synchrocheck and close/open ready signals for the first single or three-phase reclosure: 'on' First reclosure not enabled by synchrocheck and close/open ready signals (bypass always active). 'off' First reclosure enabled by synchrocheck and close/open ready signals (bypass inactive). Ext.SCBypas Bypasses the 'synchroChck' and 'CO Ready' signals. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. I/P logic for enabling the close command: [('synchrocheck' AND 'CO Ready') OR 'Dead line' OR 'Ext.SCBypas']. I/P logic for enabling the close command: [('synchroChk2' AND 'CO Ready 2') OR 'Dead line' OR 'Ext.SCBypas']. SynchroCheck I/P for a signal from a synchrocheck relay. Set to 'on' ('T' or 'True'), if not needed, not fitted and 'Dead line' or 'ExtSCBypas' not used. I/P logic: [('synchrocheck' AND 'CO Ready') OR 'Dead line' OR 'Ext.SCBypas'].
ZONE EXTENSION

To achieve the functions described below, the 'ZExtension' signal must be connected to the distance protection function (see Section 3.5.4.2.). This signal can be used to initiate fast tripping in schemes including overcurrent functions (see Section 3.5.4.3.). ZE Prefault Distance relay reach setting before the first fault: 'on' overreaching ('ZExtension' signal active) 'off' underreaching ('ZExtension' signal inactive) ZE 1. AR Distance relay reach after the 1st reclosure attempt: 'on' overreaching ('ZExtension' signal active) 'off' underreaching ('ZExtension' signal inactive) ZE 2. AR Distance relays reach after the 2nd reclosure attempt: 'on' overreaching ('ZExtension' signal active) 'off' underreaching ('ZExtension' signal inactive)

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ZE 3. AR Distance relays reach after the 3rd reclosure attempt: 'on' overreaching ('ZExtension' signal active) 'off' underreaching ('ZExtension' signal inactive) ZE 4. AR Distance relays reach after the 4th reclosure attempt: 'on' overreaching ('ZExtension' signal active) 'off' underreaching ('ZExtension' signal inactive) ZExtension Signal to the distance function to switch it to overreach or enable an overcurrent function with a short delay.
MASTER-FOLLOWER LOGIC

Master Mode (for 1 breaker and redundant schemes) Selection of an auto-reclosure function to be 'Master': 'on' Master O/P signals transmitted 'off' Master O/Ps blocked MasterDelay I/P for a signal delaying the closing command from the follower reclosure function. This signal picks up when the dead time of the master reclosure function starts and is reset either by a new trip after the last reclosure of the cycle or at the end of the wait time following successful reclosure by the master. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. Mast.noSucc I/P for a blocking signal from the master CB. This signal is triggered by the rising edge of the 'Def.Trip' output from the master reclosure function and resets after a fixed time of 500 ms. Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. DelayFlwr. Signal to delay the follower CB for as long as the master circuitbreaker has not completed its auto-reclosure cycle. The signal picks up at the start of master AR dead time and is reset either by the rising edge of the 'Def.Trip' output or the falling edge of the 'Close CB' output after the time 'tClose'. Block to Flwr. Signal to block the follower CB as long as reclosure of the master CB is unsuccessful. The excursion of this signal is the same as for the 'Def.Trip' output.

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DUPLEX LOGIC

CB2 Ready I/P excited by a signal from CB2 when it is ready (open/close/open). Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed or not fitted. I/P logic: 'CB ready' OR 'CB2 ready' In a duplex scheme, the auto-reclosure cycle is enabled either by an active 'CB ready' or 'CB2 ready' I/P. Resetting of this input is delayed internally by 100 ms. CO Ready 2 I/P excited by a signal from CB2 when it is ready for a close/open operation. Set to 'on' ('T' or 'True'), if not needed, not fitted and 'Dead line 2' is not used. I/P logic for enabling the close command: [('synchrocheck2' AND 'CO Ready 2') OR 'Dead line 2' OR 'ExtSCBypas']. CB2 open I/P excited by a signal from CB2 when it is open. Set to 'on' ('T' or 'True'), if not needed. Observe the information given for the duplex logic in a duplex scheme (see Section 3.5.4.5.). SynchroChck2 I/P for a signal from a synchrocheck function belonging to CB2. Set to 'on' ('T' or 'True'), if not needed, not fitted and 'Dead line 2' or ExtSCBypas not used. I/P logic for enabling the close command: [('synchrocheck2' AND 'CO Ready 2') OR 'Dead line 2' OR 'ExtSCBypas']. Dead line 2 I/P indicating that line 2 is de-energised (CB2 open and VTs 2 on the busbar side). Set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'), if not needed. An active I/P overrides the following logical relationship of the I/Ps: 'synchrocheck 2' AND 'CO Ready 2'. Close CB2 Tripping relay O/P for the CB2 close command. Close CB2 Auxiliary relay O/P for the CB2 close signal.

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CB2 Priority Input for determining the preferred circuit-breaker: 'off' ('F' or 'False') CB1 is preferred circuit-breaker 'on' ('T' or 'True') CB2 is preferred circuit-breaker If both circuit-breakers are closed before a fault, only the preferred circuit-breaker performs the entire auto-reclosure cycle. The other circuit-breaker closes either after successful auto-reclosure or when the close command to the preferred circuit-breaker is not enabled (missing 'CO Ready' or 'Synchrocheck').
ADDITIONAL LOGIC

The following settings are only of consequence if a special auto-reclosure logic is installed. In this case, consult the associated description for the significance of the various settings. P_INPUT1, P_INPUT2P_INPUT16 Additional binary input for a special auto-reclosure logic. TMSEC_Timer1, TMSEC_Timer2TMSEC_Timer8 Additional timer settings for a special auto-reclosure logic. P_OUTPUT1, P_OUTPUT2P_OUTPUT8 Additional signals for a special auto-reclosure logic.

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E. Setting instructions 3.5.4.1. General

The auto-reclosure function can perform from 1 to 4 auto-reclosure attempts. The first attempt can be either single or three-phase while the subsequent attempts are always three-phase. The type and number are determined by the parameters '1. AR Mode' (4 different modes for the 1st reclosure cycle) and '2..4 AR Mode'. The function can operate in conjunction with either an external distance protection relay or other internal protection functions. It can also operate in a scheme comprising two or more protection functions (see Sections 3.5.4.2. to 3.5.4.5.).
3.5.4.2. Connections between auto-reclosure and distance functions

The auto-reclosure function determines from the states of the input signals 'start', 'Trip CB' and 'Trip CB 3P', whether the distance protection has picked up and whether it has performed a single or a threephase trip. Only the 'Trip CB' signal is generated for a single-phase trip, whereas both the 'Trip CB' and 'Trip CB 3P' signals are generated for a three-phase trip. The external distance relay or internal distance function decides whether single or three-phase tripping should take place. The auto-reclosure function can send two signals to the distance protection. The 'Trip 3-Pol' signal informs the distance protection whether it should perform a single or a three-phase trip. The 'ZExtension' signal switches the distance protections overreaching zone on and off. When setting the parameters, attention should be paid to the order of the functions. For runtime reasons, the distance function should be configured before the auto-reclosure function. Where the SOTF logic is not required to operate during auto-reclosure, connect the 'AR in progress' Signal to the 'Ext. Block SOTF' binary I/P of the distance function. The 'SOTF 10 s' timer in the distance functions SOTF logic is normally activated for dead times <10 s and in this case the above connection is not necessary. If the SOTF logic initiates tripping, an auto-reclosure cycle can be inhibited by connecting the 'start SOTF' from the distance function to the 'Cond. Block AR' I/P of the auto-reclosure function. The exchange of signals in the various schemes (one distance and one auto-reclosure function, and several protection functions and one reclosure function) can be seen from Fig. 3.10, Fig. 3.11 and Fig. 3.14.

3-90

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.216 / RE.316*4
<Z
Start RST Trip CB Trip CB 3Ph Start SOTF 1 Pol AR Z Extension AR Start Trip CB

Auto-reclosure function
CO Ready CB Ready Close CB
HEST 045019 C

Trip CB 3P Trip 3-Pol Z Extension

Fig. 3.10

Distance and auto-reclosure functions in the same unit

RE.216 / RE.316*4
<Z
Start Trip CB

Auto-reclosure function
CO Ready CB Ready Close CB
HEST 045020 C

Trip CB 3P Trip 3-Pol


Z Extension

Fig. 3.11

Distance protection and auto-reclosure functions in different units

CB Open

Cond. Block AR

CB Open

Cond. Block AR

3-91

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

3.5.4.3.

Connections between auto-reclosure and overcurrent or differential functions

a) When setting the parameters, attention should be paid to the order of the functions. For run-time reasons, the overcurrent function should be configured before the auto-reclosure function. To prevent the discrimination timer from operating, connect the overcurrent 'Trip' signal to the two inputs 'Start' and 'Trip CB 3P' of the auto-reclosure function. The time 't Close' must be set longer than the maximum operating time of the activated (graded) overcurrent functions to prevent the reclaim time from blocking the AR function in the event of a permanent fault: tClose from AR function > tmax. overcurrent time delay In cases where the zone extension signal is used in conjunction with overcurrent functions (see zone extension settings), the terms 'overreach' and 'underreach' have the following meanings: 'overreach': 'underreach' : enabling of an overcurrent function having a short (non-graded) time delay. enabling of an overcurrent function having a long (graded) time delay.

The exchange of signals in conjunction with O/C functions is shown in Fig. 3.12. b) If only three-phase trip and reclosure operation is required in conjunction with a differential current function, connect the differential function trip output to the 'Start' and 'Trip CB 3P' inputs of the reclosure function. The additional FUPLA logic T129 is required for single-phase trip and reclosure.

3-92

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.216 / RE.316*4
O/C
(I 1>, t 1)

Trip

1 *) Logic

Start Auto-reclosure Trip CB 3P function


CO Ready CB Ready Close CB
HEST045021 C

Z Extension O/C
(I 2>, t 2)

Trip

Block

Fig. 3.12

Overcurrent and auto-reclosure functions in the same unit

where: t1 t2 I1>, I2> standard delay (0.5 ... 1.5 s) short delay (0.02 ... 0.2 s) pick-up value 'I set' for 'Trip'

CB Open

3-93

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

3.5.4.4.

Redundant schemes

Provision is made for coordinating the operation of two protection functions and one or two auto-reclosure functions per line terminal (see Fig. 3.13 and Fig. 3.14). A master/follower logic has to be used to avoid any time-race problems due to differing timer tolerances. A redundant scheme assumes first and second main protection schemes each with its own reclosure function. The operation of the reclosure functions therefore has to be coordinated by configuring one as 'master' and the other as 'follower'. If the master AR starts first, it delays the operation of the follower AR until it has either achieved successful reclosure or otherwise. If the follower AR is enabled first, its dead time starts to run, but should the master start during the follows dead time, operation of the follower reclosure function is suspended and the master takes over and performs its reclosure cycle. The follower is on 'hot standby' and only takes over, if the master AR or its protection function fails to operate. The signal from a faulty contact like 'CO Ready' to the master recloser, however, would result in a 'Def.Trip' output after the time 't Timeout' and this would also block the Follower AR. In the circuit of Fig. 3.13, the master and follower functions can also be the other way round by appropriately configuring the system software.

3-94

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.216 / RE.316*4

Z Extension AR

<Z
Trip CB 3Ph Start SOTF Start RST 1 Pol AR Trip CB

<Z

Trip CB 3P Cond. Block AR

Cond. Block AR

Auto-reclosure function

Trip CB2 3P CB Open CB Ready CO Ready Close CB Inhibit Close Inhibit Output Delay Flwr. CB Open CB Ready CO Ready Close CB Inhibit Output Inhibit Close Master Delay

Master mode = 'ON'

Master mode = 'OFF

HEST 045022 C

Fig. 3.13

Redundant scheme (first and second main < Z and auto-reclosure functions) with master/follower logic

Auto-reclosure function
3-95

Z Extension

Z Extension

Trip CB

Start Trip CB

Trip CB 3P

Trip 3-Pol

Trip 3-Pol

Start

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

RE.216 / RE.316*4 < Z (1)


Start RST Trip CB Trip CB 3Ph Start SOTF 1 Pol AR Z Extension AR Start Trip CB Trip CB 3P Cond. Block AR Trip 3-Pol Z Extension

Z Extension Trip 3-Pol Start 2

Auto-reclosure function
Trip CB2 CO Ready CB Ready Close CB
HEST 045025 C

Start Trip CB 3P

Backup

Fig. 3.14

Several protection functions and a common autoreclosure unit

3.5.4.5.

Master/follower logic

Provision is made for a master/follower logic in 1 breaker schemes with two line protections per line and an auto-reclosure function per circuit-breaker. One of the reclosure functions is assigned the role of master by appropriately setting the parameter 'Master mode'. After a successful reclosure, the master AR then enables the follower AR, respectively its CB (the connections are as given in Fig. 3.15 for a three-phase trip and reclosure for all types of faults).

3-96

CB Open

< Z (2)

Trip CB2 3P

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

MAIN 1
Trip CB R Trip CB R Trip CB S Trip CB T

MAIN 2
Trip CB S Trip CB T

<Z
Start RSTAux Trip CB 3P Start RST

<Z
Start RSTAux Start SOTF Cond. Block AR Trip CB 3P

Start SOTF

Start RST

1 Pol AR

Start 2 Trip CB 2 Trip CB2 3P

Cond. Block AR

Trip CB 3P

Trip 3-Pol

Trip CB2 3P

Trip CB

Trip CB 3P

Start

RE.316*4
Master AR
CO Ready CB Ready CB Open

Delay Flwr. Block to Flwr. Close CB

Master Delay Mast. no Succ. CO Ready CB Ready CB Open

RE.316*4
Follower AR
Close CB

"Master CB

"Follower CB

LINE
HEST 045 023 C

Fig. 3.15

Earth and phase fault master/follower scheme for AR mode 1P3P-3P

Note:

A second line on the diameter (1 breaker scheme) requires additional connections and logic.

Trip 3-Pol

Trip CB

Start 2

Trip CB 2

Start

1 Pol AR

Trip CB

Trip CB

3-97

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Follower CB delay 'DelayFlwr'

The master reclosure function sends an active 'DelFlwr' signal to the 'MasterDelay' I/P of the follower to delay its 'Close CB' command to the follower CB until the master reclosure function issues the 'Close CB' command, which is followed by a wait time of 300 ms as a precaution to allow time for a successful reclosure. If the reclosure is unsuccessful, the output remains high until the signal 'Def.Trip' is activated (the 'DelayFlwr' signal resets and 'Blk to Flwr' signal is generated). Should this signal reset before the end of the follower dead time, the close command to the follower CB is issued at the end of the dead time.
Blocking reclosure by the follower 'Block to Flwr.'

The master reclosure function sends an active 'Block to Flwr.' signal to the follower 'Mast.noSucc' I/P to block reclosure by the follower, if the reclosure attempt by the master was unsuccessful as indicated by the generation of its 'Def.Trip' output.
3.5.4.6. Duplex logic

A duplex logic for a line with two circuit-breakers is also included (see Fig. 3.16). Observe the following in connection with a duplex scheme: For the scheme to operate correctly, the corresponding CB signals must be connected to the 'CB open' and 'CB2 open' inputs for the duplex logic (setting to 'off' disables the duplex logic). Follow the procedure below, if separate 'CB ready' and 'CB open' signals are not available from the circuit-breakers: Connect the two circuit-breaker signalling contacts 'CB ready' (air-pressure or spring charging) and 'CB closed' in series. For this, 't Close' must be set longer than the maximum spring charging time to suppress the definitive trip signal in the case of a successful reclosure. Assign the combined signals to the corresponding 'CB ready' inputs. Assign the same signals but inverted to the corresponding 'CB open' inputs. The priority CB is selected with the input 'CB2 Priority'. If both CBs are closed when a fault occurs, then the Autoreclose cycle is executed only for the priority CB. In a normal case the second CB is closed only after a successful autoreclosure of the priority CB. It is also closed if the priority CB is prevented from closing on a Close command because of missing release signals ('CO Ready' resp. Synchrocheck).

3-98

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Fig. 3.16
CB Open Start Trip CB Trip CB 3P Cond. Block AR Trip 3-Pol

Start RST Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start SOTF 1 Pol AR Z Extension AR

< Z (1)

RE.216 & RE.316*4

CB1
CB Ready CO Ready Close CB

Auto-reclosure function
CB2 Open CB2 Ready CO Ready2 Close CB2
HEST 045 026 C

Z Extension

Z Extension Trip 3-Pol Start 2 Trip CB 2 Trip CB2 3P

CB2

Duplex scheme (< Z can be redundant)

< Z (2)

ABB Switzerland Ltd

3-99

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

3.5.4.7.

Timers

The timers have setting ranges extending up to 300 s in steps of 10 ms. The purpose of each of the timers is described below.
Dead times 't Dead1 1P' to 't Dead 4'

Provided the trip signal is issued before 't Oper' elapses, the dead time is the period between the tripping signal ('Trip CB') and the close signal ('Close CB'). The required dead time must be entered separately for each reclosure cycle. This necessitates setting the following parameters: 't Dead1 1P', 't Dead1 3P', 't Dead 2', 't Dead 3' and 't Dead 4'. Provision is made for externally switching the dead times 't Dead1 1P' and 't Dead1 3P' for the first (fast) reclosure attempt to a second setting. The corresponding additional time period can be set with the aid of the parameter 't Dead 1 Ext' and activated via the binary I/P 'Extend t1'. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th reclosure attempts are always three-phase.
Extended dead time 't Dead 1 Ext'

This time provides facility for extending the dead time (e.g. should the communications channel be defective or for a redundant scheme with 2 auto-reclosure functions). The extended dead time is enabled by the binary input 'Extend t1'.
Maximum fault duration for a reclosure attempt 't Oper'

If a fault has persisted for some time, the probability of a successful reclosure reduces. The likelihood of the power system becoming unstable is also greater for an unsuccessful auto-reclosure attempt following a fault that has persisted for a long period. It is for these reasons that the time after the inception of a fault during which reclosure can be initiated is limited. The fault duration is set using parameter 't Oper'. The timer for the fault duration is started by the pick-up signal from the protection function (Start). Faults resulting in tripping after 't Oper' are locked out ('Def. Trip') and reclosure does not take place. Should the fault duration time expire before the protection trips, autoreclosure is blocked and the reclaim time is started.
Example:

Time 'T Oper' < 'Delay(2)' of the distance function means that autoreclosure only takes place for faults in the first distance zone ('Delay(1)'). This function is not required for schemes that only use current functions. The binary inputs 'Start' and 'Trip CB 3P' are connected together (see Section 3.5.4.3.).
3-100

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

Reclaim time 't inhibit'

The purpose of the inhibit time is among other things to permit the circuit-breaker to recover its full voltage withstand. To this end, it disables the auto-reclosure function for the time set for parameter 't inhibit' after one of the following events: the last reclosing attempt a definitive trip resulting from a protection trip after the fault duration time 't Oper' a recurring trip between discrimination time and dead time (evolving fault, see O/P signal 'Def. Trip').

Close signal duration 't Close'

The maximum duration of the circuit-breaker close signal (command O/P 'Close CB') is determined by the parameter 't Close'. Any tripping signal that occurs during this time overrides the close signal. A second, third or fourth reclosure attempt can only take place, if the next trip occurs within the time 't Close'.
Discrimination times 't 1P discrim.' and 't 3P discrim.'

The discrimination time determines the procedure in the event of a different kind of fault occurring during the dead time (evolving fault), i.e. one of the other two phases also picks up or the tripping signal resets and picks up again. The discrimination time is started together with the dead time. Should a tripping signal recur due to an evolving fault between the expiry of the discrimination time and before the end of the dead time, the reclaim timer is started and a definitive trip ('Def. Trip') initiated. The dead time is also discontinued and the signal 'AR in prog.' reset. If the first fault was initially an earth fault and evolves during the time 't Dead1 1P', but before the end of the discrimination time 't Discrim 1P', the dead time 't Dead1 3P' is started and three-phase reclosure takes place. The discrimination time 't Discrim 3P' is also needed for 2 or 1 breaker schemes, where each circuit-breaker has its own auto-reclosure function. A typical setting for the parameters 't Discrim 1P' or 't Discrim 3P' for single and three-phase reclosure is 50 % of the shortest dead time. The minimum permissible setting for the discrimination time is: 100 ms + CB time
NOTICE: The time 't1EvolFaults' during which a subsequent fault has to be detected (evolving or unsuccessful reclosure) must be set in the distance function.

3-101

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

The distance protection parameter 't1EvolFaults' enables the time to be set during which a subsequent fault (evolving or unsuccessful reclosure) results in a three-phase trip, i.e. every second trip by the distance protection function trips all three phases. The auto-reclosure function also signals the switchover to three-phase tripping by exciting the signal 'Trip 3-Pol' at the end of the fault discrimination time 't Discrim. 1P'. It is advisable to set the time 't1EvolFaults' longer than the auto-reclosure dead time 't Dead1 1P'.
't Timeout'

The parameter 't Timeout' determines the period after the dead time within which the close signal must be issued, otherwise a 'Def.Trip' is generated and no further reclosure attempt is made. Before a close command is issued at the end of every dead time, the logic [('synchroChck' AND 'CO ready') OR 'Dead Line' OR 'ExtSCBypas')] is checked and the command only enabled providing all the criteria are correct within the setting of 't Timeout'.
Blocking time 't AR Block'

The auto-reclosure function can be enabled or disabled by the following binary I/P signals: Ext. Block AR Manual close Inhibit Inp CB Ready CB2 Ready CO Ready CO Ready 2 Mast.noSucc - also blocks during the reclosure cycle - also blocks during the reclosure cycle - also blocks during the reclosure cycle - blocks excepting during the reclosure cycle - blocks excepting during the reclosure cycle *) - blocks at the end of the reclosure cycle after expiry of the time 't time-out' - blocks at the end of the reclosure cycle after expiry of the time 't time-out' *) - blocks the follower CB after an unsuccessful reclosure attempt by the master

Cond. Block AR - blocks excepting during the reclosure cycle.

Should a 'Cond. Block AR' signal occur during a reclosure cycle (i.e. the 'AR in prog.' signal is active), it only becomes effective from the end of the current reclosure cycle and providing it is still active.

*)

2 denotes the I/Os for CB2 in a duplex scheme (see Fig. 3.16.).

3-102

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

A reclosure cycle remains blocked for the duration of the set blocking time 't AR Block' after the last binary I/P has been enabled. Blocking also takes place during initialisation of the protection relay when its auxiliary supply is switched on or the parameter settings are being loaded.
3.5.4.8. External binary inputs Starting and tripping signals from the protection function: 'Start' ('Start 2', 'Start 3'), 'Trip CB' and 'Trip CB 3P' ('Trip CB2', 'Trip CB3', 'Trip CB2 3P', 'Trip CB3 3P')

In order to control the auto-reclosure function, it is necessary to configure the three I/P signals 'Trip CB' (general trip), 'Trip CB 3P' (three-phase trip) and 'Start'. The normal procedure to achieve this is to select the protection signals via the sub-menu 'OUTPUT FROM FUNCTION'. Since the auto-reclosure function is completely independent, signals from other functions may also be selected. In a 1st and 2nd main (redundant) protection scheme with one autoreclosure relay (see Section 3.5.4.4.), the I/P signals 'Trip CB2', 'Trip CB2 3P' and 'Start 2' must also be connected to the second protection function.
Circuit-breaker ready signals: 'CB ready' and 'CO Ready' ('CB2 ready' and 'CO Ready 2')

The I/Ps for the parameters 'CO Ready' and 'CB ready' (or 'CO Ready 2' and 'CB2 ready' in a duplex scheme) must be connected to the circuit-breakers in order to signal that they are ready to perform a complete reclosure cycle. In cases where one of the I/Ps is not used, it must be set to 'TRUE'. An active 'CB ready' signal informs the auto-reclosure function that reclosure is permissible (i.e. sufficient energy is available for a full open/close/open cycle). Once a reclosure cycle has started, this signal is ignored (because the pressure varies during a reclosure cycle of an air-blast breaker). Resetting of this signal is internally delayed by 100 ms. The 'CO Ready' signal (close-open cycle can be carried out) is only effective during a reclosure cycle, i.e. during the dead time. Should there be insufficient energy to open the circuit-breaker again following closure, the close signal is disabled and a 'Def. Trip' (definitive trip) is generated. This I/P is only used in conjunction with circuit-breakers, which provide the corresponding information (C-O query), e.g. spring-charged and air-blast circuit-breakers with two switching energy levels.

3-103

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Circuit-breaker open 'CB open' ('CB2 open')

It is also necessary to include the initial status of the circuit-breakers to prevent one from receiving a close signal, which was already open before the fault occurred. The binary I/P 'CB open' (and 'CB2 open' in a duplex scheme) is thus provided to determine the initial status of a circuit-breaker. The pick-up of these signals is delayed by 100 ms to prevent any unwanted blocking of fast circuit-breakers. A circuit-breaker that was already open before the 'Start' signal was received ('CB open' at logical '1') is not closed by the auto-reclosure function. Where a circuit-breaker does not provide the necessary information ('CB open' signal), the I/P must be permanently set to 'off' ('F' or 'False'). Providing the scheme is also not a duplex scheme (i.e. only one CB), the binary I/P 'CB2 open' must also be permanently set to 'on' ('T' or 'True'). Accordingly, these are the default settings for 'CB open' and 'CB2 open'. The auto-reclosure function can then operate with a single circuitbreaker without a 'CB open' signal and no superfluous close signal is generated for the non-existing CB2.
De-energised line 'Dead Line' ('Dead Line 2') with checking of synchronism 'synchroChck' ('synchroChck2')

Before the 'Close CB' (or 'Close CB2') instruction can be issued, either the 'Dead line' or the 'synchroChck' I/P (or 'Dead line 2' or 'synchroChck2' in a duplex scheme) must be at logical '1'. Logic: [('synchroChck' AND 'CO ready') OR 'Dead Line' OR 'ExtSCBypas'] Logic: [('synchroChck2' AND 'CO ready 2') OR 'Dead Line 2' OR 'ExtSCBypas']
External blocking 'Ext. Block AR' and 'Cond. Block AR'

The reclosure function is always blocked by an active 'Ext. Block AR' I/P. An active 'Cond. Block AR' I/P will only block the function, providing a reclosure cycle is not running (i.e. the 'AR in prog.' signal is at logical '0'). The 'Cond.Blk AR' signal is needed to prevent a reclosure cycle, when no reclosure is wanted for a first trip that occurs during 't Oper'. This is the case, for example, for trips by the switch-onto-fault (SOTF) protection or by a directional E/F protection via PLC. To prevent the SOFT from initiating auto-reclosure, the distance protection 'SOFT start' signal must be connected to the 'Cond. Block AR' input.

3-104

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

'Manual close'

The reclosure function is immediately blocked (for the blocking time 't AR Block') by a 'Manual close' signal. This signal is also needed for the overreaching logic to switch the 'ZExtension' signal to 'on'.
External synchrocheck bypass signal 'ExtSCBypas'

This I/P provides facility for bypassing the 'synchroChck' and 'CO Ready' (or 'SynchroChck2' and 'CO Ready 2' for CB2) enabling I/Ps. It is only active for the first fast three-phase or single-phase reclosure attempt.
External extension of the dead time Extend t1'

A logical '1' at the 'Extend t1' I/P extends the dead times 't Dead1 1P' and 't Dead1 3P' by the setting 't Dead1 Ext' for the first (fast) reclosure attempt. This could be necessary, for example, in the event of a communication channel failure or in a redundant scheme.
3.5.4.9. Close CB and signalling outputs

The most important auto-reclosure output is the 'Close CB' command, which must be assigned to a heavy-duty auxiliary O/P relay. This and 14 other heavy-duty and signalling O/Ps are provided. This signal picks up when the closing command is issued and resets at the end of the time 't Close' or earlier if there is a tripping occurs upon reclosing.
Status of the auto-reclosure function 'AR Ready' and 'AR Blocked'

The signal 'AR Ready' is generated when the auto-reclosure function is ready to perform a reclosure cycle and the signal 'AR Blocked' when it is blocked. The 'AR Ready' signal is active providing a reclosure cycle is not blocked (no 'AR Blocked' signal) and a dead time is not running. The 'AR Ready' signal is active during a reclose command for purposes of enabling the synchrocheck function (see Fig. 3.63 in the synchrocheck function section).
Auto-reclosure cycle in progress

There are six signals, which show that a reclosure cycle is running and what stage has been reached: 'AR in prog.' reclosure cycle in progress 'First AR 1P' first single-phase reclosure attempt 'First AR 3P' first three-phase reclosure attempt 'second AR' second reclosure attempt 'Third AR' third reclosure attempt 'Fourth AR' fourth reclosure attempt The signal 'AR in prog' picks up at the start of the dead time and is reset by the falling edge of the last reclose command.

3-105

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Circuit-breaker closing signals 'Close CB' and 'Close CB2'

The CB closing command is normally assigned to a heavy-duty auxiliary O/P relay by correspondingly configuring the parameter 'Close CB' (also 'Close CB2' in a duplex scheme). It is also possible to assign the same signal to a signalling O/P under the same parameter name. A trip subsequent to a close command during the time 't Close' + 300 ms switches the dead time step (second, third and fourth AR) or initiates a lock-out trip (depending on the setting). A close command is reset immediately after a trip.
Definitive trip 'Def. Trip'

The 'Def. Trip' signal indicates that the circuit-breaker will remain tripped and no further reclosure attempts will be made. The following conditions can cause a definitive trip: All reclosure attempts were unsuccessful. A starting or tripping signal was generated after the discrimination time and before dead time. Tripping takes place while a reclosure cycle is blocked (either via the blocking I/P or by the reclaim time). The 'synchroChck' (or 'Dead line') and/or 'CO Ready' I/Ps were not enabled during 't Timeout' due to lack of synchronism. The 'CB open' signal is still active 300 ms after the close signal has reset (i.e. the CB has not responded to the close signal). The trip signal that followed the start signal occurred after the fault duration time 't Oper'. Tripping occurred for a phase fault and the mode selected for the first reclosure cycle is 1P-1P or 1P-3P.

Perform three-phase trip 'Trip 3-Pol'

The 'Trip 3-Pol' O/P instructs the line protection to trip all three phases. The signal can be externally or internally connected. This signal is generated automatically, if reclosure is blocked, 'CB Ready' is inactive, the CB is open, the single-phase discrimination time 't1P Discrim' has elapsed or the signal 'First AR 3P' is active.
Zone extension 'ZExtension'

The setting of the auto-reclosure parameter 'ZE Prefault' determines the pre-fault reach of the distance protection when the auto-reclosure function is inactive (before the first fault), i.e. setting 'ZE Prefault' to 'on' activates the output signal 'ZExtension' which then switches the distance function to overreach. The parameters 'ZE 1. AR reach' to 'ZE 4. AR reach' provide facility for individually switching the reach for each reclosure attempt. Setting one of these parameters to 'on' means that the 'ZExtension' O/P is at
3-106

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

logical '1' and the distance relay is switched to overreach either before fault occurrence or for the following reclosure attempt, otherwise the distance relay is set to underreach. With the exception of its first change of state when providing 'ZEPrefault' is set to 'ON' it resets together with the signal 'Trip CB' or 'Trip CB 3P', this signal picks up and resets together with the 'Close CB' signal. The distance relay is switched to overreaching for a 'Manual close'. It is switched to underreaching when the auto-reclosure function is blocked. Note also that the 'ZExtension' signal is connected to the binary input 'ZEMode AR' of the zone extension logic in the distance protection function.

3.5.4.10.

Timing diagrams

The time relationship between the various signals during operation of the auto-reclosure function can be seen from Fig. 3.17 to Fig. 3.25.

3-107

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Successful AR
time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip t Close Close CB Z Extension 300 ms First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P t Inhibit

t Discrim. 1P

Unsuccessful AR
time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip

Close CB Z Extension

First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked

t Discrim. 1P

t Dead1 1P

Fig. 3.17

Timing diagram for a single or double busbar arrangement with 1 distance and 1 AR function. Response for an earth fault.
Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P-1P' or '1P3P-1P3P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 'off', 'ZE Prefault' = 'on', 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off'.

3-108

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Successful AR (evolving fault during t Discrim1P)


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip t Close Close CB Z Extension First AR 1P in Progress First AR 3P in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P t Inhibit

t Discrim. 1P 300 ms

Unsuccessful AR (evolving fault within t Dead1 1P,


but after t Discrim1P)
time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip

Close CB Z Extension

First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked

t Discrim. 1P

t Dead1 1P

Fig. 3.18

Timing diagram for a single or double busbar arrangement with 1 distance and 1 AR function. Response for an earth fault that evolves.
Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P3P-1P3P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 'off', 'ZE Prefault' = 'on', 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off'.

3-109

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

Successful AR
time < t Operation Trip CB 3P Trip CB Start Def. Trip Close CB Z Extension First AR 3P in Progress Second AR in Progress Third AR in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 3P t Dead2 t Dead3 t Inhibit 300 ms t Close

Unsuccessful AR
time < t Operation Trip CB 3P Trip CB Start Def. Trip Close CB Z Extension First AR 3P in Progress Second AR in Progress Third AR in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 3P t Dead2 t Dead3

Fig. 3.19

Timing diagram for a single or double busbar arrangement with 1 distance and 1 AR function. Response for multiple phase faults.
Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P3P-1P3P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 3, 'ZE Prefault' = 'on', 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off', 'ZE 2. AR' = 'on' and 'ZE 3. AR' = 'off'.

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Master AR (Master Mode = "ON")


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip Close CB Z Extension 300 ms First AR 1P In Progress Trip 3-Pol Delay Flwr Inhibit Output AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P t Inhibit t Discrim. 1P t Close

Follower AR (Master Mode = "OFF", AR on "hot standby")


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip Close CB Z Extension First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol Master Delay Inhibit Close AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P t Inhibit

t Discrim. 1P

Fig. 3.20

Timing diagram for redundant scheme with 2 ARs. Response for 1 successful reclosure.
Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P3P-1P3P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 'off', 'ZE Prefault' = 'on' and 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off'.

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Master AR (Master Mode = "ON")


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip Close CB Z Extension First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol Delay Flwr Inhibit Output AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P t Inhibit

t Discrim. 1P

Follower AR (Master Mode = "OFF", AR on "hot standby")


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip Close CB Z Extension First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol Master Delay Inhibit Close AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P t Inhibit

t Discrim. 1P

Fig. 3.21

Timing diagram for redundant scheme with 2 ARs. Response for 1 unsuccessful reclosure.
Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P3P-1P3P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 'off', 'ZE Prefault' = 'on' and 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off'.

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Unsuccessful AR
time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip Close CB Close CB2 Z Extension First AR 3P in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 3P

Successful AR
Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Def. Trip

time < t Operation

t Close Close CB Close CB2 Z Extension 300 ms First AR 3P in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 3P t Inhibit 300 ms

Fig. 3.22

Timing diagram for duplex scheme. Response for a multiple phase fault.
Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P3P-1P3P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 'off', 'ZE Prefault' = 'on', 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off' and 'CB2 Priority = 'Always FALSE'.

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Master AR (Master Mode = "ON", CB on bus side)


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Close CB Z Extension Def. Trip First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol Delay Flwr Block to Flwr AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P

t Discrim. 1P

Follower AR (Master Mode = "OFF", Centre CB)


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Close CB Z Extension Def. Trip First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol Master Delay Mast.no Succ AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P

t Discrim. 1P

Fig. 3.23

Timing diagram for a 1 breaker scheme. Response for an unsuccessful reclosure.


Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P3P-1P3P' or '1P-1P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 'off', 'ZE Prefault' = 'on' and 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off'.

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Master AR (Master Mode = "ON", CB on bus side)


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Close CB Z Extension Def. Trip 300 ms First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol Delay Flwr Block to Flwr AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P t Inhibit t Discrim. 1P t Close

Follower AR (Master Mode = "OFF", Centre CB)


time < t Operation Trip CB Trip CB 3P Start Close CB Z Extension Def. Trip 300 ms First AR 1P in Progress Trip 3-Pol Master Delay Mast.no Succ AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 1P t Inhibit t Discrim. 1P t Close

Fig. 3.24

Timing diagram for a 1 breaker scheme. Response for a successful reclosure.


Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P3P-1P3P' or '1P-1P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 'off', 'ZE Prefault' = 'on' und 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off'.

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Master AR (Master Mode = "ON", CB on bus side)


time < t Operation Trip CB 3P Trip CB Start Def. Trip Block to Flwr Delay Flwr Close CB Z Extension First AR 3P in Progress Second AR in Progress Third AR in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked t Dead1 3P t Dead2 t Dead3

Follower AR (Master Mode = "OFF", Centre CB)


time < t Operation Trip CB 3P Trip CB Start Def. Trip Close CB Mast.no Succ Master Delay Z Extension First AR 3P in Progress Trip 3-Pol AR in Progress AR Ready AR Blocked

Fig. 3.25

Timing diagram for 1 breaker scheme. Response for an unsuccessful multiple reclosure.
Settings: '1. AR Mode' = '1P3P-1P3P', '2..4. AR Mode' = 'off', 'ZE Prefault' = 'on', 'ZE 1. AR' = 'off', 'ZE 2. AR' = 'on' and 'ZE 3. AR' = 'off'.

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3.5.4.11.

Checking the dead times

When commissioning the auto-reclosure function, it is not sufficient to check the combined operation of protection function, auto-reclosure function and circuit-breaker, the resulting dead times must also be determined. Since the dead time settings do not correspond to the effective total dead times, especially in a scheme with two circuit-breakers (see Fig. 3.26), the period during which the circuit-breaker is actually open must be measured. This entails adjusting the dead time until the measured breaker time minus arcing and pre-ignition times and the inevitable CB tolerances result in an adequate composite dead time. Providing the circuit-breakers at both ends of the line are of the same type and thus permit the same tolerances to be assumed at both ends, the same dead time tp can be set in the two terminal stations. Where this is not the case, the tripping and closing times of the two circuitbreakers must also be measured in addition to the dead times. The dead times set for the two auto-reclosure functions must then ensure that a sufficiently long 'overlapping' dead time exists to enable the circuit-breakers to deionise.

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tw tp

ts

1 2 6 5 3

A
O
t1 t3 t4 t6 t7 1 2 3 4 t2

t5

6 5 4

B
O

(t)

HEST 925 035 C

A: circuit-breaker 1 C: 'closed' position 0: start 2: contacts part 4: 'close' signal 6: contacts make t1: tripping time t4: dead time t7: resulting dead time tp: dead time

B: circuit-breaker 2 O: 'open' position 1: 'trip' signal 3: current interrupted 5: current flows again

t2: reclosing time t5: pre-ignition time

t3: arc extinction time t6: duration of interruption

ts: inhibit time

tw: fault duration

Fig. 3.26

Resulting composite dead time (Source: 'Guidelines for auto-reclosure in electrical power systems' published by the German Association of Power Utilities VDEW)

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3.5.5.

Sensitive earth fault protection for grounded systems (EarthFltGnd2)

A. Application
High-resistance earth faults, which cannot be detected by the distance protection, can still cause appreciable problems in spite of the relatively low fault currents involved. The sensitive E/F protection function has been included to complement the main line protection function and cover the low E/F current range. The protection processes the zero-sequence components 3I0 and 3U0.

B. Features
DC component filter Harmonic filter Directional measurement of zero-sequence components (derived either internally or externally) Current pick-up enabling level Reference voltage enabling level Adjustable characteristic angle Permissive and blocking transfer tripping schemes Echo logic for weak infeed and open circuit-breaker Transient blocking logic for reversal of energy direction

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Voltage Current

II. Binary inputs:


External blocking Receive CB closed VT supervision Starting and tripping by the distance function

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Trip Fault forwards Fault backwards Transmit Block distance protection receive

IV. Measurements:
Neutral voltage (3U0) Neutral current (3I0) Real power component of neutral power (3U0 3I0)

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Apparent power component of neutral power Fault direction (1 = forwards, -1 = backwards; this measured variable only applies when the binary input 'CB closed' is active)

This function does not transfer any tripping measurements via the IBB. The measurements in the event list are not generated at the instant of tripping, but when the enabling levels 'U-Setting' and 'I-Dir are exceeded'.

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D. Sensitive E/F protection settings - EarthFltGnd2


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Voltage Inp Chan Current Inp Chan V-Setting I-Setting Angle t Basic t Wait t Trans Block CT Neutral Communication Mode Send Mode 1 Channel Echo Mode Extern block Input Receive CB closed VT Superv Extern Start R Extern Start S Extern Start T Extern Trip 3P Extern Trip Trip Start Meas Forward Meas Backward Send Receive Inh. Units Default 00000000
CT/VT-Addr 0 CT/VT-Addr 0

Min.

Max.

Step

UN IN deg s s s

0.200 0.100 60.0 0.050 0.050 0.100 Line side Permissive MeasBwd off off F F T F F F F F F ER ER

0.003 0.100 -90.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select)

0.100 1.000 90.0 1.000 0.500 0.500

0.001 0.01 5 0.001 0.001 0.001

BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Tripping logic (matrix). VoltageInp defines the VT input channel. All the VT input channels are available for selection. If the neutral voltage is derived from the three phase voltages, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three must be selected.

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Current Inp Chan defines the CT input channel. All the CT input channels are available for selection. If the neutral current is derived from the three phase currents, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three must be selected. U-Setting Reference voltage pick-up setting. I-Setting Current pick-up setting. Angle Characteristic angle setting. t Basic Basic time setting. t Wait Time allowed for a blocking signal to be transferred and for the directional comparison to be made. tTransBlk Blocking time after a reversal of fault energy direction (transient blocking). CT neutral Side of the CTs on which the star-point is formed (current direction): line (in accordance with the diagram in Fig. 12.4) busbar (reversed connection) ComMode Kind of transfer tripping scheme: permissive blocking SendMode For what system condition a signal is transmitted in an intertripping scheme: forwards measurement (only permissive scheme) non-directional (only blocking scheme) backwards measurement (only blocking scheme) 1 Channel Supplementary logic needed for coordinating E/F and distance protections when using the same communications channel for a permissive scheme. off on

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Echo Echo logic for weak infeed and open CB: off echo logic disabled Weak echo only for weak infeed Bkr echo only when CB open Weak & Bkr echo for weak infeed or CB open Ext block I/P for an external blocking signal. F: enabled T: disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Receive PLC receive I/P. F: no PLC receive signal xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) CB closed CB position indicator I/P. F: function disabled T: function enabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) VT Superv VT supervision I/P. F: tripping enabled T: tripping disabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Ext Start R / S / T, Ext Trip 3P, Ext Trip I/Ps for the distance function signals 'Start R', 'Start S', 'Start T', 'Trip CB 3P' and 'Trip CB' for coordinating operation. F: not connected xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Trip Tripping signal O/P. Start O/P for signalling that the protection has picked up, i.e. the current has exceeded the enabling setting ('I-Setting'). MeasFwd O/P for signalling a fault in the forwards direction.

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MeasBwd O/P for signalling a fault in the backwards direction. Send PLC transmit signal. RecveInh. O/P for preventing the distance function from receiving a PLC signal. (This is only effective when E/F and distance protections use a common PLC channel, i.e. the parameter '1 Channel' is set to 'on'.)

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E. Setting instructions
3.5.5.1. Coordination with the distance protection

Directional E/F function as ancillary to the distance function


Compared with integrated E/F and distance functions, the logic in an independent E/F function needs certain starting and tripping signals generated by the distance function and, providing the connections are made as in Section 3.5.5.12., the E/F protection is blocked in the following situations: starting of more than one distance phase three-phase tripping any trip (single and three-phase), if '1 Channel' is set to 'on'

Scheme with independent communication channels


Apart from the added security of redundancy, independent communication channels enable different transfer tripping schemes to be used for E/F and distance protections. Providing the distance protection can detect a fault, it should trip before the E/F protection picks up. For this reason, the basic operating time 't Basic' for the E/F protection must be set longer than the longest response time to be expected of the distance protection.

Scheme with a common communication channel


Where E/F and distance protections use the same communication channel, the transfer tripping schemes must be either both permissive or both blocking. In the case of permissive schemes, in which the distance protection operates with non-directional criteria at one end for a weak infeed, a supplementary logic must be enabled by appropriately setting the parameter '1 Channel'. This supplementary logic interlocks the distance relays receive signal at the end of the E/F functions basic time or when it picks up in the backwards direction. To this end, the signal 'RecveInh' is connected to the distance protection input 'ExtBlkHF'. Thus the communication channel is initially available for use by the distance protection and only made available to the E/F protection at the end of the basic time. The basic time setting must allow adequate time for the distance protection to detect and clear a fault if it can. Independent directional E/F protection The E/F function can also be applied as a completely independent protection, but only in MV and HV systems. The coordination of E/F and distance protections in this case is achieved by appropriately setting the parameter 't Basic' .

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If this time is too short, there is a likelihood that the E/F protection will issue a three-phase trip before the circuit-breaker has opened for faults that have been correctly detected by the distance protection. The basic time of the E/F protection must therefore be long enough to ensure that the distance protection can trip phase-selectively. No facility is provided for using the distance relay starters to achieve phase-selective tripping by the directional E/F function. An independent directional E/F function requires its own communication channel, which must be entirely independent of the distance protection.
3.5.5.2. Choice of operating mode

It is assumed that the E/F protection settings at both ends of the protected line are the same. This applies especially to the basic time, the blocking time, the transfer tripping scheme in use and options.
3.5.5.3. Choice of transfer tripping scheme

In the case of a permissive directional comparison scheme, the amount of fault resistance, which can be detected reduces towards the remote end of the line, because the enabling current must be exceeded at both ends. Without additional precautions, the use of a permissive scheme would be limited on lines with a weak infeed at one end. It was possible to eliminate this disadvantage by providing the directional E/F protection with its own echo logic for weak infeeds that can be switched in and out as required.

NOTICE: Note that the protection only operates in a comparison mode during the comparison time (1 s) and is blocked at the end of this time. The comparison time starts at the end of the basic time.
On the other hand, a directional comparison scheme using a blocking signal is able to detect high-resistance E/Fs along the whole length of the line, because the protection at the strong infeed end is always able to trip although the current at the weak infeed end does not reach the enabling level.

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Permissive directional comparison scheme


In this scheme, each of the protection functions has to receive a signal from the opposite end of line in order to be able to trip. A protection function sends a permissive signal when its current exceeds the enabling level 'I setting', the basic time 't Basic' has expired and the fault detected is in the forwards direction. Options: Echo 'Bkr': Providing this parameter is active, a permissive signal (echo) is sent to the opposite end of the line, if the local circuit-breaker is open and a signal is received. Tripping is thus possible at the infeed end. The duration of the echo signal is limited to 150 ms. Non-directional echo 'Weak infeed': If the directional E/F function at the weak infeed end of a line cannot measure, because the reference voltage is too low or the current does not reach the enabling level, a signal is returned to the opposite end of the line if one is received. This enables tripping to take place at the end with the stronger infeed.

Start
I-Setting

tBasic

tBasic

Start
I-Setting

MeasFwd

&

Send Receive

Send Receive

&

MeasFwd

&
Rel. 1 Rel. 2

&

A1

A2

HEST 925 020 C

Fig. 3.27 where:

Principle of a permissive directional comparison scheme

Start : current higher than the enabling level 'I setting' t Basic : basic time MeasFwd : fault in forwards direction

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I0
I set

Tx: I-setting * MeasFwd * t Basic T: I-setting * MeasFwd * t Basic * Rx TB: MeasBwd' + t TransBlk

<Tx: MeasBwd * Rx> TB: MeasBwd' + t TransBlk


I dir Iasymm

<Tx: MeasBwd * Rx>

U set

U0
Basic operation mode

Non-directional echo and "Transient Blocking"

Non-directional echo

HEST 925 022 C

Fig. 3.28

Operation of a permissive directional comparison scheme

where: <...> Rx MeasFwd MeasBwd MeasBwd' I dir I-Setting Iasymm Tx T TB t TransBlk t Basic t Wait U-Setting : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : optional function receive fault in forwards direction fault in backwards direction including 'Transient blocking' fault in backwards direction current enable for directional measurement (= 0.7 I-Setting) current enabling level asymmetrical currents under normal load conditions send trip transient blocking blocking time basic time waiting time reference voltage

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Blocking directional comparison scheme


Providing the conditions for directional measurement are fulfilled i.e. the current higher than 'I dir' and the voltage higher than its enabling level 'U-Setting', a protection function transmits a blocking signal to the remote station immediately it detects a fault in the backwards direction. Note:

I dir = 0.7 I-Setting

A protection function measuring a fault in the direction of the protected line trips at the end of the adjustable waiting time 't Wait', providing a blocking signal is not received beforehand. Options: SendMode: 'non-directional' A blocking signal is transmitted in this mode, if the current is higher than 'I dir', the basic time has expired and no fault is detected in the forwards direction (including situations when a direction measurement is impossible, because 3U0 < U- Setting).
tBasic I-dir tBasic
I-Setting

tBasic I-dir

&
Send Send

&

tBasic
I-Setting

MeasBwd MeasFwd Receive Receive

MeasBwd MeasFwd

&
tWait

&
tWait

Rel. 1

Rel. 2

A1

A2
HEST 925 021 C

Fig. 3.29 where: I-Setting I-dir

Principle of a blocking directional comparison scheme

: current enabling level : current enable for directional measurement (= 0,7 I-Setting) t Basic : basic time t Wait : waiting time MeasFwd : fault in forwards direction MeasBwd : fault in backwards direction

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I0
I set

<Tx: I dir * MeasFwd * t

Tx: I dir * MeasBwd * t Basic <+I dir * MeasFwd * t Basic> T: I set * MeasFwd * t Basic * Rx * t Wait TB: MeasBwd' + t TransBlk Tx: I dir * MeasBwd * t Basic <+I dir * MeasFwd * t Basic> TB: MeasBwd' + t TransBlk

I dir Iasymm

U set Basic operation mode

U0
HEST 925 023 C

Non-directional transmission

Fig. 3.30

Operation of a directional comparison blocking scheme (for the legend, see after Fig. 3.28)

3.5.5.4.

Setting the enabling pick-up levels

The setting of the current enabling 'I dir' must take account of the zerosequence component in normal operation arising from system asymmetries. The pick-up setting for the voltage enabling signal 'U-Setting' is determined by the level of asymmetries on the secondary side (VT tolerances, asymmetrical burdens etc.). The ability to read voltage and current values on the relay is a useful aid for determining these settings. For example, if the enabling current setting 'I-Setting' is too low, the pick-up signal lights continuously (current circuit enabled). Since an E/F causes asymmetrical voltages in the vicinity of the fault, the current flowing via the system capacitances also has a zerosequence component. A capacitive current of this kind on a long line lies within the setting range of the sensitive E/F protection function. The pick-up level 'I dir' of the current circuit for the directional measurement has a fixed setting of 0.7 'I set' to take account of influences such as CT errors and the capacitive charging currents of the line. The following procedure is recommended for setting the pick-up levels:

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The enabling current for the directional measurement must be set to at least twice the maximum possible asymmetrical current, which can occur in normal operation. I - Setting = 2.0 Iasymm IN

The voltage pick-up must be set to 1.6 times the level of the spurious voltages, which can occur due to asymmetries in the VT secondary circuit. U - Setting = 1.6 Usec.asymm UN

where: U-Setting Usec.asymm UN I-Setting Iasymm IN


3.5.5.5.

: setting of the enabling voltage for the directional measurement : voltage component 3 U0 caused by asymmetries in the VT secondary circuit (e.g. VT errors) : 100 V or 200 V according to VT unit in use : setting of the enabling current : current component 3I0 caused by asymmetrical load currents : primary CT rated current.

Setting the characteristic angle 'Angle'

The line marking the reversal of direction lies at +90 in relation to the reference voltage. In order to achieve symmetrical operation of the directional element in spite of this, the characteristic angle should equal that of the zerosequence impedance of the source.
3.5.5.6. Setting the basic time 't Basic'

The basic time is the period between pick-up of the protection and the earliest possible trip. The operation of the protection function can be coordinated with others on the same line by judiciously setting the basic time. The basic time is also used to achieve coordination between the E/F function (three-phase tripping) and the distance function (phaseselective tripping).The E/F protection is delayed to allow time for the distance protection to respond to a fault if it can.

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The basic time is normally set to: t Basic > max. tripping time of the phase-selective distance protection (taking account of signal transmission time and sequential tripping) + CB operating time + aux. contact time (I/P 'CB closed') + safety margin

The sum of these times is usually about 100 to 200 ms.


3.5.5.7. Circuit-breaker delay

To avoid operation of the enabling current detector during the transient oscillations, which occur following the closing of the circuit-breaker, it is blocked for 50 ms upon receiving the corresponding signal from the CB.
3.5.5.8. The comparison time 't comp'

The comparison time is the time allowed for the directional comparison to be made and is therefore dependent on the type of transfer tripping scheme. The comparison time has a fixed setting of 1 s.
3.5.5.9. Setting the waiting time 't Wait'

The waiting time is also started at the end of the basic time, but is only effective in a blocking scheme. In a blocking scheme, tripping is delayed by the setting of 't Wait' to allow time for the protection in the opposite station to decide on the direction of the fault and to transmit a corresponding blocking signal if necessary. 't Wait' should be set at least as long as the measuring time (about 30 ms) plus the longest possible signal transmission time.
3.5.5.10. Setting the transient blocking time 't TransBlk'

The protection function includes a 'transient blocking logic' to prevent any mal-operation during the course of tripping a fault or auto-reclosure on double-circuit lines, when there is a likelihood of the flow of energy reversing direction. The time setting can be selected in a wide range to suit the prevailing conditions. For example, after a fault has been detected in the backwards direction, a second directional decision in the forwards direction is inhibited for the setting of 't TransBlk' . The time chosen is determined largely by the time required for the measurement to reset and the transfer tripping scheme in use. The recommended setting is 60 ms plus the reset time of the communication channel.

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3.5.5.11.

CT/VT inputs of the function

Where the zero-sequence components of the voltages and the currents are derived internally, the CT and VT inputs must be connected precisely as shown in the wiring diagram. The neutral of the CTs in this case is formed on the line side and the parameter 'CT neutral' must be set to 'line side' .
3.5.5.12. Binary inputs of the function

Ext. block
Exciting the 'Ext. block' I/P disables the entire protection function.

Receive
The signal transmitted by the protection in the opposite station is connected to this I/P.

CB closed
The 'CB closed' I/P is intended for the position indicator signal from the circuit-breaker and has a fixed pick-up delay of 50 ms. The protection function is only enabled when this signal is received to confirm that the CB is closed. The corresponding auxiliary contacts for the three phases must be connected in series to ensure that the protection does not operate during single-phase reclosure. The echo logic is enabled 100 ms after the circuit-breaker is opened.

VT Supervision
The 'VT Superv' I/P is needed to block the echo logic. It can be excited either by the 'VTSup' signal from the internal distance protection function or an auxiliary contact on the m.c.b. via a binary I/P. If this I/P is not needed, it must be set to 'F'.

Ext Start R / S / T, Ext Trip 3P, Ext Trip


These I/Ps are for coordinating operation with the distance protection function. To them are connected the distance function signals 'Start R', 'Start S', 'Start T', 'Trip CB 3P' and 'Trip CB'. They must be set to 'F' if an independent directional E/F scheme is in use.

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3.5.5.13.

Outputs

Trip
There are two 'Trip' signals, one for energising the tripping relay via the tripping logic and the other for controlling LEDs and signalling contacts.

Start
An active 'Start' O/P signals that the zero-sequence current has exceeded the pick-up setting 'I-Setting'. This signal is only generated providing the function is not blocked.

MeasFwd
'MeasFwd' is active when the measuring element detects a fault in the forwards direction, i.e. the settings of 'I dir' and 'U setting' have been exceeded.

MeasBwd
'MeasBwd' is active when the measuring element detects a fault in the backwards direction, i.e. the settings of 'I dir' and 'U setting' have been exceeded.

Send
The 'Send' O/P is the signal sent to the other end of the line.

Receive Inhibit
The 'Recve Inh' signal prevents the distance function from receiving a PLC signal (see Section 3.5.5.1.). It is only generated when the parameter '1 Channel' is set, the basic time has expired or the E/F protection picks up for a reverse fault. The signal 'Recve Inh' must be connected to the distance function I/P 'ExtBlkHF'.

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3.5.6.

Inverse definite minimum time earth fault overcurrent function (I0-Invers)

A. Application
Overcurrent function with IDMT characteristic. A typical application is as back-up for the E/F protection function, in which case it measures 3 I0 either supplied from an external source or internally derived.

B. Features
Tripping characteristic according to British Standard 142 (see Fig. 3.31): c = 0.02 : normal inverse c=1 : very inverse and long time earth fault c=2 : extremely inverse DC component filter Harmonic filter External 3 I0 signal or 3 I0 internally derived from the three phase currents Wider setting range than specified in BS 142

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Starting Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Neutral current

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D. IDMT function settings - I0-Invers


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip c-Setting k1-Setting I-Start Min. Tripping Time IB-Setting Number Of Phases Current Inp. Chan. Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr s IB s IN Units Default 00000000 Very Inv. 13.50 1.10 0.0 1.00 1 Ph 0 F ER ER (Select) 0.01 1.00 0.0 0.04 (Select) 200.0 4.00 10.0 2.50 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.01 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Tripping logic (matrix). c-Setting Setting for the exponential factor determining the shape of the operating characteristic according to BS 142 or for selecting the RXIDG characteristic. k1-Setting Constant determining the tripping characteristic. I-Start Pick-up setting (initiates the tripping characteristic). t-min Definite minimum time of the tripping characteristic. IB-Setting Reference current to take account of discrepancies with respect to IN. NrOfPhases Number of phases evaluated for measurement: 1 : neutral current direct from an CT input 3 : neutral current derived internally from the three phases Current Inp Chan defines the CT input channel. All the current channels are available for selection. In the case of a three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three must be selected.

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BlockInp I/P for the external blocking signal. F: unused T: function always blocked xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Trip Tripping signal. Start Pick-up signal.

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E. Setting instructions Protection function enable 'I-Start'


The IDMT function starts to run when the current applied to the function exceeds the setting 'I-Start'. 'I-Start' is normally set to 1.1 IB.

Choice of tripping characteristic 'c'


The shape of the IDMT characteristic is determined by the constant 'c'. The standard IDMT characteristics according to BS 142 are: 'normal inverse' 'very inverse' and 'long time earth fault' 'extremely inverse' : : : c = 0.02 c = 1.00 c = 2.00

Fig. 3.31

IDMT tripping characteristic for 'I0-Invers' (I = 3 I0)

'c-Setting' can also be set to 'RXIDG', in which case the functions inverse characteristic corresponds to that of the relay Type RXIDG: t [s] = 5.8 1.35 In (I/IB) The parameter 'k1-Setting' has no influence in this case.

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Time multiplier 'k1-Setting'


Discriminative operation of the relays along a line is achieved by timegrading. Assuming all the relays to be set to the same IB, this involves setting the time multiplier in equal steps (grading time), increasing from the load towards the source. For example, in the case of the 'very inverse' characteristic, the constant c = 1 and the factor k1 13.5. The operating time t is then given by
t= k1 3I0 1 IB

Assuming the grading time of the protection functions to be 0.5 s at 6 IB, the settings of k1 according to the formula k1 = 5 t for operating times between 0.5 and 2.5 s become:

t [s] 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

k1 [s] 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5

The characteristics according to BS 142 are set as follows: 'normal inverse' 'very inverse' 'extremely inverse' 'long time earth fault' : k1 = 0.14 s : k1 = 13.5 s : k1 = 80 s : k1 = 120 s

Definite minimum time 't-min'


Where the IDMT function is being applied as back-up protection for a directional E/F protection, the definite minimum time 't-min' must be set as follows t-min = t Basic + t comp

t Basic = basic time of the E/F function t comp = comparison time of the E/F function (1 s)

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Interconnections between IDMT and directional E/F functions


The IDMT protection is non-directional. Directional operation can, however, be achieved by linking the directional signal ('MeasFwd', i.e. fault in forwards direction) from the E/F protection to the blocking I/P of the IDMT function. The I/P must be inverted so that blocking of the IDMT function is cancelled by an active forwards signal. When using this arrangement, it must be noted that, when 'MeasFwd' does not pick up, the IDMT function cannot trip when the reference voltage of the E/F function is too low. If tripping is required for this case, the directional E/F signal 'MeasBwd' must be applied to the blocking input.

Applications with single-phase reclosure


In schemes involving single-phase reclosure, the 'I0-Invers' function has to be blocked for the time that one pole of a circuit-breakers is open if the minimum tripping time 'tmin' is set less than the singlephase dead time. This avoids false three-phase tripping due to the load currents in the healthy phases.

Typical settings:
IB I-Start c-Setting k1-Setting t-min to be calculated 1.1 IB depends on the protected unit to be calculated 0.00

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3.5.7.

Definite time over and undercurrent (Current-DT)

A. Application
General purpose current function (over and under) for phase fault protection back-up protection ground fault protection

or for monitoring a current minimum.

B. Features
Insensitive to DC component Insensitive to harmonics Single or three-phase measurement Maximum respectively minimum value detection in the three-phase mode Detection of inrush currents

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Current amplitude

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D. Definite time current function settings - Current-DT


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay I Setting Max / Min Number Of Phases Current Inp. Chan Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal Unit s IN Default 00000000 01.00 02.00 Max (1ph) 1 Ph Min. 0.02 0.02 (Select) (Select) Max. 60.00 20.00 Step 0.01 0.01

CT/VT-Addr 0 BinaryAddr F SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping O/P of the function (matrix tripping logic). Delay Time between the function picking up and tripping. I Setting Pick-up current setting. Forbidden settings: > 1.6 IN when supplied from metering cores < 0.2 IN when supplied from protection cores Max / Min defines operation as overcurrent or undercurrent or with inrush blocking. Settings: Min (3ph): Undercurrent. Three-phase functions detect the highest phase current. Not permitted for single-phase functions. Min (1ph): Undercurrent. Three-phase functions detect the lowest phase current. Overcurrent. Three-phase functions detect the lowest phase current. Not permitted for single-phase functions. Overcurrent. Three-phase functions detect the highest phase current. Blocks during inrush currents if one phase exceeds setting.

Max (3ph):

Max (1ph):

Max-Inrush:

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Number Of Phases defines whether single or three-phase measurement. Current Inp. Chan defines the CT input channel. All current I/Ps may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Block Input I/P for blocking the function. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Trip Signal Tripping signal. Start Signal Pick-up signal.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Setting Delay Over or undercurrent Number of phases I Setting Delay Max / Min Number Of Phases

The definite time current function protects transformers, primary equipment of a captive network, and generators, which can cause an overcurrent, such as an overload, short circuit and ground fault. The filters at the measurement input damp the DC component of the harmonics, thereby the protection reacts only on the fundamental harmonics. The protection can be used for sensitive current measurements e.g. when the earth fault current is small. Together with an external high impedance protection circuit, this function can be used as a 'restricted earthfault protection (REF)'.

Setting I-Setting
The current setting 'I-Setting' must be sufficiently high on the one hand to avoid any risk of false tripping or false signals under normal load conditions, but should be low enough on the other to detect the lowest fault current that can occur. The margin that has to be allowed between the maximum short-time load current and the setting must take account of: the tolerance on the current setting the reset ratio

The maximum short-time load current has to be determined according to the power system conditions and must take switching operations and load surges into account.
I I-Setting

I IN Delay
HEST 905 010 C

Fig. 3.32

Operating characteristic of the definite time overcurrent function Compensating any difference between the rated currents of CT IN1 and protected unit IGN is recommended. This is achieved with the aid
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of the reference value of the A/D channel or by correcting the overcurrent setting. For example, for IGN = 800 A and IN1 = 1000 A, the setting for a pickup current of 1.5 IGN = 1200 A would have to be I 800 A = 1.2 1.5 GN = 1.5 IN1 1000 A

Current Inp. Chan.


An interposing CT in the input is essential for current settings lower than < 0.2 IN.

Delay
The delay is used to achieve discrimination of the overcurrent function. It is set according to the grading table for all the overcurrent units on the power system. The zone of protection of our overcurrent function extends to the location of the next downstream overcurrent relay. Should the downstream relay fail to clear a fault, the overcurrent function trips slightly later as a back-up protection.

Setting Max / Min


This parameter enables the following operating modes to be selected: Min (3ph): Pick-up when the highest phase current also falls below the setting. This setting is not permitted for single-phase measurement. Pick-up when the lowest phase current falls below the setting. Pick-up when the lowest phase current also exceeds the setting. This setting is not permitted for single-phase measurement. Pick-up when the highest phase current exceeds the setting. Blocking of inrush currents when a phase current exceeds the setting.

Min (1ph): Max (3ph):

Max (1ph): Max-Inrush:

Operation of the inrush blocking feature (parameter MaxMin set to 'Max-Inrush')


The inrush detector picks up and blocks operation of the function when the amplitude of the fundamental component of the current exceeds the setting of the current function.

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The inrush detector is based on the evaluation of the second harmonic component of the current I2h in relation to the fundamental frequency component I1h (evaluation of the amplitudes). The output of the function is disabled when the ratio I2h/I1h exceeds 10 % and enabled again when it falls below 8 %. There is no setting for the peak value of I2h/I1h. The function can operate with inrush blocking in both the single and three-phase mode (parameter 'Number Of Phases'). In the three-phase mode, the phase used for evaluation is the one with the highest amplitude at rated frequency (pick-up and inrush detection).

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3.5.8.

Peak value overcurrent (Current-Inst)

A. Application
General current monitoring with instantaneous response (over and undercurrent) Current monitoring where insensitivity to frequency is required (over and undercurrent).

B. Features
Processes instantaneous values and is therefore fast and largely independent of frequency Stores the peak value following pick-up No suppression of DC component No suppression of harmonics Single or three-phase measurement Maximum value detection in the three-phase mode Adjustable lower frequency limit fmin

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Current amplitude (only available if function trips)

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D. Peak value current function settings - Current-Inst


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay I Setting Min. Frequency Number Of Phases Current Inp. Chan. Block Input Max / Min Trip Signal Start Signal SignalAddr SignalAddr CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr s IN Hz Unit Default 00000000 0.01 4.0 40 1 Ph 0 F Max ER ER (Select) 0.00 0.1 2 (Select) 60.00 0.01 20 50 0.1 1 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (matrix). Delay Time between the function picking up and tripping. I Setting Pick-up current setting. Setting restrictions: > 1.6 IN when supplied from metering cores < 0.2 IN when supplied from protection cores Min. Frequency defines the minimum frequency for which measurement is required. Setting restriction: < 40 Hz when supplied from metering cores Number Of Phases defines whether single or three-phase measurement. Current Inp. Chan. defines the CT input channel. All current inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)
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Max / Min defines operation as overcurrent or undercurrent. Settings: Max: overcurrent Min: undercurrent Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Current pick-up Delay Minimum frequency Over or undercurrent I Setting Delay Min. Frequency Max / Min

The instantaneous overcurrent function is a high-speed protection, which operates in a wide frequency range. It is intended primarily for two applications. A protection measuring peak value is necessary for protecting units, for which the influence of DC component and harmonics may not be neglected. This is especially the case where rectifiers with semiconductors are involved. The measuring principle of the function is relatively insensitive to frequency and operates in a range extending from 4 to 120 % of rated frequency. It is therefore able to protect units with synchronous starting equipment during the starting sequence before reaching system frequency (e.g. gas turbine sets with solid-state starters). The function detects when the instantaneous value of the input current exceeds the peak value corresponding to the setting. For example, for a setting of 10 IN, it will pick up when the input current exceeds 10 2 IN = 14.14 IN (see Fig. 3.33). A fault current of 6 1.8 2 IN = 15.27 IN could reach this level as a consequence of a DC component. The minimum frequency must be entered for every application, because it determines the reset time. A low minimum frequency means a long reset delay and since a good protection is expected to have a quick response, the reset time should be as short as possible, i.e. the minimum frequency setting should not be lower than absolutely necessary.

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i IN

15

14.14

10

Setting current 10 I N

Output signal

t
HEST 905 028 C

Fig. 3.33

Operation of the peak value overcurrent function

Typical settings:
a) Peak value phase fault protection I-Setting Delay f-min according to application 0.01 s 40 Hz

b) Phase fault protection of a machine with synchronous starter during start-up I-Setting Delay f-min 1.5 IN 5s 2 Hz

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3.5.9.

Inverse time overcurrent (Current-Inv)

A. Application
Overcurrent function with time delay inversely proportional to the current and definite minimum tripping time (IDMT).

B. Features
Operating characteristics (see Fig. 3.34) according to British Standard 142: c = 0.02 : normal inverse c=1 : very inverse and long time earth fault c=2 : extremely inverse Insensitive to DC component Insensitive to harmonics Single or three-phase measurement Detection of the highest phase value in the three-phase mode Wider setting range than specified in BS 142

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Current amplitude

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D. Inverse time overcurrent settings - Current-Inv


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip c-Setting k1-Setting I-Start t-min Number Of Phases Current Inp. Chan. IB-Setting Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal CT/VT-Addr IN BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr s IB s Unit Default 00000000 1.00 013.5 1.10 0 1 Ph 0 1.00 F ER ER 0.04 2.50 0.01 (Select) 0.01 1.00 0.0 (Select) 200.0 4.00 10.0 0.01 0.01 0.1 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping O/P of the function (matrix tripping logic). c-Setting Setting for the exponential factor determining the shape of the operating characteristic according to BS 142 or for selecting the RXIDG characteristic. k1-Setting Constant determining the parallel shift of the characteristic (time grading). I-Start Pick-up current at which the characteristic becomes effective. t-min Definite minimum tripping time. Number Of Phases defines the number of phases measured. Current Inp. Chan. defines the CT input channel. All current I/Ps may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. IB-Setting Base current for taking account of differences of rated current IN.

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Block Input defines the input for an external blocking signal. F: not used T: function always blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Trip Signal Tripping signal. Start Signal Pick-up signal.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Base current Characteristic enabling current Type of characteristic Multiplier IB-Setting I-Start c-Setting k1-Setting

The IDMT overcurrent function is used to protect transformers, feeders and loads of the auxiliaries supply system against phase and earth faults. The function responds largely only to the fundamental component of the fault current.

Base current 'IB-Setting'


An IDMT relay does not have a fixed current setting above which it operates and below which it does not, as does a definite time-overcurrent relay. Instead, its operating characteristic is chosen such that it is always above the load current. To this end, the relay has a reference current IB that is set the same as the load current of the protected unit IB1. The reference current IB determines the relative position of the relay characteristic, which is enabled when the current exceeds the reference current by a given amount ('I-Start'). By setting the reference current IB to equal the load current of the protected unit IB1 instead of its rated current, for IB1 < IN of the protected unit IB1 > IN of the protected unit : : the protection is more sensitive the protection permits maxi mum utilisation of the thermal capability of the protected unit

Example:
Load current of protected unit CT rated current IB1 = IN2 = Relay rated current Relay reference current 'IB-Setting': 5A I =4A IB = IB1 N2 = 800 A 1000 A IN1 Setting: IB 4 A = = 0 .8 IN 5 A An alternative is to adjust the position of the IDMT characteristic to match the rated load of the protected unit and set the reference current to its rated current instead of its load current. IN = 800 A

IN1 = 1000 A 5A 5A

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Enabling the characteristic 'I-Start'


The IDMT characteristic is enabled when the current exceeds the setting 'I-Start'. A typical setting for 'I-Start' is 1.1 IB.

Choice of characteristic 'c-Setting'


The constant 'c-Setting' determines the shape of the IDMT characteristic. The settings for the standard characteristics according to BS 142 are: 'normal inverse' 'very inverse' and 'long time earth fault' 'extremely inverse' : c = 0.02 : c = 1.00 : c = 2.00

Fig. 3.34

Operating characteristic of the IDMT overcurrent function

'c-Setting' can also be set to 'RXIDG', in which case the functions inverse characteristic corresponds to that of the relay Type RXIDG: t [s] = 5.8 1.35 In (I / IB) The parameter 'k1-Setting' has no influence in this case.

Multiplier 'k1-Setting'
The multiplier 'k1-Setting' enables the IDMT characteristic chosen by the setting of parameter c to be shifted without changing its shape.

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This is used for grading the operating times of a series of IDMT relays along a line to achieve discrimination. For example, in the case of the 'very inverse' characteristic, the constant c = 1 and the factor k1 13.5. The operating time t is given by the equation t= k1 I IB 1

Assuming a grading time of 0.5 s at 6 times the base current IB is required, the factor k1 for each of the relays is given by k1 = 5 t This produces for operating times between 0.5 and 2.5 s the following settings for k1:
t [s] 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 k1 [s] 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5

The characteristics according to BS 142 are set as follows: 'normal inverse' 'very inverse' 'extremely inverse' 'long time earth fault' : : : : k1 = 0.14 s k1 = 13.5 s k1 = 80 s k1 = 120 s

Typical settings:
IB-Setting I-Start c-Setting k1-Setting t-min corresponding to load current of the protected unit 1.1 IB according to desired characteristic for the protected unit according to the time grading calculation 0.00

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3.5.10.

Directional definite time overcurrent protection (DirCurrentDT)

A. Application
Directional overcurrent function for detecting phase faults on ring lines detecting phase faults on double-circuit lines with an infeed at one end backup protection for a distance protection scheme

B. Features
Directionally sensitive three-phase phase fault protection Insensitive to DC component Insensitive to harmonics Voltage memory feature for close faults

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking PLC receive

III. Binary outputs:


Start Start R Start S Start T Forwards measurement Backwards measurement Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Current amplitude of the three phase currents (IR, IS, IT) Active power A positive measurement indicates the forwards direction (IR * UST, IS * UTR, IT * URS) Voltage amplitude Amplitudes of the phase-to-phase voltages (UST, UTR, URS)

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D. Directional overcurrent settings - DirCurrentDT


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip CurrentInp VoltageInp I-Setting Angle Delay tWait MemDirMode MemDuration Receive Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal Start R Start S Start T MeasFwd MeasBwd Unit CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr IN Deg s s s BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Default 00000000 0 0 2.00 45 1.00 0.20 Trip 2.00 T F ER ER ER ER ER ER ER 0.2 -180 0.02 0.02 (Select) 0.20 20.0 +180 60.00 20.00 60.00 0.01 15 0.01 0.01 0.01 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping output (matrix tripping logic). CurrentInp defines the CT input channel. Only three-phase CTs can be set and the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. VoltageInp defines the VT input channel. Only three-phase VTs can be set and the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. I-Setting Pick-up setting for tripping. Setting restrictions: > 1.6 IN when supplied from metering cores < 0.2 IN when supplied from protection cores

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Angle Characteristic angle. Delay Delay between pick-up and tripping. tWait Time allowed for the directional decision to be received from the opposite end in a blocking scheme. MemDirMode determines the response of the protection after the time set for memorising power direction: trip block MemDuration Time during which the power direction last determined remains valid. Receive Input for the signal from the opposite end of the line: T: not used xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Ext Block F: not blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Trip Signal Tripping signal. Start Signal Pick-up signal. Start R R phase pick-up signal. Start S S phase pick-up signal. Start T T phase pick-up signal. MeasFwd signals measurement in the forwards direction. MeasBwd signals measurement in the backwards direction.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Pick-up current Characteristic angle Delay Time allowed for receipt of signal Response at the end of the memorised power direction time Time during which the memorised direction is valid I-Setting Angle Delay tWait MemDirMode MemDuration

Pick-up value I-Setting


'I-Setting' must be chosen high enough to prevent false tripping or alarms from taking place and low enough to reliably detect the minimum fault current. The setting must be sufficiently above the maximum transient load current and allow for: CT and relay inaccuracies the reset ratio

The maximum transient load current has to be determined according to the power system operating conditions and take account of switching operations and load surges.

I I-Setting

I IN Delay
HEST 905 010 C

Fig. 3.35

Operating characteristic of the definite time overcurrent detector

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Where the rated CT current IN1 differs from the rated current IGN of the protected unit, compensating the measurement to achieve a match is recommended. This is done by correcting either the reference value of the A/D input or the setting. For example, assuming IGN = 800 A and IN1 = 1000 A, the setting to pick up at 1.5 IGN = 1200 A would be 1.5 IGN 800 A = 1.5 = 1 .2 IN1 1000 A

Characteristic angle
Determining the phase-angle of the current provides an additional criterion for preserving discrimination compared with non-directional overcurrent protection. The directional sensitivity is 180 in relation to the reference voltage. This is illustrated in the following diagrams. The angles given apply for connection according to the connections in Chapter 12.
IR UTR UT UR URS US Restraint: cos (- ) = neg. U ST L IR
. ax M iti ns se y vit

= 45 U ST Operation: cos ( - ) = pos.

a)

b)
L
HEST 005 001 C

' = phase-angle between current and voltage (positive angle) = Characteristic angle L = Border line between operating and restraint areas a) Definition of current and voltage b) Operating characteristic

Fig. 3.36

Vector diagram for a fault in the forwards direction on R phase

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The function determines the power direction by measuring the phaseangle of the current in relation to the opposite phase-to-phase voltage. Which current is compared with which voltage can be seen from the following table.
Current input IR IS IT Phase-to-neutral voltage US, UT UT, UR UR, US Calculated voltage UST = US - UT UTR = UT - UR URS = UR - US

The voltage measurement automatically compensates the group of connection of the VTs. For example, the phase-to-phase values are calculated for Y-connected VTs (VT type UTS), while the input voltages are used directly for delta-connected VTs (VT type UTD).

Delay
The delay enables the protection to be graded with other timeovercurrent relays to achieve discrimination. Its setting is thus chosen in relation to the timer settings of upstream and downstream protective devices. The zone of protection covered by this overcurrent protection extends to the next overcurrent protection device. Should in the event of a fault in the next downstream zone, the protection for that zone fail, this protection function takes over after the time set for 'Delay' and clears the fault as backup.

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I>

Forwards meas. R

Start R Meas Fwd

ST

&

1
Backwards meas. R

&

Trip

Receive I S

&

td I>

Forwards meas. S Start S

TR

&
Backwards meas. S

&

Meas Bwd

I>
Forwards meas. T U RS

Start T

&
Backwards meas. T

Start

&

Fig. 3.37

Block diagram td = 'Delay' t = 'tWait'

Time allowed for a signal to be received


Where directional functions are configured in both line terminals, each can send a signal from its 'MeasBwd' output to the 'Receive' input of the function at the opposite end of the line (e.g. via a PLC channel) when it is measuring a fault in the reverse direction. This signal prevents the respective directional overcurrent function from tripping, because the fault cannot be in the zone between them. The functions therefore have to allow time, i.e. the 'wait time', for the signal from the opposite line terminal to be received. If none is received within 'tWait', the circuit-breakers are tripped at both ends. The time set for 'Delay' acts in this kind of scheme as a backup, which does not rely on the communication channel. Thus when the 'Receive' input is being used, the setting for 'Delay' must be longer than the setting for 'tWait': 'Delay' > 'tWait'

Response after decay of the memorised voltage


The voltage measured by the protection can quickly decay to almost zero for a close fault and make determining direction unreliable. For

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this reason, the function includes a voltage memory feature and for the first 200 milliseconds after the incidence of an overcurrent, the voltage measured immediately before the fault is used as reference to determine fault direction. After this time, the last valid direction is used for an adjustable period (see next paragraph). 'MemDirMode' provides facility for setting how the protection must respond after this time or in the event that the circuit-breaker is closed onto a fault and no voltage could be memorised beforehand. The two possible settings are the protection can trip or it can block.

Time during which the memorised direction is valid


The 'MemDuration' setting determines how long the last valid direction measurement shall be used. The setting should be as short as possible (200 ms) when the function is being used as backup for a distance function in an HV power system, because an actually measured voltage is only available during this time and therefore it is only possible to detect a reversal of direction during this time. For longer settings, the last valid power direction is used instead of the actually memorised voltage.

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3.5.11.

Directional inverse time overcurrent protection (DirCurrentInv)

A. Application
Directional overcurrent function for detecting phase faults on ring lines detecting phase faults on double-circuit lines with an infeed at one end backup protection for a distance protection scheme

B. Features
Directionally sensitive three-phase phase fault protection Operating characteristics (see Fig. 3.38) according to British Standard BS142: c = 0.02: normal inverse c = 1: very inverse und long time earth fault c = 2: extremely inverse Insensitive to DC component Insensitive to harmonics Voltage memory feature for close faults

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking PLC receive

III. Binary outputs:


Start Start R Start S Start T Forwards measurement Backwards measurement Tripping

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IV. Measurements:
Current amplitude of the three phase currents (IR, IS, IT) Active power A positive measurement indicates the forwards direction (IR * UST, IS * UTR, IT * URS) Voltage amplitude Amplitudes of the phase-to-phase voltages (UST, UTR, URS)

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D. Directional overcurrent settings - DirCurrentInv


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip CurrentInp VoltageInp I-Start Angle c-Setting k1-Setting t-min IB-Setting tWait MemDirMode MemDuration Receive Ext Block Trip Signal Start Signal Start R Start S Start T MeasFwd MeasBwd s BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr s s IN s Unit CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr IN Deg Default 00000000 0 0 1.10 45 1.00 13.50 0.0 1.00 0.20 Trip 2.00 T F ER ER ER ER ER ER ER 1.00 -180 (Select) 0.01 0.0 0.04 0.02 (Select) 0.20 60.00 0.01 200.00 10.00 2.50 20.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 4.00 +180 0.01 15 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping output (matrix tripping logic). CurrentInp defines the CT input channel. Only three-phase CTs can be set and the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. VoltageInp defines the VT voltage input channel. Only three-phase VTs can be set and the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified.

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I-Start Pick-up current at which the characteristic becomes effective. Angle Characteristic angle. c-Setting Setting for the exponential factor determining the operating characteristic according to BS 142. k1-Setting Constant determining the parallel shift of the characteristic. t-min Definite minimum operating time, operating characteristic constant. IB-Setting Base current for taking account of differences of rated current IN. tWait Time allowed for the directional decision to be received. MemDirMode determines the response of the protection after the time set for memorising power direction: trip block MemDuration Time during which the power direction last determined remains valid. Receive Input for the signal from the opposite end of the line: T: not used xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Ext Block F: not blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Trip Signal Tripping signal. Start Signal Pick-up signal. Start R R phase pick-up signal. Start S S phase pick-up signal. Start T T phase pick-up signal.

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MeasFwd signals measurement in the forwards direction. MeasBwd signals measurement in the backwards direction.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Base current Characteristic enabling current Type of characteristic Multiplier Characteristic angle Delay Time allowed for receipt of signal Response at the end of the memorised power direction time Time during which the memorised direction is valid IB-Setting I-Start c-Setting k1-Setting Angle Delay tWait MemDirMode MemDuration

Base current 'IB-Setting'


A tripping current is not set on an IDMT overcurrent function as it is on a definite time overcurrent function. Instead the position of the characteristic is chosen such that it is above the load current. The function, however, has a 'base current' setting which is set to the full load current IB1 of the protected unit. The base current setting determines the position of the basic characteristic. The characteristic is enabled when the base current is exceeded by a preset amount (I-Start). The adjustment of the base current IB to the load current IB1 of the protected unit instead of its rated current enables for IB1 < rated current of prot. unit IB1 > rated current of prot. unit : : more sensitive protection maximum utilisation of the thermal capability of the protected unit

Example:
Load current of the protected unit C.t rated current Protection rated current Protection base current IB = IB1 Setting IB 4 A = = 0 .8 A IN 5 A An alternative is to adjust the position of the IDMT characteristic to match the rated load of the protected unit and set the base current to its rated current instead of its load current. IN2 5A = 800 A = 4A IN1 1000 A IB1 IN1 IN2 IN = 800 A = 1000 A = 5A = 5A

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Enabling the characteristic 'I-Start'


The IDMT characteristic is enabled when the current exceeds the setting 'I-Start'. A typical setting for 'I-Start' is 1.1 IB.

Choice of characteristic 'c-Setting'


The constant 'c-Setting' determines the shape of the IDMT characteristic. The settings for the standard characteristics according to BS 142 are: 'normal inverse' 'very inverse' and 'long time earth fault' 'extremely inverse' : c = 0.02 : c = 1.00 : c = 2.00

Fig. 3.38

Operating characteristic of the directional IDMT overcurrent function

Multiplier 'k1-Setting'
The multiplier 'k1-Setting' enables the IDMT characteristic chosen by the setting of parameter c to be shifted without changing its shape. This is used for grading the operating times of a series of IDMT relays along a line to achieve discrimination. For example, in the case of the 'very inverse' characteristic, the constant c = 1 and the factor k1 13.5. The operating time t is given by the equation t= k1 I 1 IB

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Assuming a grading time of 0.5 s at 6 times the base current IB is required, the factor k1 for each of the relays is given by k1 = 5 t This produces for operating times between 0.5 and 2.5 s the following settings for k1:

t [s] 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

k1 [s] 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5

The characteristics according to BS 142 are set as follows: 'normal inverse' 'very inverse' 'extremely inverse' 'long time earth fault' : k1 = 0.14 s : k1 = 13.5 s : k1 = 80 s : k1 = 120 s

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Characteristic angle
Determining the phase-angle of the current provides an additional criterion for preserving discrimination compared with non-directional overcurrent protection. The directional sensitivity is 180 in relation to the reference voltage. This is illustrated in the following diagrams. The angles given apply for connection according to the connections in Chapter 12.

IR UTR UT UR URS US Restraint: cos (- ) = neg. U ST L IR

i sit en .s ax M

y vit

= 45 U ST Operation: cos ( - ) = pos.

a)

b)
L
HEST 005 001 C

' = phase-angle between current and voltage (positive angle) = Characteristic angle L = Border line between operating and restraint areas a) Definition of current and voltage b) Operating characteristic

Fig. 3.39

Vector diagram for a fault in the forwards direction on R phase

The function determines the power direction by measuring the phaseangle of the current in relation to the opposite phase-to-phase voltage. Which current is compared with which voltage can be seen from the following table.
Current input IR IS IT Phase-to-neutral voltage US, UT UT, UR UR, US Calculated voltage UST = US - UT UTR = UT - UR URS = UR - US

The voltage measurement automatically compensates the group of connection of the VTs. For example, the phase-to-phase values are

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calculated for Y-connected VTs (VT type UTS), while the input voltages are used directly for delta-connected VTs (VT type UTD).

Time allowed for a signal to be received


I R

I>

Forwards meas. R

Start R Meas. Fwd

ST

&

1
Backwards meas. R

&

Trip

Receive I S

&

td I>

Forwards meas. S Start S

TR

&
Backwards meas. S

&

Meas. Bwd

I>
Forwards meas. T U RS

Start T

&
Backwards meas. T

Start

&

Fig. 3.40

Block diagram td = Inverse time Delay t = 'tWait'

Where directional functions are configured in both line terminals, each can send a signal from its 'MeasBwd' output to the 'Receive' input of the function at the opposite end of the line (e.g. via a PLC channel) when it is measuring a fault in the reverse direction. This signal prevents the respective directional overcurrent function from tripping, because the fault cannot be in the zone between them. The functions therefore have to allow time, i.e. the 'wait time', for the signal from the opposite line terminal to be received. If none is received within 'tWait', the circuit-breakers are tripped at both ends. The time set for inverse time delay acts in this kind of scheme as a backup, which does not rely on the communication channel. Thus when the 'Receive' input is being used, the setting for 't-Min' must be longer than the setting for 'tWait': 't-Min' > 'tWait'

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Response after decay of the memorised voltage


The voltage measured by the protection can quickly decay to almost zero for a close fault and make determining direction unreliable. For this reason, the function includes a voltage memory feature and for the first 200 milliseconds after the incidence of an overcurrent, the voltage measured immediately before the fault is used as reference to determine fault direction. After this time, the last valid direction is used for an adjustable period (see next paragraph). 'MemDirMode' provides facility for setting how the protection must respond after this time or in the event that the circuit-breaker is closed onto a fault and no voltage could be memorised beforehand. The two possible settings are the protection can trip or it can block.

Time during which the memorised direction is valid


The 'MemDuration' setting determines how long the last valid direction measurement shall be used. The setting should be as short as possible (200 ms) when the function is being used as backup for a distance function in an HV power system, because an actually measured voltage is only available during this time and therefore it is only possible to detect a reversal of direction during this time. For longer settings, the last valid power direction is used instead of the actually memorised voltage.

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3.5.12.

Definite time NPS (NPS-DT)

A. Application
Protection of generators against excessive heating of the rotor due to asymmetrical load.

B. Features
Definite time delay Insensitive to DC component Insensitive to harmonics Three-phase measurement

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Proportion of negative-sequence current component I2 = 1/3 (IR + a2 IS + a IT)

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D. Definite time NPS function settings - NPS-DT


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay I2-Setting CurrentInp. Chan BlockInput Trip Signal Start Signal s IN AnalogAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Unit Default 00000000 1.00 0.20 0 F ER ER 0.50 0.02 60.0 0.50 0.01 0.01 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). Delay time delay between pick-up and tripping. I2-Setting NPS current setting for tripping. Setting restriction: < 0.05 IN when supplied from protection cores Current Inp. Chan. defines the A/D current input channel. All three-phase current inputs may be selected. The first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: Not blocked T: Blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Negative-sequence component of stator current I2-Setting Delay Delay

An NPS current is usually caused by asymmetrical loading of the three phases, but may also be the result of an open-circuit phase (singlephasing). An asymmetrical load on a generator produces a magnetic field, which rotates in the opposite direction to the positive-sequence field. The negative-phase sequence flux induces currents in the rotor and these result in additional rotor losses and increased rotor temperature. The latter can represent a hazard for the rotor and this is the reason for applying NPS protection. The asymmetry of the load on a generator is defined in terms of the negative-sequence stator current I2, which is therefore the quantity, monitored. The definite time NPS function is intended for systems where asymmetries are of longer duration and do not change frequently. This generally applies in the case of small to medium generators. Two NPS stages are used, one for alarm and one for tripping. The maximum continuous NPS current rating I2 is stated by the generator manufacturer, usually as a percentage of the generator rated current IGN. The alarm stage is normally set to I2 or somewhat lower, e.g. for I2 = 10 % IGN, 'I2-Setting' is set to 8 % IGN. The tripping stage is set 50 to 100 % higher than the alarm stage, e.g. I2-Setting = 15 % IGN The NPS protection is always delayed to avoid false tripping during transient phenomena and especially during phase-to-phase and earth faults on the power system. The delay may be relatively long, because the rate at which the temperature of the endangered parts of the rotor rises is relatively low.

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I2

Tripping stage

I2
Alarm stage

HEST 905 015 C

In cases where both stages are used for tripping, the one with the higher setting must be faster. Compensating the frequently differing rated currents of generator and CTs is also recommended for the NPS protection. The corresponding compensated setting is given by Setting = calculated setting IGN IN1

Typical settings:
1st stage (alarm) I2-Setting Delay 2nd stage (tripping) I2-Setting Delay 0.1 IN 5s 0.15 IN 10 s

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3.5.13.

Inverse time NPS (NPS-Inv)

A. Application
Negative phase sequence protection especially of large generators subject to high thermal utilisation against excessive heating of the rotor due to an asymmetric load.

B. Features
Inverse time delay according to level of NPS (see Fig. 3.41) Wide setting ranges for the parameters determining the operating characteristic Adjustable rate of counting backwards when the overload disappears (cooling rate of thermal image) Insensitive to DC components Insensitive to harmonics Three-phase measurement

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Proportion of negative-sequence current component I2 = 1/3 (IR + a2 IS + a IT)

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D. Inverse time NPS function settings - NPS-Inv


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip K1 - Setting K2 - Setting Min. Operating Time Max. Delay Time Reset Time Current Inp. Chan. IB-Setting Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal s I2/IB s s s AnalogAddr IN BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Unit Default 00000000 10.0 0.05 10.0 1000 30 0 1.00 F ER ER 0.50 2.50 0.01 5.0 0.02 1.0 500 5 60.0 0.20 120.0 2000 2000 0.1 0.01 0.1 1 1 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). k1-Setting Multiplier. Operating characteristic constant. k2-Setting Continuously permissible NPS (I2/IB) and operating characteristic constant. Setting restrictions: < 0.05 IN/IB when supplied from protection cores. Min. Operating Time Definite minimum operating time. Max Delay TIme Maximum delay after being enabled regardless of inverse characteristic. Reset Time Time taken to reset (from the operating limit). This corresponds to the time taken for the generator to cool. Current Inp. Chan. defines the A/D input channel. All three-phase current inputs may be selected. The first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified.

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IB-Setting Reference (base) current for compensating a difference in relation to IN. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: Not blocked T: Blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

Fig. 3.41

Operating characteristic of the inverse time NPS function

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Reference current Multiplier Continuously permissible NPS Minimum operating time Maximum operating time Resetting time IB-Setting k1-Setting k2-Setting Min. Operating Time Max. Delay TIme Reset Time

This protection is intended for large generators. It is especially recommended where the level of NPS varies frequently, because in such cases, higher levels of NPS are permissible for short periods. Providing compensation using the reference value of the A/D channel has not been made, the reference current IB for the protection is calculated from the rated currents of the generator IGN and the CTs IN1 and IN2 as follows: I IB = IGN N2 IN1 The setting is the ratio IB/IN, where IN is the rated current of the protection, otherwise 'IB-Setting' would be 1.0 IN. The following two parameters are required from the manufacturer of the generator in order to set k1 and k2: the continuously permissible NPS component i2 the permissible energy of the NPS component i22 t [p.u.] [p.u.]

Factor k1 equals the permissible energy: k1 = i22 t Factor k2 equals the continuously permissible component i2: k2 = i2

Typical settings:
IB-Setting k1-Setting k2-Setting Min. Operating Time Max. Delay Time Reset Time according to protected unit 10.0 s according to protected unit 10.0 s 1000.0 s 10.0 s

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3.5.14.

Voltage-controlled overcurrent (Imax-Umin)

A. Application
Phase fault protection of generators with rapidly decaying fault current such that a normal time overcurrent function could reset before its delay had expired.

B. Features
Stores the maximum current value after pick-up Resets either after recovery of the system voltage or after tripping Processes the positive-sequence component of the voltage Insensitive to DC component and harmonics Single or three-phase measurement with detection of the highest phase value in the three-phase mode

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Current amplitude Positive-sequence voltage

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D. Voltage controlled overcurrent settings - Imax-Umin


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay Current Hold-Voltage Hold-Time Nr Of Phases Current Input Chan. VoltageInput Chan. Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal AnalogAddr AnalogAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr s IN UN s Unit Default 00000000 1.00 2.00 0.70 1.00 1 Ph 0 0 F ER ER 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.1 (Select) 60.00 20 1.1 10 0.01 0.1 0.01 0.02 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). Delay Time between the function picking up and tripping. Current Pick-up current setting. Setting restrictions: > 1.6 IN when supplied from metering cores Hold-Voltage Voltage below which the pick-up status latches, even if the current falls below the pick-up setting. Hold-Time defines how long the tripping signal latches when the voltage condition is fulfilled. Nr Of Phases defines whether single or three-phase measurement. Current Input Chan. defines the analog current input channel. All current inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified.

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VoltageInput Chan. Defines the analog voltage input channel. All three-phase voltage inputs may be selected. A phase-to-phase voltage must be used for measurement. This is derived from the set phase and the lagging phase. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Current pick-up Delay Undervoltage Reset delay Current Delay Hold-Voltage Hold-Time

The voltage controlled overcurrent function comprises a definite time overcurrent unit which latches when the undervoltage unit responds. The protection is intended for generators and generator/transformer units, for which a fault current can fall below the pick-up of the overcurrent protection before it has an opportunity to trip. Apart from the influence of a DC component, a decaying AC component can only occur on a generator, the steady-state fault current of which is very low because of the large synchronous reactance Xd typical of modern generators (see Fig. 3.42). This function is largely insensitive to DC component and harmonics.

i 6 5 4 3 in 2 1 t -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6
HEST 905 012 C

Fig. 3.42

Generator fault current

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Overcurrent setting 'Current'


The current setting is chosen such that neither false tripping nor false signals can occur during normal operation and yet the minimum fault current is detected. The setting must therefore be between the maximum short-time load current and the minimum fault current and allow for the tolerance on the protection setting and also its reset ratio. The maximum short-time load current is a parameter of the power system concerned and must take account of switching operations, load surges and fast response excitation (Fig. 3.43).

Minimum fault current

C urrent"

Maximum short-time load current

IN "Delay"
HEST 905 013 C

Fig. 3.43

Operating characteristic of a definite time overcurrent function IN = rated current of the protection

Delay
The delay is used to achieve discrimination of the overcurrent function. It is set according to the grading table for all the overcurrent units on the power system. The zone of protection of the voltage-controlled overcurrent function extends from the CTs supplying it in the generator star-point to the location of the next downstream overcurrent relay.

Undervoltage setting 'Hold-Voltage'


Providing the overcurrent unit has picked up and the undervoltage unit picks up as well, the undervoltage unit 'Hold-Voltage' latches it in the pick-up state should the fault current fall below its pick-up setting. The setting of the undervoltage unit must be such that it can clearly distinguish between a normal load and a fault condition. Because of the different conditions prevailing during symmetrical and asymmetrical faults, the positive-sequence component of the three-phase system is evaluated. A setting well below the lowest voltage that can occur during normal load conditions is chosen (Fig. 3.44).

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UN

Minimum short-time load voltage

"Hold-Voltage" setting for latching

HEST 905 014 C

Fig. 3.44

Operating characteristic of the undervoltage control unit UN = rated voltage of the undervoltage unit

Reset time 'Hold-Time'


The reset time defined by the parameter 'Hold-Time' determines how long the overcurrent unit remains latched to ensure a tripping signal of sufficient duration. The delay starts at the instant of tripping.

Block diagram

I> &
tH

1
tV S

Start Trip

U<

HEST 045 009 V

Fig. 3.45

Block diagram of the Imax-Umin function tV = Time delay tH = Hold-Time

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Typical settings:
Current Delay Hold-Voltage Hold-Time 1.5 IN 3s 0.7 UN 0.5 s

Should the rated currents of generator and CTs differ appreciably, compensation of the overcurrent setting is recommended, if this has not already been done with the aid of the reference value of the A/D channel.

Example:
Generator rated current CT rated current Typical value (referred to the rated current of the protection) Compensated setting: 1.5 IGN 4000 = 1.5 = 1 .2 IN1 5000 IGN = 4 000 A IN1 = 5 000 A 1.5

since the rated voltages of generator and VTs are generally the same, compensation of the undervoltage setting is seldom necessary. Should they differ, the compensated setting would be: 0.7 UGN UN1

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3.5.15.

Definite time over and undervoltage protection (Voltage-DT)

A. Application
Standard voltage applications (overvoltage and undervoltage function).

B. Features
DC component filter Harmonic filter Single or three-phase voltage measurement Maximum value, respectively minimum value, detection for threephase measurement

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Voltage amplitude

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D. Over/undervoltage protection settings - Voltage-DT


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay V-Setting Max / Min
Number Of Phases Voltage Inp. Chan.

Units

Default 00000000

Min.

Max.

Step

s UN

2.00 1.200 Max (1) 1 Ph

0.02 0.010 (Select) (Select)

60.00 2.000

0.01 0.002

AnalogAddr

0 F ER ER

Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal

BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Tripping circuit to which the O/P of the over/undervoltage function is connected (matrix tripping logic). Delay Time delay between the function picking up and tripping. V-Setting Voltage setting for tripping. Max / Min Over or undervoltage mode selection: Min (3ph): Undervoltage. Three-phase functions detect the highest phase voltage. Not permitted for single-phase functions. Min (1ph): Undervoltage. Three-phase functions detect the lowest phase voltage. Overvoltage. Three-phase functions detect the lowest phase voltage. Not permitted for single-phase functions. Max (1ph): Overvoltage. Three-phase functions detect the highest phase voltage.

Max (3ph):

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Number Of Phases Number of phases included in the measurement. Voltage Inp. Chan Analog I/P channel. All the voltage channels are available for selection. In the case of a three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three must be selected. Block Input I/P for blocking the function. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Trip Signal Tripping signal. Start Signal Pick-up signal.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Setting Delay Over or undervoltage Number of phases measured V-Setting Delay Max / Min Number Of Phases

The overvoltage protection protects the stator coils of the generator as well s transformers from dangerous overvoltages. Simultaneously the magnetic core is protected from overheating resulting from increased iron losses. Long duration overvoltage are especially to be expected on the failure of the voltage regulators. A definite delay prevents spurious tripping by transient conditions. Often the protection is executed in two steps, which affects the tripping.

Pick-up voltage (U-Setting)


VT single phase or three phase delta connection: A setting of 1.3 UN corresponds to a pick-up voltage of 130 V at the input of the VT. Note that although a setting of 2.0 UN is possible, the range of the analog inputs of the input transformer units K01...K17 (REL316*4) and K41...K47 (REC316*4) is only 1.3 UN (i.e. max. 130 V or 260 V). Y connected three-phase VTs: A setting of 1.3 UN corresponds to a pick-up voltage of 130 V/ 3 at the input of the VT (phase-to-neutral voltage). The first step is intended for protection against small however long duration over voltage. The second step is intended for protection against higher over voltage, which has to set at a value of 70 % of the stator test voltage. Compensating any difference between the rated voltages of VTs UN1 and protected unit UGN is recommended. This is achieved with the aid of the reference value of the A/D channel or by correcting the voltage setting. For example, for UGN = 12 kV and UN1 = 15 kV, the setting for a pickup voltage of 1.4 UGN would have to be U 12 kV = 1.12 1.4 GN = 1.4 15 kV UN1

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Max / Min setting


This parameter provides a choice of the following settings: Min (3ph): Protection picks up when all three phase voltages have fallen below setting. Protection picks up when the lowest of the phase voltages falls below setting. Protection picks up when all three phase voltages have exceeded setting. Protection picks up when the highest of the phase voltages exceeds setting.

Min (1ph): Max (3ph): Max (1ph):

U
V - setting V - setting Stage 2 Stage 1

UN

Delay

Delay

t
HEST 905 055 C

Fig. 3.46

Operating characteristic of a two-stage overvoltage protection UN = rated relay voltage

Typical settings:
1st stage V - setting Delay Max / Min 2nd stage V - setting Delay Max / Min 1.15 UN 2s Max (1ph) 1.4 UN 0.1 s Max (1ph)

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3.5.15.1.

Definite time stator earth fault (95 %)

Settings:
Voltage Delay V-Setting Delay

The definite time stator E/F scheme (95%) is designed for the protection of generators or generator/transformer units.

Description
The standard zone of protection in the case of generator/transformer units is 95 % of the length of the stator winding (see Fig. 3.47). It is normal to limit the zone to 95 % to avoid any risk of false tripping. The stator E/F function is connected either to the VT at the stator star-point or to the VTs at the generator terminals. In either case, the function monitors the displacement of the star-point caused by a stator E/F. The corresponding off-set voltage becomes a maximum for an E/F at a generator terminal and zero for an E/F at the star-point (see Fig. 3.47).
A

Generator
5%
95 %

ma

Voltage Transformer

U>

5% U max

HEST 905 029 C

Fig. 3.47

Stator E/F protection for a generator/transformer unit

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As can be seen from Fig. 3.47, the relay setting for a zone of protection of 95 % is 5 % of Umax. The scheme detects E/Fs on the generator stator winding, the cables to the step-up transformer and the delta-connected windings of the step-up transformer. The capacitances between primary and secondary of the step-up transformer conduct currents emanating from E/Fs on the HV side to the LV side and can cause false tripping of the stator E/F protection. The capacitive coupling of E/F currents on the HV side takes place regardless of whether the HV star-point is grounded or not. The capacitance C12 between HV and LV windings of the step-up transformer and the capacitance C of the generator circuit form a potential divider that determines the potential of the generator star-point (see Fig. 3.48a). The value of the capacitance C is usually too low to reliably hold the star-point below the pick-up setting of the protection. For this reason, the generator star-point is grounded via a resistor RE (see Fig. 3.49) which ensures that the potential of the star-point remains below the setting of the protection for an E/F on the HV power system. Correspondingly, the value of the resistor RE is chosen such that for a given C12 and an E/F at the HV terminals of the step-up transformer, the offset of the generator star-point does not reach the pick-up setting of the 95 % E/F protection.

3 C 12 Star-point 3C U IE

U HV 3

3 C 12

U HV 3

RE

U IE

HEST 905 030 FL

a) without grounding resistor

b) simplified circuit with grounding resistor

Fig. 3.48

Generator star-point off-set for an E/F on the HV side of the step-up transformer

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where: C12 C capacitance between primary and secondary of the step-up transformer capacitance to ground of the stator windings, the cables with protection capacitors and the LV step-up transformer winding star-point offset rated voltage of the step-up transformer HV windings E/F current grounding resistor

U UHV IE RE

The value of the grounding resistor RE determines the E/F current. In view of the damage an E/F current can cause especially to the laminations of the stator core the maximum E/F current should be limited to 20 A for 10 s, i.e. the grounding resistor RE must not be too small. Tripping by the E/F protection is delayed by 0.5 s to avoid any risk of false tripping during transient phenomena.

Designing a scheme for connection to the generator star-point


Alternative 1 with grounding resistor and VT (see Fig. 3.49):
Generator Step-up transformer 1 2

LV

HV

U GN

IE I Emax IE

U HV 3 C 12

U1n /U 2n

3C IE

RE

U>

HEST 905 031 C

Fig. 3.49

Stator E/F protection with a grounding resistor at the star-point

The value of the grounding resistor RE should be chosen such that: the maximum E/F current IE 20 A the offset of the generator star-point for an E/F on the HV side of the step-up transformer does not exceed half the relay setting.

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The star-point VT is designed in relation to the maximum continuous voltage resulting from an E/F, i.e. the phase-to-neutral voltage of the generator. Arcing faults can cause higher transient voltages and consequentially saturation of the VT The specification of a relatively high overvoltage factor such as 1.9 is therefore recommended. VT rated voltages U1n = UGN 3 (UGN = generator rated voltage) (should nothing else be specified)

U2n = 100 V

The minimum value of the resistor REmin: RE min UGN 3 IE max

where IEmax 20 A The equation for determining the maximum value of the grounding resistor REmax (95 % scheme) can be derived from the simplified circuit diagram of Fig. 3.48b: RE max 0.05 UGN 6 C12 UOS

where: 0.05 6 - protection sensitivity 5 % (95 % scheme) - factor corresponding to 3 phases times 2 for half the pickup setting

The value of the effective grounding resistor RE is chosen between REmax and REmin and rated for 10 s.

Example 1
UGN = 12 kV; IEmax 20 A a) HV system ungrounded RE min RE max 12000 = 346 3 20 0.05 12 6 314 3 10 9 110 = 965 UHV = 110 kV; C12 = 3 x 10-9 F; = 314 1/s

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Chosen RE = 750 IE max = UGN 12000 = = 9.24 A 3 RE 3 750

Specification: 1 grounding resistor 1 VT 750 ; 10 A; 10 s single-phase insulation

12000 / 100 V; 3

b) HV system solidly grounded Only 1/6 of the voltage UHV is effective. RE min
RE max

12000 = 346 3 20
0.05 12 6 314 3 10 9 110 6 = 5790

Chosen RE = 3000 IE max = UGN 3 RE = 12000 = 2.3 A 3 3000

Specification: 1 grounding resistor 1 VT 3000 ; 2.3 A; 10 s single-phase insulation 12000 / 100 V; 3

Alternative 2 with grounding transformer (see Fig. 3.50): This arrangement is widespread in North America. The maximum current for the grounding transformer is chosen to approximately equal the capacitive component of the E/F current. IEmax IC IC = 3 C UGN 3

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Rated data of the grounding transformer: U1n = UGN 3 200; 400 V or 115; 230; 460 V

U2n = 100; I1n = IEmax I2n = Ie where Ie = IE max

U1n U2n

The grounding resistor Re connected to the secondary is give by Re = U2n 3 IE max U1n UGN U1n = UGN 3
2

or for

Re =

U2n U1n IE max

Rated power of the grounding transformer: Sn = U1n I1n


Generator Step-up transformer 1 2

LV

HV

U GN

IE
I Em ax

U HV 3 C 12

IE

U 1n /U 2n

U3n /U 4n

3C IE Ie

Re

U>

HEST 905 032 C

Fig. 3.50

Stator E/F protection with a grounding transformer at the star-point

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Example 2
UGN = 12 kV; IC = 10 A IEmax = IC = 10 A U1n = 12000 = 6930 V 3

I1n = 10 A U2n = 200 V I2n = Ie = 10

6930 = 346 A 200

Re =

200 2 = 0.577 6930 10

Sn = U1n I1n = 6930 10 70 kVA Specification: 1 grounding transformer 70 kVA; 6930/200 V; 1 resistor 0.577 ; 1 interposing VT 346 A; 10 VA; 10 s; 10 s 50 Hz; 200/100 V 50 Hz 10/346 A

(only necessary if U2n > 100 V)

Example 3
UGN = 12 kV; IC = 10 A; grounding transformer specified according to the rated voltage of the generator. U1n = UGN = 12 kV U2n = 230 V I1n = IEmax = IC = 10 A I2n = Ie = IEmax U1n 12000 = 10 = 522 A U2n 230
2

Re =

12000 3 10

230 = 0.254 12000

Sn = 12000 10 120 kVA Specification: 1 grounding transformer 1 resistor 1 interposing VT


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50 Hz 10 s 230/100 V

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Designing a scheme for connection to the generator terminals


If the generator star-point is inaccessible, the stator E/F protection is connected to three VTs at the generator terminals (see Fig. 3.51). In this case, the E/F current is fed by the three VT primary windings. Assuming a permissible short-time current of the primary windings of 5 A, the E/F current must be limited to a maximum of 15 A. The secondary rated voltage must be chosen such that it does not exceed 300 V and, wherever possible, the secondary current does not exceed 250 A.
Generator Step-up transformer

LV 1 IE

HV 2

U GN 3 C 12

U HV

I1 I E

I1

I1 IE = 3 I 1

U 1n /U 2n 3C Ie Re

U 3n /U 4n Ie U>

HEST 905 033 C

Fig. 3.51

Stator E/F protection with grounding transformer at the generator terminals

For an E/F at a generator terminal, the voltage of the phase concerned becomes zero and the healthy phases are at phase-to-phase potential with respect to ground. The vectorial addition of the two phase-tophase voltages produces three times the rated voltage across the broken delta connection of the VT secondary windings: U = 3 U2n where U2n is the rated secondary voltage. If U is greater than 100 V, the E/F protection must be connected via an interposing VT When designing the scheme, the maximum current flowing through the primaries of the VTs during an E/F is determined first. Assuming that the permissible short-time primary current of the VTs is 5 A, then IEmax = 15 A

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The corresponding minimum value for the grounding resistor is UGN 3U2n K R e min 3Imax U1n where K is the influence of the VT reactance. A mean value of 0.7 may be assumed for VTs. To ensure that the E/F protection remains stable for an E/F on the HV side of the step-up transformer, the resistor may not be less than
R e max 0.05 UGN 6 C12 UHV 3 U2n U 1n
2

The secondary current Ie is then chosen and the secondary rated voltage calculated: I U2n = U1n E 3 Ie The maximum voltage across Re becomes UR
e

= Re Ie

and the voltage across the broken delta windings 3U2n. This voltage must be approximately 30 % higher than the voltage Re Ie across the resistor so that the design current IE can flow.

Example 4
UGN = 12 kV; IEmax = 15 A U1n = UGN 3 = 12000 3 = 6930 V
2

UHV = 110 kV;

C12 = 3 x 10-9 F;

= 314 1/s

HV system ungrounded.

R e min

12000 3 15

3U2n 2 4 0.7 = 0.60 10 U2n 6930 0.05 12


2

3U2n 2 4 R e max = 1.81 10 U2n 9 6 314 3 10 110 6930 Since from this calculation Remax is greater than Remin, the protection is stable at the chosen current IEmax and the value of the resistor Re can be determined in relation to Remin. Ie = 200 A U2n = 6930 15 = 173 V 3 200

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It then follows that Remin 0.60 10-4 1732 = 1.80 Remax 1.81 10-4 1732 = 5.42 Re = 1.80 At Ie = 200 A, the voltage drop across the resistor Re is UR
e

= Re Ie = 1.8 200 = 360 V

Neglecting load current, the maximum voltage across the broken delta windings is: U = 3 U2n = 3 173 520 V Specification: 1 resistor 1.80 ; 3 VTs 1 interposing VT 200 A; 12000 3 10 VA; 10 s / 173 V; 50 Hz; single-phase insulated 520 / 100 V

Note:
Because of the voltage drop of the VTs, the voltage does not reach 520 V at the full E/F current, but only 360 V. The setting of the protection must therefore be modified as follows: Overvoltage setting 0.05 360 = 0.034 520 (3.4 % UN instead of 5 % UN)

Example 5
UGN = 27 kV; IE = 15 A U1n = UGN 27000 = = 15600 V 3 3 27000 3U2n 6 2 = 27 10 U2n 3 15 15600
0.05 27
2

UHV = 400 kV;

C12 = 3 x 10-9 F;

x = 314 1/s

HV system solidly grounded

R e min

3 U2n 6 Re max = 132 10 U2n2 9 400 15600 6 314 3 10 6 Ie = 250 A (chosen) U2n = 15600 15 = 260 V 3 300

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The resistor Re is chosen according to Remin: Re = 27 10-6 2602 = 1.825 Re Ie = 1.825 300 = 547 V 3 U2n = 3 260 = 780 V S=

3 260 300 = 135 103 VA

The specification and the modification of the protection setting is similar to Example 4.

Typical settings:
V-Setting Delay 0.05 UN 0.5 s

Note:
If a generator circuit-breaker is installed between the generator and the step-up transformer, a second E/F protection scheme is required for the zone between the step-up transformer and the unit transformer. The second scheme is connected to the broken delta secondary windings of three VTs. This scheme must also remain stable for E/Fs on the HV system and during ferroresonance phenomena and for this reason there is a resistor across the broken delta as well. Frequently, the E/F protection is only required to protect the cables and bar conductors, because the transformers are protected by differential schemes and Buchholz relays. In this case, the E/F protection setting is determined by the voltage offset for an E/F at the lowest load voltage. A typical setting for reliable E/F detection in an ungrounded system is 60 % UN, i.e. V - setting = 0.6 UN The delay can remain the same at 0.5 s. The second E/F scheme usually gives only an alarm. Since the plant remains in operation for an E/F on the cables, the resistor across the broken delta must be continuously rated.
3.5.15.2. Rotor E/F protection

Settings:
Overvoltage Delay Over/undervoltage V-Setting Delay MaxMin

The rotor E/F function in conjunction with the ancillary unit Type YWX 111 and 2 coupling capacitors is suitable for protecting synchronous generators regardless of the method of excitation. The scheme operates according to the Wheatstone bridge principle and is uninfluenced by frequency. The harmonics of the excitation system do not therefore effect the rotor E/F protection.

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The bridge is connected to the rotor circuit by one or two high-voltage capacitors. The first leg of the bridge consists of the coupling capacitors and the capacitance of the rotor winding in series. The second capacitive leg, the resistive legs and a supply transformer for stepping down the VT voltage (e.g. 100 V) to the 50 V needed for the measuring circuit are in the ancillary unit Type YWX 111. A second transformer isolates the bridge from the input of the E/F protection function. An E/F short-circuits the capacitance of the rotor winding and the bridge is no longer balanced. There is thus a voltage across the bridge that is detected by the overvoltage function. Depending on the design of the scheme, the pick-up setting is between 0.5 and 3 V to detect an insulation leakage of 1 k which is considered as being a rotor E/F. Since all the components influence the setting, it is determined during commissioning.

Typical settings:
V-Setting (for 1 k) Delay MaxMin 1 to 3 V 1s Max

Fig. 3.52

Rotor E/F protection function C1, C2 = external coupling capacitances

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3.5.15.3.

Interturn protection

(voltage principle)

Settings:
Overvoltage Delay V-Setting Delay

The purpose of the interturn protection is to detect short-circuits between the turns of the generator stator windings. The scheme should be as sensitive as possible to detect the majority of interturn faults. However, because of various residual voltages caused by asymmetries, the setting may not be lower than 5 % UN. A slight delay will prevent false tripping due to transients. Both ends of the primaries of VTs must be designed for the full HV potential! Since the star-points of the generator and the VTs are connected, the high short-circuit power of the generator would cause severe damage in the event of an interturn fault on a VT primary. HV fuses should therefore be inserted in the VT primaries.

Typical settings:
V-Setting Delay
R S T Voltage transformer

0.05 UN 0.5 s

Generator U>
HEST 905 017 C

Fig. 3.53

Interturn protection according to the voltage principle

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3.5.16.

Peak value overvoltage (Voltage-Inst)

A. Application
General voltage monitoring with instantaneous response (over and undervoltage) Voltage monitoring where insensitive to frequency is required (over and undervoltage)

B. Features
Processes instantaneous values and is therefore fast and largely independent of frequency Stores the peak value following pick-up No suppression of DC component No suppression of harmonics Single and three-phase measurement Maximum value detection in the three-phase mode Adjustable lower frequency limit fmin

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Voltage amplitude (only available if function trips)

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D. Peak value voltage function settings - Voltage-Inst


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay V-Setting Min. Frequency Max / Min Number Of Phases Voltage Inp. Chan Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr s UN Hz Unit Default 00000000 0.01 1.40 40 Max 1 Ph 0 F ER ER 0.00 0.01 25 (Select) (Select) 60.00 0.01 2.00 50 0.01 1 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping O/P of the function (matrix). Delay Time between the function picking up and tripping. V-Setting Pick-up voltage setting. Min. Frequency defines the minimum frequency for which measurement is required. Max / Min defines operation as overvoltage or undervoltage. Settings: Max: overvoltage Min: undervoltage Number Of Phases defines whether single or three-phase measurement. Voltage Inp. Chan. defines the VT input channel. All voltage inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)
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Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

E. Setting instructions Settings:


Overvoltage Delay Minimum frequency Over or undervoltage V-Setting Delay Min. Frequency Max / Min

The instantaneous overvoltage function is a high-speed protection, which operates in a wide frequency range. It is intended primarily for the following applications: where an overvoltage protection is required, which is largely insensitive to frequency especially for f > fN. The limited capacity of the VTs to transform low frequencies must be taken into account for f < fN: Input transformer units K01...K17 (REL316*4) and K41...K47 (REC316*4): 1.3UN f fN

Input transformer units K21...K24 (RET316*4) and K61...K68 (REG316*4): 2.25UN f fN

where high-speed protection is required. The high speed is achieved by measuring the instantaneous value of the voltage and since DC components and harmonics are not suppressed, by eliminating the inertia of the digital input filter.

Compared with the normal voltage function, the instantaneous function has a larger tolerance on the pick-up setting. It should therefore only be used in the above two cases. The measuring principle is the same as that of the peak value current function and therefore reference should be made to that Section for a description of the principle and the significance of the minimum frequency setting f-min.
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Pick-up voltage (U-Setting)


Single-phase VT: A setting of 1.3 UN corresponds to a pick-up voltage of 130 V at the input of the VT Note that although a setting of 2.0 UN is possible, the range of the analog inputs of the input transformer units K01...K17 (REL316*4) and K41...K47 (REC316*4) is only 1.3 UN (i.e. max. 130 V or 260 V). Y connected three-phase VTs: A setting of 1.3 UN corresponds to a pick-up voltage of 130 V/ 3 at the input of the VT(phase-to-neutral voltage).

Typical settings:
V-Setting Delay Min. Frequency according to application according to application 40 Hz

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3.5.17.

Power (Power)

A. Application
Power function for monitoring reverse power active power reactive power power direction

B. Features
Definite time delay Over or underpower Adjustable characteristic angle Provision for correction of phase errors caused by the input circuit One, two or three-phase measurement (two-phase only with delta connected VTs) Wide range of applications (see Fig. 3.55 and Fig. 3.56) Correction of CT and VT phase errors Insensitive to DC components in voltage and current Insensitive to harmonics in voltage and current

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Power

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D. Power function settings - Power


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip P - Setting Angle Drop-Ratio Delay Max / Min Phi-Compensation Number Of Phases Current Inp. Chan. VoltageInp. Chan. PN Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr UN*IN BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr deg PN deg % s Unit Default 00000000 -0.050 0.0 60 0.50 Min 0.0 1 Ph 0 0 1.000 F ER 0.500 2.500 0.001 -0.100 -180.0 30 0.05 (Select) -5.0 (Select) 5.0 0.1 1.200 180.0 170 60.00 0.005 5.0 1 0.01 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip channel of the tripping logic (matrix) activated by the functions tripping O/P. P - Setting Power setting for tripping. Forbidden settings: < 0.005 PN connected to metering cores < 0.020 PN connected to protection cores In view of the required accuracy, the use of metering cores is recommended for settings 0.2 PN. Angle Characteristic angle between voltage and current for maximum sensitivity. 0 = active power measurement 90 = reactive power measurement (inductive), Settings between these limits are possible, e.g. for directional measurements at locations on the power system. The correction of phase errors caused by the input circuit is also possible.

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Drop-Ratio Reset value in relation to the pick-up value. Thus depending on the sign of the pick-up value, the setting of the reset ratio must be greater or less than 100 %. Forbidden settings: Reset ratios >100 % for Max and P Setting >0 Reset ratios <100 % for Max and P Setting <0 Reset ratios <100 % for Min and P Setting >0 Reset ratios >100 % for Min and P Setting <0 A large hysteresis must be selected for low pick-up settings and a small one for high pick-up settings (see Fig. 3.54). Forbidden settings for hysteresis (= 100% reset ratio) settings: 0.5 % ( P - Setting PN + 0.01)

10 % P - Setting PN These conditions are fulfilled by setting, for example, for 0.2 and for 0.005
P - Setting 0.2 : PN

P - Setting 1: PN

95 %

60 %

Delay Time between the function picking up and tripping. The time the function takes to reset is also influenced by the delay set for operation, i.e.: for t > 100 ms, the function resets after 50 ms, otherwise resetting is instantaneous. Max / Min Defines the operating mode as: Max: overpower Min: underpower

Caution: The number and its sign are relevant and not just the value, i.e. 'Min' must be set for reverse power, because tripping takes place for a power less than zero (P Setting < 0).
Phi-Compensation Input of an angle to compensate CT and VT errors in the case of highly accurate power measurements. The setting is determined by the difference between CT and VT errors.

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Number Of Phases Number of phases measured: 1: single-phase 2: two-phase, i.e. for a three-phase measurement with V connected VTs P = URS IR cos UST IT cos A two-phase power measurement is only possible when connected to delta connected VTs. 3: three-phase P = UR IR cos + US IS cos + UT IT cos (The measurement is only correct with delta connected VTs if the three phase voltages are symmetrical.) Current Inp. Chan. defines the CT input channel. All current I/Ps may be selected. In the case of multi-phase measurement, the first channel of the group of three (R phase) must be selected. Voltage Inp. Chan. defines the VT input channel. All voltage I/Ps may be selected. In the case of multi-phase measurement, the first channel of the group of three (R phase) must be selected. PN Rated power as given by UN x IN. This enables the amplitude of the power being measured to be compensated, e.g. to the rated power factor of a generator. Block Input I/P for blocking the function. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Trip Signal Tripping signal. Start Signal Pick-up signal.

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1 Reset ratio
95%

Reset ratio

60%

0.5

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.75

1 P Setting P N
HEST 935 022 C

Fig. 3.54

Permissible reset ratio settings

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E. Setting instructions
(function with two additional timers)

Settings:
Reference power Setting Reset ratio Over/underpower Characteristic angle Phase error compensation tripping delay PN P - Setting Drop-Ratio Max / Min Angle Phi-Compensation Delay

The power function can be used for many applications. Some examples are given in Fig. 3.55 and Fig. 3.56. The angles given apply for connection according to the connections in Fig. 12.4.

Q
Restrains Operates

Q
Operates Restrains

Active overpower settings: - P-Setting - Max/Min - Drop-Ratio - Angle >0 MAX <100% 0 (30 ) *)

Active underpower settings: - P-Setting - Max/Min - Drop-Ratio - Angle >0 MIN >100% 0 (30 ) *)

HEST 965 017 C

Fig. 3.55

Power function settings for different applications

*)

The values in brackets apply for a single-phase measurement with the VT connected phase-to-phase (e.g. IR current and URS voltage) or for a threephase measurement with delta connected VTs.

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Q
Operates Restrains

ABB Switzerland Ltd


Q
Operates

Restrains

Reserve power settings: - P-Setting - Max/Min - Drop-Ratio - Angle <0 MIN <100% 0 (30 ) *)

Reactive overpower settings: - P-Setting - Max/Min - Drop-Ratio - Angle >0 MAX <100% 90 (120 ) *)

Q
Restrains

60 P

Operates

Directional power settings: - P-Setting - Max/Min - Drop-Ratio - Angle <0 MIN <100% 60 (90 ) *)
HEST 965 018 C

Fig. 3.56

Power function settings for different applications

*)

The values in brackets apply for a single-phase measurement with the VT connected phase-to-phase (e.g. IR current and URS voltage) or for a threephase measurement with delta connected VTs. 3-223

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Determining the settings


Where the rated currents and possibly also rated voltages of CTs, VTs and the protected unit differ, it is of advantage to refer the setting to the rated power of the protected unit. This necessitates modifying the sensitivity using the setting for PN. Setting the reference power PN:
PN = U N IN S GN 3 UN1 IN1 SGN = 3 UGN IGN PGN = SGN cosGN

where: SGN, PGN, UGN, IGN, cos GN: UN1, IN1: PN, UN, IN: ratings of the protected unit primary VT and CT ratings protection ratings

Example 1
Generator: VTs / CTs: 96 MVA, 14.4 3 kV / 13.8 kV, 100 3 V; 4 kA, 5 kA / 5 A cos = 0.8

Protection: Reverse power:

100 V; 5 A 0.5 % PGN

Alternative 1: No modification of PN
Settings: Reference power Reverse power: P U I 13.8 4 = 0.005 GN GN cos GN = 0.005 0.8 = 0.003 PN UN1 IN1 14.4 5 PN = 1 .0 UN IN

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Alternative 2: Modification for cosGN


Settings: Reference power PN P = GN = cos GN = 0.8 UN IN SGN

Reverse power: P U IGN 13.8 4 = 0.005 GN = 0,005 = 0.004 PN UN1 IN1 14.4 5

Alternative 3: Modification for GN and CT/VT. data


Settings: Rated power PN U I 13.8 4 = GN GN cos GN = 0.8 = 0.614 UN IN UN1 IN1 14.4 5 P = 0.005 PN

Reverse power

Characteristic angle
The power function is connected to the phase currents and a phase-toneutral or phase-to-phase voltage. The purpose of the phase compensation is twofold: to compensate the phase difference between the phase voltage and the any measured phase-to-phase voltage to determine whether the function responds to active or reactive power

The following table summarises the most important operating modes to simplify setting the corresponding parameters correctly. The angles given apply for connection according to the connections in Fig. 12.4. The phase compensation also provides facility for changing the direction of measurement or to compensate incorrect VT or CT polarity.

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Function "MaxMin" max < 100%


0

"Drop-Ratio"
U RS IR
P P

"P-Setting" "Angle" *)

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MAX Active power min MIN > 100%
0 P 0

ABB Switzerland Ltd

Fig. 3.57
max MIN < 100% Reverse power min MAX > 100%
IR
P 0

>0

+30

Phase compensation
U RS

<0

+30

max MAX < 100% Inductive reactive power min MIN > 100%

U RS

>0
IR
0 Q

+120

max Capazitive reactive power min

MIN

< 100%

U RS

<0 MAX > 100%


I
R 0 Q

+120

Settings different applications when measuring phase R current in relation to the phase-to-phase voltage URS

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

This setting is for correcting the phase error between the VTs and CTs, which have a considerable adverse influence on the measurement of active power at low power factors.
*) Applicable for a single or three-phase measurement using phase-to-phase voltages (the setting is 30 less for a three-phase measurement with Y connected v.t's or a two-phase measurement with V connected v.t's).

HEST 965 019 C

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

Example 2
The active power error at rated current and a power factor of cos = 0 for a total phase error of 10' is P = 0.03 = 0.03 10 = 0.3 % [%; 1; min]

This is an error which is not negligible at a setting of 0.5 %. The total error corresponds to the difference between the VT and CT errors. The case considered in this example of full reactive current (100%) would scarcely occur in practice, but currents from about 80% are possible.

Application as reverse power protection


The reverse power function is used primarily to protect the prime mover. It is necessary for the following kinds of prime mover: steam turbines Francis and Kaplan hydro units gas turbines diesel motors

Two reverse power functions are used for prime movers with ratings higher than 30 MW, because of their importance and value. The reverse power function has two stages. The setting is half the slip power of the generator/prime mover unit and is the same for both stages. The first stage has a short time delay and is intended to protect against overspeeding during the normal shutdown procedure. By tripping the main circuit-breaker via the reverse power function, the possibility of overspeeding due to a regulator failure or leaking steam valves is avoided. To prevent false tripping in the case of steam turbines, the reverse power function is enabled by auxiliary contacts on the main steam valves of the prime mover. The purpose of the second stage is to guard against excessively high temperature and possible mechanical damage to the prime mover. The time delay can be longer in this case, because the temperature only increases slowly. Should power swings occur at low load due to the speed regulator or system instability, the second stage will not be able to trip, because the function repeatedly picks up and resets before the time delay can expire. It is for just such cases that the integrator ('Delay' function) is needed to ensure reliable tripping.

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Block

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

U P> I

t 1>

Trip Trip Start Trip

t 2>

t 3>
Integrator

t1 t2 t3

fast stage interlocked with the main turbine steam valve slow stage slow stage with an integrator where power swings are to be expected

Fig. 3.58

Reverse power protection for steam turbines

Typical settings:
PN P Setting Max / Min Drop-Ratio Angle connection to IR and UR connection to IR and URS connection to IR and UST connection to IR and UTR determined by the generator cosGN (steam turbines of medium power) - 0.005 Min 60 % 0 +30 -90 +150 0.0 0.5 s 20 s

Phi Compensation Stage 1: Delay Stage 2: Delay or Integrator ('Delay' function) for delay on operation and reset Trip time Reset time Integration

20 s 3s 1

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Note:
The following must be set for a 'Minimum forward power' scheme according to Anglo-Saxon practice: P Setting MaxMin Drop-Ratio >0 Min 150 %

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3.5.18.

Overtemperature protection (Overtemp.)

A. Application
Overtemperature protection with accurate thermal image of the protected unit.

B. Features
1st order thermal model Alarm and tripping stages Adjustable initial temperature DC component filter Harmonic filter Single or three-phase current measurement Maximum value detection for three-phase measurement Temperature rise calculated 40 times for each thermal time constant setting

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Alarm Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Temperature rise Power dissipation Current

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D. Overtemperature protection settings - Overtemp.


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Theta-Begin Theta-Warning Theta-Trip IB-Setting TimeConstant Number Of Phases Current Input Chan. Block Input Warning Signal Trip Signal
CT/VT-Addr

Units

Default 00000000

Min.

Max.

Step

% % % IN min

100 105 110 1.00 5.0 1 Ph 0 ER ER

000 050 050 0.50 1.0 (Select)

100 200 200 2.50 500.0

001 001 001 0.01 0.1

BinaryAddr F SignalAddr SignalAddr

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Tripping logic (matrix) for this function. Theta Begin Initial temperature rise. This temperature rise is set every time the function is initiated, e.g. when the protection is switched on or settings are changed. Theta Warning Temperature rise at which alarm is given. Theta Trip Temperature rise at which tripping takes place. IB-Setting Reference current: Normal operating current of the protected unit referred to the rated current of the protection. Time Constant Thermal time constant for calculating the temperature rise. Settings < 2 minutes are not permitted. Number Of Phases No. of phase currents measured. Current Input Chan. defines CT input channel. All the current channels are available for selection. In the case of a three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three must be selected.

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Block Input I/P for blocking the function F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions) Warning Signal Alarm signal. Trip Signal Tripping signal.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Initial temperature rise Temperature rise for alarm Temperature rise for tripping No. of phase currents measured Reference current Thermal time constant Theta Begin Theta Warn Theta Trip Number Of Phases IB-Setting Time Constant

The overtemperature function guards against inadmissible temperature rise caused by overcurrents. The temperature rise is modeled on the basis of the influence of the current flowing through the protected unit on a thermal image of the protected unit. In contrast to the overload protection, this function can protect units of any power rating and thermal capacity. It monitors the temperature rise and not the absolute temperature. It takes account therefore neither of the ambient temperature nor the effectiveness of a cooling system. The protection operates with a thermal image of the temperature rise. A current change causes the temperature of the protected unit to rise from an initial value to a final value according to one or several exponential functions. The various influences on the temperature rise are the thermal response of, for example in the case of a power transformer, the cooling water, the oil, the windings etc. One exponential function such as that of the transformer oil is always more dominant than the others. The thermal image used in the protection for modeling the transient temperature rise operates according to an exponential function. The excursion of the temperature rise modeled by the protection is determined by the following: the final steady-state temperature corresponding to the current the increased temperature rise due to the transfer functions.

The protection assumes that at the rated current IGN of the protected unit, the temperature rise represents 100 %. Neglecting any compensation of the A/D channel or the base current IB, the protection measures a current IR determined by the rated current of the CTs: IR = IGN where IGN IN1, IN2 : rated current of the protected unit : rated primary and secondary CT currents. IN2 IN1

The current referred to the rated current IN of the protection is: IR = IR IGN IN2 = IN IN IN1

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The steady-state temperature rise becomes: W I I = GN N2 100 % I N IN1


2

At a constant current, the tripping time is:


2 [%] 100 I 0 I B t = ln 2 I [%] 100 IB

where 0 : : : initial temperature rise pick-up temperature rise thermal time constant

The effective tripping time can be higher than the calculation period (= / 40). The variables in the submenu 'DISPLAY OPERATING VALUES' are the calculated temperature rise, the power dissipation and the current. The first two are mean values over the period of calculation (= / 40). The values shown in the event list is the power dissipation at the instant of tripping.

Example:
Rated current of the protected unit CT ratings IGN = 8000 A IN1 = IN2 = Rated relay current IN = 10000 A 5A 5A

The temperature rise measured by the protection at a rated current of IGN is: 5 8000 W = 100% = 64 % 10000 5 The settings for overtemperatures of 5 % and 10 % respectively are: Theta-Warn Theta-Trip = 67 % = 70 %
2

Normally the protection is configured such that the initial temperature rise is 100 % ('Theta-Begin' = 100 %). With IB adjusted, the settings become: Base current: IB IGN IN2 8000 5 = = = 0 .8 IN IN IN1 5 10000

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The settings for alarm and tripping are then: Theta-Warn Theta-Trip = 105 % = 110 %

Transformers have two distinct exponential functions, one for the oil and one for the winding. The corresponding mean values are: Oil Winding : oil = 50 K : W oil = 10 K oil W = 120 min = 10 min

The total temperature rise of the winding is thus W = 60 K. Since however the model operates with just a single exponential function, its temperature rise has to follow the best possible equivalent exponential function as shown in Fig. 3.59. The steady-state temperature rise of this equivalent function is identical to the total temperature rise of the winding, i.e. W = 60 K in the example above. Its time constant, however, is typically 60 to 80% of the temperature rise of the oil (see Fig. 3.60).

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1,5

1,0

nw Oil

= 100C = 90C

nw Oil

= =

60C 50C

i = in

= 10 min

tOil = 120 min

[C]

w ( t = )
160

140

l ( t = )

w Oil

120

nw
100

Oil

80

Oil

60

40

w w
0 20 40 60 80

Oil Oil
100 120 140 t [min]

20

HEST 905 035 C

Fig. 3.59

Temperature rise of a transformer winding

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=126.4C

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140 Winding temperature Thermal image temperature 120 130


[C] [%]

120 110 Overload 110 i = 1.2


nw n oil = 10C

Temperature rise at rated current Thermal time constant setting

w = 10 min oil = 120 min = 90 min

n oil

= 50C

100 0

100 100 200 300 t [min] 400 500 HEST 905 036 C

Fig. 3.60

Actual temperature rise of the winding compared to the temperature rise of the thermal image

Typical settings:
IB-Setting Theta Begin Theta Warn Theta Trip to be calculated 100 % 105 % 110 %

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3.5.19.

Synchrocheck function (SynchroChck)

A. Application
Checking the synchronisation criteria (amplitudes, phase-shift and frequency difference) of two electrical systems and, providing the corresponding limits are satisfied, enabling them to be connected in parallel.

B. Features
Monitoring synchronism: Single-phase voltage measurement. Comparison of the voltages (dU), phase-shift (dPh) and frequencies (df) of two voltage vectors. Calculation of the corresponding differences between the voltage vectors in the complex plane. Evaluation of the fundamental frequency components of the voltage signals (after filtering of harmonic and DC components). Monitoring voltage: Single or three-phase voltage measurement. Evaluation of instantaneous values (non-digitally filtered analog signals) resulting in a large permissible frequency range. Detection of the largest and smallest of the three phase voltages in the case of three-phase measurement. No filtering of harmonics or DC component. Choice of phase for the voltage I/Ps on busbar and line sides (for amplitude and phase-angle adjustment). Additional voltage I/P (for use in double busbar stations) with provision for remote switchover. Provision for remote selecting the operating mode.

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Voltages (2 or 3 single or three-phase I/Ps for 'Voltage Busbar Input 1', ' Voltage Busbar Input 2' and ' Voltage Line Input')

II. Binary inputs:


2 I/Ps for enabling the synchrocheck function ('Release Input 1' and 'Release Input 2') 3 I/Ps for interlocking the synchrocheck O/Ps ('Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1', ' Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2' and ' Interlock Synchrocheck Line') 1 I/P for bypassing the synchrocheck function ('Override Synchrocheck') 2 I/Ps for remotely selecting operating mode ('Operation Mode Input 1' and ' Operation Mode Input 2')

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2 I/Ps for remotely switching voltage channels in double busbar stations ('Bus 1 Active' and 'Bus 2 Active').

III. Signal Outputs:


Function pick-up ('Start Signal') Circuit-breaker closing enable signal ('Permit To Close Signal') Function disabled signal ('Sync. Blocked Signal') Enable O/P blocked signal ('Trig. Blocked Signal') Synchrocheck bypassed signal ('Sync. Override Signal') Amplitude difference in permissible range ('Ampl Diff. OK Signal') Phase-shift in permissible range ('Phase Diff. OK Signal') Frequency difference in permissible range ('Freq Diff. OK Signal') Busbars energised ('Live Bus OK Signal') Busbars de-energised ('Dead Bus OK Signal') Line energised ('Live Line OK Signal') Line de-energised ('Dead Line OK Signal')

IV. Measurements:
Synchronism check (single-phase) 'Voltage amplitude difference' (dU) = U bus - U line 'Maximum Phase Difference' (dPh) = PhBusbar - PhLine 'Frequency Difference' (df) = f bus - f line Voltage check (single or three-phase) Max. busbar voltage 'Maximum Busbar Voltage' Min. busbar voltage 'Mininimum Busbar Voltage' Max. line voltage 'Maximum Line Voltage' Min. line voltage 'Mininimum Line Voltage' [Single-phase: Three-phase: max. voltage max. voltage min. voltage = min. voltage = max. phase-to-phase voltage = min. phase-to-phase voltage]

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D. Synchrocheck function settings - SynchroCheck


Summary of parameters:
Text
GENERAL PARAMETERS

Units Trip Chan UN deg Hz UN UN s s

Default 00000000 0.20 10.0 0.20 0.70 0.30 SynChck only 0.20 0.05 1ph R-S 0 0 3ph Y 0 ER

Min.

Max.

Step

PermitToClose Max. Voltage Diff. Max. Phase Diff. Max. Frequency Diff. Minimum Voltage Maximum Voltage Operation Mode SupervisingTime t-Reset
ANALOG INPUT

0.05 05.0 0.05 0.60 0.10 (Select) 0.05 0.00 (Select)

0.40 80.0 0.40 1.00 1.00 5.00 1.00

0.05 05.0 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

Voltage Busbar Input Phase Voltage Busbar Input 1 Voltage Busbar Input 2 Voltage Line Input Phase Voltage Line Input
SIGNAL OUTPUTS

AnalogAddr AnalogAddr AnalogAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr

(Select)

PermitToClose Signal Start Signal Sync. Blocked Signal Trig. Blocked Signal Sync. Override Signal Ampl.Diff. OK Signal Phase Diff. OK Signal Freq. Diff. OK Signal Live Bus OK Signal Dead Bus OK Signal Live Line OK Signal Dead Line OK Signal
BINARY INPUTS

Bus 1 Active Bus 2 Active Release Input 1 Release Input 2 Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1 Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2 Interlock Synchrocheck Line Override Synchrocheck Operation Mode Input 1 Operation Mode Input 2

T F T F F F F F F F

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Explanation of parameters: GENERAL PARAMETERS


Permit To Close Logic (matrix) O/P channel at which the CB close signal is available. Max. Voltage Diff. Max. permissible voltage difference dU between the phases used for checking synchronism. Max. Phase Diff. Max. permissible phase-shift dPh between the voltages of the phases used for checking synchronism. Max. Frequency Diff. Max. permissible difference of frequency df between the phases used for checking synchronism. Minimum Voltage Voltage level for discriminating between busbar and line being live (lowest phase voltage in the case of three-phase measurement). Maximum Voltage Voltage level for discriminating between busbar and line being dead (highest phase voltage in the case of three-phase measurement). Operation Mode Possible synchrocheck function operating modes: 'SynChk only': Synchrocheck [Synchrocheck conditions fulfilled AND (bus live AND line live)] 'dBus & lLine': 'lBus & dLine': 'dBus dLine': Synchrocheck OR (bus dead AND line live) Synchrocheck OR (bus live AND line dead) Synchrocheck OR (bus dead AND line live) OR (bus live AND line dead) Synchrocheck OR (bus live AND line dead)

'dBus & dLine':

Supervising Time Period between the function picking up and it issuing the CB close enable ('PermitToClos'). All the conditions for synchronism must remain fulfilled during this time, otherwise the function is reset. t-Reset Reset time following the non-fulfilment of one or more synchronism conditions.

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ANALOG INPUT
Voltage Busbar Input Phase Choice of phase I/P on the busbar side. Possible settings: 1 ph RS, ST or TR; 1 ph RE, SE or TE; 3 ph Y; 3 ph The phase chosen must agree with the voltage I/P channel selected (i.e. ' Voltage Busbar Input 1' and, if selected, ' Voltage Busbar Input 2'). Voltage Busbar Input 1 1st voltage I/P channel on the busbar side. This must agree with the phase chosen (' Voltage Busbar Input Phase'). In the case of a three-phase connection (' Voltage Busbar Input Phase' = '3 ph Y' or '3 ph '), the first channel (R phase) of a three-phase group must be chosen. Voltage Busbar Input 2 2nd voltage I/P channel (if applicable) on the busbar side. This must agree with the chosen phase (' Voltage Busbar Input Phase'). In the case of a three-phase connection (' Voltage Busbar Input Phase' = '3 ph Y' or '3 ph '), the first channel (R phase) of a threephase group must be chosen. If a second I/P is not configured, the function only takes account of the 1st voltage I/P channel (' Voltage Busbar Input 1'). Voltage Line Input Phase Choice of phase I/P on the line side. Possible settings: 1 ph RS, ST or TR; 1 ph RE, SE or TE; 3 ph Y; 3 ph The phase chosen must agree with the voltage I/P channel selected (i.e. ' Voltage Line Input'). Voltage Line Input Voltage I/P channel on the line side. This must agree with the chosen phase (' Voltage Line Input Phase'). In the case of a threephase connection (' Voltage Line Input Phase' = '3 ph Y' or '3 ph '), the first channel (R phase) of a three-phase group must be chosen.

SIGNAL OUTPUTS
Permit To Close Signal Signal indicating that the synchrocheck function is enabling closure of the circuit-breaker. It is generated at the end of the measuring period ('Supervising Time') and remains active for as long as the synchronism conditions are fulfilled, or until a blocking signal is received, or the synchrocheck function resets. Start Signal Signal generated at the instant the conditions for synchronism are fulfilled for the first time.

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Sync. Blocked Signal Signal indicating that the synchrocheck function is disabled, i.e. both the I/Ps 'Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1' and ' Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2' are set to 'FALSE' (F), and that the synchrocheck algorithm has been discontinued. Trig. Blocked Signal The CB close enabling O/Ps are blocked (one or more blocking I/Ps are at logical '1'), but the synchrocheck algorithm continues to run. Sync. Override Signal Signal indicating that the synchrocheck function is bypassed and a CB close enabling signal is being generated ('PermitToClos') regardless of whether the synchronism conditions are fulfilled or not. Ampl. Diff. OK Signal Signal indicating that the voltage difference dU between the phases used for checking synchronism has fallen below the value of the parameter 'Max Voltage Diff.'. Phase Diff. OK Signal Signal indicating that the phase-shift dPh between the phases used for checking synchronism has fallen below the value of the setting of 'Max. Phase Diff.'. Freq. Diff. OK Signal Signal indicating that the difference of frequency df between the phases used for checking synchronism has fallen below the value of the setting of 'Max. Frequency Diff.'. Live Bus OK Signal Signal indicating that the busbar is energised. (U > 'Minimum Voltage') Dead Bus OK Signal Signal indicating that the busbar is de-energised. (U < 'Maximum Voltage') Live Line OK Signal Signal indicating that the line is energised. (U > ' Minimum Voltage') Dead Line OK Signal Signal indicating that the line is de-energised. (U < ' Maximum Voltage')

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BINARY INPUTS
Bus 1 Active, Bus 2 Active Binary I/Ps for switching between voltage I/P channels by an remote signal in the case of double busbars (mimic busbar). This I/Ps are only active providing the second busbar I/P channel has been configured ('Voltage Busbar Input 2'). F: T: xx: I/P disabled I/P enabled all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)
'Bus 2 Active' (F) FALSE (T) TRUE Selected voltage I/P 'Voltage Busbar Input 1' active 'Voltage Busbar Input 2' active The previous voltage I/P remains active

'Bus 1 Active' (T) TRUE (F) FALSE Other conditions

Release Input 1, Release Input 2 Binary I/Ps for enabling the synchrocheck function. (The I/Ps are connected internally to an OR gate so that at least one must be set to 'TRUE' (T) or appropriately controlled by an remote signal.) If both I/Ps are set to 'FALSE' (F), the functions routine (synchronism algorithm) does not run. These I/Ps are used where the synchrocheck function is only needed at certain times (e.g. in auto-reclosure schemes). F: T: xx: synchrocheck function disabled synchrocheck function enabled all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1, Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2, Interlock Synchrocheck Line Binary I/Ps for interlocking the enabling signals at the O/P of the synchrocheck function. These would be typically controlled by fuse failure equipment (m.c.bs) monitoring the VT circuits. F: T: xx: blocking I/P disabled blocking I/P continuously enabled all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

Parts of the function effected by the blocking I/Ps: Assuming that both busbar I/P channels have been configured, the active blocking I/P depends on the statuses of the binary I/Ps 'Bus 1 Active' and 'Bus 2 Active':

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'Bus 1 Active' (T) TRUE (F) FALSE Other conditions

'Bus 2 Active' (F) FALSE (T) TRUE

Selected voltage I/P 'Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1' and 'Interlock Synchrocheck Line' 'Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2' and 'Interlock Synchrocheck Line' The previous blocking I/Ps remain active

Assuming that only the first busbar I/P channel has been configured, all the blocking I/Ps are active regardless of the statuses of the binary I/Ps 'Bus 1 Active' and 'Bus 2 Active'.

The active blocking I/Ps are connected internally to an OR gate and the CB close enabling O/Ps are blocked, if one of them is set to 'TRUE' (T). Override Synchrocheck Binary I/P for bypassing the synchrocheck function. This causes an enabling signal to be issued regardless of whether the synchronism conditions are fulfilled or not. It overrides the functions blocking and other enabling I/Ps. F: T: xx: I/P disabled I/P enabled (The synchrocheck O/P 'Permit To Close' is continuously active.) all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)

Operation Mode Input 1, Operation Mode Input 2 I/Ps for remotely selecting the operating mode: F: I/P disabled T: I/P continuously enabled xx: all binary I/Ps (or O/Ps of protection functions)
'Operation Mode Input 1' (F) FALSE (F) FALSE (T) TRUE (T) TRUE 'Operation Mode Input 2' (F) FALSE (T) TRUE (F) FALSE (T) TRUE Synchrocheck mode Mode specified in the control program ('Operation Mode') Synchrocheck OR (bus dead AND line live) Synchrocheck OR (bus live AND line dead) Synchrocheck OR (bus dead AND line live) OR (bus live AND line dead)

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E. Setting instructions
3.5.19.1. General

It is only permissible to connect two energised parts of a power system, if the difference between the amplitudes of their voltages and the phase-shift between them are within acceptable limits. The purpose of the synchrocheck function is to determine these parameters and decide whether it is permissible to connect the systems in parallel. The function thus issues an enable signal ('Permit To Close'), providing the voltages of the two systems are higher than the set minimum voltage ('Minimum Voltage') and the difference between the voltage amplitudes dU the phase-shift dPh the difference between the frequencies df

do not exceed the limits set for the parameters 'Max. Voltage Diff.', 'Max. Phase Diff.' and 'Max. Freq Diff' for the adjustable time 'Supervising Time'. According to the operating mode ('Operation Mode') selected, the function also permits de-energised parts of a power system to be coupled. Provision is also made for switching between voltage I/Ps belonging to the busbars of a double busbar station by appropriately controlling two binary I/Ps ('Bus 1 Active' and 'Bus 2 Active'). Note that the function can only check the synchronism of two voltages at any one time, that of one of the busbars and that of the line. The synchrocheck function is therefore used mainly to connect infeeds in parallel and to connect outgoing feeders to the system to interconnect two synchronous or asynchronous parts of a power system in auto-reclosure schemes as a safety check when carrying out manual switching operations

Note: The expressions in brackets are the names of the corresponding setting parameters. Refer also to Section D.

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Application example: Feeder connected to double busbars


SS1 SS2 T1

CB Line VT Line T2 Closing command

Switching unit

Permit to Close

Bus 2 Active Bus 1 Active VT SS2 Voltage Busbar Input 2 Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2 VT SS1 Voltage Busbar Input 1 Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1 Synchrocheck

Voltage Line Input

Interlock Synchrocheck Line

HEST 045 018 C

Fig. 3.61

Principle of synchrocheck scheme for determining the instant when it is permissible to connect a feeder to the power system (the voltages of busbar 'SS2' and the line are monitored).

where: SS1, SS2 : busbar 1, busbar 2 VTs on busbar 1, busbar 2 and line isolators on busbars 1 and 2 circuit-breaker voltage I/P channels on the busbar side voltage I/P channel on the line side

VT SS1, VT SS2, VT Line : T1, T2 CB Voltage Busbar Input 1, Voltage Busbar Input 2 Voltage Line Input : : : :

Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1, Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2, Interlock Synchrocheck Line: I/Ps for blocking the synchro-check function by the VT fuse failure equipment

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Bus 1 Active, Bus 2 Active :

Binary I/Ps for switching between the analog busbar voltage I/Ps in accordance with the configuration of the isolators (mimic busbar)

3.5.19.2.

Settings

Max. voltage difference dU Max. Voltage Diff. Max. phase-shift dPh Max. Phase Diff. Max. frequency difference df Max. Frequency Diff. Minimum voltage level for monitoring Minimum Voltage (determination of whether plant is energised) Maximum voltage level for monitoring Maximum Voltage (determination of whether plant is de-energised) Choice of operating mode Operation Mode Measuring period (delay before issuing Supervising Time enable) Reset delay t-Reset Choice of phase for monitoring on the Voltage Busbar Input Phase busbar side Choice of phase for monitoring on the Voltage Line Input Phase line side Monitoring the conditions for synchronism ('Max. Voltage Diff.', 'Max. Phase Diff.' and 'Max. Frequency Diff.') The determination of voltage difference, phase-shift and frequency difference is performed for just one of the phases of the three-phase system. For this purpose, the analog values are first filtered by a digital Fourier bandpass filter (to obtain the fundamentals) and then the orthogonal components 'U bus' and 'U line' are derived. The phase-shift dPh between the voltages and the difference between their amplitudes dU are calculated from the corresponding vector diagram in the complex plane.

Apparent

bus,
B bus

L line dPhi PhiL PhiB

: complex vectors for line U bus and U line : angular velocities for bus and line = bus line = PhiB PhiL

B, L d dPhi
Real

HEST 925 018 C

Fig. 3.62

Monitoring the conditions for synchronism

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The frequency difference df is obtained by determining the rate at which the phase-shift between the voltage vectors varies: df d (dPhi) (B L ) df

The conditions for synchronism are fulfilled, providing the values of the resulting variables are within the limits set for 'Max.Voltage Diff.', 'Max Phase Diff.' and 'Max. Frequency Diff.'.

Typical values:
Max.Voltage Diff.: 0.2 UN Max Phase Diff.: 10 Max. Frequency Diff.: 50 mHz - for connecting largely synchronous parts of a stable closely meshed system or where high demands with regard to synchronism have to be fulfilled. - in auto-reclosure schemes with long dead times (e.g. three-phase slow reclosure) or for autoreclosure of short transmission lines. - in auto-reclosure schemes with short dead times, but where high slip frequencies are to be expected.

100 mHz

200 mHz

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Note:

The setting of the synchronism measuring period ('Supervising Time') must be chosen to correspond to the settings for the maximum phase-shift and maximum frequency difference.

Monitoring the voltage in two power systems ('Minimum Voltage', 'Maximum Voltage')
The determination of voltage amplitude can be either based on monitoring a single phase or all three phases depending on how the particular AnalogAddr is configured. If the three phases are included, then the highest voltage of the three is detected for the maximum limit, respectively the lowest of the three for the minimum limit. In order to be able to monitor the voltages in a wide frequency range, instantaneous values are measured (instead of digitally filtered analog voltages). The voltage detectors may be used to determine whether a system is de-energised or whether it is energised: A system is considered to be 'de-energised', if its voltage (highest of the three phases in the case of three-phase measurement) falls below the setting of the parameter 'Maximum Voltage'. A system is considered to be 'energised', if its voltage (lowest of the three phases in the case of three-phase measurement) exceeds the setting of the parameter 'Minimum Voltage'.

On no account will an enable signal permitting closure of the circuitbreaker be issued, should the voltage lie between the limits of 'Maximum Voltage' and 'Minimum Voltage'.

Typical values:
Minimum Voltage Maximum Voltage 0.70 UN 0.30 UN

Choosing the operating mode of the synchrocheck function ('Operation Mode')


Basically, an enable signal will always be issued, if the conditions for synchronism ('dU', 'dPh' and 'df') are fulfilled for the prescribed period and both systems, i.e. busbar and line, are energised (voltage > Minimum Voltage'). In cases where closure of the circuit-breaker should also be enabled when one system is de-energised, e.g. connection of a radial feeder, this can be achieved by appropriately setting the parameter 'Operation Mode':

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'Operation Mode' 'SynChk only'

Closure enabled when: Synchronism conditions fulfilled AND (busbar > 'Mininum Voltage' AND line > 'Minimum Voltage') 'SyncChk only' OR (busbar < 'Maximum Voltage' AND line > 'Minimum Voltage') 'SyncChck only' OR (busbar > 'Minimum Voltage' AND line < 'Maximum Voltage') 'SyncChk only' OR (busbar < 'Maximum Voltage' AND line > 'minVoltage') OR (busbar > 'Minimum Voltage' AND line < 'Maximum Voltage') 'SyncChk only' OR (busbar < 'Maximum Voltage' AND line < 'Maximum Voltage')

'dBus & lLine'

'lBus & dLine'

'dBus | dLine'

'dBus & dLine'

Remote mode selection:

Four of the five operating modes can be selected by external signals applied to two of the functions binary I/Ps ('Operation Mode Input 1' and 'Operation Mode Input 2').
Binary I/P signals 'Operation Mode Input 1' 'Operation Mode Input 2' (F) FALSE (F) FALSE (T) TRUE (T) TRUE (F) FALSE (T) TRUE (F) FALSE (T) TRUE 'Mode set in the control program' ('Operation Mode') 'dBus & lLine' 'lBus & dLine' 'dBus | lLine' Mode (see above)

Choice of phase for the voltage I/P on the busbar and line sides ('Voltage Busbar Input Phase', 'Voltage Line Input Phase')
The phase voltage ('Voltage Busbar Input Phase', 'Voltage Line Input Phase') to be used for determining synchronism can be entered separately for busbar and line I/Ps (to facilitate individual adjustment of phase-angle and amplitude). All single and three-phase voltages are available for setting (1ph RS, ST or TR; 1ph RE, SE or TE; 3ph Y; 3ph ), but the ones chosen must agree with the setting for the corresponding I/P channels (see Section D. 'Synchrocheck function settings').

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Where both busbar I/Ps are in use, the definition of the phase ('Voltage Busbar Input Phase') applies to both busbars.

Notes:
A phase-to-phase measurement is to be preferred for a singlephase voltage measurement. If a single-phase I/P has to be chosen on both sides, the same phase should be used wherever possible. If a three-phase 'Y' connection is selected, phase-to-phase voltages are formed internally. This reduces the harmonic content and enables the function to continue to be used in ungrounded systems, which are required to remain in service with a single earth fault. According to the setting for 'Voltage Busbar Input Phase' and 'Voltage Line Input Phase', either a just one phase or all three phases are monitored. Whether or not the conditions for synchronism ('dU', 'dPh' and 'df') are fulfilled is determined on the basis of a single phase, whereby the following apply: Where three phases are monitored on busbar and line sides, the phase-to-phase potential URS is the one extracted for further processing. Should a three-phase measurement be defined on one side and a single-phase on the other, Then the single-phase voltage set for the single-phase I/P is used on both sides.

The measuring period ('Supervising Time'), reset time ('t-Reset') and the operating time of the function and also the dead time of any auto-reclosure function

Measuring period ('Supervising Time'):

This adjustable delay time, which is initiated at the end of the pick-up time, is the period during which all the conditions for synchronism must be continuously fulfilled to permit closure of the circuit-breaker. The timer is reset should one of the parameters move out of the permissible range. Providing they all remain within their preset ranges, the enable signal ('Permit To Close') is issued at the end of the measuring period. Especially in auto-reclosure applications, it is of advantage to set the measuring period ('Supervising Time') in relation to the settings for 'Max. Phase Diff.' and 'Max. Frequency Diff.'. It also provides facility for allowing for the operating time of the circuit-breaker:
' Supervising Time' [s ] 2 (' Max. Phase Diff .' ) [] (tv + ts ) [s ] (' Max Frequency Diff .' ) [Hz ] 360

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where: ts: circuit-breaker operating time Typical range: 0 ... 100 ms tv: time required by the function to pick up (response by the function to transient phenomena in the input voltage and timer tolerances): typically 60... 80 ms for values of 'Supervising Time' < 200 ms typically 80... 100 ms for values of 'Supervising Time' 200 ms

The above setting for the measuring period ensures that for a constant frequency difference df within the setting of 'Max. Frequency Diff.', the phase-shift dPh will still be inside the set permissible angular range ('Max. Phase Diff.' to + 'Max. Phase Diff.') at the end of the time 'Supervising Time'.

Typical values:
For a phase-shift setting ('Max. Phase Diff.') of 10:
'Max Frequency Diff.' 200 mHz 100 mHz 50 mHz 'Supervising Time' 100... 200 ms 250... 450 ms 600...1000 ms

Minimum operating time of the function:

The minimum operating time achieved by the function, i.e. the shortest possible time between the instant the synchronism conditions are fulfilled for the first time and the generation of the signal enabling the circuit-breaker to be closed 'Permit To Close', is given by the sum of the measuring time setting 'Supervising Time' and the pick-up response time 'tv' of the function. Min. operating time = ('Supervising Time') + tv

Auto-reclosure dead time:

In an auto-reclosure scheme, the dead time set for the auto-reclosure function must be at least as long as the minimum operating time of the synchrocheck function given above in order to permit the synchrocheck function to issue an enable signal ('Permit To Close') within the dead time: dead time min. operating time = ('Supervising Time') + tv

Reset time ('t-Reset'):

From the instant that one or more of the synchronism conditions are no longer fulfilled, the enabling signal O/P ('Permit To Close') and the pick-up signal reset after the time set for 't-Reset'. This ensures the a CB closing signal can be maintained for a certain minimum time.

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Typical value:
t-Reset 50 ms

Note:
Where high slip frequencies df are to be expected, 't-Reset' must be short enough to prevent the phase-shift from exceeding the set permissible range of phase-angles (-'Max. Phase Diff.' to + 'Max. Phase Diff.') during the reset time.

3.5.19.3.

Binary inputs of the function

Inputs for switching between analog busbar inputs ('Bus 1 Active', 'Bus 2 Active') Where the two busbar I/Ps ('Voltage Busbar Input 1' and 'Voltage Busbar Input 1') have been configured for a double busbar installation, the measurement can be switched from one busbar to the other by signals corresponding to the isolator positions applied to the I/Ps 'Bus 1 Active' and 'Bus 2 Active':
'uBus1Activ' 'uBus2Activ' Analog I/Ps for synchronisation (T) TRUE (F) FALSE (F) FALSE (T) TRUE 'Voltage Busbar Input 1' and 'Voltage Line Input' 'Voltage Busbar Input 2' and 'Voltage Line Input'

Other combinations of the states of these two I/Ps do not result in any switching of the AnalogAddr channels and the prevailing situation is maintained.

Notes:
The function (timer, all measuring elements and the associated O/Ps) is automatically reinitialised when busbar I/Ps are switched. This procedure takes about 60 ms (internal response times). The function then begins to evaluate the new busbar voltage and from this instant onwards the generation of an enable signal ('PermitToClos') relating to the new system configuration is possible. The two binary I/Ps 'Bus 1 Active' and 'Bus 2 Active' are inactivated in configurations in which only one busbar I/P ('Voltage Busbar Input 1') is defined.

Blocking inputs for preventing the synchrocheck function from issuing an enable signal (' Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1', ' Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2', ' Interlock Synchrocheck Line') These are assigned to the corresponding voltage I/Ps and used mainly when the VT circuit can be interrupted by fuse-failure equipment (miniature circuit-breakers). In such cases, the blocking I/Ps are connected to auxiliary contacts on the fuse-failure equipment. This
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precaution eliminates any risk of the synchrocheck function permitting the closure of a circuit-breaker onto a line it considers to be de-energised, which in reality is under voltage. Functionality of the blocking I/Ps: Both busbar voltage I/Ps have been configured: Which of the blocking I/Ps is enabled depends on which of the busbar I/Ps 'Bus 1 Active' and 'Bus 2 Active' is active, i.e. on which voltage I/P is active:
'uBus1Activ' (T) TRUE (F) FALSE 'uBus2Activ' (F) FALSE (T) TRUE Active blocking I/Ps 'Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1' and 'Interlock Synchrocheck Line' 'Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2' and 'Interlock Synchrocheck Line'

Other combinations of the states of these two I/Ps do not influence the blocking I/Ps and the prevailing situation is maintained. If only one busbar voltage I/P is configured, all the blocking I/Ps ('Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 1', 'Interlock Synchrocheck Bus 2' and 'Interlock Synchrocheck Line') are enabled regardless of the states of the binary I/Ps 'Bus 1 Active' and 'Bus 2 Active'.

The active blocking I/Ps are connected to an OR function so that a logical '1' from any one of them causes all the measuring elements and the associated O/Ps ('Start Signal', 'Ampl. Diff. OK Signal', 'Phase Diff. OK Signal', 'Freq. Diff. OK Signal', 'Live Bus OK Signal', 'Live Line OK Signal', 'Dead Bus OK Signal' and 'Dead Line OK Signal') and also the enabling O/P ('Permit To Close Signal') to reset. The algorithm of the synchrocheck function, however, continues to run.

Inputs for enabling the synchrocheck function ('ReleaseInp1', 'ReleaseInp2')


Since the synchrocheck function is only required during the relevant switching operations and auto-reclosure cycles, it may be blocked at all other times to save processor time. The binary I/Ps 'Release Input 1' and 'Release Input 2' are used for this purpose. Internally they are the I/Ps of an OR gate, so that at least one must be active before the synchrocheck program will run. If neither of the two enabling signals is at logical '1', processing of the algorithm ceases. All the functions measuring element O/Ps also reset immediately and any circuit-breaker close enabling signal ('Permit To Close Signal') resets after the time set for 't-Reset'. Conditional enabling of the synchrocheck function is especially recommended, where it has to operate in conjunction with other functions in the same unit such as distance protection, which are critical from the operating time point of view, so as not to adversely influence their tripping times.

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Application example:
The scheme below shows a synchrocheck function in the same unit as the distance protection and autoreclosure functions. The synchrocheck function is only required during the dead times of the autoreclosure function. This is achieved by connecting the inverted O/P signal 'AR Ready' generated by the autoreclosure function to the binary I/P 'Release Input 1' (or 'Release Input 2') of the synchrocheck unit.

Start Distance function Trip CB Trip CB 3P Autoreclosure function AR ready Release Input 1 Close CB Synchrocheck

Synchro Check

Permit to Close Signal

HEST 045024 C

Fig. 3.63

Block diagram showing the interconnections between the functions for a scheme with conditional enabling of the synchrocheck function

Input for bypassing the synchrocheck function ('OverridSync')


A signal applied to this binary I/P causes a 'Permit To Close Signal' to be generated immediately regardless of whether the conditions for synchronism are fulfilled or not. This I/P overrides all other blocking or enabling I/Ps.

Inputs for remotely selecting the operating mode ('OpModeInp1', 'OpModeInp2')


Refer to 'Choosing the operating mode of the synchrocheck function' in Section 3.5.19.2. 'Choosing the operating mode of the synchrocheck function'.

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3.5.20.

Breaker failure protection (BreakerFailure)

A. Application
Redundant tripping schemes (RED 1)) Repeated tripping attempts (BFP 2)) Backup tripping (BFP) End fault protection (EFP 3)) Unconditional tripping (UT 4)) External trip initiation

B. Features
Insensitive to DC component Insensitive to harmonics Single or three-phase operation Blocking Two independent timers (t1, t2) Transfer tripping Provision for disabling features (RED, BFP, EFP, UT) Unique ID for each binary input and output

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs


Current

II. Binary inputs


13205 Block BFP 13710 Start L1 13720 Start L2 13730 Start L3 13740 Start L1L2L3 13705 External Start 13770 CB Off 13775 CB On 13780 Ext. Trip t2 13785 Ext. Trip EFP

III. Binary outputs



1) 2)

23305 Trip t1 23315 Trip t1 L1 23320 Trip t1 L2 23325 Trip t1 L3 23310 Trip t2 23340 Remote Trip

Redundant Breaker failure protection 3) End fault protection 4) Unconditional trip 3-259

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23345 Red. Trip L1 23350 Red. Trip L2 23355 Red. Trip L3 23375 EFP Rem Trip 23370 EFP Bus Trip 23330 Retrip t1 23360 Uncon Trip t1 23380 Ext Trip t1 23335 Backup Trip t2 23365 Uncon Trip t2

IV. Measurements
Current amplitude L1 Current amplitude L2 Current amplitude L3

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D. Breaker failure protection settings BreakerFailure


Summary of parameters:
Text Unit Default Min. Max. Step

General Parameters Number Of Phases Current Input I Setting Delay t1 Delay t2 Delay tEFP t Drop Retrip t Drop Butrip t Pulse RemTrip t1 active t2 active RemTrip active EFP active Red active Start Ext act. RemTrip after CB Commands TRIP t1 TRIP t1 L1 TRIP t1 L2 TRIP t1 L3 TRIP t2 Remote Trip Red Trip L1 Red Trip L2 Red Trip L3 EFP Rem Trip EFP Bus Trip 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 IN s s s s s s 3 Ph
CT/VT-Addr 0

(Select) 0.20 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) (Select) 5.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

1.20 0.15 0.15 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 on on on on on on t1

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Text Binary Inputs Block BFP Start L1 Start L2 Start L3 Start L1L2L3 External Start CB Off CB On Ext Trip t2 Ext Trip EFP Signal Outputs Trip t1 Trip t1 L1 Trip t1 L2 Trip t1 L3 Trip t2 Remote Trip Red Trip L1 Red Trip L2 Red Trip L3 EFP Rem Trip EFP Bus Trip Retrip t1 Uncon Trip t1 Ext Trip t1 Backup Trip t2 Uncon Trip t2

Unit

Default

Min.

Max.

Step

BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F

SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER

Explanation of parameters: General Parameters


NrOfPhases defines the number of phases supervised. '1' single-phase operation '3' three-phase operation

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Current Input defines the CT input channel. Single and three-phase CTs can be set. The first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified for three-phase CTs. I Setting Pick-up of the current criterion for the breaker failure protection (BFP), end fault protection (EFP) and the redundant tripping logic (RED). Delay t1 'Retrip' tripping delay Delay t2 Backup tripping delay. Delay tEFP End fault protection delay. t Drop Retrip Reset delay for 'Retrip', 'Redundant Trip' and 'External Trip Initiate'. t Drop Butrip Reset delay for backup tripping attempt. t Puls RemTrip Transfer tripping impulse width. t1 active defines whether timer t1 is enabled or disabled. 'on' Timer t1 enabled 'off' Timer t1 disabled t2 active defines whether timer t2 is enabled or disabled. 'on' Timer t2 enabled 'off' Timer t2 disabled RemTrip active defines whether transfer tripping is enabled or disabled. 'on' Transfer tripping enabled 'off' Transfer tripping disabled EFP active defines whether the end fault protection is enabled or disabled. 'on' End fault protection enabled 'off' End fault protection disabled Red active defines whether the redundant logic is enabled or disabled. 'on' Redundant tripping logic enabled 'off' Redundant tripping logic disabled

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Start Ext active defines whether the unconditional tripping logic is enabled or disabled. 'on' Unconditional tripping logic enabled 'off' Unconditional tripping logic disabled RemTrip after defines the delay for transfer tripping. 't1' after BFP time t1 't2' after BFP time t2

CB Commands
TRIP t1 defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping output TRIP t1 (matrix tripping logic). This output is activated for a 'Retrip', 'External Trip Initiate' or 'Unconditional Trip'. TRIP t1 L1, L2 or L3 defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping outputs TRIP t1 L1, L2 or L3 (matrix tripping logic). This output is activated for a phase segregated 'Retrip'. TRIP t2 defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping output TRIP t2 (matrix tripping logic). This output is activated for a 'Backup Trip' or 'Unconditional Trip' the after second time step t2. REMOTE TRIP defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping output REMOTE TRIP (matrix tripping logic). RED TRIP L1, L2 or L3 defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping outputs RED TRIP L1, L2 or L3 (matrix tripping logic). EFP REM TRIP defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping output EFP REM TRIP (matrix tripping logic). EFP BUS TRIP defines the tripping channel activated by the functions tripping output EFP BUS TRIP (matrix tripping logic).

Binary Inputs
Block BFP Input for blocking the function. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

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Start L1, L2 or L3 BFP or RED Start in phase L1, L2 or L3 F: disabled T: enabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Start L1,L2 or L3 BFP or RED Start in all three phases F: disabled T: enabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) External Start starts the unconditional trip. F: disabled T: enabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) CB-Off signals that the circuit-breaker is fully open and also used to start the end zone fault protection. F: CB not fully open T: CB fully open xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) CB-On signals that the circuit-breaker is fully closed. F: CB not fully closed T: CB fully closed xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Ext Trip t2 Input for signals from the other BFP units in the station. F: No external trip after t2 T: External trip after t2 xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Ext Trip EFP Input for signals from the end zone fault outputs of the other BFP units in the station. F: No trip for end zone fault T: Trip for end zone fault xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

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Signal Outputs
Trip t1 signals a trip which is activated by one of the following logics: Repeat trip (see 'Retrip t1') External trip (see 'Ext Trip t1') Unconditional trip (see 'UnconTrip t1') Trip t1 L1, L2 or L3 signals a repeat trip of phase L1, L2 or L3. Trip t2 signals a backup trip. This signal is activated by the following logics: Backup trip after t2 (see 'Backup Trip t2') Unconditional trip after t2 (see 'UnconTrip t2') Remote Trip signals a transfer trip. Red Trip L1, L2 or L3 signals a redundant trip of phase L1, L2 or L3. EFP Rem Trip signals an end zone trip. This signal is an impulse of length 't Puls Rem Trip' generated when the EFP timer has timed out. EFP Bus Trip signals an end zone trip. This signal is generated when the EFP timer has timed out and resets 'tDrop Bu Trip' after the initiating signal has reset. Retrip t1 signals a repeat trip after t1. This signal is generated when the BFP timer t1 in one of the phases has timed out. Uncon Trip t1 signals an unconditional trip after t1. This signal is generated when the UT timer t1 has timed out. Ext Trip t1 signals an external trip. This signal is generated when either the input 'Ext Trip t2' or 'Ext Trip EFP' is enabled. Backup Trip t2 signals a backup trip after t2. This signal is generated when the BFP timer t2 has timed out. Uncon Trip t2 signals an unconditional trip after t2. This signal is generated when the UT timer t2 has timed out.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Pick-up current setting: Tripping delay: I Setting Delay t1 Delay t2 Delay tEFP

Rest delay: Impulse:

t Drop Retrip t Drop BuTrip t Puls RemTrip

Enabled signals:

t1 active t2 active RemTrip active EFP active Red active Start Ext active

Pick-up current setting 'I Setting'


If the BFP current detector pick-up setting is too low, there is a possibility that the detectors may reset too late after it has successfully tripped the circuit-breaker. This can be caused by damped oscillations on the secondary side of the CT. On the other hand, if the setting is too high, the BFP may fail to operate at all should, for example, the current fall below pick-up again due to severe CT saturation. A typical setting for the pick-up current is just below the minimum fault current that can occur on the respective line.

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Tripping delays t1 and t2


The tripping delay settings enable the BFP to be adapted to its particular operating environment (e.g. circuit-breaker characteristics etc.). Fig. 3.64 shows a typical timing diagram for clearing a fault.
Fault incidence (1) CB open (3) Repeat trip (4)

Start (2)

CB open (5)

Backup trip (6)

Tripping time

tCB open

tReset + tMargin

tCB open Delay t1 Delay t2

tReset + tMargin

Fig. 3.64

Operation of the BFP/UT timers t1 and t2

Timing in the case of breaker failure: (1) (2) A fault has occurred and been detected by a protective device. A tripping command is transmitted to the circuit-breaker after the unit protection operating time which also starts the BFP. The tripping command can be either single (Start Lx) or three-phase (Start L1L2L3). The redundant signals are also activated at the same time. The circuit-breaker ruptures the fault current. After the reset delay tReset plus a safety margin tMargin , the BFP either detects that the fault current has been interrupted and the protection function resets, or the fault current continues to flow and a second attempt is made by the BFP to trip the circuitbreaker. The second attempt to trip the circuit-breaker is successful and the fault current is interrupted.

(3) (4)

(5)

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(6)

After a further reset delay tReset plus a safety margin tMargin , the BFP either detects that the fault current has been interrupted and the protection function resets, or the fault current continues to flow and the BFP initiates backup tripping.

If the BFP is only required to carry out a single breaker failure step, timer t1 can be disabled (see 't1 active'). The response of the BFP corresponds once again to Fig. 3.64, but with timer t1 set to zero. Timing in the case of an unconditional trip: (1) (2) (3) (4) A fault has occurred and been detected by a protective device. A signal at input 'External Start' starts the UT function. The circuit-breaker ruptures the fault current. If after the reset delay tReset plus a safety margin tMargin , the CB auxiliary contact 'CB-On' still signals to the UT that the CB is closed, a second attempt is made by the UT function to trip the circuit-breaker. The second attempt to trip the circuit-breaker is successful and the fault current is interrupted. If after a further reset delay tReset plus a safety margin tMargin the CB auxiliary contact 'CB-On' still signals to the UT that the CB is closed, backup tripping is initiated by the UT function.

(5) (6)

Delay t1 t CB open + tReset + t Margin Delay t 2 t CB open + tReset + tMargin tCB open tReset tMargin CB opening time including arc extinction time Reset time of the current criterion 1) Allowance for variations in normal fault clearing times 2)

1) 2)

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Tripping delay tEFP


The setting for tEFP can be seen from Fig. 3.65 which shows a typical timing diagram for tripping a fault.
CB tripping signal (1) CB open (3) EFP tripping signal (4)

tCB open tReset + tMargin

tCB Off

tEFP

CB tripped (2)

Fig. 3.65 (1) (2) (3) (4)

Timing diagram for an end zone fault

Tripping command applied to the CB. CB auxiliary contact sends a signal that the CB is open to the 'CB-Off' input of the function which is used to start the EFP. The circuit-breaker ruptures the fault current. After a reset delay plus a safety margin, the current unit either detects that the fault current has been interrupted and the EFP function resets, or the fault current continues to flow and an EFP signal is issued.

tEFP t CB open t CB Off + tReset + tMargin tCB open tCB Off tReset tMargin CB opening time including arc extinction time CB opening time of the CB auxiliary contact (Signal 'CB open') Reset time of the current detector 3) Allowance for variations in normal fault clearing time 4)

3) 4)

see reset time of the current detector tReset see Margin time tMargin

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Reset time of the current detector tReset


The current detector reset time is determine by the power system configuration as follows: Power system time constant up to 300 ms Fault current up to 40 IN tReset = 28 ms (ISetting 0.2 IN) tReset = 28 ms (ISetting 1.2 IN) tReset = 38 ms (ISetting 0.4 IN)

Primary CTs TPX: Primary CTs TPY:

Safety margin tMargin


A safety margin of 20 ms is recommended.

Reset times 't Drop Retrip' and 't Drop Butrip'


The function includes two independently adjustable signal reset delays. 't Drop Retrip' determines the reset delay for the following signals: 23305 Trip t1 23315 Trip t1 L1 23320 Trip t1 L2 23325 Trip t1 L3 23345 Red Trip L1 23350 Red Trip L2 23355 Red Trip L3 23330 Retrip t1 23360 Uncon Trip t1 23380 Ext Trip t1 't Drop BuTrip' determines the reset delay for the following signals: 23310 Trip t2 23370 EFP Bus Trip 23335 Backup Trip t2 23365 Uncon Trip t2

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Impulse 't Pulse RemTrip'


't Puls RemTrip' determines the width of the transfer tripping impulse for the following signals: 23340 Remote Trip 23375 EFP Rem Trip

Enabling and disabling the various features


A number of the functions features can be enabled and disabled.

t1 active
This setting provides facility for disabling the timer t1. When it is disabled, none of the 'repeat trip' group of signals is generated.

t2 active
This setting provides facility for disabling the timer t2. When it is disabled, none of the 'backup trip' group of signals is generated.

RemTrip active
This setting provides facility for disabling transfer tripping. When it is disabled, none of the 'remote trip' group of signals is generated.

EFP active
This setting provides facility for disabling the end fault protection. When it is disabled, none of the 'end fault' group of signals is generated.

Red active
This setting provides facility for disabling the redundant protection. When it is disabled, none of the 'redundant' group of signals is generated.

Start Ext active


This setting provides facility for disabling the unconditional trip feature. When it is disabled, none of the 'unconditional trip' group of signals is generated.

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3.5.21.

Transformer differential protection function (Diff-Transf)

A. Application
Differential protection of two and three-winding power transformers generator/transformer units.

B. Features
Non-linear, current-dependent operating characteristic (see Fig. 3.66) High stability during through-faults and in the presence of CT saturation Short tripping times Three-phase measurement Inrush current restraint using the second harmonic detection of the highest phase current detection of the load current to determine whether the transformer is energised or not Compensation of phase group Compensation of CT ratio Scheme for three-winding transformers phase-by-phase comparison of the highest winding current with the sum of the currents of the other two windings DC current component filter harmonic filter

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Current (2 or 3 sets of 3 inputs)

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


tripping R phase trip S phase trip T phase trip

IV. Measurements:
R phase summation current S phase summation current T phase summation current R phase restraining current S phase restraining current T phase restraining current

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D. Transformer differential protection settings - Diff-Transf


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip g - Setting v Setting b Setting g - High I - Inst Inrush Ratio Inrush Time a1 s1 Current Inp.Chan. 1 a2 s2 CurrentInp.Chan. 2 a3 s3 Current Inp.Chan. 3 Block Input Inrush Input High Set Input Trip Signal Trip-R Signal Trip-S Signal Trip-T Signal Inrush Signal Stabilizing Signal CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr IN IN IN % s Unit IN Default 00000000 0.2 0.50 1.50 2.00 10 10 5 1.00 Y 0 1.00 y0 0 1.00 y0 0 F F F ER 0.05 (Select) 2.20 0.01 0.05 (Select) 2.20 0.01 Min. 0.1 0.25 1.25 0.50 3 6 0 0.05 (Select) Max. 0.5 0.50 5.00 2.50 15 20 90 2.20 Step 0.1 0.25 0.25 0.25 1 1 1 0.01

Explanation of Parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (matrix). g - Setting defines the basic setting g of the operating characteristic. v - Setting defines the pick-up ratio v of the operating characteristic. b - Setting defines the value b of the operating characteristic. This should be set to approx. 1.5 times rated current.
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g - High High-set Basic setting which replaces the normal basic setting when activated by the HighSetInp input. It is used to prevent false tripping due, for example, to excessive flux (overfluxing). I - Inst Differential current, above which tripping takes place regardless of whether the protected unit has just been energised or not. This enables the time required to trip to be shortened for high internal fault currents. Inrush Ratio Ratio of 2nd harmonic current content to fundamental current above which an inrush condition is detected. Inrush Time Time during which the inrush detection function is active following initial energisation or an external fault. a1 Amplitude compensation factor for winding 1. s1 Connection of winding 1 (primary) Settings provided: Y: star-connected D: delta-connected Current Inp.Chan. 1 defines the CT input channel for winding 1. The first channel (R phase) of the two groups of three phases must be specified. a2 Amplitude compensation factor for winding 2. s2 Vector group for winding 2. Settings provided: All usual groups of connection with designation of the circuit (y = star, d = delta, z = zigzag) phase-angle adjustment of the winding 2 voltage in relation to the winding 1 voltage in multiples of 30. Current Inp.Chan.2 defines the CT input channel for winding 2. The first channel (R phase) of the two groups of three phases must be specified. a3 Amplitude compensation factor for winding 3.

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s3 Vector group for winding 3. Settings provided: All usual groups of connection with designation of the circuit (y = star, d = delta, z = zigzag) phase-angle adjustment of the winding 3 voltage in relation to the winding 1 voltage in multiples of 30. Current Inp.Chan. 3 defines the CT input channel for winding 3. The first channel (R phase) of the two groups of three phases must be specified. The protection operates in a two-winding mode, if a third input is not selected. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Inrush Input activates the inrush restraint, even though the transformer is already energised. This enables, for example, the inrush current resulting from energising a parallel transformer to be detected and compensated. F: not used xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) High Set Input determines whether the normal or high-set Basic setting g is used. F: not used xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Trip Signal Output for the signalling tripping. Trip-R Signal Output for signalling tripping by R phase. Trip-S Signal Output for signalling tripping by S phase. Trip-T Signal Output for signalling tripping by T phase.

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Inrush Signal Output for signalling inrush current. Stabilizing Signal Output for signalling IH > b during through-faults.

I IN

3 Operation for I'1 <b IN or I'2 <b IN

Operation 2

1 v g 1 b 2 Restraint 3 IH IN

I1

Protected unit

I2 I3
HEST 965 007 C

I = I1 + I2 + I3

Operating (differential) current

I' I' cos IH = 1 2 0

for cos 0 for cos < 0

Restrain current

whereI'1 = greatest of I1,I2 ,I3 I' 2 = I1 + I2 + I3 I'1 = (I'1; I' 2 )

Fig. 3.66

Operating characteristic: Diff-Transf

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E. Setting instructions
Basic setting Pick-up ratio Operating characteristic switching point Increased basic setting Pick-up differential current (uninfluenced by inrush detection) Pick-up ratio of the inrush detector Inrush detection time Amplitude compensation factors Connection of winding 1 Vector groups of windings 2 and 3 g v b g - High I - Inst Inrush Ratio Inrush Time a1 a2 a3 s1 s2 s3

The purpose of the transformer differential protection is to detect phase faults in the protected zone. It may also detect earth faults and interturn faults. The protection is sensitive, fast and absolutely discriminative.

Basic setting g
The basic setting 'g' defines the pick-up setting of the differential protection for internal faults. The lowest possible value should be chosen for 'g' (high sensitivity) to enable it to detect transformer earth faults and interturn faults in addition to phase faults. The setting of 'g' must not be too low, however, to avoid the danger of false tripping due to: CT errors the maximum off-load transformer current at the maximum shorttime system voltage tap-changer range

The off-load current (magnetising current) of a modern power transformer is very low, usually between 0.3 and 0.5 % of rated current at rated voltage. During short-time voltage peaks, e.g. following load shedding, the off-load current can reach as much as 10 % or more. The tap-changer voltage range is usually between 5 % and 10 %, but ranges of 20 % and more occur. Its influence has to be taken into account regardless of whether the tap-changer is manually operated or controlled by a voltage regulator. All three of these influences cause a differential current, which flows during normal system conditions. The setting for 'g' must be chosen above the level of this differential current. A typical setting is g = 0.3 IN (i.e. 30 % IN).

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Pick-up ratio v
The pick-up ratio 'v' is decisive for the stability of the protection during external phase and earth faults, i.e. in the presence of high throughfault currents. The value of 'v' defines the ratio of the operating current to restraint current. The setting should be such that when operating under load conditions, weak faults causing only a low differential current can still be detected, but at the same time there is no risk of false tripping during through-faults. A typical setting is v = 0.5.

Restraint current b
The restraint current b defines the point at which the characteristic is switched. The sloped section of the characteristic ensures that the relay remains stable during through-faults with CT saturation. The ability to switch between two different slopes enables the characteristic to adapt to different conditions. The recommended setting for 'b' is 1.5. This provides high stability during high through-fault currents and sufficient sensitivity to detect fault currents in the region of the operating current.

Factors a2 and a3
The full setting range for the factors a2 and a3 for compensating current amplitude only applies, if the reference value for the CT input channels is set to 1.000. At all other settings, the permissible upper limit reduces in proportion to the ratio of the CT input channel reference values (transformer winding 1/winding 2, respectively winding 3/winding 1).

Operating characteristic
The restraint current in the case of a three-winding power transformer is derived from the currents of two windings and not three. In the interest of the best possible through-fault stability, the two largest currents of the three windings are used for this purpose. The restrain current is either defined by the equation

IH = I1 I2 cos
or is zero IH = 0 The angle

for -90 < < 90

for 90 < < 270

= (I1, I2 )

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The following vector diagram of the current on primary and secondary sides and of the differential current measured for a transformer on load was assumed.

I2

I1

I2

HEST 905 003a C

The following vector diagrams then result for a through-fault

I2 I I2

I1

= 0
HEST 905 003b C

and an internal fault


I2

I1

I2

= 180
HEST 905003c C

According to the equation for the restrain current, IH becomes: for ( = 0) :

IH = I1 x I2
: IH = 0 : IH = 0

and for internal faults a) fed from on side (I2 = 0) b) fed from both sides ( = 180)

High through-fault currents can cause CT saturation and for this reason, the gradient of the characteristic is switched to infinity for IH/IN > b. When measuring the operating characteristic, it should be noted that the gradient of the characteristic is only switched to infinity, if apart from IH, I1 and I2 are also higher than b.

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I IN

0,75 0,5 0,25 g b


IH IN
HEST 905 003d C

0,5

1,5

Fig. 3.67

Operating characteristic of the transformer differential protection for high through-fault currents

This characteristic, however, would scarcely be able to detect faults in the protected zone at through currents as low as the load current. Therefore if one of the windings is conducting a current which is less than the setting of 'b', i.e. I I1 or 2 < b IN IN the characteristic is switched back to the gradient according to 'v'.

I IN
1 0,75 0,5 0,25 g b

IH IN
HEST 905 003e C

Fig. 3.68

Operating characteristic of the transformer differential protection for low through-fault currents

This characteristic provides higher sensitivity for the detection of faults in the protection zone.

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Example:
Internal fault and rated current flowing through the transformer:

I1 I = 4 2 =1 = 0 IN IN
-I 2 I I2

I1
HEST 905 003f C

I = I1 + I2 = 4 IN IN = 3 IN IH = I1 I2 cos = 4 IN 1IN 1 = 2 IN
Internal faults will thus be reliably detected when a through-current is flowing even at the highest setting for 'v'. Increased basic setting g-High The increased basic setting g-High has been provided as a means of preventing false tripping under particular operating conditions. It is activated by an external signal. Situations occur during normal system operation which cause a higher differential current, e.g. increased magnetising current as a consequence of a higher system voltage (switching operations, following load shedding, generator regulator faults etc.) large variation of current ratio (tap-changer at the end of its range)

Providing special conditions of this kind are detected by a voltage relay or a saturation relay, the corresponding signal can be used to switch the differential function from 'g' to 'g high'. The recommended setting is 'g high' = 0.75 IN. The reset ratio following a trip remains unchanged at 0.8 g.

Differential current I-Inst


The differential current setting 'I Inst' facilitates fast tripping of high internal fault currents (inhibits the detection of an inrush current). The setting must be higher than any normal inrush current to be expected. A typical value for power transformers of low to medium power is: I - Inst. = 12 IN.

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Pick-up ratio for detecting inrush


The setting of this ratio determines the sensitivity of the function for detecting inrush. Generally the ratio of 2nd harmonic to fundamental is greater than 15 %. Allowing a margin to ensure that an inrush condition is detected, a setting of 10 % is recommended.

Duration of active inrush detection


The setting for how long the inrush detection function should be active depends on how long the danger of false tripping due to an inrush current, which only flows through one winding, exists. A typical setting is 5 s. The inrush detection is active if: the binary input 'Inrush Input' is set, the Transformer is shut off during the period 'Inrush Time' after it is recognized that the transformer has been switched on.

The transformer will be recognized as switched on, when the highest phase current in all the windings exceeds 4 % IN (in case the 'a' factor and the reference value is one).

Amplitude compensation factors a1, a2, a3


Factors a1, a2 and a3 facilitate compensating differences between the rated currents of the protected unit and the CTs. The 'a' factors are defined by the ratio of the CT rated current to the reference current. In the case of a two-winding transformer, both windings have the same rated power and the rated current of the transformer is taken as the reference current. Providing the factor 'a' is correctly set, all the settings of g, v, b, g-High and I-Inst. are referred to the rated current of the transformer and not to the rated primary current of the CT

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250/5 A

1 25 MVA 2

110 kV 20 kV

131 A 722 A

1000/5 A
HEST 905 004a C

IB1 = ITN1 = 131 A IB2 = ITN2 = 722 A

a1 = a1 =

ICT1 250 = = 1.91 ITN1 131 ICT 2 1000 = = 1.38 ITN2 722

The reference current is only chosen to be different from the transformer rated current, if this should be necessary because of the setting range of factors a1 and a2. Differences between the rated currents of the CTs and a two-winding transformer may also be compensated by adjusting the reference values of the A/D channels. In this case and assuming the power ratings of the two windings to be the same, the factors are set to a1 = a2 = 1. The reference values in the case of the above example are: ITN1 131 = = 0.524 ICT1 250 ITN2 722 = = 0.722 ICT 2 1000

A further difference lies in the fact that the 'a' factors only effect the differential protection, whilst changing the reference values of the A/D channels effects the currents for the entire protection system (all functions and measured variables). The windings of a three-winding transformer normally have different power ratings and a reference power has to be chosen, which is used for all three windings. All the settings of the protection are then referred to the reference currents calculated from the reference power.

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250/5 A 25 MVA 110 kV 131 A

1 3 2

500/5 A

5 MVA 600/5 A 20 MVA

6,3 kV 20 kV

458 A 577 A
HEST 905 004b C

Assuming the reference power SB to be 25 MVA, the reference currents IB and the 'a' factors become: IB1 SB 3 UTN1 SB 3 UTN2
SB 3 UTN3

25 3 110 25 3 20
25 3 6.3

= 131 A

a1 =

ICT1 250 = = 1.91 IB1 131 ICT 2 600 = = 0.83 IB 2 722


ICT 3 500 = = 0.22 IB3 2291

IB 2

= 722 A

a2 =

IB3

= 2291 A

a3 =

The same results are obtained by applying the formulas with the reference power SB: a1 = UTN1 ICT1 SB UTN2 ICT 2 SB UTN3 ICT 3 SB 3 3 3 = 110 250 25000 20 600 25000 6.3 500 25000 3 = 1.905

a2 =

= 0.83

a3 =

= 0.218

A further possibility of compensating different rated powers in the case of three-winding transformers is to use the reference values of the A/D channels to match the protection to the different rated currents of CTs and transformer factors a1, a2 and a3 to compensate the different powers of the windings.

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The 'a' factors compensate the signals at the inputs of the differential protection. If the reference values of the A/D channels are changed, the changes apply to the entire protection system (i.e. all functions and measured variables). This can be seen from the following example. Reference values: Winding 1: Reference value = Reference value = Reference value = ITN1 131 = = 0.524 ICT1 250 ITN2 577 = = 0.962 ICT 2 600 ITN3 458 = = 0.916 ICT 3 500

Winding 2:

Winding 3:

Factors a1, a2 and a3: a1 = a2 = a3 = ITN1 131 = =1 IB1 131 ITN2 577 = = 0.799 IB 2 722 ITN3 458 = = 0.200 IB3 2291

CTs in the unit transformer feeder


When designing the overall differential protection for a generator/transformer unit, there are the following alternative methods of taking account of the CTs or lack of CTs in the unit transformer feeder (Fig. 3.69).

Alternative No.1: No CTs in the unit transformer feeder.


This alternative is mainly needed for hydroelectric power plants, which have a relatively low auxiliaries requirement. The disadvantage is that the zone of protection is unlimited in the direction of the unit transformer feeder with the possible hazard of false tripping for a fault on the unit auxiliaries supply system. This hazard can be avoided by correspondingly setting 'g'.

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F2

Unit transformer

S aux. sys.

S GN

HEST 905 009 C

A fault on the unit auxiliaries supply system causes a current iF (in p.u.) to flow to the generator star-point. iF = iF2 Saux.sys. SGN

Example:
iF2 = 10; Saux.sys. SGN = 0.03

iF = 10 0.03 = 0.3 It follows from this that 'g' must be set higher than 0.3 to avoid the possibility of a false trip.

Alternative No. 2: CTs installed in the unit transformer feeder on the generator side of the unit transformer (Fig. 3.69). These CTs usually have the same ratio as the generator CTs although the rating of the unit transformer is much less. The reason is the high fault level on the generator side of the unit transformer and the consequentially high thermal and dynamic stress on the CTs.
The reference value of the CT channel of the protection is determined by the rated current of the generator and not of the unit transformer.

Alternative No. 3: CTs installed in the unit transformer feeder on the auxiliaries side of the unit transformer (Fig. 3.69). In this case, the CTs are specified according to the rated current of the unit transformer.
Advantages: clearly defined zone of protection reduced performance required of the CTs, which are therefore cheaper

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Disadvantages: Interposing CTs may be necessary reduced sensitivity of the protection for faults in the protected zone, but on the auxiliaries side of the unit transformer

800/5 A

3000/5 A

GT

300 MVA 220/18 kV 0.8/10 kA

UT

30 MVA 18/6 kV 1/3 kA

10/1 A

10000/5 A

I>

300 MVA 18 kV 10 kA

10000/5 A

HEST 905 054 C

Fig. 3.69

The overall differential protection of a generator/transformer unit

Group of connection of a three-phase transformer s1, s2, s3 Factor s1 defines the connection of the three phase windings 1. Factors s2 and s3 define the group of connection of windings 2 and windings 3 respectively, i.e. they define firstly how the windings are connected and secondly their phase-angle referred to windings 1. The following arrangement is an example for two generators with a common step-up transformer:

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Y 1

d11

d11

HEST 905 004c C

The factors are correspondingly: s1 = Y s2 = d11 s3 = d11 Factors s2 and s3 are defined according to their phase shift in relation to the HV side, i.e. to windings 1.

Note:
This setting for the vector group (s2 = d11, s3 = d11) assumes that in relation to the protected unit, the star-point is symmetrically formed and grounded on the secondary side of the main CTs. Should this not be possible for some reason (e.g. plant requirements), the group of connection has to be compensated.

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Compensation for group of connection


Phase-to-phase currents are measured in order to compare primary and secondary currents without regard to the circuit of the transformer. The combination of these currents internally in the protection takes account, however, of their phase relationships. The relationships between the current vectors for different groups of connection can be seen from the following illustrations. For example, for a Yd5 connected transformer
I R S T I 1R I

1R 1S

I 2R I 2S I 2T

R S T

Star-connected primary Delta-connected secondary Phase-angle between the currents of the same phase on both sides 5 x 30 = 150

I 1T

150

HEST 905 005 C

I1r (compensated) = 1 / 3 ( I1R + I1S ) I2r (compensated) = I2R

Yy0
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R I2R

Yy6
1 R S S T T 2 R I 1R

I 2R

Yd1
1 R S T 2 R S T I 1R I 2R

Yd5
1 R R S S T T I 2R 2 I 1R

Yd7
1 R S S T T I 2R 2 R I 1R

Yd11
1 R S T 2 R S T HEST 905 006 C I 2R I 1R

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Yz1
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R I 2R

Yz5
1 R R S S T T 2 I1R

I 2R

Yz7
1 R S T 2 R S T I 2R I 1R

Yz11
1 R S T 2 R S T I2R I1R

Dy1
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R I 2R

Dy5
1 R S T 2 R S T

1R

2R

Dy7
1 R S S T T 2 R I 1R

Dy11
1 R S T 2 R S T I2R I1R

I 2R

Dd0
1 R S T 2 R S T I 1R I 2R

Dd6
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R

I2R HEST 905 007 C

Dz0
1 R S T 2 R S T I 1R I 2R

Dz2
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R I2R

Dz4
1 R S T R S T I 2R 2 I 1R

Dz6
1 R S T S T 2 R I1R

I2R

Dz8
1 R S S T T I 2R 2 R I1R

Dz10
1 R S T 2 R I2R S T I 1R

HEST 905 008 C

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List of all the compensation matrices for R phase (S and T phases cyclically rotated):
Compensation matrices (R phase) A = ( 1 0 0) B = (-1 0 0) C = ( 1 -1 0) D = (-1 1 0) E = ( 1 0 -1) F = (-1 0 1) G = ( 2 -1 -1) H = (-2 1 1) J = (-1 2 -1) K = ( 1 -2 1) L = (-1 -1 2) M = ( 1 1 -2) N = ( 0 1 0) O = ( 0 -1 0) 1 1
1/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 1/3

Amplitude factor

1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1 1

Table 3.6

Compensation matrices and associated amplitude factors

a) Star connection on winding 1


Two-winding transformer: Group Yy0 Yy6 Yd1 Yd5 Yd7 Yd11 Yz1 Yz5 Yz7 Yz11 Comp. matrix Winding 1 E E E C E C E C E C Comp. matrix Winding 2 E F A B B A G H H G

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Three-winding transformer:
Compensation matrix winding 1
X X X

Compensation matrix winding 2


s3 s2

Compensation matrix winding 3 d5 d7 d11 z1 z5 z7 z11

y0

y6

d1

y0 y6 d1 d5 d7 d11 z1 z5 z7 z11

EEE EFE EAE CBC EBE CAC EGE CHC EHE CGC

EEF EFF EAF CBD EBF CAD EGF HD EHF CGD

EEA EFA EAA CBO EBA CAO EGA CHO EHA CGO

CCB CDB COB CBB CNB CAB CKB CHB CJB CGB

EEB EFB EAB CBN EBB CAN EGB CHN EHB CGN

CCA CDA COA CBA CNA CAA CKA CHA CJA CGA

EEG EFG EAG CBK EBG CAK EGG CHK EHG CGK

CCH CDH COH CBH CNH CAH CKH CHH CJH CGH

EEH EFH EAH CBJ EBH CAJ EGH CHJ EHH CGJ

CCG CDG COG CBG CNG CAG CKG CHG CJG CGG

Table 3.7

Summary of the compensation matrices for a threewinding transformer with a star connection on winding 1

b) Delta connection on winding 1


Applies for two and three-winding transformers: Group Dy1 Dy5 Dy7 Dy11 Dd0 Dd6 Dz0 Dz2 Dz4 Dz6 Dz8 Dz10 Comp. matrix Winding 1 A A A A A A A A A A A A Comp. matrix Winding 2 (and 3) C F D E A B G K L H J M

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Example:
The compensation for the currents of a three-winding transformer Yd5y0 is as follows: s1 = Y s2 = d5 s3 = y0

CBC results from Table 3.7, i.e. the

compensation matrix for winding 1

= C = (1 -1 0) (see Table 3.6) with an amplitude factor of 1 / 3 = B = (-1 0 0) (see Table 3.6) with an amplitude factor of 1 = C = (1 -1 0) (see Table 3.6) with an amplitude factor of 1/ 3

compensation matrix for winding 2 compensation matrix for winding 3

The function currents then become: Function currents (calculated) Currents measured at the CTs Ir1 1 Is1 = 3 I t1 Ir 2 Is2 = 1 I t2 Ir 3 1 Is3 = 3 I t3 1 1 0 IR1 1 1 IS1 0 1 0 1 IT1 1 0 0 IR2 0 1 0 IS2 0 0 1 I T 2 1 1 0 IR3 1 1 IS3 0 1 0 1 IT3

Winding 1:

Winding 2:

Winding 3:

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Typical values:
g v b g high I - Inst Inrush Ratio Inrush Time a1, a2, a3 s1, s2, s3 0.3 IN 0.5 1.5 0.75 IN 12 IN 10 % 5s have to be calculated depend on plant

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3.5.22.

Generator differential (Diff-Gen)

A. Application
Differential protection of generators.

B. Features
Non-linear current-dependent tripping characteristic (see Fig. 3.70) High stability during through-faults and CT saturation Short operating times Three-phase measurement Optimised for the differential protection of generators, i.e. no inrush restraint no compensation of group of connection only two measuring inputs

Suppression of DC off-set Suppression of harmonics

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current (2 sets of 3 inputs)

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Tripping R phase trip S phase trip T phase trip

IV. Measurements:
R phase summation current S phase summation current T phase summation current

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D. Generator differential function settings - Diff-Gen


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip g - Setting v - Setting Current Inp. Chan 12 BlockInp Trip Trip-R Trip-S Trip-T AnalogAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr IN Unit Default 00000000 0.10 0.25 0 F ER 0.10 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.05 0.25 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the Tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). g - Setting Basic setting (sensitivity) g of the operating characteristic. v - Setting Pick-up ratio (slope) of the operating characteristic. Current Inp. Chan. defines the A/D input channels. The first channel (R phase) of the two groups of three phases must be specified. Block Inp Chan Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Signaling Trip Output for signalling tripping

Note:
The differential protection function does not have a pick-up signal. Every time it trips, the signal 'GenStart' is set together with 'Trip', providing the tripping command is configured to be recorded as an event. The tripping measurands will be stored in the event list only if the trip command is configured in the event list.

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Signaling Trip-R signals that tripping was initiated by R phase. Signaling Trip-S signals that tripping was initiated by S phase. Signaling Trip-T signals that tripping was initiated by T phase.

Fig. 3.70

Operating characteristic of the generator differential protection (Diff-Gen)

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E. Setting instructions
Basic setting Pick-up ratio g - Setting v - Setting

The purpose of the generator differential protection is to detect phase faults in the stator zone. The protection is sensitive, fast and absolutely discriminative. Basic setting g The basic setting g defines the pick-up of the differential protection for internal faults. It is the section of the operating characteristic with a low restraint current IH. The lowest possible value should be chosen for 'g' (high sensitivity) to enable it to detect the worst case faults, e.g. when excitation is low. The protection cannot detect interturn faults on the same winding, because they do not produce a differential current. Since, however, a small differential current flows during normal operation, false tripping could result if 'g' is set too low. The spurious differential current is usually due to imbalances of CT errors and CT burdens. Allowing for an unwanted differential current, a typical setting is 0.1 IN. Higher values have to be set for 'g' should, for example, the CTs on opposite sides of the protected unit have different accuracy classes or their burdens be too high. The level of primary current at which the protection picks up depends on the relay settings and the ratio of the CTs. Assuming that there is no compensation of the A/D channels by reference value settings, it is calculated as follows: Relay setting (where IN is the relay rated current) Generator rated current CT rated current Calculated primary pick-up current (referred to the generator rated current): i= 5000 g IN1 = 0.1 = 0.125 4000 IN IGN g = 0.1 IN IGN = 4000 A IN1 = 5000 A

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Pick-up ratio v
The pick-up ratio 'v' is decisive for the stability of the protection during through-faults. This is the section of the operating characteristic with restraint currents higher than 1.5 IN. The value of 'v' defines the pick-up current ID for a restrain current IH in the moderately sloped region of the operating characteristic. In the case of generator differential protection, 'b' has a fixed setting of 1.5 (compare this with Fig. 3.67 and Fig. 3.68 for transformer differential protection). The 'v' setting should be low enough to make the protection sensitive to faults when load current is flowing, but high enough to avoid false tripping during through-faults. A typical setting is v = 0.25. A higher setting (v = 0.5) is chosen in cases where the transient behaviour of the CTs during through-faults can cause large differential currents. This is normally the result of under-sized CTs or widely differing CT burdens.

Typical settings:
g-Setting v-Setting 0.1 IN 0.25

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3.5.23.

Frequency protection (Frequency)

A. Application
Under and overfrequency Load-shedding

B. Features
Measurement of one voltage Frequency calculation based on the complex voltage vector Insensitive to DC component Insensitive to harmonics Undervoltage blocking

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Undervoltage blocking Start Trip

IV. Measurements:
Frequency Voltage

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D. Frequency function settings - Frequency


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Frequency BlockVoltage Delay MaxMin VoltageInp BlockInp Blocked (U<) Trip Start BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr ER Hz UN s Unit Default 00000000 48.00 0.20 01.00 Min CT/VT-Addr 0 F 40.00 0.20 0.10 (Select) 65.00 0.80 60.00 0.01 0.10 0.01 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping relay activated by the tripping output of the function (matrix). Frequency Operating value. Setting restrictions: underfrequency not fN overfrequency not fN Block Voltage Peak value of the voltage for blocking. (reset ratio approx. 1.05) Delay Time between the function picking up and tripping. Max / Min defines operation as overfrequency or underfrequency. Settings: Max: Overfrequency Min: Underfrequency Voltage Inp. Chan. defines the voltage input channel. All voltage inputs may be selected. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

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Blocked (U<) Signal defines the output for signalling blocking by undervoltage (signal address). Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

E. Setting instructions
There are often several stages of frequency protection using several single-stage relays.

Settings:
Frequency Delay Undervoltage blocking Under or over frequency Frequency Delay Block Voltage Max / Min

Frequency protection is used either to protect synchronous machines and prime-movers against the effects of operating at under or overfrequency or for load-shedding in the event of an overload. The adverse effects in the former case prevented by the frequency protection are: excessive temperature rise and additional iron losses in the generator damage to the generator and the prime-mover by vibration

Some synchronous machines are subject to severe vibration if they are operated at speeds other than their rated speed. Vibration occurs more usual at speeds below rated frequency, but can occur both above and below. A complete scheme often comprises therefore 4 stages, two for alarm and tripping for overfrequency and two for alarm and tripping for underfrequency. Tripping is delayed to avoid the risk of maloperation during transients.

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Typical settings:
1. Protection of machines
1st stage Alarm Frequency (Hz) Delay (s) Block Voltage Max / Min 51.0 1.5 0.6 Max 2nd stage Tripping 52.0 3 0.6 Max 3rd stage Alarm 49.0 1.5 0.6 Min 4th stage Tripping 48.0 3 0.6 Min

Table 3.8

Typical settings for alarm and tripping stages

2. Load-shedding
1st stage Alarm Frequency (Hz) 49.8 Delay (s) Block Voltage Max / Min 0.5 0.6 Min 2nd stage 3rd stage 4th stage 5th stage

Load-shed. Alarm 49.0 0.0 0.6 Min 48.7 0.0 0.6 Min

Load-shed. Load-shed. 48.8 0.0 0.6 Min 47.5 0.0 0.6 Min

Table 3.9

Typical settings for alarm and tripping stages

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3.5.24.

Rate-of-change of frequency protection (df/dt)

A. Application
Static, dynamic and adaptive load shedding in power utility and industrial distribution systems Generator protection

B. Features
One phase voltage as input variable Supervises the rate-of-change df/dt of the frequency Provision for enabling by absolute frequency Insensitive to DC component Insensitive to harmonics and other high-frequency signals Undervoltage blocking

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Blocked by undervoltage Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Rate-of-change of frequency Absolute frequency Voltage amplitude

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D. Rate-of-change frequency settings df/dt


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip df/dt Frequency Block Voltage Delay Voltage Inp. Chan. Block Input Blocked (U<) Signal Trip Signal Hz/s Hz UN s
CT/VT-Addr.

Unit

Default 00000000 -1.0 48.00 0.2 0.10 0 F ER

Min.

Max.

Step

-10.0 40.00 0.2 0.10

+10.0 65.00 0.8 60.00

0.1 0.01 0.1 0.01

BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping O/P of the function (matrix tripping logic). df/dt Rate-of-change of frequency pick-up setting. Inadmissible settings: df/dt = 0 df/dt > 0 for absolute frequency settings < fN df/dt < 0 for absolute frequency settings > fN Frequency Setting of the absolute frequency enabling criterion. Operation for overfrequency or underfrequency is determined by the absolute frequency setting: Underfrequency for frequency settings < fN Overfrequency for frequency settings > fN The absolute frequency criterion is disabled for a setting of 'Frequency' = 0. In this case, tripping is dependent solely on the rate-of-change setting df/dt. Inadmissible settings: Frequency = fN Frequency < fN 10 Hz Frequency > fN + 5 Hz Block Voltage Pick-up setting for undervoltage blocking (reset ratio approx. 1.05, reset time approx. 0.1 s).

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Delay Delay from the instant the function picks up to the generation of a tripping command. Voltage Inp. Chan. defines the voltage input channel. All voltage inputs may be selected with the exception of the special voltage inputs for the 100% ground stator fault protection. Block Input defines the input for an external blocking signal. F: enabled T: disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Blocked (U<) Signal signals when the function is blocked by the undervoltage criterion. Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping.

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E. Setting instructions
Several rate-of-change of frequency stages are often needed and the additional stages are achieved by configuring the function as many times as is necessary.

Settings:
Rate-of-change of frequency Absolute frequency Undervoltage Delay df/dt Frequency Block Voltage Delay

The rate-of-change of frequency function only trips when the rate-ofchange is higher than setting, the absolute frequency criterion picks up and the voltage is not lower than the undervoltage setting. The additional absolute frequency criterion prevents unwanted operation of the rate-of-change function during power system transients. Where it is desired that the rate-of-change function should operate without regard to the absolute frequency, this is achieved by setting the absolute frequency criterion to '0'.

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3.5.25.

Overfluxing (Overexcitat)

A. Application
Protection of generators and power transformers against excessive flux.

B. Features
Evaluation of the voltage/frequency ratio Single-phase measurement Definite time delay Determination of frequency from the complex voltage vector Insensitive to DC components Insensitive to harmonics Over or underexcitation mode

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Voltage / frequency Frequency

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D. Overfluxing function settings - Overexcitat


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay V/f - Setting Max / Min Voltage Inp. Chan. BlockInp Trip Start CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr s UN/fN Unit Default 00000000 1.00 1.20 MAX 0 F ER 0.10 0.20 (Select) 60.00 2.00 0.01 0.01 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). Delay time delay between pick-up and tripping. V/f - Setting Setting of the voltage/frequency ratio for tripping. Max / Min defines operation as overfluxing or underfluxing. Settings: Max: overfluxing Min: underfluxing Voltage Inp. Chan. defines the VT input channel. All voltage inputs may be selected. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: Not blocked T: Blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Magnetic flux Delay Over/underfluxing V/f - Setting Delay Max / Min

The overfluxing function is primarily intended to protect the iron cores of power transformers. Tripping by the function is delayed to avoid false operation during system transients such as load shedding. The magnetic flux is not measured directly. Instead the voltage/frequency ratio which is proportional to the flux and easier to measure is monitored. Overfluxing can result from either an increase of system voltage or a reduction of system frequency. For example, 10 % overfluxing at constant frequency is equivalent to increasing the value of the U/f ratio to 1.1 UN/fN.

Typical settings:
V/f - Setting Delay Max / Min 1.1 UN/fN 5s Max

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3.5.26.

Inverse time overfluxing (U/f-Inv)

A. Application
Protection of generators and power transformers against excessive flux, especially in heavily loaded non-laminated metal parts, and the associated excessive heating of the unit.

B. Features
Evaluation of the voltage/frequency ratio Single-phase measurement Inverse time delay according to U/f ratio Determination of frequency from the complex voltage vector Insensitive to DC components Insensitive to harmonics Delay determined by integrating function response Input of delay table facilitates matching the operating characteristic to a specific machine according to IEEE Guideline C 37.91-1985 Adjustable rate of counting backwards when the overfluxing disappears

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Voltage/frequency Frequency

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D. Inverse time overfluxing function settings - U/f-Inv


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip UB-Setting U/f-Setting t-min t-max t-Reset t [U/f=1.05] t [U/f=1.10] t [U/f=1.15] t [U/f=1.20] t [U/f=1.25] t [V/f=1.30] t [u/f=1.35] t [U/f=1.40] t [U/f=1.45] t [U/f=1.50] VoltageInput Chan. Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal UN UB/fN min min min min min min min min min min min min min BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Unit Default 00000000 1.00 1.10 0.20 60.0 60.0 70.00 70.00 06.00 01.00 00.480 00.300 00.220 00.170 00.140 00.140 F ER 0.80 1.05 0.01 5.0 0.2 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 1.20 0.01 1.20 0.01 2.00 0.01 100 100 100 100 100 100 30 30 30 30 30 30 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Min. Max Step .

CT/VT-Addr 0

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (matrix). UB - Setting Reference (base) voltage for compensating a difference between the VT rating and the rating of the generator or transformer. U/f - Setting Voltage/frequency ratio setting referred to UB / fN.

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t - min Minimum operating time after being enabled regardless of inverse characteristic. Operating characteristic constant. t - max Maximum operating time after being enabled regardless of inverse characteristic. Operating characteristic constant. t - Reset Time taken to reset (from the operating point). This corresponds to the time taken by the generator to cool. t[U/f = 1.05] ... t[U/f = 1.50] Table of 10 values (data input) for defining a specific inverse operating characteristic. Voltage Input Chan. defines the VT input channel. All voltage inputs may be selected. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: Not blocked T: Blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Magnetic flux for enabling char. Reference value Minimum operating time Maximum operating time 10 values defining the inverse time operating characteristic Reset time U/f - Setting UB-Setting t - Min t - Max t[U/f = 1.05] ... t[U/f = 1.50] t - Reset

The overfluxing function protects the iron cores of generators and power transformers against excessive flux. The magnetic flux is not measured directly. Instead the voltage/frequency ratio which is proportional to the flux and easier to measure is monitored. Overfluxing can result from either an increase of system voltage or a reduction of system frequency. For example, 10 % overfluxing at constant frequency is equivalent to increasing the value of the U/f ratio to 1.1 UB /fN. The limit curve for the maximum magnetic flux (U/f) permissible for electrical machines is defined in standards data supplied by manufacturers

The limit curve for Westinghouse machines is given in Fig. 3.71. The operating characteristic of the U/f-Inv protection function should be selected to be just below the short-time limit curve for overfluxing. The time limits t-min and t-max must also be set (see Fig. 3.72). It must also be noted that depending on the standard or specification, the units are also designed for a continuous level of overfluxing apart from the short-time level. Typical values for generators would be 100, 105, 107.5 and 110%. The choice of characteristic must also take the continuous level of overfluxing into consideration.

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Providing compensation using the reference value of the A/D channel has not been made, the reference voltage UB for the protection is calculated from transformer rated voltage UTN and the VT rated voltages UN1 and UN2 as follows:

UB = U TN

U N2 U N1

The setting is the ratio UB/UN, where UN is the rated voltage of the protection, otherwise 'UB-Setting' would be 1.0 UN. The overfluxing curve of the generator must be known in order to set the times t-min and t-max and enter the table of 10 values t [U/f = 1.05] ... t [U/f = 1.50].

Typical settings:
U/f-Setting UB-Setting t-min t-max t [U/f = 1.05...1.50] t-Reset 1.1 UB/fN according to protected unit 0.2 min 60 min according to protected unit1) according to protected unit
A-Westinghouse-transformers B-Westinghouse-generators
140

135

Permissible overfluxing [%]

130

125

120

B
115

110

110%

105

105% continuous 200

100 .1 .2 .5 1.0 2 5 10 20 50 100

t [min]
HEST 935 004 FL

Fig. 3.71

Permissible overfluxing when off-load

1)

Refer to Fig. 3.73 for typical settings for a Westinghouse unit. 3-319

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300

50 60

100

t-max

t-min

125

120

105

Fig. 3.72

Operating characteristic for a generator with a permissible continuous voltage in the range 100 5 % UN

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130

115

110

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 0.6

10

20

30

40

t [min]

HEST 935 023 FL

200

Overfluxing [%]

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN
% [VB/fN]
150

ABB Switzerland Ltd

145

140

135

130

125

120

Permissible short-time overfluxing Approximation according to table

115

V/f-Setting
110

105 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 1.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60

t-min

Time in minutes

t-max
HEST 935 024 C

Fig. 3.73

Example of an overfluxing curve

Applications for Power Transformers (IEEE C37.91-1985)


150 3 140 1 2 130

% V O L T S / H z

120

110

100 Data on overfluxing limits must be requested from the various suppliers 90 0.01 0.1 1.0 Minutes HEST 935 025 C 10 100 1000

Fig. 3.74

Transformer overfluxing limits of three manufacturers

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3.5.27.

Balanced voltage (Voltage-Bal)

A. Application
Monitoring/comparison of two groups of single or three-phase voltage inputs to detect voltage measurement errors.

B. Features
Comparison of the amplitudes of two groups of voltage inputs (e.g. line 1and line 2) Single or three-phase voltage measurement Indication of group with the lower voltage Evaluation of voltage balance per phase in the three-phase mode with selection by OR gate for tripping Adjustable delays for operation and reset Insensitive to DC components Insensitive to harmonics

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Voltage (2 sets of 1 or 3 inputs)

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping Line 1 trip (voltage input U1) Line 2 trip (voltage input U2)

IV. Measurements:
Single-phase mode Difference between voltage amplitudes (U1 - U2) Three-phase mode Voltage amplitude difference for R phase (U1R - U2R) Voltage amplitude difference for S phase (U1S - U2S) Voltage amplitude difference for T phase (U1T - U2T)

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D. Balanced voltage function settings - Voltage-Bal


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip V - Unbalance Delay t-Reset Number Of Phases Voltage Input Line1 Voltage Input Line 2 Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal Trip Line1 Signal Trip Line Signal 2 UN s s s AnalogAddr AnalogAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Unit Default 00000000 0.20 0.04 1.50 3 Ph 0 0 F ER ER 0.10 0.00 0.10 (Select) 0.50 1.00 2.00 0.05 0.01 0.01 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). V - Unbalance Voltage difference setting for tripping. Difference between the amplitudes of the two voltage input channels which results in tripping. The setting applies to all three phases in the three-phase mode. Delay time delay between pick-up and tripping. t-Reset Time required for the measurement to reset after the tripping condition has disappeared (reset ratio: 0.90). Number Of Phases defines whether single or three-phase measurement. Voltage Input Line1 defines the 1st analog voltage input channel U1 (line 1). In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Voltage Input Line 2 defines the 2nd analog voltage input channel U2 (line 2). In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified.

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Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: Not blocked T: Blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up. Trip Line 1 Signal Same as Trip, but only if the amplitude of the voltage at input U1 is less than that at input U2 (determination of the voltage difference per phase in the three-phase mode). Trip Line 2 Signal Same as Trip, but only if the amplitude of the voltage at input U2 is less than that at input U1 (determination of the voltage difference per phase in the three-phase mode).
U 2R

1 x UN

Operates Line 1 (U 1 < U 2 ) Restrains

U1R: R phase voltage amplitude of voltage channel 1 (line 1) U2R: R phase voltage amplitude of voltage channel 2 (line 2) Three-phase mode: The characteristic applies accordingly to S and T phases
U 1R

0,8

0,2

Operates Line 2 (U 2 < U 1 ) 0,2 0,8 1 x UN

HEST 915 009 C

Fig. 3.75

Operating characteristic of the balanced voltage function (show for R phase and the setting V - Unbalance = 0.2 UN)

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Max. voltage difference Delay Reset delay V - Unbalance Delay t-Reset

The balanced voltage function is intended mainly for detecting voltage measurement errors by other devices. It compares the voltages (amplitudes) of two generally identical voltage sources connected to the same busbar phase-by-phase. The function picks up when the difference between voltages of the same phase exceeds a set pick-up value (V - Unbalance). A tripping signal is emitted for the source with the lower voltage (Trip Line 1 Signal or Trip Line 2 Signal) and a general tripping signal (Trip) generated after a set time delay (Delay), providing the tripping condition remains fulfilled throughout the delay time. These signals are available for blocking protection and instrumentation connected to the faulty source and thus prevent false tripping or measurements. The tripping signals are maintained for the setting of the reset time (t-Reset) after the tripping condition is no longer fulfilled. The function is thus suitable for detecting VT circuit faults (fuse failure) and faults on the protection and metering circuits connected to them.

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Notes:
Only the voltages of similar sources that have coincident amplitudes and phase-angles and are connected to the same busbar should be compared.

To prevent false tripping during extreme variations of frequency, either the pick-up setting can be increased or the balanced voltage function can be blocked by a frequency function. Differing primary rated voltages of the VTs can be compensated by appropriately setting the reference values of the corresponding A/D channels. The adjusted reference values then apply for all the protection functions connected to the same channels.

Application example:
R S T V.t. 1

Line 1

U 1R U 1S U 1T

Protection/ instrumentation equipment 1

Voltage input channel (U1 )

Blocking input TRIP-Line 1

Blocking input

Voltage comparsion function (three-phase) TRIP-Line 2


Voltage input channel (U2 )

TRIP

Blocking input

V.t. 2

U 2R U 2S U 2T Line 2

Protection/ instrumentation equipment 2

HEST 915 010 C

Fig. 3.76

Three-phase balanced voltage scheme (one measured voltage failed)

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The protection monitors the voltages of the two VTs 1 and 2: In the event of a fault (in this example an open-circuit lead in the circuit of VT 1), the protection function detects an unbalance and after the set delay time generates the tripping signals 'Trip' and 'Trip-Line1'. These then initiate blocking of the metering and protection devices (such as underimpedance, voltage-controlled overcurrent and distance protections etc.) connected to VT 1.

Typical settings:
Max. voltage difference (V - Unbalance) Delay Reset time (t-Reset) 0.20 UN 0.04 s 0.50 s

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3.5.28.

Underimpedance (Underimped)

A. Application
Back-up phase fault protection for the generator feeder.

B. Features
Circular operating characteristic (see Fig. 3.77) Adjustable time delay Insensitive to DC component in voltage and current Insensitive to harmonics in voltage and current Single or three-phase measurement Detection of the lowest impedance in the three-phase mode Underimpedance measurement enabled by undercurrent unit (0.1 IN)

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Impedance (value)

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D. Underimpedance function settings - Underimped


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay Z Setting Number Of Phases Current Inp. Chan. Voltage Inp. Chan. Block Input Start Out AnalogAddr AnalogAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr s UN/IN Unit Default 00000000 00.50 0.250 001 0 0 F ER ER 0.20 0.025 1 60.00 2.500 3 0.01 0.001 1 Min. Max. Step

SignalingTrip SignalAddr

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). Delay Time between the function picking up and tripping. Z Setting Pick-up impedance setting. Number Of Phases defines whether single or three-phase measurement. Current Inp. Chan. defines the analog current input channel. All current inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Voltage Inp. Chan. defines the analog voltage input channel. All voltage inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (e.g. the phase-to-phase voltage R-S) of the group of three selected must be specified. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function)

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Signaling Trip Output for signalling tripping. Start Out Output for signalling pick-up.

Fig. 3.77

Operating characteristic of the underimpedance function

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Impedance Delay Z Setting Delay

The underimpedance function serves as back-up protection for phase faults on the generator/transformer unit. It is faster and more sensitive than the overcurrent protection. Its disadvantage is that the zone of protection is shorter than the differential protection, which serves as the main protection. The underimpedance scheme is connected to the CTs at the generator star-point and to the VTs at the generator terminals. The underimpedance operating characteristic is a circle in the R/X plane, whereby the origin represents the location of the VTs. The zone of protection covers the generator windings the cables and the step-up transformer. The setting of the underimpedance function is determined by the shortcircuit reactance of the step-up transformer. Otherwise, the distance between the step-up transformer and the HV circuit-breaker is mostly too short to be able to discriminate reliably with the impedance setting between faults in the generator/transformer unit zone and faults on the other side of the HV circuit-breaker. The impedance is thus set to 70 % of the transformer impedance which at least includes the transformer winding on the generator side in the zone of protection. The setting of the underimpedance function is referred to rated voltage and current. The impedance of the protected zone is determined by the short-circuit reactance of the step-up transformer and is given by: z1 = 0.7 xT [p.u.]

The impedance seen by the underimpedance function depends on the CT and VT ratios Ki and Ku and the rated data of step-up transformer and protection: I K i = N1 IN2 Ku = UN1 UN2

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Step-up transformer GT

Protection zone I>

Z<

HEST 905 019 C

Fig. 3.78

Underimpedance protection

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The impedance to be set on the protection in p.u. is: Z-Setting = 0.7 xT or Z-Setting = 0.7 xT UTN IN1 UN2 I N ITN IN2 UN1 UN ITN = IN1, [1; 1; V; A] UTN K i I N ITN K u UN [1; 1; V; A]

For simple cases where UTN = UN1, and IN2 = IN: Z-Setting = 0.7 xT [1; 1] where: z1 xT Ki, Ku IN1, IN2 UN1, UN2 UTN, ITN UN, IN

UN2 = UN

impedance of the protected zone short-circuit reactance of the step-up transformer ratios of CTs and VTs CT rated currents VT rated voltages rated voltage and current of the step-up transformer rated voltage and current of the underimpedance function

The factor of 0.7 avoids any risk of false tripping for a fault on the HV system at the cost of a zone of protection that is shorter than differential protection zone.

Example:
Transformer: CTs and VTs: Protection: 100 MVA; 12 kV; 12000/100 V; 100 V; 5A 4.8 kA; xT = 0.1

5000/5 A

I 5000 = 1000 K i = N1 = IN2 5 Ku = UN1 12000 = = 120 UN2 100

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Settings:

Z Setting = 0.7 x T

U TN K I i N I TN Ku U N

Z Setting = 0.7 0.1

12 1000 5 = 0.073 4.8 120 100

It must not be forgotten that a current of at least 0.1 IN must flow before the underimpedance function is enabled. Typical settings: Z Setting Delay 0.07 0.5 s

x +0.07

0 r

Z-Setting -0.07
HEST 935 003 C

Fig. 3.79

Operating characteristic of the underimpedance function Setting: Z Setting = 0.07

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3.5.29.

Loss Of Excitation (MinReactance)

A. Application
Detection of inadmissible operating conditions due to underexcitation of a synchronous generator.

B. Features
Circular operating characteristic (see Fig. 3.80) Selectable to operate inside or outside the circle Adjustable size and position of the operating characteristic Correction of phase errors caused by input circuit Adjustable time delay Insensitive to DC component in voltage and current Insensitive to harmonics in voltage and current Single or three-phase measurement Detection of the lowest impedance (distance from the centre of the circle) Underreactance measurement enabled by undercurrent unit (0.1 IN)

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Impedance (distance from the centre of the circle)

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D. Underreactance function settings - MinReactance


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Delay XA-Setting XB-Setting Angle Max / Min Number Of Phases Current Inp. Chan. Voltage Inp. Chan. Block Input Signaling Trip Start Out AnalogAddr AnalogAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr s UN/IN UN/IN deg Unit Default 00000000 0.50 -2.00 -0.50 0 Min 1 Ph 0 0 F ER 0.20 -5.00 -2.50 -180 (Select) (Select) 60.00 00.00 +2.50 180 0.01 0.01 0.01 5 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). Delay Time between the function picking up and tripping. XA-Setting defines the first intersection of the impedance circle with the reactance axis (assuming a phase correction setting of 0). Setting restriction: |XA| < |XB|. XB-Setting defines the second intersection of the impedance circle with the reactance axis (assuming a phase correction setting of 0). Angle For compensating phase errors of the analog input signals caused by the input circuit. The setting can also be used to move the position of the impedance circle. Max / Min defines whether over or underreactance function. Settings: Min: underreactance function with tripping inside the circle Max: overreactance function with tripping outside the circle Number Of Phases defines whether single or three-phase measurement.

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Current Inp. Chan. defines the A/D input channel. All current inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Voltage Inp. Chan. defines the A/D input channel. All voltage inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel (e.g. the phase-to-phase voltage R-S) of the group of three selected must be specified. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Signaling Trip Output for signalling tripping. Start Out Output for signalling pick-up.

Fig. 3.80

Operating characteristic of the underreactance function with MaxMin = Min (default)

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Reactance XA Reactance XB Phase correction Delay Integrator (separate 'Delay' function) XA-Setting XB-Setting Angle Delay Trip-Delay Reset-Delay

Operating principle of the underreactance function


The underreactance or underexcitation function protects the generator in potentially dangerous operating conditions which can arise in the event of loss of, or reduced excitation. There is a danger in such situations of the unit becoming unstable and running out of synchronism. This causes thermal stress due to induced currents on the one hand, and mechanical stress due to surges of torque on the other. It is general knowledge that a synchronous machine may not be loaded as much capacitively as inductively, because excessive capacitive load causes it to drop out-of-step. The reason is the steadystate stability limit as defined by the load angle = 90, which can only be reached when the unit is underexcited, i.e. for a capacitive power factor . When the voltage is measured at the generator terminals, the locus of the stability limit of a generator/transformer set is a circle as shown in Fig. 3.82. The circle encloses the operating points of an underexcited generator down to the extreme point XA which represents total loss of excitation. The protection has a circular characteristic that does not normally coincide with the stability limit at the top to avoid false tripping during voltage dips caused by power system faults. Operation of the function is delayed to allow for possible recovery of synchronism following dynamic phenomena with brief load angles of > 90. A typical setting for the time delay is 2 s. The scheme includes an integrator (separate 'Delay' function) to maintain the underexcitation signal in the event of power swings. This is necessary because the normal 'Delay' setting repeatedly resets during power swings and prevents tripping from taking place.

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Determining the characteristic


The circular operating characteristic of the protection is defined by the two points A and B. Point A is given in the case of turboalternators by the unsaturated synchronous reactance xd and in the case of generators with salient poles by the synchronous reactance xq. As can be seen from Fig. 3.81, the stability of a generator with salient poles is given by xq, because the load angle is also determined by this reactance. The steady-state stability limit is reach at this point when excitation is lost. Point B is defined as half the transient reactance xd' and determined by the voltage and current measured at the generator terminals when the unit is out-of-step and the generator is in phase opposition to the power system. a) Turboalternator
xd e i

- phase-angle - load angle


u

< u, I < u, e
i

HEST 905 018 C

b) Salient pole generator


e xq xd i u i

HEST 905 018 C

Fig. 3.81

Vector diagram of an overexcited generator. Voltages, currents and reactances are in p.u.

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The reactances XA and XB, are defined according to the phase-tophase voltages and calculated for turboalternators as follows: XA = xd UGN 3IGN Ki Ku 3 3

x ' U K XB = d GN i 2 3IGN K u

In the above equation, xq is replaced by xd for salient pole units. I K i = N1 IN2 UN1 I K u = 3 = N1 UN2 IN2 3

where: xd, xd' xq UGN, IGN Ki Ku UN1, UN2 IN1, IN2 unsaturated synchronous reactance and saturated transient reactance of the generator in p.u. synchronous reactance in p.u. rated generator voltage and current CT ratio VT ratio VT rated voltages CT rated currents

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Example:
Turboalternator 100 MVA; 12 kV; xd = 2.0; UN1 12000 Ku = 3 = = 120 UN2 100 3 Ki = 5000 =5000 1 12000 3 4800 5000 120 3 = 208.3 4.8 kA xd' = 0.25

VTs

CTs

XA = xd

UGN 3 IGN

Ki Ku

3 = 2.0

XB =

xd ' UGN K i 2 3 IGN K u

3=

0.25 2

12000 3 4800

5000 120

3 = 13.02

The reactance settings referred to the protection ratings UN and IN become: 208.3 XA 1 = 2.08 IN = 100 UN 13.02 XB 1 = 0.130 = 0.13 IN = 100 UN

XA Wert =

XB Wert =

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Phase correction
The scheme can include one to three independent measuring systems, each of which is connected to a phase-to-phase voltage and a phase current. For example, there are three possible reference voltages for the R phase measuring system, i.e. URS, UST and UTR. Since, however, all the measuring systems need the angle of their own phase, i.e. for R phase the angle of the voltage UR, the angle of the voltage signal has to be corrected in any event.

Reference voltage

Vector diagram R U RS

Phase compensation "Angle"

RS T R ST *) T U ST S S

+30

-90

TR

*)

U TR

R +150

S
HEST 905023 C

*) single-phase measurement only

The phase compensation can also be used when the characteristic needs to be shifted by a given angle or flipped over into the inductive region, e.g. for test purposes. The phase angle compensation have to be considered as per the connection diagrams illustrated in Fig. 12.4. If the star-point of the CT secondaries on the generator star-point side is grounded, an angle of 180 must be added.

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Typical settings:
XA-Setting according to application e.g. -2.0 XB-Setting according to application e.g. -0.13 Phase-angle Tripping delay timer: Delay or separate integrator ('Delay' function): Trip-Delay Reset-Delay
Step-up transformer US xd xT

(delta-connected VTs) +30 2s 6s 3s

x d - generator synchronous reactance [p.u.] x T - transformater short-circuit reactance [p.u.]

Steady-state stability limit curve

xT x' d 2

0
XB-Setting r

xd

Characteristic of the underexcitation function

XA-Setting

XA set XB set

settings [UN / IN ]
HEST 905 021 C

Fig. 3.82

Setting the characteristic of the underexcitation function according to the steady-state stability limit curve of the generator/transformer set All reactances in p.u.

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tR

tR

tR

tR

Pick-up 0
"TRIP-Delay" setting t int

Integration 0

Trip 0
HEST 935 017 C

tint tR

integrated time reset time

Fig. 3.83

Underreactance protection Effect of the integrator during power swings

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Display of measured variable:


The display of the measured variable in the case of the underreactance protection is an impedance vector which starts at the centre of the circular characteristic. This vector and the vector of the impedance measured at the generator terminals form a triangle as shown in Fig. 3.84. The protection picks up, if the displayed impedance equals or is less than the radius of the circle: z 1 X ' xd d 2 2

Example:
xd = 2; Xd' = 0,2 1 z (2 0.1) = 0.95 2
x U I z

X d'

xd

HEST 905 034 C

Fig. 3.84

Display of the impedance measured by the underreactance function

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3.5.30.

Stator overload (OLoad-Stator)

A. Application
Overload protection for the stators of large generators.

B. Features
Delay inversely proportional to overload (see Fig. 3.85) Operating characteristic according to ASA-C50.13 (American Standard Requirements for Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generators) with extended setting range Adjustable rate of counting backwards when the overload disappears (cooling rate of thermal image) Insensitive to DC components Insensitive to harmonics Single or three-phase measurement Detection of highest phase in the three-phase mode

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Current amplitude

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D. Overload function settings - OLoad-Stator


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip K1 Setting I - Start t - min tg t - max t - Reset Number Of Phases Current Input Channel AnalogAddr IB - Setting Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal IN BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr s IB s s s s Unit Default 00000000 41.4 1.10 10.0 120.0 300.0 120.0 3 Ph 0 1.00 F ER ER 0.50 2.50 0.01 1.0 1.00 1.0 10.0 100.0 10.0 (Select) 120.0 1.60 120.0 2000.0 2000.0 2000.0 0.1 0.01 0.1 10.0 10.0 10.0 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). K1 Setting Multiplier. Operating characteristic constant. I - Start Enabling current for operating characteristic. t - min Minimum operating time. Operating characteristic constant. tg Time during which the inverse characteristic is active. Operating characteristic constant. This must not exceed the maximum delay time. t - max Maximum delay after being enabled regardless of inverse characteristic. Operating characteristic constant. t - Reset Time taken to reset (from the operating limit). This corresponds to the time taken by the generator to cool.

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Number Of Phases defines whether single or three-phase measurement. Current Input Channel defines the analog current input channel. All current inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel of the group of three selected must be specified. IB-Setting Reference (base) current for compensating a difference in relation to IN. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

Fig. 3.85

Operating characteristic of the stator overload function

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Reference current Enabling current Multiplier Minimum operating time Time inverse characteristic effective Maximum delay Resetting time IB - Setting I - Start K1 Setting t - min tg t - max t - Reset

The stator overload function protects stator windings against excessive temperature rise as a result of overcurrents. The function is applicable to turbo-alternators designed according to the American standard ASA-C50.13 or a similar standard defining overload capability. Providing compensation using the reference value of the A/D channel has not been made, the reference current IB for the protection is calculated from the generator load current IB1, which is usually the same as the generator rated current, and the CT rated currents IN1 and IN2 as follows:

IB = IB1

IN2 IN1

The setting is the ratio IB/IN, where IN is the rated current of the protection, otherwise 'IB - Setting' would be 1.0 IN. The multiplier k1 is 41.4 s for units designed according to ASA. For units with a similar overload capacity: k1 = m n n [s; s; K]

where: m n : thermal time constant of the stator : maximum permissible temperature rise of the stator winding : rated temperature rise of the stator winding

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Example:
m n k1 = = = = 5 min or 300 s 70 K 60 K 300 7060 = 50 s 60

Typical settings:
IB-Setting I-Start K1 - Setting t - min tg t - max t - Reset according to protected unit 1.1 IB 41.4 s 10.0 s 120.0 s 300.0 s 120.0 s

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3.5.31.

Rotor overload (OLoad-Rotor)

A. Application
Overload protection for the rotors of large generators.

B. Features
Delay inversely proportional to overload (see Fig. 3.86) Operating characteristic according to ASA-C50.13 (American Standard Requirements for Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generators) with extended setting range Adjustable rate of counting backwards when the overload disappears (cooling rate of thermal image) Three-phase measurement Current measurement three-phases of AC excitation supply evaluation of the sum of the three phases (instantaneous values without digital filtering)

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:
Current amplitude

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D. Overload function settings - OLoad-Rotor


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip K1 Setting I - Start t - min Tg t - max t - Reset Current Input Channel IB - Setting Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal s IB s s s s AnalogAddr IN BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Unit Default 00000000 33.8 1.10 10.0 120.0 300.0 120.0 0 1.00 F ER ER 0.50 2.50 0.01 1.0 1.00 1.0 10.0 100.0 10.0 50.0 1.60 120.0 2000.0 2000.0 2000.0 0.1 0.01 0.1 10.0 10.0 10.0 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). K1 Setting Multiplier. Operating characteristic constant. I - Start Enabling current for operating characteristic. t - min Minimum operating time. Operating characteristic constant. tg Time during which the inverse characteristic is active. Operating characteristic constant. This must not exceed the maximum delay time. t - max Maximum delay after being enabled regardless of inverse characteristic. Operating characteristic constant. t - Reset Time taken to reset (from the operating limit). This corresponds to the time taken by the machine to cool.

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Current Input Channel defines the analog current input channel. All current inputs may be selected. In the case of three-phase measurement, the first channel of the group of three selected must be specified. IB - Setting Reference (base) current for compensating a difference in relation to IN. Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not blocked T: blocked xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling pick-up.

Fig. 3.86

Operating characteristic of the rotor overload function

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E. Setting instructions Settings:


Reference current Enabling current Multiplier Minimum operating time Time inverse characteristic effective Maximum delay Resetting time IB - Setting I - Start K1 Setting t - min tg t - max t - Reset

The rotor overload function protects the rotor winding of generators against excessive temperature rise as a result of overcurrents. The function is applicable to turbo-alternators designed according to the American standard ASA-C50.13 or a similar standard defining overload capability. It is connected to CTs in the AC excitation supply. It may nor be used for brushless excitation systems. Providing compensation using the reference value of the A/D channel has not been made, the reference current IB for the protection is calculated from the AC load current IB1 of the excitation supply which is usually the same as the full load excitation current and the CT rated currents IN1 and IN2 as follows:

IB = IB1

IN2 IN1

The setting is the ratio IB/IN, IN being the rated current of the protection. The multiplier k1 is 33.8 s for units designed according to ASA. For units with a similar overload capacity: k1 = m n n [s; s; K]

where: m n : thermal time constant of the rotor : maximum permissible temperature rise of the rotor winding : rated temperature rise of the rotor winding

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Typical settings:
IB - Setting I - Start K1 Setting t - min tg t - max t - Reset according to protected unit 1.1 IB 33.8 s 10.0 s 120.0 s 300.0 s 120.0 s

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3.5.32.

Stator ground fault (Stator-EFP)

A. Application
Ground fault protection function for detecting ground faults close to the star-point of a generator. The scheme is based on the principle of biasing the potential of the generator star-point by injecting a coded low-frequency signal. The injection signal is generated by the injection unit REX 010 and fed into the stator circuit by the injection transformer block REX 011. In conjunction with the voltage function 'Voltage' that covers 95 % of the winding, this protection completes detection of ground faults over 100 % of the winding. Compensation is provided for the influence of a second high-resistance grounded star-point in the zone of protection. Stator ground faults producing a current at the star-point > 5 A cause the P8 contactor to reset which separates the injection unit Type REX 010 from the injection transformer block REX 011 and interrupts injection in both stator and rotor circuits. The 95 % stator ground fault protection then clears the fault on its own.

B. Features
Protects the star-point and a part of the stator winding depending on the ground fault current. The entire winding is protected when the generator is stationary. Biases the star-point in relation to ground by injecting a signal generated in the REX 010 unit Computes the ground fault resistance Monitors the amplitude and frequency of the injection signal Monitors the measuring circuit with respect to open-circuit and correct connection of the grounding resistor

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Voltage (2 inputs)

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking 2nd parallel star-point MTR adjustment REs adjustment

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III. Binary outputs:


Alarm stage pick-up Alarm Trip stage pick-up Trip 2nd parallel star-point MTR adjustment active REs adjustment active Injection open-circuit internally Injection open-circuit externally

IV. Measurements:
Ground fault resistance Rfs Measurement transformer ratio MTR Grounding resistor REs

Explanation of measurements:
Rfs: Ground fault resistances between 0 and 29.8 k can be determined and displayed. A display of 29.9 k or 30 k indicates a ground fault resistance >29.8 k. A value of 29.9 k or 30 k is displayed when there is no ground fault. A whole number fault code between 100 and 111 is displayed in cases when it is not possible to compute the ground fault resistance. 100.0 means no injection for more than 5 s. 101.0 means incorrect frequency. Either the injection frequency on the REX 010 or the rated frequency on the REG316*4 is incorrectly set. 102.0 means external open-circuit. 109.0 means that both the binary inputs 'Adjust REs Input' and 'AdjMTRInp' are enabled. No other codes will normally be generated, but if they are, they are a diagnostic aid for service people. MTR: The value measured for MTR is displayed when the input 'Adjust MTR Input' is enabled. During normal operation, the value entered for MTR via the HMI is displayed.

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REs: When the input 'Adjust REs Input' is enabled, the error code 123.0 is displayed initially until the resistance has been calculated. It can take up to 10 s before the value measured for REs is displayed. During normal operation, the value entered for REs via the HMI is displayed. Normal operation: Neither of the two inputs 'Adjust MTR Input' and 'Adjust REs Input' is enabled and injection is taking place.

NOTICE: Only one of the binary inputs may be enabled at any one time, otherwise an error code is generated for the measurements Rfs, MTR and REs (see table below).

Adjust MTR Input


0
1
0
1

Adjust REs Input


0
0
1
1

Protection active and Rfs is computed


Determination of MTR and Rfs
Determination of REs and Rfs
Error codes: MTR = 1090.0, REs = 109.0, Rfs = 109.0

0: binary input disabled 1: binary input enabled Table 3.10 Configuration possibilities and their significance.

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D. Stator ground fault settings - Stator-EFP


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Alarm Delay Trip Delay Rfs Alarm Value Rfs Trip Value REs REs 2. Star point Rfs Adjust Meas. Transf. Ratio Nr. Of Star Points Voltage Input Ui Voltage Input Us 2. Star Point Input Adjust MTR Input Adjust REs Input Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal Alarm Signal Start Alarm Signal Inj. Interrupt Signal Ext. Interrupt Signal 2. Star point Signal Adjust MTR Signal Adjust REs Signal Extern Block Signal
CT/VT-Addr. CT/VT-Addr.

Unit

Default 00000000

Min.

Max.

Step

s s k k k k k

0.50 0.50 10.0 1.0 1.00 1.00 10.0 100.0 1 0 0 F F F F ER ER


*) *)

0.20 0.20 0.1 0.1 0.80 0.90 8.000 10.0 1

60.00 60.00 20.0 20.0 5.00 5.00 12.00 200.0 2

0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1 1

BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic).
*)

REG316*4 requires an input transformer unit Type 316GW61 K67 assigned to the following voltage input channels: VoltageInpUi: Channel 8 VoltageInpUs: Channel 9

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Alarm Delay Time between pick-up of the alarm stage and an alarm. Trip Delay Time between pick-up of the tripping stage and a trip. RFs AlarmValue Ground fault resistance setting for alarm. RFs for alarm must be higher than RFs for tripping. RFs-Trip Value Ground fault resistance setting for tripping. REs Grounding resistor REs for primary system grounding. Where the grounding resistor is connected to the secondary of a VT, its value related to the primary system R'Es has to be calculated and entered. REs 2. Star Point The total grounding resistance of a 2nd star-point in the zone of protection. Rfs-Adjust Simulated ground fault resistance used as a reference value for calculating REs in the 'REs-Adjust' mode. Meas. Transf. Ratio VT ratio for a directly grounded primary system. Nr. Of Star Points Number of star-points in the zone of protection. Voltage Input Ui defines the voltage input channel for the reference voltage. Channel 8 must be used. Voltage Input Us defines the voltage input channel for the measured voltage. Channel 9 must be used. 2. Star Point Input Binary address used as status input. It determines whether the second star-point is connected in parallel to the first. (F FALSE, T TRUE, binary input or output of a protection function). Adjust MTR Input switches the protection function to the MTR determination mode. (F FALSE, T TRUE, binary input or output of a protection function).

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Adjust REs Input switches the protection function to the REs determination mode. (F FALSE, T TRUE, binary input or output of a protection function). Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. (F FALSE, T TRUE, binary input or output of a protection function). Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. (signal address) Start Signal Output for signalling the pick-up of the tripping stage. (signal address) Alarm Signal Output for signalling an alarm. (signal address) Start Alarm Signal Output for signalling the pick-up of the alarm stage. (signal address) Inj. Interrupt Signal Output for signalling an open-circuit injection circuit. (signal address) Ext. Interrupt Signal Output for signalling an open-circuit measuring circuit. (signal address) 2. Star Point Signal Output for signalling a second star-point in parallel. (signal address) Adjust MTR Signal Output for signalling the binary status of 'AdjMTRInp'. (signal address) Adjust REs Signal Output for signalling the binary status of 'AdjREsInp'. (signal address) Extern Block Signal Output for signalling that the function is disabled by an external signal. (signal address)

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E. Setting instructions
The value of 'Rfs Alarm Value' for alarm must always be higher than that of 'Rfs Trip Value' for tripping. Both alarm and tripping stages have their own timers. Typical delays used for the 100 % ground fault protection are in the range of seconds.

Settings:
'Rfs Trip Value' for tripping 'Rfs Alarm Value' for alarm Delay for tripping Delay for alarm Grounding resistor REs Measuring transformer ratio (MTR).

Typical settings:
Alarm stage: RFs-Setting Delay Tripping stage: RFs-Setting Delay 5 k 5s 500 2s

Setting procedure:
The accuracy of the Rfs calculation depends on the values entered for REs and MTR. Therefore check the settings and correct them if necessary by connecting resistors between 100 and 10 k between the star-point and ground while the generator is not running. The protection function provides a convenient way of setting these two parameters in the software by switching its mode using the input 'Adjust MTR Input' or 'Adjust REs Input'. This is the recommended procedure. In this mode, the settings of the parameters 'MTR' and 'REs' are calculated with the aid of simulated ground fault resistances. The two parameters are displayed continuously in the measured values window. Should the values of REs and MTR determined by the adjustment modes differ from their nominal values, the calculated values are the preferred values.

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Determination of 'MTR': Ground the star-point (Rf = 0 ). Set the input 'Adjust MTR Input' to 'Always TRUE' or apply a logical '1' to the binary input. Select menu 'Monitor', 'Measurement', 'Display Function Measurements', '100% Stator Ground Fault' and click on 'Open Function'. Note the value for 'Meas. Transf. Ratio'. Return to the 'Configuration' menu, then the submenu 'Protection Functions'. In the window 'Select Protection Function' select the function '100% Stator Ground Fault (Injection Principle)', now enter the value noted for the 'Meas. Transf. Ratio' and download the set file into the relay. Remove the connection between the star-point and ground. Reset the binary input Adjust MTR Input. Determination of REs. The selection of the menus and items is the same as for the determination of 'MTR' above: Simulate a ground fault Rf by connecting a resistor between the star-point and ground: 8 k < Rf < 12 k In the window 'Select Protection Function', window '100% Stator Ground Fault (Stator EFP)': Enter the value for the setting 'Rfs Adjust'. Set the input 'Adjust REs Input' to 'Always TRUE' or apply a logical '1' to the binary input. Enter the approximate value for 'REs'. If the grounding resistor is on the secondary system side, the value entered must be referred to the primary side (Refer also to the Sections concerning REs and MTR in the case of secondary injection at the star-point, respectively at the terminals.) and download the set file into the relay. Open the submenu 'Display Function Measurements' in the 'Monitor', 'Measurement', and note the value of 'Grounding Resistor' (or 'REs' on the LDU). Enter the value noted for the setting of 'REs' in the 'Configuration' menu, then the submenu 'Protection Functions' and download the set file into the relay. Remove the simulated ground fault. Reset the input 'Adjust REs Input'.

The protection function will only switch back from the determination mode to the normal protection mode when both binary Inputs have been reset. Check the settings by connecting resistors of 100 to 20 k (P 5 W) between the star-point and ground and compare their values with the readings of the measured values on the screen.

NOTICE: The tripping and alarm outputs are disabled as long as one of the two binary Inputs 'Adjust MTR Input' or 'Adjust REs Input' is enabled, i.e. the protection will not trip if the stator circuit is grounded. The two signals 'Inj. Interrupt Signal' and 'Ext. Interrupt Signal', however, are not disabled.
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REs and MTR in the case of primary injection at the generator star-point
An injection transformer block Type REX 011 is needed for this circuit. Fig. 3.87 shows the wiring diagram for primary injection (peak value of Uis 110 or 96 V DC) at the generator star-point. The star-point is grounded via the resistor REs and the parallel resistor RPs. The current at the star-point must not exceed 20 A. It is recommended, however, to select the resistors such that the star-point current is 5 A to protect as much of the winding as possible. The total resistance is thus: Condition 1: REs + RPs where: UGen IEmax UGen 3 IEmax

phase-to-phase voltage at the generator terminals max. star-point current = 20 A

The following conditions must also be fulfilled: Condition 2a: Injection in Stator- und Rotor circuit: R + REs RPs 87 and RPs Ps 5 .5 Condition 2b: Injection only in Stator circuit: R + REs RPs 77 and RPs Ps 5 .5 Condition 3: REs 4,5 RPs and REs 5 k The VT must be designed such that for a solid ground fault at the generator terminals, the rated frequency component voltage Us = 100 20 %, i.e. the ratio MTR = N12/ N11 must lie within the following range: Condition 4: 1.2 n N12 0.8 n , where n = N11 UGen 3 100 V UGen 3 100 V REs REs + RPs

A VT

N12 = N11

will fulfill condition 4 in most cases.

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Design example:
UGen = 8 kV Assumed: IEmax 5 A Injection in Stator- und Rotor circuit Determination of the grounding resistors: Condition 1: REs + RPs 8 kV 3 5 A 924 924 = 168 5 .5

Condition 2: RPs 87 and RPs

Assumed: RPs = 100


Condition 3: REs 4.5 100 = 450 and REs 5 k In order to fulfill conditions 1, 3 and 4: REs = 1'000 Determination of the VT: Assumed: N12 = N11 8 kV 3 100 V = 46.188

Condition 4 is fulfilled because: 1,2 n n= N12 0,8 n = 50.4 33.6 where N11 1'000 = 42 1'000 + 100

8 kV 3 100 V

The following values are permissible:


RPs = 100 REs = 1'000 N12 N11 = 8 kV 3 100 V

Design instructions:
The injection unit REX010 is equipped with a converter to accommodate battery voltages between 48 V and 250 V. The peak injection voltage is 96 V. Giving due account to the available power, typical resistance values for most applications are REs = 1000 and RPs = 150 . Both RPs and REs must be able to conduct the maximum star-point current for 10 s. The resistor RPs must also be continuously rated for the injection voltage (injected power < 150 W).

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The maximum generator star-point current is determined by the resistors REs and RPs. Using the above resistors, this current would be, for example, 5.3 A for UGen = 10.5 kV or 13.5 A for UGen = 27 kV.

REs and MTR in the case of secondary injection at the star-point


An injection transformer block Type REX011-1 is needed for this circuit. The bias voltage can also be injected across part of the grounding resistor connected to the secondary of a grounding VT (see Fig. 3.88). The two resistors R'Es and R'Ps limit the maximum current at the starpoint which must not exceed 20 A. The total resistance is thus: Condition 1: R'Es +R'Ps where: UGen IEmax N1/N2 Uis UGen 3 IEmax N 2 N 1
2

phase-to-phase voltage at the generator terminals max. star-point current = 20 A ratio of the grounding transformer Injection voltage, depending on the configuration is 0,85 V, 1,7 V or 3,4 V.

The following conditions must also be fulfilled: Condition 2a: for injection in Stator and Rotor circuit: 2 Uis R' + R'Es and R'Ps Ps R'Ps 1.2 130 W 5.5 Condition 2b: Injection only in Stator circuit: 2 Uis R' + R'Es and R'Ps Ps R'Ps 1.2 150 W 5.5 N Condition 3: R'Es 4.5 R'Ps and R'Es 5.0k 2 N 1
2

The VT must be designed such that for a solid ground fault at the generator terminals, the rated frequency component voltage Us = 100 V 20 %, i.e. the ratio MTR' = N'12/ N'11 must lie within the following range: Condition 4: 1.2 n N'12 0.8 n , where n = N'11 UGen 3 100 V N2 R'Es N1 R'Es + R'Ps

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A VT

N'12 = N'11

N 2 will fulfill condition 4 in most cases. 3 100V N1

UGen

NOTICE: In many cases it is better to avoid using an additional VT and connect the A/D converter directly to R'ES, if Us is within the limits: 80 V Us 150 V. In this case the reference value of the corresponding voltage channel should be adapted for 100 % ESS und 95 % ESS
The settings for REs and MTR must be entered via the HMI, i.e. the values of R'Es and MTR' reflected to the primary of the grounding transformer:
REs = R'Es N 1 0.25 k N 2
110 V N'12 110 V = Uis N'11 Uis
2

MTR = MTR'

The injection voltage Uis depends on the value of the parallel resistance R'Ps and can be either 0.85 V, 1.7 V or 3.4 V. The minimum value of the resistor R'Ps in relation to the corresponding injection voltage Uis can be seen from the following table. The maximum possible injection voltage should be chosen in each case.
R'Ps [m]
> 5.5
> 22
> 88

Uis [V]
0.85
1.7
3.4

Table 3.11

REX011-1

The two determination modes 'REs Adjust' and 'MTR Adjust' determine and display the values for REs and MTR, i.e. they present the secondary circuit reflected on the primary system side. Inaccuracies due to contact resistance, grounding resistor tolerances etc., are thus automatically compensated. Determining the values for REs and MTR by means of the determination modes 'REs Adjust' and 'MTR Adjust' during commissioning is recommended in preference to calculating their values. As a check, calculate the values of R'Es and MTR' from the values given for RE and MTR in the measured value window as follows:

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N R'Es = REs 2 N MTR' = MTR

Uis 110 V

In most cases, the calculated and determined values will not agree. Discrepancies of 20 % are acceptable. Where the discrepancies especially in the case of REs are large, check the actual values of the grounding resistors and the grounding transformer.

Design example:

UGen = 16 kV
N1 14.4 kV = = 60 N2 240 V Assumed: IEmax 5 A Injection only in Stator circuit Determination of the grounding resistors: Condition 1: R'Es + R'Ps 16 kV 1 = 513 m 3 5 A 60
2

Condition 2:

3. 4 V 2 513 m R'Ps resp.. 77 m R'Ps 93.3 m 150 W 5 .5

Assumed: R'Ps = 80 m
Condition 3: R'Es 4.5 80 m = 360 m In order to fulfill Conditions 1, 3 and 4: R'Es = 400 m Determination of the VT: Assumed: N'12 = N'11 16 kV 3 100 V 1 = 1.54 60

Condition 4 is fulfilled because: 1.2 n N'12 0.8 n = 2.35 1.54 1.254 N'11 16 kV 3 100 V 1 400 m = 1.39 60 400 m + 42 m

where n =

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The following values are permissible:


R'Ps = 80 mS R'Es = 400 mS N12 N11 = 154 V 100 V In this example the VT can be avoided, because the maximum output voltage amounts to 139 V, In this case the reference value of the voltage channel for 100 % ESS und 95 % ESS must be changed to 1.39. Calculation of the settings REs and MTR: REs = 400 m (60 ) = 1.44k
2

MTR =

N'12 110 V = 112 N'11 1.7 V

for an injection voltage of Uis = 6.8 V.

Installations with a second star-point in the zone of protection


The following parameters settings have to be made: 'Nr. Of Star Points' = 2 '2. Star Point Input' = ON In cases in which the second star-point is always connected in parallel to the first. '2. Star Point Input' = binary system input in cases where the second star-point is connected to the first by a switch, the closed position of the switch being signalled a logical '1' applied to a binary input. 'REs 2.Star Point' = value of the grounding resistor connected to the second star-point.

NOTICE: The stator ground fault protection scheme sees the grounding resistor of the second star-point as a ground fault with the value 'REs 2.Star Point'.
Assuming a ground fault of resistance Rfs occurs, the total resistance of the parallel resistors Rfs and 'REs 2. Star Point' is calculated first. The value of Rfs can be simply determined from this, providing the value of 'REs 2. Star Point' is known. This procedure is subject, however, to certain restrictions. The maximum ground fault resistance that can be detected is approximately ten times the value of 'REs 2. Star Point'. Assuming the grounding resistor of the second star-point to be 1 k, ground faults with a resistance less than 10 k can be detected. For this reason, choosing a grounding resistor 'REs 2. Star Point' 2 k is recommended wherever possible.

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In a star - open delta connected transformer with a burden, is similar to a second star-point and must be compensated accordingly. A resistor R has the same effect as a earth fault resistor Rf as per the formula: N R f = R' 1 3 N 2 R' = 4 N1 13.8 kV/ 3 = N2 120 V 13.8 kV / 3 = 1'959 Rf = 4 3 120 V The system is loaded with a permanent earth fault resistance of 1959 , which has to be compensated as a second star-point.
2
2

Design example:

REs and MTR in the case of secondary injection at the generator terminals
An injection transformer block Type REX011-2 is needed for this circuit. The bias voltage can also be injected across part of the grounding resistor connected to the broken-delta secondaries of a grounding VTs at the generator terminals (see Fig. 3.89). The two resistors R'Es and R'Ps limit the maximum current at the starpoint which must not exceed 20 A. The total resistance is thus : Condition 1: where: R'Es + R'Ps UGen IEmax N1/N2 3 N2 3 IEmax N1 UGen
2

phase-to-phase voltage at the generator terminals max. star-point current = 20 A ratio of the grounding transformer

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The grounding resistors R'Es and R'Ps must fulfill the following conditions: Condition 2a Injection in Stator and Rotor circuit: 2 Uis R' + R'Es and R'Ps Ps R'Ps 1.2 5.5 130 W Condition 2b Injection only in Stator circuit: 2 Uis R' + R'Es and R'Ps Ps R'Ps 1.2 150 W 5.5 Condition 3: R'Es 4.5 R'Ps

The VT must be designed such that for a solid ground fault at the generator terminals, the rated frequency component voltage Us = 100 V 20 %, i.e. the ratio MTR' = N'12/ N'11 must lie within the following range: Condition 4:
1.2 n N' 12 0.8 n , where N' 11

n=

UGen 3 100 V

3 N2 R'Es N1 R'Es + R'Ps

A VT

N'12 = N'11

UGen 3 100 V

3 N2 will fulfill condition 4 in most cases. N1

The settings for REs and MTR must be entered via the HMI, i.e. the values of R'Es and MTR' reflected to the primary of the grounding transformer: N1 REs = R'Es 3 N 0.725 k 2 MTR = MTR' 110 V N'12 110 V = Uis N'11 Uis
2

The injection voltage Uis depends on the value of the parallel resistor R'Ps and can be either 6.4 V, 12.8 V or 25.6 V. The minimum value of the resistor R'Ps in relation to the corresponding injection voltage Uis can be seen from the following table. The maximum possible injection voltage should be chosen in each case.
R'Ps [] > 0.32 > 1.3 > 5.0 Uis [V] 6.4 12.8 25.6

Table 3.12

REX011-2

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Design example:

UGen = 12 kV
12 kV N1 3 = 600 V N2 3
Assumed: IEmax 5 A Injection for Stator and Rotor earthing protection Determination of the grounding resistors: Condition 1: 3 600 V 12 kV 3 = R'Es + R'Ps 12 kV 3 5 A 3 Condition 2:
2

3 (600 V )

3 5 A 12 kV

= 10.4

12.82 10.4 R'Ps resp. 1.26 R'Ps 1.89 130 W 5 .5

Assumed: R'Ps = 1.5


Condition 3: R'Es 4.5 1.5 = 6.75 In order to fulfill conditions 1, 3 and 4: R'Es = 10.0 Determining the VT:
N'12 Assumed: = N'11 12 kV 3 100 V 3 600 V 3 = 12 kV 3 Condition 4 is fulfilled because: 3 600 V = 6 .0 100 V

1.2 n

N'12 0.8 n = 6.6 6.0 4.4 where N'11


3 600 V 3 10 = 6 0.91 = 5.5 12kV 10 + 1 3

n=

12kV 3 100 V

The following values are permissible:

R'Ps = 1 R'Es = 10
N'12 N'11 = 3 600 V 100 V

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Calculation of the settings REs and MTR:

REs

12kV 3 = 1.33k = 10 3 600 V 3 N'12 110 V = 103.1 N'11 6.4 V

MTR =

for an injection voltage Uis = 12.8 V.

Generator

N12

N11

REs
Voltage transformer

Us

Uis

RPs

Injection voltage

Fig. 3.87

Stator ground fault protection with primary injection

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Generator

Voltage transformer N1 N2
N'12 N'11

R'Es

Us

R'Ps
Grounding transformator

Uis
Injection voltage

Fig. 3.88

Stator ground fault protection with secondary injection at the generator star-point

Voltage transformer

N1

N2

R'Es

N'12

N'11

Us

R'Ps
Grounding transformator

Uis
Injection voltage

Generator

Fig. 3.89

Wiring diagram for secondary injection of the stator (grounding transformer at the generator terminals)

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S1

REs-2.Starpt

Generator Switch position to binary input

N12

N11

REs

Us Voltage transformer

Uis

RPs

Injection voltage

Fig. 3.90

Stator ground fault protection for installations with two star-points

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N1 N2
R'
S1

Generator
Switch position to binary I/P

N12

N11 Us

REs

Uis

RPs

Voltage transformer

Injection voltage

Fig. 3.91

Stator earthfault protection for installations with 2 star-points, second star-point as transformer in 'Star open Delta - connection' with burden R'.

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3.5.33.

Rotor Ground Fault (Injection Principle) protection (Rotor-EFP)

A. Application
For the detection of ground faults on the rotor windings of generators. Because of its low sensitivity to spurious signals, this scheme can be used for all kinds of excitation systems.

B. Features

Detection of ground faults on rotor windings Injection voltage applied via resistors and coupling capacitors to both poles of the rotor Computes the resistance of the ground fault Monitors the amplitude and frequency of the injection signal Monitors the measuring circuit with respect to open-circuit and correct connection of the grounding resistor

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

Voltage (2 inputs)

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking Coupling capacitor adjustment REr adjustment

III. Binary outputs:


Alarm stage pick-up Alarm Trip stage pick-up Trip Coupling capacitor adjustment active REr adjustment active Injection open-circuit internally Injection open-circuit externally External blocking

IV. Measurements:

Ground fault resistance RFr Coupling capacitor Ck" Grounding resistor REr"

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Explanation of measurements:
Rfr: Ground fault resistances between 0 and 29.8 k can be determined and displayed. A display of 29.9 k or 30 k indicates a ground fault resistance >29.8 k. A value of 29.9 k or 30 k is displayed when there is no ground fault. A whole number fault code between 100 and 111 is displayed in cases when it is not possible to compute the ground fault resistance. 100.0 means no injection for more than 5 s. 101.0 means incorrect frequency. Either the injection frequency on the REX 010 or the rated frequency on the REG316*4 is incorrectly set. 102.0 means external open-circuit. 109.0 means that both the binary inputs 'Adjust REr Input' and 'Adjust Capacitor Input' are enabled. 111.0 means that the binary input 'Adjust REr Input' is enabled. No other codes will normally be generated, but if they are, they are a diagnostic aid for the service people. Ck": When the input 'Adjust Capacitor Input' is enabled, 133.00 is displayed initially until the coupling capacitor has been computed. This can take a maximum of 10 s after which the value measured for C is displayed. During normal operation, the value entered for the coupling capacitor C via the HMI is displayed. REr": When the input 'Adjust REr Input' is enabled, the error code 133.00 is displayed initially until the resistance has been calculated. It can take up to 10 s before the value measured for REr is displayed. The value measured for Rf is 97.0. During normal operation, the value entered for REr on the HMI is displayed.

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Normal operation:

Neither of the two inputs 'Adjust Capacitor Input' and 'Adjust RErInput' is enabled and injection is taking place.

NOTICE: Only one of the binary inputs may be enabled at any one time, otherwise an error code is generated for the measurements Rfr, C and REr (see table below).

Adjust Capacitor Input


0
1
0
1

Adjust REr Input


0
0
1
1

Protection active and Rfr is computed


Determination of C and Rfr
Determination of REr (Rfr = 111.0)
Error codes: 109.00 and 109.00 (Rfr = 109.0)

0: binary input disabled 1: binary input enabled Table 3.13 The configuration possibilities and their significance

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D. Rotor ground fault settings - Rotor-EFP


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Alarm-Delay Trip-Delay RFr Alarm Value Rfr Trip Value REr Uir RFr Adjust Coupling Capacitor Voltage Input Ui Voltage Input Ur Adjust REr Input Adjust Capacitor Input Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal Alarm Signal Start Alarm Signal Inj. Interrupt Signal Ext. Interrupt Signal Adjust Rer Signal Coupling Cap Signal Extern Block Signal s s k k k V k F Unit Default 00000000 0.50 0.50 10.0 1.0 1.00 50 10.0 4.00
*) *)

Min.

Max.

Step

0.20 0.20 0.1 0.1 0.90 (Select) 8.000 2.00

60.00 60.00 25.0 25.0 5.00 12.00 10.00

0.05 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.01

CT/VT-Addr. 0 CT/VT-Addr. 0 BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr ER F F F ER

*)

REG316*4 requires an input transformer unit Type 316GW61 K67 assigned to the following voltage input channels: VoltageInpUi: Channel 8 VoltageInpUr: Channel 7

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Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of the function (tripping logic). Alarm Delay Time between pick-up of the alarm stage and an alarm. Trip Delay Time between pick-up of the tripping stage and a trip. RFr Alarm Value Ground fault resistance setting for alarm. RFr for alarm must be higher than RFr for tripping. RFr Trip Value Ground fault resistance setting for tripping. REr Grounding resistor REr. Uir The normal rotor injection voltage is 50 V. Provision is also made for an injection voltage of 20 or 30 V by appropriately changing the wiring on the injection transformer unit Type REX 011. RFr Adjust Simulated ground fault resistance used as a reference value for calculating REr in the 'REr Adjust' mode. Coupling Capacitor The total capacitance C of the two coupling capacitors in parallel. Voltage Input Ui defines the voltage input channel for the reference voltage Ui. Channel 8 must be used. Voltage Input Ur defines the voltage input channel for the measured voltage Ur. Channel 7 must be used. Adjust REr Input switches the protection function to the REr determination mode. (F FALSE, T TRUE, binary input or output of a protection function). Adjust Capacitor Input switches the protection function to the C determination mode. (F FALSE, T TRUE, binary input or output of a protection function).

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Block Input Binary address used as blocking input. (F FALSE, T TRUE, binary input or output of a protection function). Trip Signal Output for signalling tripping. Start Signal Output for signalling the pick-up of the tripping stage. Alarm Signal Output for signalling alarm. Start Alarm Signal Output for signalling the pick-up of the alarm stage. Inj. Interrupt Signal Output for signalling an open-circuit injection circuit. Ext. Interrupt Signal Output for signalling an open-circuit measuring circuit. Output for signalling an open-circuit injection circuit. Both pick-up and reset of this signal are delayed by 5 s. Adjust Rer Signal Output for signalling the binary status of 'AdjRErInp'. Coupling Cap. Signal Output for signalling the binary status of 'AdjCoupCInp'. Extern Block Signal Output for signalling that the function is disabled by an external signal.

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E. Setting instructions
The value of 'RFr Setting' for alarm must always be higher than that of 'RFr Setting' for tripping. Both alarm and tripping stages have their own timers. Typical delays used for the rotor ground fault protection are in the range of seconds. Recommended resistances: REr = 1000 RPr = 100

Settings:
Grounding resistor REr Coupling capacitor C 'RFr Setting' for tripping 'RFr Setting' for alarm Delay for alarm Delay for tripping

Typical settings:
Alarm stage: RFr-Setting Delay Tripping stage: RFr-Setting Delay 500 2s 5 k 5s

Setting procedure:
How accurately Rfr is measured depends on the values entered for REr and C. Therefore check the settings and correct them if necessary by connecting resistors between 100 and 10 k between the rotor and ground while the generator is not running. The protection function provides a convenient way of setting these two parameters in the software by switching its mode using the input 'Adjust REr Input' or 'Adjust Capacitor Input'. In this mode, the settings of the parameters 'REr' and 'C' are calculated with the aid of simulated ground fault resistances. Determination of REr

Short-circuit the coupling capacitors. Set the input 'Adjust REr Input' to 'Always TRUE' or apply a logical '1' to the binary input. Simulate a ground fault Rf by connecting a resistor to the rotor: 8 k < Rf < 12 k Click on the 'Configuration' menu, then the submenu 'Protection Functions': Set the input 'Adjust REr Input' to 'Always TRUE' or apply a logical '1' to the binary input. In the window 'Select Protection Function' select the function
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'100% Rotor Ground Fault (Injection Principle)', and enter the value of the simulated ground fault for 'Rfr Adjust' and the nominal value for REr and download the set file into the relay. Select menu 'Monitor', 'Measurement', 'Display Function Measurements', 'Rotor Ground Fault' and click on 'Open Function'. Note the value of 'Ground Resistor' (or 'REr' on the LDU). Enter the value noted for the setting of 'REr' in the 'Configuration' menu, then the submenu 'Protection Functions' and download the set file into the relay. Remove the short-circuit from across the coupling capacitors and remove the simulated ground fault. Reset the input 'Adjust REr Input'.

Determination of C: Set the input 'Adjust Capacitor Input' to 'Always TRUE' or apply a logical '1' to the binary input. Ground the rotor winding (Rf = 0 ). In the window 'Select Protection Function' select the function '100% Rotor Ground Fault', now enter the nominal value of C into the parameter 'Coupling Capacitor' and download the set file into the relay. Open the submenu 'Display Function Measurements' in the 'Monitor', 'Measurement', and note the value of 'Coupling Capacitor' (or 'Ck' on the LDU). Enter the value noted for the setting of 'Coupling Capacitor' in the 'Configuration' menu, then the submenu 'Protection Functions' and download the set file into the relay. Remove the simulated ground fault from the rotor. Reset the binary input 'Adjust Capacitor Input'.

Design instructions:
The grounding resistors and coupling capacitors have to fulfill the following conditions: Rotor grounding resistor Rpr Rotor grounding resistor REr Coupling capacitors C = C1 + C2 Time constant : : : : 150 Rpr 500 900 REr 5 k 2 F C 10 F 3 ms

= REr

10 ms

The grounding resistor Rpr must be continuously rated for the injection 50 V . current I = Rpr The coupling capacitors must be designed for the maximum excitation voltage.

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Application examples:
Rpr = 200 , P = 15 W REr = 1 k C = 2 2 F, 8 kV

= 4 ms

+
Rotor

C1 C = C1 + C2 C2

REr

Ur

Uir
Injection voltage

RPr

Fig. 3.92

Injection at one pole of the rotor winding

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+
Rotor

C1 C = C1 + C2 C2

REr

Ur

Uir
Injection voltage

RPr

Fig. 3.93

Injection at both poles of the rotor winding

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3.5.34.

Pole slipping (Pole-Slip)

A. Application
The pole slipping function detects the condition of a generator that is completely out-of-step with the power system.

B. Features

Detection of slip frequencies in relation to the power system of 0.2 to 8 Hz Alarm before the first slip (rotor angle pick-up setting) Discriminates generating and motoring directions of rotor phaseangle Discriminates an internal and an external power swing centre Trips after a set number of slips Trips within a set rotor angle

C. Inputs and outputs I. Analog inputs:


Current Voltage

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking of the entire function Blocking operation in generating direction (to left) Blocking operation in motoring direction (to right) External enable for zone1

III. Binary outputs:


Alarm before the first slip Operation for generating slip (to left) Operation for motoring slip (to right) First operation in zone 1 First operation in zone 2 n1-th operation in zone 1 (tripping) n2-th operation in zone 2

IV. Measurements:

Slip impedance Slip frequency

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D. Pole slip settings - Pole-Slip


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip1 ZA ZB ZC Phi Warn Angle Trip Angle Slip of Zone 1 Slip of Zone 2 t - Reset Current Input Chan. Voltage Input Chan. Block Input Generator Block Input Motor Block Input Enable Zone 1 Inpt Warning Signal Generator Signal Motor Signal Zone 1 Signal Zone 2 Signal Trip 1 Signal Trip 2 Signal s AnalogAddr AnalogAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr UN / IN UN / IN UN / IN deg deg deg Unit Default 00000000 0.200 -0.250 0.100 85 110 90 1 3 5.000 0 0 F F F F ER ER ER ER ER ER ER 0.000 0.000 60 0 0 0 0 0.500 5.000 5.000 270 180 180 20 20 0.001 0.001 0.001 1 1 1 1 1 -5.000 0.000 Min. Max. Step

25.000 0.010

Explanation of parameters:
Trip 1 Signal defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping output of stage 1 of the function (tripping logic).

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ZA Forwards impedance 1). ZA marks the end of zone 2 and is also used for determining phase-angle. ZB Reverse impedance 1). ZB marks the beginning of zone 1 and is also used for determining phase-angle. ZC Impedance of the zone limit 1). ZC is the end of zone 1 between ZB and ZC and the beginning of zone 2 between ZC and ZA. phi Angle of the slipping characteristic and of ZA, ZB and ZC. Phi also determines the energy direction: 60... 90 CT neutral on the line side 240...270 CT neutral on the generator side Warn Angle Rotor angle above which alarm of potential slipping is given (rotor angle > 'Warn Angle'). Trip Angle Rotor angle below which first 'Trip 1 Signal' and the 'Trip 2 Signal' are issued (rotor angle < 'Trip Angle'). Slip of Zone 1 Number of slips for zone 1, i.e. number of slips before 'Trip 1 Signal' is issued and signalled. Slip of Zone 2 Number of slips for zone 2, i.e. number of slips before 'Trip 2 Signal' is signalled.

1)

The impedance unit 1.000 UN/IN represents an impedance of 100%. Thus if the impedance setting in percent is known, it can be set directly, e.g. the setting for 10% is 0.100. An impedance of 1.000 UN/IN corresponds to a current of 1 IN at the rated phase-to-neutral voltage UN /
3 in all three phases. The respective

positive-sequence impedance is UN / 3 / IN : UN 100 V 100 V 100 V 200 V 200 V 200 V IN 1A 2A 5A 1A 2A 5A Impedance unit 57.735 /ph 28.868 /ph 11.547 /ph 115.470 /ph 57.735 /ph 23.094 /ph 3-395

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t - Reset The reset time 't - Reset' prevents the function from resetting between two slips providing n1 or n2 is greater than 1. Current Input Chan. defines the A/D input channel. VoltageInput Chan. defines the A/D input channel. Block Input Generator Blocking input for detecting pole slip to the left, i.e. the generator is faster than the power system. Block Input Motor Blocking input for detecting pole slip to the right, i.e. the generator is slower than the power system. (The power system drives the generator as if it were a motor.) Block Input Blocking input for the entire pole slipping function. Enable Zone 1 Input Zone 1 is enabled for slipping in zone 2 as well, i.e. independently of ZC. Warning Signal Detection of variations of rotor angle (before the first slip occurs). Generator Signal Signals rotor movement to the left, i.e. the generator is faster than the system. Motor Signal Signals rotor movement to the right, i.e. the generator is slower than the system. (The power system drives the generator as if it were a motor.) Zone 1 Signal First slip between ZB and ZC or between ZB and ZA, providing the input 'Enable Zone 1 Input' is enabled. Zone 2 Signal First slip between ZC and ZA. Trip 1 Signal Tripping and signalling when the counter for zone 1 reaches the value n1. Trip 2 Signal Signalling when the counter for zone 2 reaches the value n2. If Trip2 is to control tripping, the signal Trip2 has to be assigned to a tripping relay (see also Section 5.4.5.4.).

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E. Detecting rotor slip and shift


Rotor shift is detected by monitoring the voltage Ucos , i.e. the component of the voltage in phase with the current. If the generator is faster than the power system, the rotor movement in the impedance and voltage diagram is from right to left and generating is signalled. If the generator is slower than the power system, the rotor movement is from left to right and motoring is signalled (the power system drives the generator as if it were a motor). The movements in the impedance plain can be seen from Fig. 3.94. The transient behaviour is described by the transient e.m.fs EA and EB, and by Xd' , XT and the transient system impedance ZS. The detection of rotor angle is enabled when

the minimum current 0.10 IN is exceeded the value of Ucos falls below 0.92 UN the voltage Ucos has an angular velocity of 0.2...8 Hz and the corresponding direction is not blocked.

An alarm is given when movement of the rotor in relation to the slip line and the rotor angle exceeds the angle set for 'Warn Angle'. Slipping is detected when

a change of rotor angle is detected the slip line is crossed between ZA and ZB the direction of rotation has remained the same since start

When the impedance crosses the slip line between ZB and ZC it counts as being in zone 1 and between ZC and ZA in zone 2. The entire distance ZA-ZB becomes zone 1 when 'Enable Zone 1 Input' is enabled (external device detects the direction of the centre of slipping). After the first slip, the signals 'Zone 1 Signal' or 'Zone 2 Signal' and depending on the direction of slip - either 'Generator Signal' or 'Motor Signal' are issued. Every time pole slipping is detected, the impedance of the point where the slip line is crossed and the instantaneous slip frequency are displayed as measurements. Further slips are only detected, if they are in the same direction and if the change of the rotor angle detection has reset after the preceding slip or the slip line is crossed in the opposite direction outside ZA-ZB.

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A further slip in the opposite direction within ZA-ZB resets all the signals and is then signalled itself as a first slip. The 'Trip 1 Signal' tripping command and signal are generated after n1 slips in zone 1, providing the rotor angle is less than 'Trip Angle'. The 'Trip 2 Signal' signal is generated after n2 slips in zone 2, providing the rotor angle is less than 'Trip Angle'. All signals are reset if:

the direction of movement reverses, the rotor angle detector resets without a slip being counted or no rotor relative movement was detected during the time 't - Reset'.

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Fig. 3.94

Locus of the impedance measured at the generator terminals during pole slipping in relation to the power system A

Xd' XT ZS

: : :

transient reactance of the generator short-circuit reactance of the step-up transformer transient impedance of the power system A

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F. Setting instructions Settings: Current and voltage inputs


A three-phase group must be used for the current input. The following can be set for the voltage input:

single-phase input using URS three-phase delta group three-phase star group

Setting: Phi
The angle Phi determines the angle of the slip line and is monitored to detect slip. The impedances ZA, ZB and ZC lie on this line. Phi is also used to check power direction, i.e. the polarity of the CTs: 60... 90 240...270 CT neutral on the line side i.e. connection according to Fig. 12.4 CT neutral on the generator side

Setting: ZA
ZA is the impedance of the slip line and marks the limit of zone 2. It is also used for measuring phase-angle (see 'Warn Angle' and 'Trip Angle'). ZA should be set to the impedance between the location of the protection and the off-load voltage of the equivalent circuit for the entire power system.

Setting: ZB
ZB is the impedance of the slip line in the reverse direction and marks the limit of zone 1. It is also used for measuring phase-angle (see 'Warn Angle' and 'Trip Angle'). ZB should be set to the generator reactance Xd' in the reverse direction (negative sign).

Setting: ZC
ZC divides the slip line into two zones. Zone 1 lies between ZB and ZC and zone 2 between ZC and ZA. ZC should be set to the impedance from the location of the protection up to the first busbar.

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Fig. 3.95

Determining the settings for ZA, ZB, ZC, and Phi according to Xd', XT and ZS

Setting: Warn Angle


The rotor angle is given by the triangle bounded by the instantaneous impedance and the impedances ZA and ZB. The protection, however, measures the angle between the instantaneous voltage and the rotor voltages EA and EB, which closely approximates the impedance triangle. The setting for 'Warn Angle' can be set between 0 and 180 and determines the rotor angle above which alarm of imminent slipping is given. With the 'Warn Angle' = 0, alarm is given immediately the rotor angle changes, providing it lies within the pick-up range. 'Warn Angle' enables the operating status of the generator to be corrected, because its rotor angle setting is reached before the first slip. The machine can normally be stabilised for rotor angles up to 135, for example, by changing the excitation or switching in compensators. For a setting of 'Warn Angle' = 180, alarm is not given until the first slip takes place, i.e. at the same time as the signal for zone 1 or zone 2. Typical setting: 'Warn Angle' = 110

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Fig. 3.96

Example of the operation for n1 = 1, Warn Angle = 53 and Trip Angle = 96

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Setting: TripAngle
Phi is evaluated in relation to 'Trip Angle' when one of the zones has reached its number of slips, i.e. n n1 or n2. For a setting of 'Trip Angle' = 180, the tripping command 'Trip1' and the signals 'Trip 1 Signal' and 'Trip 2 Signal' are issued immediately. For a setting of 'Trip Angle' = 0, these signals are only issued when the slip detector has reset, i.e. when the generator is again close to synchronism with the power system. A setting of 'Trip Angle' between 180 and 0 (typically 90) determines the rotor angle at which tripping takes place and the signals are generated. The setting at which tripping should take place is determined according to an operating point that

occurs shortly after the last permissible slip is favourable for the circuit-breaker (least stress due to reignition)

Typical setting: 'Trip Angle' = 90

Settings: n1, n2, t-Reset


The number of slips n1 or n2 that may be considered permissible depends on the generator being protected and must be stated by the manufacturer. For settings of n1 and n2 1, the reset time 't - Reset' can be set to any low value. For settings of n1 or n2 > 1, 't - Reset' must not be set lower than the period 1/fS of the lowest slip frequency fS to be detected. Slip frequencies from 0.2 Hz upwards are reliably detected using the typical setting of 5 seconds.

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3.6. 3.6.1.

Control functions Control function (FUPLA)

A. Application
The control function is designed to perform data acquisition, monitoring, and control functions in MV and HV substations. The control logic of a switchgear bay can be configured for SF6 gasinsulated switchgear (GIS), for indoor and outdoor switchgear and for single, double or multiple busbar stations. The control function registers and processes the switchgear position signals, the measured variables and the alarms occurring in a switchgear bay. The corresponding data are then made available at the communication interface (IBB). The control function receives instructions from the station control system (SCS) or from the local mimic, processes them in relation to the bay control logic configuration and then executes them. The interlocks included in the control function device prevent inadmissible switching operations, which could cause damage to plant or endanger personnel.

B. Features
The control function depends on the particular application for which it is specifically created using CAP 316. It includes essentially:

Detection and plausibility check of switchgear position signals Switchgear control Interlocks Monitoring of switchgear commands Run-time supervision Integration of the local mimic Detection of alarms and alarm logic Processing of measured variables

Eight FUPLA functions can be configured. The total maximum size of FUPLA code for all the functions is 128 kB. The FUPLA function cannot be copied and not configured as 48th function. The function plan programming language CAP 316 is described in the publication 1MRB520059-Uen.

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C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

Constants, measured protection variables, IBB inputs and sampled values

II. Analog outputs:

Measured variable outputs

III. Binary inputs:


Blocking input, binary input for blocking FUPLA Binary inputs from the IBB, the system and protection functions

IV. Binary outputs:

Binary outputs to the IBB, the system, protection functions and for event processing

V. Measurements:

Measured variable outputs

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3.6.1.1.

Control function settings - FUPLA

When the FUPLA is reconfigured, the project directory must be selected before any other parameter.

After clicking on the 'Browse' select the directory in which the files 'project1.bin' and 'project.cfg' are located and select 'project1.bin'. The project name will be inserted from this file in the first line, alongwith the time stamp in the second line and the file size in the third line.

The individual parameters can be entered now.

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3.6.1.1.1.

General

Summary of parameters:
Text RepetitRate Cycl. time ho Blocking ms Unit Default low 20 Min. low 0 Max. high 1000 Step 1 1

BinaryAddr F

Explanation of parameters:
RepetitionRate Determines the number of FUPLA runs per cycle. high: four FUPLA run per cycle

medium: two FUPLA run per cycle low: one FUPLA runs per cycle

CycleTime Determines the interval between FUPLA starts. BlockInput (F FALSE, T TRUE, system binary input, protection function binary output or input via the IBB). This blocks FUPLA.

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3.6.1.1.2.

Timers

EXTIN signals of the time factor type and signals belonging to the TMSEC group are displayed in this window. The signals can be connected to the following sources:

Measured variable constant Setting range and resolution: TMSEC signal group: TIMEFACTOR signal group: 0...60.000 s, 0...40.00 s, 0...4000 s, for TON for TONS for TONL

Protection function binary output (measured variable) Observe the factors ms (TON), 10 ms (TONS), 1 s (TONL). Input from the SCS Observe the factors ms (TON), 10 ms (TONS), 1 s (TONL). Input from AXM Observe the factors ms (TON), 10 ms (TONS) 1 s (TONL).

3.6.1.1.3.

Binary inputs

Binary inputs can be connected to the following sources:



3.6.1.1.4.

Always ON ('1') Always OFF ('0') Binary system inputs Protection function binary outputs Inputs from the SCS: 768 inputs in 24 groups of 32 signals each

Binary signals

Binary signals can be connected to the following sinks:


LEDs Signalling relays Event processor (excluding 'BinExtOut' blocks) Protection function binary inputs Tripping channels Outputs to the SCS: 768 inputs in 24 groups of 32 signals each

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3.6.1.1.5.

Measurement inputs

Measurement inputs can be connected to the following sources:


Measured variable constant, integer or percent range. Protection function measured variable, the range for angles is 180.00 and currents and voltages are transferred in the corresponding units. Input from the IBB, integer range. CT/VT input channels.


3.6.1.1.6.

Measurement outputs

Measurement outputs can be connected to the following sinks:

3.6.1.1.7.

Measurements Nos. 1...64

Flow chart for measurement inputs and outputs

O1 IBB CHAN. 4 O 64 IBB CHAN. 9

V1

FUPLA function No.

1 Measurement outputs SCS input

SCS output

Measurement inputs V 64

64

Fig. 3.97

Flowchart for measured variable inputs and outputs

IBB channel No. 4 is write-only and IBB channel No. 9 read-only. The range of values for IBB channel No. 4 is -32768... +32767 which corresponds to a 16 Bit integer.
3.6.1.2. Loading FUPLA

The FUPLA code has to be loaded again each time the FUPLA configuration is changed. After making internal FUPLA changes and copying the new versions of the files 'project1.bin' and 'project.cfg' to the FUPLA directory, select 'Communication' from the main menu and then 'Setfile Download to RE..16' to load the new FUPLA code.

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3.6.2.

Logic (Logic)

A. Application
Logical combination of binary input signals or of output signals from the protection functions, e.g. for

specific signals required by the application supplementary protection functions

B. Features

Binary I/P channels assignable to binary I/P signals protection function O/P signals All I/P channels can be inverted Following logic functions available for selection: OR gate with 4 I/Ps AND gate with 4 I/Ps R/S flip-flop with 2 I/Ps for setting and 2 I/Ps for resetting: The O/P is '0', if at least one of the reset I/Ps is '1'. The O/P is '1', if at least one of the set I/Ps is '1' AND none of the reset I/Ps is '1'. The O/P status is sustained when all the I/Ps are at '0'. Every logic has an additional blocking I/P, which when activated switches the O/P to '0'.

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

None

II. Binary inputs:


4 logic inputs Blocking

III. Binary O/Ps:

Tripping

IV. Measurements:

None

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D. Logic function settings - Logic


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Logic Mode Binary Output Signal Block Input Binary Input 1 (R1) Binary Input 2 (R2) Binary Input 3 (S1) Binary Input 4 (S2) Units Default 00000000 OR SignalAddr ER BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F (Select) Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Definition of the tripping circuit excited by the functions O/P (tripping matrix). Logic Mode Definition of the logic function to be performed by the 4 binary I/Ps. Possible settings: OR: OR gate with all 4 binary I/Ps AND: AND gate with all 4 binary I/Ps R/S flip-flop: Flip-flop with 2 set I/Ps (S1 and S2) and 2 reset I/Ps (R1 and R2). The O/P is set or reset when at least one of the corresponding I/Ps is at logical '1' (OR gate). Reset I/Ps take priority over the set I/Ps. Binary Output Signal Output for signalling a trip. Block Input Input for blocking the function. F: not used xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) The O/P is always at logical '0' when the blocking I/P is at logical '1'. The blocking I/P acts as a reset I/P for the flip-flop function.

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BinInp1 (R1), BinInp2 (R2), BinInp3 (S1), BinInp4 (S2) Binary inputs 1 to 4 (AND or OR function) Reset inputs 1 and 2 and set inputs 1 and 2 (RS flip-flop) F: not used (OR logic or RS flip-flop) T: not used (AND logic) xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

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3.6.3.

Delay / integrator (Delay)

A. Application
General purpose timer for integration of pulsating binary signals to obtain a continuous signal, e.g. output of the loss-of-excitation function (out-of-step protection) or reverse power protection extension of short I/P signals (pulse prolongation) simple time delay

B. Features

I/P channel and blocking input assignable to binary I/P signals protection function output signals I/P channel and blocking input can be inverted. Adjustable reset time 2 types of time delay Integration: Only the time during which the I/P signal is at logical '1' counts at the end of the time delay. No integration: The total time from the instant the timer starts until it is either reset or expires counts.

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

None

II. Binary inputs:


Input signal Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Pick-up Tripping

IV. Measurements:

Time from the instant the timer starts

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D. Delay/integrator function settings - Delay


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Trip Delay Reset Delay Integration Binary Input Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal s s 0/1 BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Units Default 00000000 01.00 00.01 0 F F ER ER 00.00 00.00 0 300.00 300.00 1 0.01 0.01 1 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Definition of the tripping logic (matrix) excited by the functions output. Trip Delay Time between start signal at the input and the tripping signal at the output. Reset Delay Time required for the timer to reset after the input signal has disappeared. Integration Determination of the response of the function in the presence of a pulsating I/P signal: 0: The delay continues to run, providing the I/P signal does not disappear for longer than the reset time (see Fig. 3.98). 1: The time during which the I/P is at logical '1' is integrated, i.e. tripping does not take place until the sum of logical '1' time equals the set delay time (see Fig. 3.99). Binary Input Timer input. xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Block Input Input for blocking the function. F: enabled T: disabled xx: ll binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

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Trip Signal Tripping signal. Start Signal Pick-up signal.

tR Start 0 t 0

tR

tR

Impulse prolongation 0 tA Tripping 0 t 0 tA t (No tripping) t

(No tripping) t 0

tR Start 0 t 0

tR

tR t

Impulse prolongation 0 tA Tripping 0 t (No tripping) t 0 0 tA t

t
HEST 935 019 C

Note: Tripping only takes place, if a start also occurs within the time tR.
tA tR tripping time ('Trip Delay') reset time ('Reset Delay')

Fig. 3.98

Operation of the 'Delay' function without integration

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tR Start 0 t tint 0 t (No tripping) 0 t 0 0 0 Setting

tR

tR t

Setting

tint Integration

t (No tripping) t

Tripping

tR Start 0 Setting tint Integration 0 t tint 0 t 0 Setting

tR

tR

tR t

Tripping

0
HEST 935 020 C

tint tR Setting

integrated time for tripping reset time ('Reset Delay') 'Trip Delay'

Fig. 3.99

Operation of the 'Delay' function with integration

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3.6.4.

Counter (Counter)

A. Application
General counters, e.g. for

counting the output impulses of the field failure or reverse power protection functions prolongation of short input signals

B. Features

Input channel and blocking input can be set by binary input signals output signal from a protection function Provision for inverting signals applied to the inputs

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

None

II. Binary inputs:


Input signal Blocking

III. Binary outputs:


Start Trip

IV. Measurements:

Count reached

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D. Counter settings - Count


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Set Count Drop Time ResetTime Binary Input Block Input Trip Signal Start Signal S S Unit Default 00000000 1 00.04 010.0 1 00.01 000.1 100 30.00 300.0 1 00.01 000.1 Min. Max. Step

BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER

Explanation of parameters:
Trip defines the tripping channel activated by the tripping O/P of the function (matrix tripping logic). Set Count Number of input impulses counted by the counter before it trips. Drop Time Time the counter output signal is maintained after the input signal causing it has reset. ResetTime Time after the input signal has reset before the counter is reset to zero if it did not trip. Binary Input Counter input xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions). Block Input defines the input for an external blocking signal. F: function enabled T: function disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Trip Signal Tripping signal. Start Signal Pick-up signal.

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3.6.5.

Contact bounce filter (Debounce)

A. Application
Suppresses the contact bounce phenomena of binary signals. This function is only used for the signals of binary input modules.

B. Features

Adjustable maximum bounce time The first edge of the respective input signal is prolonged by the time 'SupervisTime'.

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

None

II. Binary inputs:


Binary signals (input signals) Blocking

III. Binary outputs:

None

IV. Measurements:

None

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D. Contact bounce filter settings - Debounce


Summary of parameters:
Text Binary Input 1 Supervision Time 1 Binary Input 2 Supervision Time 2 Binary Input 3 Supervision Time 3 . . Binary Input 16 Supervision Time 16 BinaryAddr F Setting 1 ms 1 ms 10000 ms 1 ms Units Default Min. Max. Step

BinaryAddr F Setting Setting Setting 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms 10000 ms 1 ms 10000 ms 1 ms 10000 ms 1 ms BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F

Explanation of parameters:
Binary Input 1 16 Binary inputs Nos. 1 16 F: not used xx: all binary inputs. Supervision Time (per Channel) Maximum bounce time setting.

E. Setting instructions
The first edge of the input signal is prolonged by the time set for 'Supervision Time'.

NOTICE: Connect functions requiring filtered signals to the correct binary inputs to start with.
The contact bounce filter 'Debounce' may only be configured once per set of parameters.

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3.6.6.

Signal flutter detector (Defluttering)

A. Application
Suppresses the recording of multiple events for binary signals subject to contact bounce.

B. Features

Input channels can be set by binary input signals output signals (trips) from protection functions provision for inverting signals applied to the inputs adjustable supervision time and permissible signal change Two outputs assigned to each input: signal flutter detected (too many signal changes during the supervision time) image of the status of the input signal

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

None

II. Binary inputs:

Binary signals (input signals)

III. Binary outputs:


Signal flutter detected Image of the input signal status

IV. Measurements:

None

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D. Signal flutter detector settings - Defluttering


Summary of parameters:
Text Supervising Time Nr of Signal Changes Binary Input 1 Binary Input 2 Binary Input 3 Binary Input 4 State of Input 1 State of Input 2 State of Input 3 State of Input 4 Flutter State Input 1 Flutter State Input 2 Flutter State Input 3 Flutter State Input 4 Unit s Default 1.0 2 BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER SignalAddr ER Min. 0.1 2 Max. 60.0 100 Step 0.1 1

Explanation of parameters:
Supervising Time defines the time during which multiple signals count as signal flutter. Nr Of Signal Changes defines the number of signal changes during the supervision time to count as signal flutter. If a higher number of signal changes is detected during the supervision time, the signal is deemed to be fluttering. Binary Input 1 Binary input No. 1 F: function disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Binary Input 2 Binary input No. 2 F: function disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Binary Input 3 Binary input No. 3 F: function disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

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Binary Input 4 Binary input No. 4 F: function disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) State of Input 1 signals the status of input No. 1 State of Input 2 signals the status of input No. 2 State of Input 3 signals the status of input No. 3 State of Input 4 signals the status of input No. 4 Flutter State Input 1 signals that flutter detected on input No. 1 Flutter State Input 2 signals that flutter detected on input No. 2 Flutter State Input 3 signals that flutter detected on input No. 3 Flutter State Input 4 signals that flutter detected on input No. 4

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E. Setting instructions General:


If a signal at an input changes its state in a given period of time (Supervising Time) more frequently than a given number of times (Nr of Signal Changes), the input is deemed to be fluttering due, for example, to contact bounce. As a result, no further signal changes at the input are recorded as events. Its basic protective function, however, remains intact. This condition is maintained until fewer signal changes are counted than the number defined for the given period.

Settings:
Supervision time Number of signal changes permissible Supervising Time Nr of Signal Changes

The functions counters continuously count the signal changes at the inputs selected. They are reset at the end of each supervision period. Should the number of signal changes counted during the period exceed the maximum permissible for the input, the input is tagged as fluttering and the corresponding output set. The 'fluttering' condition is maintained for as long as the number of signal changes is higher the set limit and is only cancelled and the output reset when a smaller number of changes is counted during the period. To prevent the flutter function from fluttering itself (i.e. the number of changes of an input is just about equal to the number of changes setting), the number of changes for resetting to the non-fluttering state must be less than the number of changes required for pick-up minus ten percent, but at least one change less when the number of changes for pick-up is set to less than ten. Note that the start and finish of a supervision period is not signalled externally. It can therefore occur that fluttering is not signalled although the number of changes briefly exceeded the maximum permissible, but the excess happened to straddle two supervision periods.

Typical settings:
Supervising Time Nr of Signal Changes 10 s 20

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3.6.7.

LDU events (LDUevents)

A. Application
Generates events that can be viewed on the local display unit (LDU) and provides facility for setting a user name.

B. Features

Binary input that can be set by a binary input signal an output signal from a protection function Provision for inverting signals applied to the inputs Direct connection of input to output: input 1 controls output 1, input 2 control output 2 etc. Additional blocking input for entire function: all outputs are reset to logical '0' when blocking input at logical '1'.

An event lists the name of the signal connected to the input and not the name of the output.

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

None

II. Binary inputs:


4 independent inputs Blocking

III. Binary outputs:

4 independent outputs

IV. Measurements:

None

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D. LDU event function settings LDUevents


Summary of parameters:
Text Blocking Input Binary Input 1 Binary Input 2 Binary Input 3 Binary Input 4 Signalling Output 1 Signalling Output 2 Signalling Output 3 Signalling Output 4 Unit BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Default F F F F F ER ER ER ER Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Blocking Input Binary address used as blocking input. F: not used xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) All outputs at logical '0' when the blocking input is active. Binary Input 1, Binary Input 2, Binary Input 3, Binary Input t4 Binary inputs 1 to 4: Every input acts directly on the corresponding output and can only be influenced by the inversion and blocking parameters. Signal Output 1, Signal Output 2, Signal Output 3, Signal Output 4 Signalling outputs 1 to 4: Every input acts directly on the corresponding output. Whether an output is recorded as an event can be enabled or disabled. When it is enabled, it appears on the local display.

NOTICE: In contrast to all other functions, the name of the signal connected to the corresponding input appears in the event list instead of the name of the output. A function can therefore be given a descriptive, easily understood name that appear in the event list and on the local display.

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3.7. 3.7.1.

Measurement functions Measurement function (UIfPQ)

A. Application
Measurement of voltage, current, real and apparent power and frequency, e.g. for display on the monitor of the control unit or for transferring to a high level station control system for further processing.

B. Features
Single-phase measurement (1 voltage and 1 current I/P) Phase-to-ground or optionally phase-to-phase voltage measurement (providing three-phase Y connected VTs are installed) Evaluation of the fundamental frequency components High accuracy in the frequency range (0.9 ... 1.1) fN Frequency of voltage measured unless voltage too low, in which case current is measured; if both are too low, the result is set to rated frequency At least 1 measurement per second Filters for voltage and current DC components Filters for voltage and current harmonics Provision for compensation of connection and measurement phase errors.

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Voltage Current

II. Binary inputs:

None

III. Binary outputs:

None

IV. Measurements:

Voltage Current Real power Apparent power Frequency

(unit UN) (unit IN) (unit PN (P)) (unit PN (Q)) (unit Hz)

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D. Measurement function settings - UIfPQ


Summary of parameters:
Text Angle PN Voltage Mode Voltage Input Chan. Current Input Chan. CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr Units degrees UN*IN Default Min. 0.000 1.000 direct 0 0 -180.0 0.200 (Select) Max. 180.0 2.500 Step 0.1 0.001

Explanation of parameters
Angle Characteristic angle for measuring real power. The phase-angle is also taken into account when measuring apparent power. The default setting of 0.0 degrees should not be changed, when voltage and current I/Ps are in phase when measuring purely real power, e.g. when measuring the phase-to-ground voltage and current of the same conductor. The setting may vary from 0.0 in the following cases: compensation of CT and VT phase errors compensation of the phase-shift between phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase voltages compensation of the phase-shift between voltage and current in general (e.g. when measuring S-T voltage and R current). PN Rated power corresponding to UN IN. This enables the amplitude of the measured power to be adjusted, for example, to equal the rated power factor of a generator. Voltage Mode Definition of the method of voltage measurement and therefore also the calculation of power. Possible settings: Direct The voltage of the selected voltage I/P is measured directly. Delta The phase-to-phase voltage formed by the selected voltage I/P and the cyclically lagging voltage channel is measured. This setting is not permitted when only a singlephase is connected or when phase-to-phase voltages are connected.

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Voltage Input Chan. Defines the VT input channel. All voltage I/Ps are available for selection. Current Input Chan. Defines the CT input channel. All current inputs are available for selection.

E. Setting instructions
The measurement function must be carefully set to obtain the best accuracy. The following must be observed:

CT/VT input channel reference values The reference values for the voltage and current input channels must be set such that, when the rated values are applied to the inputs, 1.000 UN and 1.000 IN are measured by the function. In most cases it will be possible to retain the default reference setting (1.000) for the CT and VT input channels. Note that any changes made to the reference value of a three-phase voltage or current I/P applies to all phases.

'Angle' setting for phase error compensation The parameter 'Phase-angle' must be correctly set in order to measure real and apparent power correctly. In most cases it will be possible to retain the default reference setting of 0.0 degrees when measuring the phase-to-ground voltage and current of the same conductor. Other settings may be necessary in the following cases: a) A phase-to-phase voltage is being measured, e.g. measurement of the R phase current in relation to the R - S voltage: phase compensation: +30.0 b) Compensation of CT and VT phase errors. phase compensation: according to calibration, e.g. (5.0...+5.0) c) Change of measuring direction or correction of CT or VT polarity. phase compensation: +180.0 or 180 Where several of these factors have to be taken into consideration, the phase compensation in all the cases must be added and the resultant set. The angles given apply for connection according to the connections in Chapter 12.

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Power reference value 'PN' In most cases it will be possible to retain the default reference setting (1.000). Since the errors in the voltage and current reference values add geometrically, a fine setting is recommended to achieve the best possible accuracy.

Check the settings for 'Angle' and 'PN' using an accurate test set according to the following procedure: a) Inject purely active power at rated voltage and current. b) The active power measurement must be as close as possible to 1.000 or oscillate symmetrically to either side of it. Adjust the value of 'PN' as necessary. c) The reactive power measurement must be as close as possible to 0.000 or oscillate symmetrically to either side of it. Adjust the value of 'Angle' as necessary.

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3.7.2.

Three-phase current plausibility (Check-I3ph)

A. Application
Checking the plausibility of the three-phase current inputs for monitoring the symmetry of the three-phase system detection of a residual current supervision of the CT input channels

B. Features

Evaluation of the sum of the three phase currents the sequence of the three phase currents Provision for comparing the sum of the three phase currents with a residual current I/P Adjustment of residual current amplitude Blocking at high currents (higher than 2 IN) Blocking of phase-sequence monitoring at low currents (below 0.05 IN) Insensitive to DC components Insensitive to harmonics

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Phase currents Neutral current (optional)

II. Binary inputs:

Blocking

III. Binary outputs:

Tripping

IV. Measurements:

Difference between the vector sum of the three phase currents and the neutral current

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D. Current plausibility function settings - Check-I3ph


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip I-Setting Delay CT Compensation Current Input Channel Summation Current Input Block Input Trip Signal CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr SignalAddr IN s Units Default 00000000 0.20 10.0 1.00 0 0 F ER 0.05 0.1 -2.00 1.00 60.0 +2.00 0.05 0.1 0.01 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Definition of the tripping logic (matrix) excited by the functions O/P. I-Setting Current setting for tripping. Delay Time between start signal at the I/P and the tripping signal at the O/P. Forbidden settings: 1 s for current settings 0.2 IN CT Compensation Amplitude compensation factor for the residual current I/P, enabling different transformation ratios of the main CTs for phase and residual currents to be equalised. The polarity of the residual current can be reversed by entering negative values. Current Input Channel Defines the current input channel. Any of the three-phase current I/Ps may be selected. The first channel (R phase) of a three-phase group is entered. Summation Current Input Defines the neutral current input channel. Any of the single-phase current I/Ps may be selected. Block Input Input for blocking the function. F: enabled T: disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

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Trip Signal Tripping signal.

Note:
If the phase sequence is incorrect, tripping takes place regardless of setting (I-Setting).

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3.7.3.

Three-phase voltage plausibility (Check-U3ph)

A. Application
Checking the plausibility of the three-phase voltage inputs for detection of residual voltage monitoring the asymmetry of the three-phase voltage system due to the zero-sequence component supervision of the VT input channels

B. Features

Evaluation of the sum of the three phase voltages the sequence of the three phase voltages Provision for comparing the sum of the three phase voltages with a residual voltage I/P Adjustment of residual voltage amplitude Blocking at high voltages (higher than 1.2 UN) Blocking of phase-sequence monitoring at low voltages (below 0.4 UN phase-to-phase) Insensitive to DC components Insensitive to harmonics

Evaluation of the phase voltages is only possible in the case of Y connected input transformers, otherwise the residual component cannot be detected.

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:


Phase voltages Neutral voltage (optional)

II. Binary inputs:

Blocking

III. Binary outputs:

Tripping

IV. Measurements:

Difference between the vector sum of the three phase voltages and the neutral voltage

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D. Voltage plausibility function settings - Check-U3ph


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip V-Setting Delay VT Compensation Voltage Input Channel Summation Voltage Input Block Input Trip Signal CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr Signaladdr Units 00000000 UN s 0.20 10.0 01.00 0 0 F ER 0.05 0.1 -2.00 1.20 60.0 +2.00 0.1 0.1 0.01 Default Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Definition of the tripping logic (matrix) excited by the functions output. V-Setting Voltage setting for tripping. Delay Time between start signal at the I/P and the tripping signal at the O/P. Forbidden setting: 1 s for voltage settings 0.2 UN VT Compensation Amplitude compensation factor for the residual voltage I/P, enabling different transformation ratios of the main VTs for phase and residual voltages to be equalised. The polarity of the residual voltage can be reversed by entering negative values. Voltage Input Channel Defines the voltage input channel. Any of the three-phase voltage inputs may be selected. The first channel (R phase) of a three-phase group is entered. Not applicable with delta connected VTs. Summation Voltage Input Defines the neutral voltage input channel. Any of the single-phase voltage inputs may be selected.

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Block Input Input for blocking the function. F: enabled T: disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Trip Signal Tripping signal.

Note:
If the phase sequence is incorrect, tripping takes place regardless of setting (U-Setting).

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3.7.4.

Disturbance recorder (Disturbance Rec)

A. Application
Recording current and voltage wave forms and the values of function variables before, during and after operation of a protection function.

B. Features

Records up to 9 CT and VT inputs Records up to 12 measured function variables Records up to 16 binary inputs Sampling rate of 12 samples per period (i.e. 600, respectively 720 Hz) 9 analog and 8 binary signals recorded in approx. 5 seconds Function initiated by the general pick-up or general trip signals, or by any binary signal (binary I/P or O/P of a protection function). Data recorded in a ring shift register with provision for deleting the oldest record to make room for a new one. Choice of procedure if memory full: either 'stop recording' or 'Overwrite oldest records'.

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

All installed inputs available

II. Measured variable inputs:

All installed measured function variables available

III. Binary inputs:

All installed inputs available (also outputs of protection functions)

IV. Binary outputs:


Start of recording Memory full

V. Measurements:

None

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D. Disturbance recorder function settings - Disturbance Rec


Summary of parameters:
Text Station Address PreEvent Event PostEvent Recording Mode Trigger Mode Storage Mode Binary Output Mem Full Signal Analog Input 1 Analog Input 2 . . Analog Input 12 Binary Input 1 Binary Input 2 . . Binary Input 16 Trig Binary Input 1 Trig Binary Input 2 . . Trig Binary Input 16 MWA Input 1 . . MWA Input 12 MWA Scale1 . . MWA Scale12 Factor MeasVar Factor 1 1 1000 1 MeasVar No Trigger (Select) BinaryAddr F No Trigger No Trigger (Select) (Select) CT/VT-Addr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr F F SignalAddr SignalAddr CT/VT-Addr CT/VT-Addr ms ms ms Units Default 1 40 100 40 A TrigByStart StopOnFull ER ER Min. 0 40 100 40 (Select) (Select) (Select) Max. 99 400 3000 400 Step 1 20 50 20

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Explanation of parameters:
Station Address Number of the disturbance recorder for identifying records for subsequent evaluation. PreEvent Definition of how long the recorder runs before a possible event. Event Definition of the maximum limit for the duration of an event (recording mode A). In recording mode B, the same parameter sets the duration of recording. PostEvent Definition of how long the recorder runs after an event (after EventDur). Recording Mode Definition of how events should be recorded. Possible settings: A: Recording only while the trigger signal is active. (minimum time = 100 ms, maximum time = event duration setting). B: Recording from the instant of the trigger signal for the event duration setting.

Trigger Mode Definition of the instant of triggering and how binary signals are recorded. The configured CT and VT channels are always recorded. Possible settings:

TrigByStart: The disturbance recorder is triggered when a protection function picks up (general pick-up). Binary signals are not recorded. TrigByTrip: The disturbance recorder is triggered when a protection function trips (general trip). Binary signals are not recorded. TrigByBin1: The disturbance recorder is triggered by the binary I/P 1. Binary signals are not recorded. TrigAnyBin: Defined binary signals are recorded and recording is triggered by any of them via an OR gate. TrigStrt&Bin: Defined binary signals are recorded and recording is triggered by any of them via an OR gate and also when a protection function picks up (general pick-up). TrigTrip&Bin: Defined binary signals are recorded and recording is triggered by any of them via an OR gate and also when a protection function trips (general pick-up).

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NOTICE: If the trigger conditions are connected to an OR gate and one of them is fulfilled, the other trigger conditions bear no influence and no further records are made. In this situation, a record is initiated when the disturbance recorder is reset.
Storage Mode determines the procedure when the memory is full: StopOnFull: No further data are recorded when the memory is full. Overwrite: The oldest records are overwritten and therefore lost. Binary Output O/P signalling that recording is taking place. Mem Full Signal Warning that the memory is full. Normally, there remains sufficient room for at least one more record after this signal is generated. Analog Input 1...Analog Input 12 Defines the CT and VT inputs to be recorded. The setting is the number of the I/P. The numbers of the CT and VT inputs do not necessarily have to agree with the numbers of the CT and VT channels, however, no gaps are permitted (setting zero). Binary Input 1...Binary Input 16 Binary inputs to be recorded (for triggering modes 'TrStrt&Bin, TrigAnyBin and TrTrip&Bin'). Binary address (binary input or output of a protection function). No recording takes place for FFALSE or TTRUE. A particular order is not necessary. There may also be gaps.

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Trig Binary Input 1...Trig Binary Input 16 Definition of a corresponding binary signal as one of the trigger signals for initiating recording. All the trigger signals thus defined, are connected to an OR gate so that any one of them can start recording. Possible settings are:

No trigger: The corresponding signal has no influence on the start of recording. Trigger: A positive-going edge of the corresponding signal from logical '0' to logical '1' initiates recording. Inv. Trigger: A negative-going edge of the corresponding signal from logical '1' to logical '0' initiates recording.

MWA Input 1...MWA Input 12 Measured variables to be recorded. Possible settings are:

Disconnected, no input Output of a protection function, measured variable of the selected function Input from SCS, input variable of IBB channel 4, inputs 1...64. Input from AXM, input from the remote Analog Input card

MWA Scale 1...MWA Scale 12 Scaling factors for reading the disturbance records.

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E. Setting instructions General:

NOTICE: The disturbance recorder function may be configured only once for each parameter set.
Only the original function can be active in each set. In case a disturbance recorder is active in each parameter set or copied from the original function, the following must be observed: To prevent an incorrect interpretation all the old records are deleted, upon switching over to another active parameter set. Therefore these must be uploaded before a switch over.
The special 'disturbance recorder' function serves to record current and voltage waveforms and measured function variables when a protection function picks up. A battery buffered 64 kByte memory is provided for this purpose, which enables 9 analog and 8 binary signals to be recorded within a maximum of approx. 5 seconds. To ensure that the memory is not filled by useless data, recording only takes place after a starting signal (trigger signal). Each time a start signal is generated, the data are recorded for a predefined time and saved as an 'event'. Thus depending on the definitions of the relevant times, the memory has capacity for between 1 and approx. 56 events. To enable the circumstances leading up to an event and also the responses after an event to be studied, an event comprises three parts, the pre-event data (recorded before the start signal), the data of the event itself and the post-event data. The durations of these three periods can be independently defined. How the data prior to an event is obtained requires a little more explanation. Data are continuously recorded from the instant the programming of the perturbograph function has been completed. They are fed into a ring shift register, the older data at the beginning being overwritten as soon as the register is full. This cyclic overwriting of the ring register continues until a start signal initiates the recording of an event (trigger signal). Thus the circumstances immediately prior to the actual event are available in the ring register. The duration of the record of the actual event is determined by the tripping signal (trigger signal), i.e. recording continues for as long as it is active (recording mode A). If the tripping signal is very short, recording lasts for at least 100 milliseconds and if it is very long, recording is discontinued upon reaching the maximum duration (set event time). A second mode of operation is also provided (recording mode B), for which the duration of recording always equals the set event time regardless of the duration of the trigger signal.

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The post-event circumstances are of less importance, especially in recording mode B, in which case simply the duration of recording is extended. The essential thing is that during post-event recording, a new trigger signal can initiate the recording of new events. This, however, means that two events overlap and it may not always be possible to fully reconstruct the circumstances of both events (part of the pre-event data is in the preceding event). The entire event memory operates as a ring register. This means that a single event can be deleted to make room for a new one without having to delete the others. The procedure followed when the memory is full can be selected. Either recording is discontinued and no new events are recorded, or the oldest records are overwritten so that the memory always contains the latest events. It must be noted that in this mode, a record can be deleted before it has been transferred to an operator station. Even if transfer of a record is in progress, it will be interrupted to make room for a new record.

Application programs
Disturbance recorder data files are stored in a binary format and can only be evaluated using the PSM E_wineve program (see Operating Instructions 1MRB520372-Ude) or the REVAL program (see REVAL Operating Instructions 1MDU10024-EN). Disturbance recorder data (currents, voltages and measured variables) can be transferred back to the RE.316*4 device using the conversion program XSCON (in conjunction with the test set XS92b). To inject the disturbance signals with other test equipment convert the disturbance records with PSM / E_wineve to COMTRADE format. Refer to Section 9.3. for the procedure for transferring disturbance data via the IBB. Measured function variables may have values which cannot be entirely reproduced by the evaluation software. Such variables can be reduced using the scaling factors 'MeasScale'. The highest number the evaluation software can reproduce faithfully is 16535. The evaluation software automatically takes account of the scaling factors.

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The following table shows scaling examples for the most important measured function variables.
Function UIfPQ UIfPQ UIfPQ Synchro Check Power Meas. variable f (50Hz) P Q degrees (180) PN Nominal value 20000 820698 820698 31415 1641397 'MeasScale' 2 52 52 2 105

'MeasScale' is given by:

Nominal value + Margin 16535

Processor capacity:
The disturbance recorder function runs on the same central processing unit (CPU) as the protection functions. The processor capacity required by the disturbance recorder function as a percentage of the total capacity and in relation to the number of signals is:

20 % for 9 analog and 0 binary signals 40 % for 9 analog and 16 binary signals

The disturbance recorder function will thus be generally confined to recording the analog variables and be triggered by the general start or general trip signals. Changes in the states of binary signals are nevertheless registered by the event recorder.

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Recording duration:
The time during which data are recorded can be determined from the following relationship: t rec = 65535 ((n + 1) 22) p (2a + b) 12 max. recording time Number of events recorded Number of CT and VT channels recorded Number of Bytes required for binary channels (one Byte per eight binary signals) duration of one cycle at power system frequency (e.g. 20 ms for 50 Hz)

where trec: n: a: b: p:

Example:
n = 10 a=9 b = 2 (i.e. 9 to 16 signals) p = 20 ms t rec = 65535 ((10 + 1) 22) 20 ms = 5.44 s ( 2 9 + 2) 12

It follows that for the given number of channels and power system frequency, the capacity is sufficient for 10 events of 540 ms duration each.

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File PLOT.TXT
The programs PSM E_wineve, REVAL and XSCON need the file PLOT.TXT to be able to process the disturbance recorder data.

Example PLOT.TXT
Hardware configuration: A/D config: Overcurrent: Overvoltage: K9 A1 (IN = 1 A) U1 (UN = 100 V)

N: S: D0 D1 D2 U0 U1 U2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 U8

1 M316V6.5 : OC101 : OC106 : f 2 Trip : : : : : : : : : UR US UT IR IS IT I0 IM0 USS

/CO: 1 /CO: 1 /CO: 1 /CO: /CO: /CO: /CO: /CO: /CO: /CO: /CO: /CO: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 /TR: /TR: /TR: /TR: /TR: /TR: /TR: /TR: /TR: 39.62000 39.62000 39.62000 54.150 54.150 54.150 54.150 1.2530 39.62000 /UN: /UN: /UN: /UN: /UN: /UN: /UN: /UN: /UN: V V V A A A A A V

where: N: S: Dnn Unn:, Inn: /CO 1 to 15: station number: text station name: text binary channels: text (max. 8 char.) voltage channel, current channel: text (max. 8 char.) number of the plot colour for PSM E_wineve (In the case of REVAL the plotting colour is determined by the particular layout) conversion ratio for PSM E_wineve, REVAL unit for PSM E_wineve, REVAL: text

/TR: /UN:

NOTICE: 'Unn:' and 'Inn:' are needed by XSCON to indicate whether a channel is being used for voltage or current.

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Ratio TR
Voltage channels for REL316*4 and REC316*4 100 V: 200 V: TR = 19.81 TR = 39.62 TR = 0.1981 in V in V times UN

Voltage channels for REG316*4 and RET316*4 15 V: 100 V: 200 V: TR = 5.144 TR = 34.312 TR = 68.624 TR = 0.34312 in V in V in V times UN

Current channels RE.316*4 Protection: 1 A: 2 A: 5 A: Metering: 1 A: 2 A: 5 A: TR = 10.83 TR = 21.66 TR = 54.11 TR = 10.83 TR = 0.2506 TR = 0.5011 TR = 1.253 TR = 0.2506 in A in A in A times IN in A in A in A times IN

These ratios enable WinEVE to determine the secondary values. These ratios must be multiplied by the ratio of the main CTs and VTs to obtain the primary system values.

Automatic creation of the file plotxxx.txt:


In case a disturbance recorder is configured, the file plotxxx.txt is automatically stored in the directory, from which the HMI is started, if:

CAP2/316 starts online, or otherwise subsequent to the upload of the configuration from the device, the configuration is downloaded to the device, a new configuration file is opened,

but not if the configuration data is stored onto a disk.

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Merger of several plotxxx.txt:


Several files plotxxx.txt with different station numbers (xxx) can be combined to a single plot.txt. The file plot.txt must be at the same location as the disturbance recorder data for the REVAL evaluation program.

Example:
PLOT.TXT (existing file), plot020.txt (data for station No. 20) and plot021.txt (data for station No. 21) can be combined using the DOS command: C:\REL316 C>copy PLOT.TXT+plot020.txt+plot021.txt PLOT.TXT The file PLOT.TXT can be modified using an editor.

Instructions for installing the data evaluation program PSM E_wineve


The data evaluation program must be installed in accordance with the operating instructions 1MRB520372-Uen.

WINEVE
Copy the file 'PLOT.TXT' to the directory: C:\I650\EVENTS A disturbance should be recorded during the commissioning of every relay and the record stored in the directory given above. The procedure for installing the station parameter files is as follows:

Start the WINEVE program. Open a fault record The following error message appears: C:\I650\STATION\ST0xx.PAR Could not find file.

Click on OK. Select the menu item 'Import station file' in the 'Parameter' menu. Select the file PLOT.TXT belonging to this disturbance recording. Select the menu item 'Save station' in the 'Parameter' menu.

This procedure must be repeated for all the relays. The configuration file PLOT.TXT is no longer necessary and the error message concerning the missing station file does not appear. WINEVE provides facility for editing and resaving all the station parameters (texts, colours etc.).

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Exception: The ratios TR have to be changed in the file PLOT.TXT and the file re-imported and saved again as described above.

REVAL
Copy the file 'PLOT.TXT' to the following directory: C:\SMS\REVAL\EVENTS REVAL rereads the file PLOT.TXT every time a disturbance record is loaded, however, any colours specified in PLOT.TXT are ignored. Instead, the colours are assigned by REVAL and can be edited after a disturbance record has been loaded.

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3.7.5.

Measurement module (Measurement Module)

A. Application
Measurement of 3 phase voltages, 3 phase currents, active and reactive power, power factor cos (cos phi) and frequency, e.g. for display on an operating device or transmission to a station monitoring system.

B. Features

Measurement of 3 phase voltages (Y and delta), currents, active and reactive power, power factor cos and frequency. Provision for using the 3 phase current inputs in combination with either 3 phase-to-phase voltages or 3 phase-to-earth voltages. 2 independent impulse counter inputs for calculation of interval and accumulated energy The three-phase measurement and impulse counters can be used independently and may also be disabled. Up to 4 measurement module functions can be configured on one RE..16 device. All inputs and outputs can be configured by the user.

C. Inputs and Outputs I. CT / VT inputs:


Voltage Current

II. Binary inputs:


2 impulse inputs 2 reset inputs

III. Binary outputs:

2 outputs for the new counter value

IV. Measurement values:


Voltage URS (Unit UN) Voltage UST (Unit UN) Voltage UTR (Unit UN) Voltage UR (Unit UN) Voltage US (Unit UN) Voltage UT (Unit UN) Current R (Unit IN) Current S (Unit IN) Current T (Unit IN) Active power P (Unit PN) Reactive power Q (Unit QN) Power factor cos (Unit cos phi)

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Frequency f (Unit Hz) Interval energy value 1 (E1Int) Interval pulse number 1 (P1Int) Accumulated energy value 1 (E1Acc) Accumulated pulse number (P1Acc) Interval energy value 2 (E2Int) Interval pulse number 2 (P2Int) Accumulated energy value 2 (E2Acc) Accumulated pulse number 2 (P2Acc)

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D. Measurement module function settings (Measurement Module)


Summary of parameters:
Text VoltageInp CurrentInp PN AngleComp t1-Interval PulseInp 1 Reset 1 ScaleFact 1 Cnt 1 New t2-Interval PulseInp 2 Reset 2 ScaleFact 2 Cnt 2 New SignalAddr SignalAddr Select BinaryAddr BinaryAddr 15 min F F 1.0000 0.0001 1.0000 0.0001 CT/VT-Addr UN*IN*3 Deg Select BinaryAddr BinaryAddr Unit Default 0 0 1.000 0.000 15 min F F 1.0000 0.0001 1.0000 0.0001 0.200 -180 2.500 180 0.001 0.1 Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
VoltageInp defines the voltage input channel. Only three-phase VTs can be set and the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Voltage and current inputs must be assigned before the threephase measurement part of the function can be activated. If only the pulse counter part of the function is to be used, both CT and VT inputs must be disabled. CurrentInp defines the current input channel. Only three-phase CTs can be set and the first channel (R phase) of the group of three selected must be specified. Current and voltage input signals must come from the same CT/VT input module. PN Reference value for measuring power. It enables the amplitude of the power values to be adjusted to take account, for example, of the rated power factor cos or to compensate the amplitude errors of the input transformers.

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AngleComp Angular setting for compensating the phase error. It is set to obtain the best possible power measuring accuracy. In many cases, the default setting of 0.0 degrees will be acceptable, but a different setting may be necessary to compensate the following: a) CT and VT phase errors typical setting: -5 ... +5 b) correction of CT or VT polarity typical setting: -180or +180 t1-Interval Interval set for accumulating pulses assigned to E1 acc_interval and Pulse1acc_interval. The following settings are possible: 1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 20 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min. PulseInp 1 Input for energy counter impulse. F: not used T: always active. This setting should not be used. xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

Note: Minimum pulse-width is 10 ms.


Reset 1 Input to reset E1accumulate and Pulse1accumulate outputs. F: no reset T: always reset xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) ScaleFact 1 Factor for scaling E1 outputs in relation to pulse counter output: E1acc_interval = Pulse1acc_interval ScaleFact 1 E1accumulate = Pulse1accumulate ScaleFact 1. Cnt 1 New Output to indicate that new values are available at impulse counter 1 outputs and have been frozen. The binary output is cleared 30 s after the interval starts. t2-Interval See t1-Interval. PulseInp 2 See PulseInp 1.

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Reset 2 See Reset 1. ScaleFact 2 See ScaleFact 1. Cnt 2 New See Cnt 1 New.

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E. Setting Instructions
To get the best performance from the measurement module, be sure to set it properly. The following notes should help to decide the correct settings:

Reference values for the analog input channels The settings in this case should be chosen such that the functions measures 1.000 UN and 1.000 IN when rated voltage and current are being applied. In many cases the default setting (1.000) will be satisfactory. Phase compensation 'Angle comp' This setting is important for correct measurement of active and reactive power and the power factor cos . For most cases, it is possible to accept the default value 0.0. A different setting may be necessary to compensate the following: a) CT and VT phase errors typical setting: between -5.0 and +5.0 b) correction of direction of the measurement or CT or VT polarity typical setting: -180.0 or +180.0 Add multiple errors to obtain the correct compensation setting. The angles given apply for connection according to the connections in Chapter 12.

Voltage measurement The zero-sequence component in case of delta-connected VTs is assumed to be zero, but with Y-connected VTs the zero-sequence voltage does have an influence on the phase-to-ground measurements. In an ungrounded power system, the phase-toground voltages will float in relation to ground. Power and frequency measurements A power measurement is obtained by summing the powers of the three-phase system: 3 S = UR IR* + US IS* + UT IT*. The measurement is largely insensitive to frequency in the range (0.8...1.2) fN. The frequency measured is that of the positive sequence voltage. Should the voltage be too low, the frequency is not measured and a value of 0.0 Hz results. Where only the impulse counter is in use, both analog inputs (current and voltage) must be disabled. Where only the measurement part of the function is in use, the binary impulse and reset inputs of both impulse counters must be disabled, i.e. 'always FALSE'.

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3.7.5.1.

Impulse counter inputs

The impulses counted are normally generated by a measuring or metering device (see Fig. 3.100).

TPulse =
tPulse

1 fPulse

tPause

Fig. 3.100

Impulse counter input signal

The maximum impulse repetition rate is 25 Hz (see Fig. 3.100). Thus the minimum time between the positive-going edges of two input 1 impulses is TPuls, min = Hz = 40 ms . 25
The pulse-width is determined by the function generating the impulses and the ratio between the pulse-width and the interval between lagging and leading edges should be in the range 1:3 to 1:1, i.e.:
tPulse, min = 1 1 TPulse, min = TPulse, min = 10 ms 1+ 3 4

Since the impulse counter is polled approximately every 5 ms, impulses are reliably detected with a safety factor of about 2. The impulse counter evaluates the positive-going edges (0 1) of the input signal. To filter any contact bounce (debouncing) phenomena, only the first positive-going edge is evaluated within a given period (typically 10 ms).

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3.7.5.2.

Impulse counter operation

Fig. 3.101 shows the principles of impulse counter operation.


Block diagram for one impulse counter channel
Scaling factor tinterval Intermediate buffer acc_interval Counter freeze tinterval

Impulse counter input

Scaling

Eacc_interval Pulseacc_interval

Reset

Scaling factor

Intermediate buffer accumulate

Eaccumulate
Scaling

Pulseaccumulate

Signal response tinterval tinterval Impulse counter input Eacc_interval Pulseacc_interval


Counter values to be transferred

tinterval

tinterval Reset t t

Eaccumulate Pulseaccumulate
Counter value to be transferred

Fig. 3.101

Block diagram for one impulse counter channel and signal response

3.7.5.3.

Impulse counter operating principle

The binary inputs 'Reset 1' and 'Reset 2' reset the counter values Eaccumulate and Pulseaccumulate to zero. The interval values Eacc_interval and Pulseacc_interval are not reset.

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When a reset command is applied to binary input 'Reset 1' or 'Reset 2', measurement events with the values of Eaccumulate and Pulseaccumulate are created for the respective channel before its counters are reset. Impulse counter values are stored in a RAM with a battery supply and are not lost should the auxiliary supply fail. Impulses arriving at the inputs while the software is being initialised, e.g. after settings have been made, are lost.

Capacity for Pulseaccumulate: At the maximum impulse repetition rate, the total number of impulses counted during a year is 25 pps 3,600 s/h 8,760 h/year = 788,400,000 impulses per year. The output is reset to zero when a counter reaches 2,000,000,000, i.e. 2 109. Unless special measures taken or a counter is reset, it can overflow at the worst after approx. 2,5 years. Should an impulse counter overflow, the value of Pulseaccumulate is recorded in the event list. No further measures have been included, because 1. an overflow is hardly likely to occur. 2. should an overflow occur, it is obvious providing the counters are checked regularly, for example, by an SCS. If necessary, the total number of impulses counted since the last reset can be determined even after an overflow.

3.7.5.4.

Interval processing

The interval starts at a full hour plus a even multiple of tInterval and is synchronised to a full minute by the internal RE..16 clock. Assuming tInterval is set to 120 min, the interval is started at even hours throughout the day. Impulse counter and energy outputs are set at the start of the first regular interval, even if the previous interval was incomplete. This ensures that no impulses are lost after starting the function. When tinterval expires, the following takes place:

The counter values Eaccumulate, Pulseaccumulate, Eacc_interval and Pulseacc_interval are stored in the intermediate buffers and remain unchanged until the end of the next interval. When the new impulse counter results are frozen at the end of the interval, the binary output 'Cnt 1 New', respectively 'Cnt 2 New' is set to TRUE. It is reset after 30 s regardless of interval duration and can be used to initiate reading of a new set of frozen interval values.

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If selected for transmission, transmission of the counter values via the LON interface is initiated by the positive-going edge of this output. The values Eacc_interval and Pulseacc_interval of the respective channel are only recorded as measurement events providing the output 'Cnt 1 New', respectively 'Cnt 2 New' is being used, for example, to control an event recorder, LED or signalling relay.

The freezing of results, resetting and event recording of the interval counters is illustrated in Fig. 3.102.
Impulse counter input t

Pulseacc_interval

Internal only

t
Reset t
Measurement event

Pulseaccumulate

Internal only

CounterFrozen

30 s
tInterval

30 s
tInterval

30 s
tInterval

30 s
tInterval

30 s
tInterval

Fig. 3.102

Interval processing

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3.8. 3.8.1. 3.8.1.1.

Data transmission Principle of operation of the A/D converter 316EA63 Introduction

Local and remote stations are synchronised at the same sampling rate. Because the measurement of the data exchanged between the stations is synchronised, the method of memory management and subsequent digital filtering, the measured variables of all the channels (local and transferred remote signals) are made available to the main CPU at the same time. This is an essential for reliable differential longitudinal protection.
3.8.1.2. Synchronisation principle

The transfer of data via the optical modem between the 316EA62 units in the two stations (master and slave) is synchronised. Which of the stations is designated master and which slave is determined when setting the system parameters using the operator control program (HMI). Should the communications channel become disturbed or interrupted, each of the A/D converters generates its own clock signal. A counter is started when the master transmits a signal to the slave. Upon receiving the signal, the slave sends an echo back to the master. The counter is stopped by the master and the count divided by 2 when it receives the echo. The result is the transmission time. The echo signal includes specific data which are tested by both stations and generate an error flag should the result of the test be negative.
3.8.1.3. Data transmission principle

The first three converted signals obtained from up to six local channels are transferred via the serial interface to the optical modem, which then transmits them to the synchronously operating remote station. All the converted variables of the local station (maximum 6 channels) and the variables received from the opposite station (maximum 3 channels) are digitally filtered before being transferred to the dual-port memory on the main CPU board 316VC61a. Provision is also made for the binary signal transmission function to transfer 8 binary signals at the same time for processing in the remote station (see Section 3.8.3. Binary signal transmission).
3.8.1.4. Consequences of transmission errors

Should an error occur during the transmission of data, an error flag is set. Thereby in such cases, the affected protection function is automatically blocked. Attention is immediately drawn to data errors (error flag set on the 316EA62 board) by the system alarm 'Modem error'. If the binary signal transmission function is also active, the alarm 'RemoteBiError' is generated.
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The diagnostic function, on the other hand, records these errors after a delay of 80 ms, i.e. only after the communications channel is considered to be permanently disturbed. A single transmission error, e.g. a parity error, does not therefore lead to an error being recorded by the diagnostic function.

Consequences of transmission errors for protection functions:

Functions which process the local analog variables (A/D channels 1 to 6) are excluded from blocking by the communications channel and serve as back-up protection. Functions which process the analog variables transferred via the communications channel (A/D channels 7 to 9) are blocked (DiffLine, Check-I3ph, Current etc.). The signals of the binary signal transmission function are set to 'OFF' (0 or false). The inputs of the disturbance recorder A/D channels 7 to 9 are set to zero.

Note on the 'SynchroCheck' and 'EarthFltGnd2' functions:


During an attempt to synchronise the two stations, the synchro-check function can generate the signals 'Voltage Busbar Input Phase', 'Voltage Line Input Phase', 'Phase Diff. OK Signal' and 'Freq. Diff. OK Signal'. Nevertheless, incorrect operation cannot take place (closing of the circuit-breaker not enabled). The sensitive earth fault function ('Sensitive Earth Fault for Grounded Systems') can briefly generate the signals 'Start Signal', 'Meas Forward' and 'Meas Backward'. This also cannot cause incorrect operation.

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3.8.2.

Longitudinal differential protection (Diff-Line)

A. Application
Differential protection of overhead lines, cables, transformer feeders (two-winding transformers) and generator/transformer units.

B. Features

Non-linear inverse current operating characteristic (see Fig. 3.103) High stability during through-faults and CT saturation Fast operation Individual comparison of phase currents Insensitive to DC components Insensitive to harmonics

Optional for power transformer protection: Inrush restraint evaluation of the ratio of second harmonic to fundamental detection of the highest phase current detection of an energised transformer on the basis of the load current Phase compensation for group of connection Amplitude compensation (CT ratio)

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

Current (2 x 3 inputs)

II. Binary inputs:


Blocking Inrush g-High

III. Binary outputs:


Tripping Tripping R phase Tripping S phase Tripping T phase Inrush signal Stability signal

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IV. Measurements:

R phase neutral current S phase neutral current T phase neutral current R phase restraint current S phase restraint current T phase restraint current

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D. Longitudinal differential function settings - Diff-Line


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip Current Inp.Ch 1 a1 s1 Current Inp.Ch 2 a2 s2 g Setting v Setting b Setting g High Setting I -Inst InRush Ratio InRush Time Block Inp In Rush Inp High Set Inp Trip Trip-R Trip-S Trip-T Inrush Current Stabilisation Unit Default Min. Max. Step

00000000 CT/VT-Addr 0 1.00 D CT/VT-Addr 0 1.00 d0 IN 0.30 0.50 IN 1.50 IN 1.20 IN 3 % 10 s 5 BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F BinaryAddr F SignalAddr ER SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr

0.05 2.20 (Select) 0.05 (Select) 0.1 0.25 1.25 0.50 3 6 0 2.20 0.5 0.50 5.00 2.50 15 20 90

0.01

0.01 0.1 0.25 0.25 0.25 1 1 1

Explanation of parameters:
Trip Tripping logic (matrix) to which the tripping output of the function is connected. Current Inp.Ch 1 Defines the CT input channel for side 1. The first channel (R phase) of the group of three must be selected. a1 CT ratio compensation factor on side 1. s1 Group of connection on side 1 (primary). Possible settings: Y: star-connected winding (transformer in the zone of protection) D: delta-connected winding

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Current Inp.Ch 2 Defines the CT input channel for side 2. The first channel (R phase) of the group of three must be selected. a2 CT ratio compensation factor on side 2. s2 Group of connection on side 2. Possible settings: All the usual phase groups, defining how connected (y = star, d = delta, z = zigzag) phase-shift of the voltage on side 2 in relation to the voltage on side 1 in multiples of 30 g Setting Defines the basic setting g for the operating characteristic. v Setting Defines the pick-up ratio v for the operating characteristic. b Setting Defines the setting of b on the operating characteristic. This is normally set to about 1.5 times the load current. g High Setting This is a high-set Basic setting which becomes effective when the input 'HighSetInp' is activated. The higher setting prevents mal-operation from taking place which may otherwise occur due, for example, to a temporarily higher excitation current (overfluxing). I -Inst The differential current above which tripping takes place independently of the inrush detector. This setting enables operating times for high internal fault currents to be reduced. InRush Ratio Ratio of 2nd harmonic to fundamental of the current above which the inrush detector picks up. InRush Time Time during with the inrush detector is enabled after the protected unit is energised or after a through-fault. Block Inp Input for blocking the function F: enabled T: disabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions)

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In Rush Inp Activates the inrush detector although the transformer is already energised. It enables inrush currents to be detected which occur, for example, when a transformer is energised in parallel. F: not used xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) High Set Inp Activates the high-set Basic setting g-High. F: not used T: always active xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of protection functions) Trip Tripping signal.

Note:
The differential protection function does not have a starting signal and every time it trips the signal 'General start' is set together with the 'Trip' signal, providing the Trip command is configured to be recorded as an event (ER). The tripping measurands will be stored in the event list only if the trip command is configured in the event list. Trip-R Tripping signal R phase. Trip-S Tripping signal S phase. Trip-T Tripping signal T phase. Inrush Current Inrush current detection signal. Stabilisation Signal IH > b during a through-fault.

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Fig. 3.103

Operating characteristic of the longitudinal differential protection function

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E. Setting instructions
Basic setting Pick-up ratio Operating characteristic changing point High-set Basic setting, Instantaneous operating current (uninfluenced by inrush detector) Inrush detector pick-up ratio Time during which inrush detector active Choice of current input CT ratio compensation factors Group of connection on side 1 Group of connection on side 2 g Setting v Setting b Setting g-High Setting I -Inst InRush Ratio InRush Time Current Inp.Ch 1, 2 a1 a2 s1 s2

The longitudinal differential function is primarily a phase fault protection, but may also detect ground faults. It is a sensitive, fast and strictly discriminative unit protection.
3.8.2.1. Setting instructions for lines with a power transformer in the protected zone

Basic setting g
The setting for 'g Setting' defines the minimum operating current at which the function picks up for an internal fault. The value for 'g Setting' should be as low as possible to enable the function to detect high-resistance faults as well as solid phase faults. Inter-turn faults are also detected where the protected unit includes a power transformer. The setting for 'g Setting' must be high enough, on the other hand, to exclude any risk of mal-operation due to:

line capacitance charging currents line leakage currents CT errors the off-load current of any power transformer included in the protected unit at the highest short-time system voltage

It should be noted when the protected unit includes a power transformer that:

The off-load current of a modern transformer is very low, usually between 0.3 % and 0.5 % of IN at rated system voltage. However, the excitation current can reach 10 % or more of IN at the maximum short-time system voltage such as can occur, for example, following load shedding. A tap-changer can vary the voltage ratio in the range 5 to 10 %, in some cases up to 20 % and more. This has to be taken into account both in the case of power transformers with manually adjusted tap and with automatic tap-changers.

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Note:
This error is proportional to the through-current and is therefore best taken into account by the pick-up ratio setting 'v Setting'. These factors produce an operating current which flows under normal system operating conditions. The basic setting 'g Setting' must therefore be chosen higher than the off-load operating current. A typical value is g = 0.3 IN (30 % IN).

Pick-up ratio v
The pick-up setting 'v Setting' determines the stability of the longitudinal differential scheme during an external fault, i.e. at high levels of through-fault current. The value of 'v Setting' is defined by the ratio of the operating current to restraint current. It should be chosen such that faults can be detected under load conditions which only produce a low operating current. Through-fault stability must be maintained, however, at all costs. A typical setting is v = 0.5.

Restraint current b
The restraint current b defines the point at which the slope of the characteristic is switched. The inclined part of the operating characteristic permits the protection to remain stable even when CT saturation occurs during a throughfault. The combination of the two slopes with a variable point of switching from one to the other enables the operating characteristic to be adapted to suit the requirements of the application. A setting of 1.5 is recommended for 'b Setting'. This provides high stability during through-faults and adequate sensitivity for fault currents in the region of the load current.

Factor a2
The full setting range of factor a2 for CT ratio correction only applies when the reference values of the analog channels are set to 1.000. The highest permissible setting reduces for other reference value settings according to the ratio between the analog channel reference values (line side 2 to line side 1).

Operating characteristic
A restraint current is derived from the input variables I1 and I2 measured at the two ends of the protected unit to ensure adequate through-fault stability. As the name implies, the restraint current opposes the operating current.

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The restraint current is either given by the equation: IH = I1 I2 cos or it is zero IH = 0 The angle is defined as
= < (I1; I2 )

for -90 < < 90

for 90 < < 270

The vector diagram relating the currents entering and leaving the protected unit and the operating current measured on a loaded line is as follows:
I2 I1

I2

HEST 905 003 C

The following diagram then applies during a through-fault:


I2 I I2 I1

= 0
HEST 905 003 C

This then changes to the following for an internal fault:


I2

I1

I2

= 180
HEST 905003 C

According to the equation for the restrain current, IH becomes in the case of a through-fault ( = 0) respectively in the case of an internal fault a) supplied from one end (I2 = 0) : IH = 0 b) supplied from both ends ( = 180) : IH = 0 High through-fault currents may cause CT saturation. It is for this reason that the characteristic is switched to the one with an infinite slope for IH/IN > b. : IH = I1 I2

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It should be noted that for the part of the characteristic with an infinite slope to be active, I1 and I2 must also be higher than b and not just IH.
I IN

0,75 0,5 0,25 g b


IH IN
HEST 905 003 C

0,5

1,5

Fig. 3.104

Operating characteristic of the longitudinal differential function for high through-currents

This characteristic would scarcely, however, detect an internal fault supplied from one end when a through-current such as the load current is flowing. Therefore if the current at one end of the line is lower than the setting for 'b', i.e. I I1 or 2 < b IN IN the slope determined by the setting for 'v' applies throughout.
I IN
1 0,75 0,5 0,25 g b

IH IN
HEST 905 003 C

Fig. 3.105

Operating characteristic for low through-currents

This characteristic provides high sensitivity for detecting internal faults.

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Example:
Internal fault and through-current.
I1 I = 4 2 =1 =0 IN IN

-I 2 I I2

I1
HEST 905 003 C

I = I1 + I2 = 4 IN - IN = 3 IN
IH = I1 I2 cos = 4 IN 1 IN 1 = 2 IN

It follows from this that even at the highest setting for 'v', the internal fault is reliably detected in spite of the through-current.

High-set Basic setting g-High


The high-set Basic setting 'g-High' is an alternative basic setting for greater stability under certain operating conditions. The change from the normal basic setting is accomplished with the aid of an external signal. In some instances with a power transformer included in the protected unit a higher operating current can be produced by, for example:

an increased off-load (excitation) current due to a higher system voltage (switching operations, following load shedding, generator regulator fault etc.) an increased CT ratio error (transformer tap-changer on the maximum or minimum tap).

Where such abnormal operating conditions are detected by a voltage relay or an overfluxing relay, they can be used to switch the basic setting of the longitudinal differential function from 'g' to 'g-High'. The recommended setting is g-High = 0.75 IN. The reset ratio in the event of a trip remains unchanged at 0.8 g.

Operating current I -Inst


The setting for 'I -Inst' enables faster tripping to be achieved for internal faults in certain circumstances (disables restraint by the inrush detector). The setting chosen must be higher than the maximum current to be expected when energising the protected unit (e.g. capacitive line charging current). The typical setting is I-Inst = 12 IN for protected units with small to medium power transformers.

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Pick-up ratio for inrush detection


This setting defines the sensitivity for detecting inrush phenomena. Most transformers have a ratio of 2nd harmonic to fundamental in excess of 15 %. A setting of 10 % is recommended to ensure reliable inrush detection.

Time allowed for inrush detection


The time during which the inrush detector is enabled is determined by how long after energising the protected unit there is a danger of maloperation due to inrush flowing just from one side. Typical settings are 5 s for protected units with power transformers. The inrush detection is active if:

the binary input 'In Rush Inp' is set, the Transformer is shut off during the period 'Inrush Time' after it is recognized that the transformer has been switched on.

The transformer will be recognized as switched on, when the highest phase current in all the windings exceeds 4 % IN (in case the 'a' factor and the reference value is one).

HINWEIS: Both inrush detectors have to be active when there is a power transformer in the protection zone even if it is only fed from one end, because both functions process the same measured variables.
Choice of current input
To simplify the setting of a1, a2, s1 and s2, reversing the selection of the channels on master and slave is recommended irrespective of whether the protected unit includes a power transformer or not. This procedure enables a1 and a2 as well as s1 and s2 to have identical settings in both master and slave. Settings: Master: Slave: CurrentInp1 CurrentInp2 CurrentInp1 CurrentInp2 to channel No.1 to channel No.7 to channel No.7 to channel No.1

CT ratio factors a1 and a2


The factors a1 and a2 provide facility for compensating differences between the rated currents of the protected unit and the CTs. The 'a' factors are defined by the ratio of the CT rated current to the reference current.

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In the case of a two-winding transformer in the zone of protection, both windings have the same rated power and the transformer rated current is taken as the reference current. Providing the 'a' factors are correctly calculated and set, the settings for 'g Setting', 'v Setting', 'b Setting', 'gHigh Setting' and 'I -Inst' are all referred to the rated current of the transformer and not the primary rated current of the CTs.

250/5 A

1 25 MVA 2

110 kV 20 kV

131 A 722 A

1000/5 A
HEST 905 004a C

IB1 = ITN1 = 131 A IB2 = ITN2 = 722 A

a1 = a2 =

ICT1 250 = = 1.91 ITN1 131 ICT2 1000 = = 1.38 ITN2 722

The reference current setting only differs from the rated current of the transformer if this is necessary because of the setting ranges of the 'a1' and 'a2' factors. It is also possible to take account of differences between CT and twowinding power transformer rated currents using the reference value settings of the A/D channels. In this case, a1 = a2 = 1 providing the primary and secondary powers are the same. For the above example, the reference value settings are: ITN1 131 = = 0.524 ICT1 250 ITN2 722 = = 0.722 ICT 2 1000

The 'a' factors only compensate the CT ratios for the longitudinal differential function. Changing the reference values of the A/D channels compensates the CT ratios for all the systems functions and measurements.

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Compensating the phase group of a power transformer in the zone of protection


Phase-to-phase currents are used for measurement in order to be able to compare the primary and secondary currents without regard to whether the windings are connected in star or delta. The phase-angle between the currents, however, has to be compensated by adding or subtracting current components within the protection function. The phase relationships between the current vectors for the various groups of connection can be seen from the following figures. For example, for a power transformer Yd5
I R S T I 1R I

1R 1S

I 2R I 2S I 2T

Star-connected primary
R S T

I 1T

Delta-connected secondary Phase-angle between the currents of the same phase 5 30 = 150

150

HEST 905 005 C

I1r (compensat ed) =1/ 3 ( I1R + I1S ) I2r (compensat ed) =I2R

Yy0
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R I2R

Yy6
1 R S S T T 2 R I 1R

I 2R

Yd1
1 R S T 2 R S T I 1R I 2R

Yd5
1 R R S S T T I 2R 2 I 1R

Yd7
1 R S S T T I 2R 2 R I 1R

Yd11
1 R S T 2 R S T HEST 905 006 C I 2R I 1R

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Yz1
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R I 2R

Yz5
1 R R S S T T 2 I1R

I 2R

Yz7
1 R S T 2 R S T I 2R I 1R

Yz11
1 R S T 2 R S T I2R I1R

Dy1
1 R S T 2 R S T I 1R I 2R

Dy5
1 R S T 2 R S T

1R

I 2R

Dy7
1 R S S T T 2 R I 1R

Dy11
1 R S T 2 I R S T 2R I1R

I 2R

Dd0
1 R S T 2 R S T I 1R I 2R

Dd6
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R

2R

HEST 905 007 C

Dz0
1 R S T 2 R S T I 1R I 2R

Dz2
1 R S T 2 R S T I1R I2R

Dz4
1 R S T R S T I 2R 2 I 1R

Dz6
1 R S T S T 2 R I1R

I2R

Dz8
1 R S S T T I 2R 2 R I1R

Dz10
1 R S T 2 R I2R S T I 1R

HEST 905 008 C

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List of all compensation matrices for R phase (S and T phases cyclically rotated):

Compensation matrices (R phase) A B C D E F G H J K L M N O = ( 1 0 0) = (-1 0 0) = ( 1 -1 0) = (-1 1 0) = ( 1 0 -1) = (-1 0 1) = ( 2 -1 -1) = (-2 1 1) = (-1 2 -1) = ( 1 -2 1) = (-1 -1 2) = ( 1 1 -2) = ( 0 1 0) = ( 0 -1 0)

Ratio factor

1 1
1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3

1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1 1

Table 3.14

Compensation matrices with associated ratio factors

a) Y-connected on side 1
Applies to two-winding transformers: Phase group Yy0 Yy6 Yd1 Yd5 Yd7 Yd11 Yz1 Yz5 Yz7 Yz11 Compensation matrix Side 1 E E E C E C E C E C Compensation matrix Side 2 E F A B B A G H H G

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b) -connected on side 1
Applies to two-winding transformers: Phase group Dy1 Dy5 Dy7 Dy11 Dd0 Dd6 Dz0 Dz2 Dz4 Dz6 Dz8 Dz10 Compensation matrix Side 1 A A A A A A A A A A A A Compensation matrix Side 2 C F D E A B G K L H J M

3.8.2.2.

Setting instructions for lines without a power transformer in the protected zone

The recommendations below are the result of extensive measurements on our transient network simulator and take into account the requirement of stability and tripping time of the protection. As reference current for all recommendations below, a current Ibase has to be defined. Ibase is chosen to be equal or greater than the maximal load current of the line, normally Ibase is made equal to the rated CT primary current. The settings g, b and I-Inst are per unit values referred to Ibase.

Choice of current input


To simplify the setting of a1, a2, s1 and s2, reversing the selection of the channels on master and slave is recommended irrespective of whether the protected unit includes a power transformer or not. This procedure enables a1 and a2 as well as s1 and s2 to have identical settings in both master and slave. Settings: Master: Slave: Current Inp. Ch. 1 Current Inp. Ch. 2 Current Inp. Ch. 1 Current Inp. Ch. 2 to channel No.1 to channel No.7 to channel No.7 to channel No.1

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a1 and a2- settings (CT-ratio adaptation)


Range 0.05 ... 2.20, Steps 0.01. These settings allow adaptation of Ibase, when the rated CT primary current differs from the maximal load current.

a) Case 1 CTs in the line feeder with equal CT ratios


Lines in substations with single or multiple bus arrangement and 1 CB stations with CTs in the line feeder. The CT ratio is matched to the maximal load current, i.e. rated CT primary current = max. Iload a1 = 1; a2 = 1

b) Case 2 CTs in the line feeder with unequal CT ratios


Lines in substations with single or multiple bus arrangement and 1 CB stations with CTs in the line feeder. CTs of unequal ratio at the two line ends. Adaptation to the lower rated CT primary current: a = ICT / Ibase
Master Slave Slave Master

1000/1 A a1 = 1000/800 = 1.25 a2 = 1

800/5 A a1= 1.25 a2 = 1

1000/1 A a1 = 1 a2 = 1000/800 = 1.25

800/5 A a1 = 1 a2 = 1.25

Ibase = 800 A

Ibase = 800 A

c) Case 3 CTs in the diameter


Lines in substations with 1 - or 2 - CB arrangement. 2 CTs of a diameter connected in parallel, high CT-ratio. The CT ratio of the current transformers located in the diameter of 1 CB stations are usually matched to the through current from one bus to the other and not to the rated line current. a = ICT / Ibase

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s- setting (Connection/Vector group correction)


For a line alone, no phase group compensation necessary and the following is selected: s1=D, s2=d0 With this setting the zero sequence component of the currents is included in the measurement, and the best sensitivity and correct phase selection is achieved. No other s- setting shall be selected, unless there is a transformer in the protected zone.

v- setting (bias at small currents, below Ibase b)


0.25 or 0.50 v= 0.50 is chosen as a standard setting

Minimum operating current


Two ranges can be set: g and g-High

a) g- setting (lower range)


Range 0.1 ... 0.5, Step 0.1 Parameter 'HighSetInp' = Always FALSE The g setting defines the minimum operating current. The protection will pick up for a fault current of > Ibase g. In most line protection applications the range 0.1 ... 0.5 is too low. Settings as given in Section b) below are preferred

b) g-High setting (upper range)


Range 0.50 ... 2.5, Step 0.25 Parameter 'HighSetInp' = Always TRUE With this setting the g-setting is not active any more, the g-High setting determines the pick-up current. The protection will pick up at a fault current of > Ibase g-High.

c) Minimum allowed setting


g or g High 2.5 capacitive ch arg ing current of the protected Line Ibase

This setting ensures full stability in an effectively grounded network. In non-effectively grounded networks apply a factor 3.0 instead of 2.5. With this setting transient capacitive inrush currents will not endanger the stability.

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It may be an advantage to set g-High b, thereby minimising the requirements imposed on the CTs. See examples in Section 3. The pick-up current shall be set lower than the minimum fault current and shall allow for sufficient ground-fault resistance. Justification of factors 2.5 and 3.0 (used above)

The capacitive charging currents are measured by the protection as differential currents. The minimum operating current therefore has to be set higher then the maximum capacitive charging current occurring for a fault outside the line. Since the measurement is made on a per phase basis, the capacitive current to be taken into account is the highest possible charging current per phase. This current arises in the healthy phases during a single phase-ground fault (voltage rises). The 'capacitive charging current of the protected line' is the phasecurrent measured at single ended infeed, i.e. current measured with the circuit open at the remote end. f = 2.5 = f1 f2' f3 In solidly grounded systems f = 3.0 = f1 f2" f3 In systems with isolated neutral or Petersen coil compensation (non-effectively ground networks) f1 = 1.2 Max. system voltage Max. phase to ground voltage in solidly f2' = 0.8 3 grounded systems (Z0 / Z1 < 4) Max. phase to ground voltage in nonf2" = 3 effectively grounded systems (4 < Z0 / Z1 < ) f3 = 1.5 Safety factor The pick-up current 'g-High' may be used in most applications and may be set relatively high, since the operating current is referred to the actual short circuit current flowing through the fault ( = differential current) rather than to the individual infeed currents. A fast supervision logic blocks the differential function in the case of a communication failure in the fibre optic link, no second release criterion is therefore required. For this reason the differential protection trips both ends of the line and is not dependent on the individual infeed currents nor faces a problem in case of weak infeed from one end. Max. fault resistance The max. ground fault resistance, which can be detected is approximately (source impedances neglected):
RF = Urated 3 Ibase g high

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Inrush restraint
Parameter 'In Rush Inp' = Always TRUE This setting allows optimal stability also in case of heavy through flowing transformer inrush currents with long DC time constants.

b- setting
Switching over to v = , the 2nd harmonic inrush restraint remains active Range 1.25 ... 2.50, Steps 0.25 (b Ibase) has to be set above ILoad_max. Recommended setting: b = 1.5.

I-Inst setting
v = , the 2nd harmonic inrush restraint is not active above this current level. Range 5 ... 15, Steps 1.0 Range 3 ... 15, Steps 1.0 for SW-Versions < V4.0 for SW-Versions V4.0

I-Inst = 3 is chosen as a standard setting I-Inst = 5 is recommended for a line with single end infeed, feeding a transformer with high MVA rating. With this setting the protection tolerates high inrush currents flowing over the line. Such currents might produce unequal saturation phenomena in the CTs at the two line ends. The peak value of the inrush current may reach up to 15 Ibase.

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3.8.3.

Binary data transmission (RemoteBin)

A. Application
Provision for transmitting and receiving up to 8 binary signals between local and remote stations. The function is only active when the system is equipped with an A/D converter Type 316EA62. The binary signals are transferred between the stations via optical modems on the 316EA62 plug-in units and the optical fibre cables linking them. Binary signals which are received can be used for blocking, tripping and control functions.

B. Features

Transmission of any 8 binary signals to the remote station Provision of 8 signals received from the remote station (4 of which can be assigned to the tripping logic)

C. Inputs and outputs I. CT/VT inputs:

None

II. Binary inputs:

8 inputs (binary signals for transmission to the remote station)

III. Binary outputs:


8 outputs (signals received from the remote station which can be assigned to binary outputs) Transmission error signal

IV. Measurements:

None

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D. Binary data transmission settings - RemoteBin


Summary of parameters:
Text Trip 1, Rem Chan 1 Trip 2, Rem Chan 2 Trip 3, Rem Chan 3 Trip 4, Rem Chan 4 Send Channel 1 Send Channel 2 Send Channel 3 Send Channel 4 Send Channel 5 Send Channel 6 Send Channel 7 Send Channel 8 Remote Channel 1 Remote Channel 2 Remote Channel 3 Remote Channel 4 Remote Channel 5 Remote Channel 6 Remote Channel 7 Remote Channel 8 Remote Bin Error Unit Trip Chan Trip Chan Trip Chan Trip Chan BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr BinaryAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr SignalAddr Default 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 F F F F F F F F ER ER ER ER ER ER ER ER ER Min. Max. Step

Explanation of parameters:
Trip 1, Remote Chan 1 Tripping logic (matrix) excited by the signal 'RemChan 1' from the remote station. Trip 2, Remote Chan 2 Tripping logic (matrix) excited by the signal 'RemChan 2' from the remote station. Trip 3, Remote Chan 3 Tripping logic (matrix) excited by the signal 'RemChan 3' from the remote station. Trip 4, Remote Chan 4 Tripping logic (matrix) excited by the signal 'RemChan 4' from the remote station.

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Send Channel 1 (2...8) Input 1 (2...8) for transmitting a signal to the remote station. F: disabled T: enabled xx: all binary inputs (or outputs of a protection function) Remot Channel 1 (2...8) Signal 1 (2...8) received from the remote station. Remote Bin Error Signal indicating an error during binary data transmission.

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E. Setting instructions

NOTICE: The 'Binary Data Transmission' function may only be configured once for each parameter set.
Should the binary data transmission fail, the alarm 'Remote Bin Error' is generated and the remote channels are set to 'Off' ('0'). If this response would disrupt an application, provision is made for inverting the signals transferred by inverting the signal (Send Channel) before transmission in the remote station and inverting the signal (Remote Channel) after reception in the local station. A failure of the communications channel ('Modem Error') also generates the alarm 'Remote Bin Error' even if the 'Binary Data Transmission' function is only activated in one station.

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October 04

4.
4.1. 4.2. 4.2.1. 4.2.1.1. 4.2.1.1.1. 4.2.1.1.2. 4.2.1.1.3. 4.2.1.1.4. 4.2.1.2. 4.2.1.2.1. 4.2.1.2.2. 4.2.1.2.3. 4.2.1.2.4. 4.2.1.2.5. 4.2.1.3. 4.2.1.4. 4.2.1.5. 4.2.1.5.1. 4.2.1.5.2. 4.2.1.5.3. 4.2.1.5.4. 4.2.1.5.5. 4.2.1.5.6. 4.2.1.5.7. 4.2.1.5.8. 4.2.1.5.9. 4.2.1.5.10. 4.2.1.5.11. 4.2.1.5.12. 4.2.1.6. 4.2.1.7. 4.2.2. 4.2.2.1. 4.2.2.2. 4.2.3. 4.2.3.1. 4.2.3.2. 4.2.3.3. 4.2.3.4. 4.2.3.5. 4.2.3.6. 4.2.3.7. 4.2.3.8. 4.2.3.9.

DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTION AND APPLICATION


Summary............................................................................................4-4 Protection functions ...........................................................................4-6 Distance protection ............................................................................4-6 Starters ..............................................................................................4-6 Operation of the starters ....................................................................4-6 Overcurrent starters ...........................................................................4-6 Underimpedance starters...................................................................4-8 Phase selection................................................................................4-11 Measuring units................................................................................4-13 Operation of the measuring units.....................................................4-13 Measurement during processing period I.........................................4-13 Measurement during processing period II........................................4-16 Directional decision..........................................................................4-18 Construction of the measuring characteristic...................................4-19 VT supervision .................................................................................4-22 Back-up overcurrent function O/C....................................................4-25 System logic.....................................................................................4-25 Structure of the system logic............................................................4-25 Enabling and blocking logic (SUPBL) ..............................................4-26 Switch-onto-fault logic (SOTF).........................................................4-27 Short-zone logic (STUB) ..................................................................4-28 Zone extension logic (ZE) ................................................................4-29 Transient blocking logic (Transbl) ....................................................4-30 Communication channel failure (Deblock) .......................................4-32 Permissive underreaching transfer tripping (PUTT).........................4-33 Permissive overreaching transfer tripping (POTT)...........................4-35 Overreaching blocking scheme (BLOCK OR)..................................4-38 PLC transmit logic (HFSEND)..........................................................4-39 Tripping logic....................................................................................4-40 Power swing blocking (PSB)............................................................4-43 Signal designations and abbreviations ............................................4-45 Auto-reclosure..................................................................................4-49 Logic segments................................................................................4-49 Signal designations..........................................................................4-57 Breaker failure protection.................................................................4-60 Introduction ......................................................................................4-60 Three-phase/ single-phase mode ....................................................4-61 'Redundant Trip'...............................................................................4-61 'Retrip' ..............................................................................................4-62 'Backup Trip' ....................................................................................4-62 'Remote Trip'....................................................................................4-62 'Unconditional Trip'...........................................................................4-62 'End Fault Trip' .................................................................................4-62 'External Trip' ...................................................................................4-63

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

4.2.4. 4.2.4.1. 4.2.4.2. 4.2.4.2.1. 4.2.4.2.2. 4.2.4.2.3. 4.2.4.2.4. 4.2.5. 4.2.6. 4.2.6.1. 4.2.6.2. 4.2.7. 4.2.7.1. 4.2.7.2. 4.2.7.2.1. 4.2.7.2.2. 4.2.7.3. 4.2.7.4. 4.2.7.4.1. 4.2.7.4.2. 4.2.7.4.3. 4.2.7.4.4. 4.2.7.4.5. 4.2.7.5. 4.2.7.5.1. 4.2.7.5.2. 4.2.7.5.3. 4.2.7.5.4. 4.2.7.6. 4.2.7.6.1. 4.2.7.6.2. 4.2.7.7. 4.2.7.8. 4.2.7.9. 4.2.8. 4.2.8.1. 4.2.8.2. 4.2.8.3. 4.2.9. 4.2.9.1. 4.2.9.2. 4.2.9.3. 4.2.9.4. 4.2.9.5. 4.2.9.6. 4.2.9.7. 4.2.9.8. 4.2.9.9. 4.2.9.10.

High-impedance...............................................................................4-64 General ............................................................................................4-64 Restricted E/F protection for a transformer ......................................4-65 Basic requirements ..........................................................................4-65 Components of a restricted E/F scheme..........................................4-65 Design..............................................................................................4-65 Example ...........................................................................................4-67 Application of the transformer differential protection in a 1 breaker configuration ..............................................................4-72 Standstill protection..........................................................................4-72 General ............................................................................................4-72 Standstill protection using an overcurrent function ..........................4-73 Rotor ground fault protection ...........................................................4-73 Application .......................................................................................4-73 Determining the settings ..................................................................4-74 Required data ..................................................................................4-74 Recommended settings for Rf , respectively 'U-Setting' and t .........4-74 Functional check ..............................................................................4-75 Installation and wiring ......................................................................4-75 Location and ambient conditions .....................................................4-75 Checking the wiring..........................................................................4-75 Connection of a two-stage scheme..................................................4-76 Connection to excitation systems with shaft-mounted diodes .........4-76 Adaptation of the scheme in the case of shaft filters .......................4-76 Commissioning ................................................................................4-76 Pre-commissioning checks ..............................................................4-76 Calibration of the ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21 .....................4-77 Measuring the voltage values ..........................................................4-78 Testing in operation .........................................................................4-79 Maintenance ....................................................................................4-81 Likely causes of problems................................................................4-81 Maintenance ....................................................................................4-81 Fault-finding .....................................................................................4-81 Accessories and spares...................................................................4-81 Appendices ......................................................................................4-81 Application of the under reactance protection function ....................4-84 Introduction ......................................................................................4-84 Out-of-step conditions......................................................................4-84 Monitoring a given load angle ..........................................................4-84 Stator ground fault protection for generators in parallel...................4-88 Principle of operation .......................................................................4-88 Busbar ground faults........................................................................4-89 Ground fault protection during start-up ............................................4-89 Grounding transformer.....................................................................4-90 Ferro resonance damping resistor Rp ..............................................4-90 Grounding resistor Re ......................................................................4-91 Contactor .........................................................................................4-91 Residual current CT .........................................................................4-91 Required REG316*4 functions.........................................................4-91 Protection sensitivity ........................................................................4-92
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ABB Switzerland Ltd

4.2.10.

100 % stator and rotor ground fault protection.................................4-95

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4.
4.1.

DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTION AND APPLICATION


Summary Both analog and binary I/P signals pass through a signal conditioning stage before being processed by the main processor: Analog signals go through the chain comprising the input transformer, shunt, low-pass filter (anti-alias filter), amplifier, sampling (sample and hold), multiplexer and A/D converter. As digital signals they are then separated by digital filters into real and apparent components before entering the main processor. The binary signals are isolated by optocouplers in the input circuits and are evaluated by the main processor. The protection algorithms and the logic functions are then processed in the main processor. The distance protection function is equipped with overcurrent or underimpedance starters. In ungrounded systems, all the usual cyclic and acyclic phase preference schemes are available. The residual (neutral) current and/or residual (zero-sequence) voltage are monitored to detect earth faults. The first distance zone, the overreaching zone and the reverse zone are measured simultaneously. All of the distance zones have wide setting ranges and can be set totally independently of each other, also with respect to whether they measure in the forwards or reverse direction. There are three directional distance zones and a fourth, which can be either directional or non-directional as demanded by the application. The overreaching and reverse zones are for use in transfer tripping schemes with signal transmission between the units at the two ends of a line. The operating characteristics are polygons with the reactance borders slightly inclined to give an ideal tripping area. For close three-phase faults with very low voltages, the use of a reference voltage comprising a healthy voltage and the voltage of a memory feature ensures a reliable directional decision. Compensation of the mutual zero-sequence impedance of parallel circuits can be achieved by appropriate selection of the zero-sequence impedance factor (k0) or the residual current of the parallel circuit using k0m. A VT supervision feature (fuse failure) is already incorporated. Its measurement can be based on either the zero-sequence component (U0 not I0) and/or the negative-sequence component (U2 not I2). The latter is of special advantage in ungrounded systems or systems with poor grounding. An independent back-up overcurrent function becomes a short-zone protection, as soon as the line isolator is opened. Tripping of the overcurrent back-up protection is uninfluenced by any signal, which may be blocking the distance protection (e.g. VT supervision or power swing blocking).

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The power swing blocking function monitors the variation of the quantity U cos . This method of detecting power swings is entirely independent of the characteristic and location of the distance protection. Power swings with frequencies between 0.2 and 8 Hz are detected. The sensitive E/F protection for ungrounded systems and systems with Petersen coils measures both in the forwards and reverse directions. A characteristic angle of 90 (U0 I0 sin ) is chosen for ungrounded systems and one of 0 (U0 I0 cos ) for systems with Petersen coils. A logic, which can be freely programmed with the aid of FUPLA (function block programming language), provides convenient facility for achieving special circuits needed for specific applications. The auto-reclosure function enables up to four three-phase reclosure cycles to be carried out, each with independently set dead time for fast or slow auto-reclosure. Where necessary, a large variety of supplementary protection and logic functions is contained in the RE.216 and RE.316*4 function software libraries. The distance protection logic gives the user access for blocking or enabling purposes to a wide range of functions, including for example the kind of transfer tripping scheme, switch-onto-fault logic, zone extension logic, VT supervision logic and whether the protection should trip just the phase concerned or all three phases for an E/F. The memory of the event recorder function has sufficient capacity for up to 256 binary signals, which are recorded together with their relative times of occurrence and information regarding the distance to the fault. The disturbance recorder acquires and stores 9 analog and 16 binary signals. The number of disturbance records that can be stored depends on the total duration of an event, determined by the pre-event data (event history) and the duration of the event itself.

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4.2. 4.2.1. 4.2.1.1. 4.2.1.1.1.

Protection functions Distance protection Starters Operation of the starters The REL316*4 distance function is equipped with either overcurrent or underimpedance starters. The setting of the parameter 'StartMode' determines which of the two is in operation. A starter must pick up at least twice before its signal is processed (for phase selection, starting timers, signaling etc.). Should a starter pick up only sporadically; only the backwards-measuring system and ancillary functions such as displaying measurements etc. are enabled. Starting signals do not reset unless all the starters have reset.

4.2.1.1.2.

Overcurrent starters The variables at the I/Ps of the overcurrent starters are the phase currents IR, IS and IT and the residual current IE (3I0), respectively the neutral voltage UE (3U0). Initially, a logic determines Imax, i.e. the highest of the three phase currents IR, IS and IT. If the value of Imax exceeds the setting of the parameter 'Istart' (overcurrent starters), each of the phase currents Iph is checked to determine whether it exceeds the setting of the parameter 'Imin' (current enable) and also 80 % of Imax. In the case of the residual current, the corresponding values are the setting of the parameter '3I0min' and 25 % of Imax. In the case of the ground current IE, it is checked whether it exceeds the setting of the parameter '3I0min' and also 25 % of Imax. Depending on the setting of the parameter 'Earth fault detector' (I0, I0 AND U0, I0 OR U0), it is checked at the same time whether the residual voltage has exceeded the setting of the parameter '3U0min' (neutral voltage enable). The logical signals R, S, T and E are accordingly changed from logical '0' to logical '1' or remain at logical '0'. The kind of fault and the phases involved are thus determined, information, which is needed for phase selection (determination of the loop to be measured) signaling the kind of fault (signaling relays, LEDs etc.) enabling signals for single or three-phase tripping starting the timers for the measuring zones

The starting signals R, S, T and E do not reset until measurement has taken place and the impedances of all six loops lie outside the back-up impedance zone. (If only the overcurrent starters are in operation, there is no underimpedance-starting characteristic and relay response is determined by the setting of the overcurrent starter 'Istart'.)

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START

IR, IS, IT, IE, UE

I max = highest value of IR, IS, IT

N I max > I start Y (Iph > Imin) AND (Iph > 0.8 I max) Y set log. signal "ph" (R, S, T) N

all phase currents IR, IS, IT Y

[(IE 3I0 min) AND (IE 0.25 Imax)] AND/OR (UE 3U0 min) Y

set log. signal "E"

END

HEST 955038 FL

Fig. 4.1

Overcurrent starters (I>)

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4.2.1.1.3.

Underimpedance starters The variables at the I/Ps of the underimpedance starters are the phase currents IR, IS and IT and the residual current IE (3I0) and the phase-toneutral voltages UR, US, UT and the neutral voltage UE (3U0).

START

UR, US, UT, UE IR, IS, IT, IE

[(IE 3I0min) N AND (IE 0.25 Imax)] AND/OR (UE 3U0 min) Y (Iph1 Imin) AND (Iph2 Imin) Y Uph1 - Uph2 Iph1 - Iph2 N

Iph Imin

Y U ph 2 x Iph

Z=

Z=

N Z < Z Start Z < Z Start

Y set temp. signals "ph, "E"

Y set temp. signals "ph1", "ph2"

all ph-0 loops Y Loop = phase selection

all ph-ph loops Y Selectivity conditions

Z=

Uph Iph + 1 x IE

or

Z=

Uph1-Uph2 Iph1 - Iph2

set log. signals

N Z < Z Start

Y log. signals = temp. signals

END
HEST 955037 C

Fig. 4.2

Underimpedance starters (Z<)

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

Depending on the setting of the parameter 'Earth fault detector' (I0, I0 AND U0, I0 OR U0), the function determines initially whether one or both of the E/F criteria is fulfilled, i.e. whether the residual current IE exceeds the setting of the parameter '3I0min' and/or the residual voltage UE the setting of the parameter '3U0min'. Should this be the case, the three phase-to-ground loops are measured first, otherwise just the three phase-to-phase loops. The three phase-to-ground loops are dealt with as follows: If IR (or IS, or IT) is greater than 'Imin', the corresponding loops are enabled and the loop impedances calculated as follows:

ZR = ZS = ZT =

UR 2 IR US 2 IS UT 2 IT

(uncompensated)

(uncompensated)

(uncompensated)

All uncompensated impedances ZR, ZS and ZT are compared with the starting characteristic and temporarily set the logical signals 'Ph' and 'E' (no display). An impedance loop is selected (see Section 4.2.1.1.4.) on the basis of these signals (loop = selected phase). If the loop is a phase-to-neutral one, the impedance is compensated by k0 = 1 for calculation:

Zph 0 =

Uph 0 Iph + 1 IE

e.g.

ZR 0 =

UR IR + 1 IE

If the loop is a phase-to-phase one, the impedance is calculated using phase-to-phase quantities:

Zph ph =

Uph ph Iph ph

e.g.

ZRS =

UR US IR IS

If the impedance (Z) calculated for the loop determined by the phase selection logic lies within the underimpedance-starting characteristic (Zstart), the loop is used for measurement. The logical signals are needed for signaling the kind of fault (signaling relays, LEDs etc.) enabling signals for tripping starting the timers for the measuring zones

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The three phase-to-phase loops are dealt with as follows:

Providing Iph1 and Iph2 (IR and IS, IS and IT, or IT and IR) are higher than 'Imin', the corresponding loops are enabled and the impedances are calculated as follows:

ZRS = Z ST = Z TR =

UR US IR IS US UT IS IT UT UR IT IR

Comparison of the three starting impedances eliminates the healthy loops (discrimination condition). If just one of the loop impedances lies within the underimpedance starting characteristic (Zstart), only the signals (R and S), or (S and T), or (T and R) would be set to logical '1'. If more than one of the loop impedances lie within the underimpedance starting characteristic, the signals R and S and T are set to logical '1'. The kind of fault is thus determined, information, which is needed for phase selection (determination of the loop to be measured) signaling the kind of fault (remote signaling relays, frontplate LEDs etc.) enabling signals for single or three-phase tripping starting the timers for the measuring zones

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Underimpedance starting and definitive zone characteristic


X
XA UNDERIMPEDANCE CHARACTERISTIC

RB

-RLoad

AngleLoad

RLoad

RA

XB

HEST 935 049 C

Fig. 4.3

Underimpedance starting and definitive zone characteristic

4.2.1.1.4.

Phase selection

The phase selection logic determines the loop for the underimpedance starting measurement when an ground fault has been detected to be measured in the first period (max. 20 ms) after starting to be measured during the time the function is in the picked-up state when a ground fault has been detected on an ungrounded system or system with Petersen coils (phase selection solidly grounded).

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

In a solidly grounded system (parameter 'PhaseSelMode' set to 'solid gr.'), the loop to be measured is determined according to the following table:
Starters E/F E/F E/F Phase-to-phase fault Phase-to-phase fault Phase-to-phase fault Phase-to-phase-to-ground fault Phase-to-phase-to-ground fault Phase-to-phase-to-ground fault Three-phase fault R,E S,E T,E R,S S,T T,R R,S,E S,T,E T,R,E R,S,T Loop measured RE SE TE RS ST TR RS ST TR TR (RS) (ST)

In a solidly grounded system, both phases involved in a phase-tophase-to-ground fault have to be tripped, which is not the case in ungrounded systems or systems with Petersen coils. In ungrounded systems or systems with Petersen coils (parameter 'PhaseSelMode' set to cyclic/acyclic phase selection), the loop to be measured is determined according to the following table:
Starters Phase-to-phase fault Phase-to-phase fault Phase-to-phase fault Three-phase fault Cross-country fault *) Cross-country fault *) Cross-country fault *)
*) two E/Fs at different locations

Loop measured RS ST TR TR (RS) (ST) according to phase selection logic

R,S S,T T,R R,S,T R,S,E S,T,E T,R,E

In ungrounded systems or systems with Petersen coils, it is usual for only one E/F of the two involved in a cross-country fault to be tripped, so that as much of the system remains in operation as possible. This is achieved by arranging for all the distance relays on the system to measure the same E/F loop and this is the purpose of the phase selection function.

4-12

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

The logic of the phase selection function provides a choice of the following sequences:
Starters Fault loop measure in relation to 'PhaseSelMode' RTSR TRST cycl. cycl. R, S, E S, T, E T, R, E SE TE RE RE SE TE RTS acycl. RE TE RE RST acycl. RE SE RE TSR acycl. SE TE TE TRS acycl. RE TE TE SRT acycl. SE SE RE STR acycl. SE SE TE

RTSR cyclic (R before T, T before S, S before R) means, for example, that for a cross-country fault T-R-E, R phase (the R-E loop) is measured rather than T phase, for a cross-country fault S-T-E, T phase (the T-E loop) rather than S phase and for a cross-country fault R-S-E, S phase (the S-E loop) rather than R phase. RTS acyclic (R before T before S) means, for example, that for a cross-country fault T-R-E, R phase (the R-E loop) is measured rather than T phase, for a cross-country fault S-T-E, T phase (the T-E loop) rather than S phase and for a cross-country fault R-S-E, R phase (the R-E loop) rather than S phase.
4.2.1.2. 4.2.1.2.1. Measuring units Operation of the measuring units

When either the overcurrent or underimpedance is activated twice then, the distance measurement of a fault is enabled. Initially the fault loop determined by the phase selection function is measured. This is called processing period I and lasts until a trip signal is generated in the first zone or a maximum of one period of the power system frequency. At the latest after one period of the power system frequency, all six impedance loops are measured. This is called processing period II, during which the three phase-to-ground loops and the three phase-tophase loops are measured alternately. Comparison of the results of the six measurements eliminates those impedance loops, which are not involved in the fault (discrimination conditions). The timer started by the starting units controls the comparison of the measured impedances with the polygon characteristic.
4.2.1.2.2. Measurement during processing period I

Processing period I lasts from the instant a starter picks up until the first tripping signal is generated, but is restricted to a maximum of one period of the power system frequency. The input signals are the phase currents IR, IS, IT, the residual current IE (3I0), the residual current of any parallel circuit IEm (3I0m), the neutral current IEm of any parallel circuit of a double-circuit line (3I0m) and the three phase-to-ground

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

voltages UR, US and UT, which have been sampled, analog and digitally filtered and broken down into their component vectors. If the overcurrent starters are in operation and have picked up, the phase selection function is performed and the loop to be measured determined. Should this not be the case, the loop determined by the underimpedance starters is measured.
The impedance of a phase-to-ground loop, e.g. R-E is calculated using the equation:

ZR =

UR IR + k 0 IE + k 0m IEm

(compensated)

where k0: k0m: zero-sequence compensation factor for Z0 k0 = (Z0 - Z1) / 3Z1 zero-sequence compensation factor for the mutual impedance Z0m of double-circuit line k0m = Z0m / 3Z1

The mutual zero-sequence impedance of a double-circuit line (k0m IEm) is only compensated for the 1st, 2nd and overreaching zones, and in the latter two cases, only if their direction of measurement is the same as that of the 1st zone. In this respect, a reverse measuring zone is treated in the same manner as an overreaching zone. The mutual zero-sequence impedance (k0m IEm) is not compensated, should IEm exceed 1.25 IE or the direction of IEm not be the same as that of IE. This prevents a 'healthy' parallel circuit from being adversely influenced by a fault relatively close to the relay location of the faulted circuit. Assuming a fault between R and S, the impedance of the phase-tophase loop is calculated using the equation:

ZRS =

UR US IR IS

It is determined almost simultaneously, whether the impedance measured lies within the characteristic and whether it is in the direction of the 1st zone and overreaching zone, or in the direction of the reverse measuring zone. The corresponding tripping and other signals are processed by the system logic. Tripping of the circuit breaker, however, only takes place after a measuring unit has operated twice.

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

START

UR, US, UT, UE IR, IS, IT, IE

Overcurrent starter

Overcurrent starter Y Loop = phase selection

Z calculation (ph-0 compensated)

Z Start , Z 1-4 , (Z OR ),
Z Back , direction

Trip

Signalling, fault location, Z(loop)

t > 1 periode Stoping the timers Y Change to processing periode II

Change to processing periode II

END

HEST 955035 FL

Fig. 4.4

Processing period I

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

4.2.1.2.3.

Measurement during processing period II

Processing period II commences after the first tripping signal or at the latest one period of the system frequency after a starter picks up. The variables measured are the same as those already processed during processing period I. Only in the case of a cross-country fault in an ungrounded system or system with Petersen coils is measurement restricted during processing period II to just the impedance loop determined by the phase selection logic. Otherwise all the phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase impedance loops are continuously processed in sequence, providing the enabling and ground fault criteria are fulfilled. The equations used to calculate the loop impedances are the same as those in the preceding Section. It is then determined whether the impedance measured lies within the characteristic and whether it is in the direction of the zone being measured. The overreaching zone and reverse measuring zone are evaluated as part of the measurement of the 1st zone. The corresponding tripping and other signals are processed by the system logic. Tripping of the circuit breaker, however, only takes place after a measuring unit has operated twice. Displaying impedance and fault distance The impedance and fault distance only appear in the even list after a further measurement has tripped unless the measuring loop, i.e. the phase selection, has changed the impedance is measured to be outside the characteristic tripping was initiated by the reverse measuring zone, the overreaching zone or the switch-onto-fault (SOTF) logic

In the above cases, the impedance and fault distance stored by the preceding measurement (which produced tripping) is displayed.

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

START

UR, US, UT, UE IR, IS, IT, IE


I >, Z < Starting

solidly grounded network AND (I> starting active)

N
Phase selection

Y
6 Z calculations (ph-0 compensated)
N ph-E Y

Selectivity conditions

ph-0 Z-calculation

3 ph-ph Z-calculation

Z Start , Z 1-4 , (ZOR ),


Z Back , direction

Fallback conditions

N
Resetsignalling

Signalling

Trip

Y
Signalling fault location Z(loop)

Stoping the timers

END
HEST 955036 C

Fig. 4.5

Processing period II

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4.2.1.2.4.

Directional decision

To determine the fault direction, the fault voltage is checked. If the fault voltage exceeds the parameter 'UminFault' (minimum fault voltage) then the phase-angle of the impedance, is determined with the fault current and fault voltage:
arg Z = arg U = arg U arg I I

arg: argument of the complex number (angle) U : fault voltage U = UR U = UR-US fault current I = IR + IE k0 + IEm k0m I = IR - IS (phase-to-ground loop, e.g. R-E) (phase-to-phase loop, e.g. R-S) (phase-to-ground loop, e.g. R-E) (phase-to-phase loop, e.g. R-S)

I :

arg Z must lie within the following limits for the fault to be designated a 'forward fault': -27 < arg Z < +117 arg Z must lie within the following limits for the fault to be designated a 'reverse fault': +153 < arg Z < -63 Z is the impedance measured by the protection device, corresponding to the line impedance ZL. Since the fault voltage is used the source impedance does not play any role - see following Section 4.2.1.2.5. If the fault voltage is less than the parameter 'UminFault', the impedance is determined from the fault current and a reference voltage: U arg Zref = arg ref = arg Uref - arg I I arg: argument of the complex number (angle) reference voltage Uref: Uref = [(US - UT) + 1/8 (USmem - UTmem)] 27 (phase-to-ground loop, e.g. R-E) Uref = [(UT - UR) + 1/8 (UTmem - URmem)] 180 (phase-to-phase loop, e.g. R-S) I : fault current I = IR I = IR - IS (phase-to-ground loop, e.g. R-E) (phase-to-phase loop, e.g. R-S)

The reference voltage Uref is derived from the 'healthy' phase voltages (cross-polarized voltage) and a fraction of the memory voltage Umem. The duration of the memory voltage is limited to between 5 and 15 periods of the system frequency. The duration depends on the deviation of the measured frequency from the system frequency, i.e. at

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

rated system frequency the duration is 15 periods, in the case of deviation this is reduced proportionally. In case the reference voltage Uref is greater than 0.5 % of rated voltage, it is used to determine fault direction: In this case, a 'forward fault' should satisfy the condition: -90 < arg Zref < +90 A 'reverse fault' should satisfy the condition: +90 < arg Zref < -90 Zref is the measured impedance, which in addition to the line impedance ZL contains a component of the source impedance ZS. To visualize the influence of the source impedance a transformation of the tripping zone has to be done (see Section 4.2.1.2.5) When the reference voltage is less than 0.5% of rated voltage, the direction decision for the phase-to-ground loop is ignored, and tripping is blocked. For phase-to-phase loops, depending on the parameter 'MemDirMode', tripping is either enabled or blocked.
4.2.1.2.5. Construction of the measuring characteristic
X
X
7 / 14

27

-X/8

R 27

RR

RRE

-RR/2 -RRE/2

HEST 045 010 V

Fig. 4.6

Measuring characteristic using fault voltage as reference

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ABB Switzerland Ltd


X
X

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

7 / 14

R -X/8 ZS'

RR

RRE

-RR/2

-RRE/2

HEST 045 011 V

Fig. 4.7

Measuring characteristic for fault in the forward direction with healthy voltage resp. memorized voltage as reference
X

RRE/2

RR/2

-RRE

-RR

-R

X/8

R
ZS'

7 / 14 -X

HEST 045 012V

Fig. 4.8

Measuring characteristic for fault in the reverse direction using a healthy voltage resp. memorized voltage as reference

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

= 27 for Ph-E-fault, else 30 ZS' is dependant on the fault type. With single infeed and disregarding the memorized voltage for Ph-E an Ph-Phfault the ZS' value is: k +1 Ph-E-fault: Z S ' = Z S 0S k0 + 1

Ph-Ph-fault: 3-Ph-fault: ZS: k0: k0S:

3 ZS 30 2 Z ZS ' = S 9 ZS ' =

Source impedance Zero sequence current-compensation factor of the feeder, parameter 'k0 (n)' Zero sequence current-compensation factor of the source

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

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4.2.1.3.

VT supervision

The purpose of the VT supervision function is to monitor the VT leads with respect to asymmetrical short-circuits and open-circuits. An m.c.b. can be included for three-phase VT short-circuits and arranged to block the protection via a separate opto-coupler I/P. The I/P variables monitored by the VT supervision function are the three voltages UR, US, and UT and the three currents IR, IS, IT. The zero-sequence (U0, I0) and negative-sequence (U2, I2) components are calculated for both the three-phase voltage and three-phase current systems. 3U0 = UR + US + UT 3U2 = UR + US a2 + UT a 3I0 = IR + IS + IT 3I2 = IR + IS a2 + IT a a = -0,5 + j 3 /2 = 1 /120

R S T

3I 0 > 0 3U 0 > 0

I2

>0

3I0 = 0 3U0 > 0

I2

>0

U2 > 0

U2 > 0

U0 and not I0
R S T

U2 and not I2
R S T

3I0 > 0 3U 0 > 0

I2

>0

U2 > 0
HEST 915 021 FL

U 2 and not I2
Fig. 4.9 VT supervision

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

The measurement has to be performed using the negative-sequence component, whenever there is no source of residual current behind the relay, i.e. no grounded transformer neutrals. The parameter 'VTSup Mode' (operating mode) must be set accordingly. The zero and/or negative-sequence components of currents and voltages are compared with the settings of the parameters 'U0min VTSup' [U0_VTSUP], 'I0min VTSup' [I0_VTSUP], 'U2min VTSup' [U2_VTSUP] and 'I2min VTSup' [I2_VTSUP] and the associated binary signals U0, U2, I0 and I2 are then set to logical '1' or left at logical '0'. The signals U0 and U2 are delayed by 5 ms as a precaution against incorrect blocking as a result of discrepancies between the operating times of the three circuit-breaker poles. Depending on the operating mode selected, one of the following four conditions is monitored:
U0 not I0 U2 not I2 (U0 not I0) + (U2 . not I2) U2 not (I0 + I2) residual voltage, but no residual current NPS voltage, but no NPS current condition 1 or 2 NPS voltage, but neither residual current nor NPS current

Blocking by the VT supervision function is delayed for 12 s following manual closing of the circuit-breaker, an external blocking signal (m.c.b. via an opto-coupler I/P), a transfer tripping signal from the opposite station or the generation of a local tripping signal. Should U0 (or U2) and I0 (or I2) pick-up during this delay, operation of the VT supervision function remains blocked until U0 (or U2) resets. This measure prevents unwanted blocking during single-phase autoreclosure. The signal generated by the VT supervision function 'VTSupMode' instantly blocks the distance protection function. Resetting the parameter 'VTSupMode' [VTSUP_BLKDEL] enables the distance function to be blocked after delay of 12 s. From 12 s after the VT supervision circuit has picked up, resetting of blocking is delayed by 1 s. Standard m.c.bs can therefore be used, providing their main contacts do not close before their auxiliary contacts. Blocking by the VT supervision circuit resets the instant a fault with zero and negative-sequence components occurs. The parameter 'VTSupDebDel' [VTSUP_DEBDEL] (deblocking) provides facility for setting the 1 s reset delay permanently regardless of current.

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The blocking signal issued by the VT supervision function does not influence the back-up overcurrent function.

P_U2_VTSUP INP30C4 2 TONB I T Q

14

P_U0_VTSUP INP30C2 6 TONB I T Q

4 TOFFB I T Q

BIT_VTSUP1_1

14

8 TOFFB I T Q

BIT_VTSUP1_2

Fig. 4.10

Segment VTSUP1

P_DRST OUT3072 P_MANCL_DIST INP3105 P_HFREC INP3102 P_EXTBL_DIST INP3100 P_I2_VTSUP INP30C5 P_I0_VTSUP INP30C3

>=1

12000 >=1 3

2 TOFF I T Q 4 TOFFB I T Q

>=1

22

>=1 & 6

BIT_VTSUP1_1

o & <

BIT_VTSUP1_2

&

10 >=1 <

o &

11

P_VTFAIL_IU2 OUT3076

12 >=1

P_VTFAIL_IU0 OUT3075 BIT_VTSUP2_1

Fig. 4.11

Segment VTSUP2

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

BIT_VTSUP2_1 P_VTSUP_BLKDEL INP3A15 12000 1 TON I T 4 >=1 o 2 TOFF I T Q

3 &

1000

P_I0_VTSUP INP30C3 P_I2_VTSUP INP30C5 P_VTSUP_DEBDEL INP3A16

5 o >=1

6 &

7 >=1

P_VTFAIL_DLY OUT30B5

P_VTFAIL OUT3091

Fig. 4.12

Segment VTSUP3

4.2.1.4.

Back-up overcurrent function O/C

The distance protection function includes a definite time overcurrent unit as back-up protection. A starting signal 'Start O/C' is set to logical '1', when one or more of the currents IR, IS, and IT exceed the setting of the parameter 'I O/C'. Following the adjustable time delay 'O/C delay', the tripping signal 'Trip O/C' is set to logical '1' and applied to the system logic. Blocking signals generated by the distance, underimpedance starting, power swing blocking or VT supervision functions do not influence the back-up overcurrent function. The back-up overcurrent function is independent of the distance protection starters and, since it does not have to perform any phase selection, can therefore have a more sensitive setting.
4.2.1.5. 4.2.1.5.1. System logic Structure of the system logic

The system logic processes the binary I/P signals from external plant (opto-coupler I/Ps) and all the binary signals of the distance protection function. The system logic is programmed using FUPLA (function block programming language) and is divided into what are referred to as segments, which are processed with a higher priority than, for example, the auto-reclosure function.

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

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VTSUP SUPBL SOTF STUB


Binary input data of the distance protection function and the Input/Output unit

ZE TRANSBL UNBLOCK PUTTREC PUTSEND POTTREC POTSEND BLOCREC BLOSEND HFSEND TRIP

Binary output data to perturbograph and the Input/Output unit

HEST 915 022 FL

Fig. 4.13

System logic in the distance protection function

The O/Ps of the system logic are binary signals for controlling a fault recorder, LED signals and auxiliary tripping and signaling relays.
4.2.1.5.2. Enabling and blocking logic (SUPBL)

The logic of the VT supervision function (segment VTSUP) has already been described in the relevant Section. The segment SUPBL coordinates all the external blocking signals distance protection [EXTBL_DIST] (opto-coupler I/Ps), the power swing blocking function [PS_BLOCK] and the VT supervision function [VT_BLOCK] and blocks all the distance protection functions [DISTBL] with the exception of the back-up overcurrent function.

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

P_EXTBL_DIST INP3100 P_PSBLOCK INP3056 P_VTFAIL OUT3091

100

1 TOFFB I T Q

>=1

12000

TON I T

P_DISTBL

P_DISTBL_DEL

Fig. 4.14
4.2.1.5.3.

Segment SUPBL

Switch-onto-fault logic (SOTF)

When a circuit breaker is closed onto and existing three-phase fault (e.g. forgotten earthing clamps), a three-phase trip is immediately initiated. The fault detectors in this case are the non-directional starters (overcurrent or underimpedance units) or optionally the overreaching zone, but this is only used in the following special cases: power transformer with high inrush currents at the remote end of the line. In such cases fault detection involving the distance measuring units is safer. Close faults with complete voltage collapse may possibly not otherwise be detected, in which case the parameter 'MemDirMode' has to be set to 'Trip'.

The switch-onto-fault logic can be activated and the switch-onto-fault signal [SOTF] set to logical '1' in one of three ways: a) by an auxiliary contact of the CB control switch when closing the CB (opto-coupler I/P 'Manual close' [MANCL_DIST]) b) by an auxiliary contact of the CB when opening the CB (optocoupler I/P 'Dead line' [DEADLINE]) c) by prolonged undervoltage ('U weak') on all three phases and no current enable which corresponds to a dead line [UWEAK_R,S,T]. Alternative 2) is used, if the VTs are connected to the busbars and alternative 1) is not possible. The criteria of alternatives 2) and 3) may only be recognised after either 200 ms or 10 s [SOTF_10S] (setting), depending on whether the switch-onto-fault logic is required to operate after auto-reclosure (200 ms) or not (10 s). For dead times longer than 10 s (autoreclosure function) there is the possibility of using the blocking input 'Ext Blk SOTF'. This is a binary I/P which is interlocked by [P_SOTF_INIT] via an AND gate (see Section 3.5.4.2.).

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Combining undervoltage and a missing current enable signal [CREL_ R, S, T] as in alternative 3) prevents mal-operation of the logic after 200 ms, respectively 10 s, in cases of system faults with low fault current contribution, which are detected in the higher distance zones. Resetting of the signal 'SOTF' [START_SOTF] is delayed by 1 s, i.e. every distance protection start within a time of 1 s after one of the three switch-onto-fault criteria was fulfilled gives rise to three-phase tripping [SOTF] of the circuit-breaker.
2 3

P_UWEAK_R INP3034 P_UWEAK_S INP3035 P_UWEAK_T INP3036 P_CREL_R INP3030 P_CREL_S INP3031 P_CREL_T INP3032 P_DEADLINE1 INP3107 P_SOTF_10S INP3A13 o o o

>=1

&

5000

TON I T

BIT_UWEAK_5000

>=1

4 & 5 TON I T 6 9

10000 7 200

>=1

&

8 TONB I T Q 1000

P_MANCL_DIST INP3105

10 TOFF I T Q &

11

P_START_SOTF OUT30B7 P_SOTF OUT3073

P_SOTF_INIT INP3053

Fig. 4.15
4.2.1.5.4.

Segment SOTF

Short-zone logic (STUB)

In 1 breaker schemes, the short zone between the two circuitbreakers and the line isolator can be protected by the back-up overcurrent function by permitting its instantaneous pick-up signal [OC_RST] to trip the circuit-breakers [TRIP_STUB] after 25 ms whenever the line isolator is open (signal applied to the opto-coupler I/P 'Isol open'). This arrangement is only necessary, if the VTs are installed on the line side of the isolator and the CTs are in the bars between the circuitbreakers.
P_ISOL_OPEN INP3121 P_OC_RST INP3054 & 1 2 TONB I T Q

25

P_TRIP_STUB OUT30B6

Fig. 4.16

Segment STUB

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

4.2.1.5.5.

Zone extension logic (ZE)

This logic enables the reach of the distance measurement to be switched from the underreaching first zone to overreaching [BIT_TRIP_ZE] under the control of a signal from another function or an external signal. Such a signal can originate, for example, from the internal autoreclosure function (binary input 'ZExtensionAR' [AR_ZE]) or from an opto-coupler input (binary input 'ZExtension' [ZE_FOR_ DIST]). The internal auto-reclosure function issues an overreach signal [AR_ZE] when all the auto-reclosure conditions are fulfilled.
1 & 2 4 RSFF S R Q BIT_TRIP_ZE

P_ZE_FOR_DIST INP3111 P_AR_ZE OUT3094 P_MEAS_OR2 INP3052 P_START_ALL INP3050

>=1

3 1 :B

Fig. 4.17

Segment ZE

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4.2.1.5.6.

Transient blocking logic (Transbl)

This logic is only used in conjunction with a permissive overreaching transfer tripping scheme (POTT) or an overreaching blocking scheme (BLOCK OR) on double-circuit lines with infeeds from both ends and a high mutual zero-sequence impedance (both circuits on the same pylons). A blocking scheme does not require this logic, providing the waiting time is set sufficiently long. The logic solves the following problem:
The problem (with POTT)

A1

B1

t=0 s:

A2

B2

Relays A1, B1 and B2 detect the fault in the OR zone and send a signal to the opposite station. Relay A2 detects a backward fault.

A1

B1

t = sign.rec.:

Relays A1, B1 and A2 receive a signal from the opposite station.

A2

B2

A1

B1

t = CB open :

A2

B2

CB A1 opens before CB B1 opens. Relay A2 detects the fault in the OR zone, but still receives a signal from the opposite station, e.g. it trips and opens the healthy line.

HEST 915 023 C

Fig. 4.18

Transient blocking

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The operation of the logic is as follows:

The solution (with


A1 B1 TBA

Logic in relay A2

T1 >=1 &
TBE

MEAS_BW

t=0s T2
A2 B2
100ms

A1

B1

TBA

T1 >=1 &
TBE

MEAS_BW

t = sign.rec. T2
A2 B2
100ms

A1

B1

TBA

T1 >=1 &
TBE

MEAS_BW

t = CB open T2
A2 B2
100ms

TBA = (Com Rec + Unblock) Meas Oreach TRIP = TBA TBEnot


TBE is active for at least TBE resets at latest after HEST 915 024

Fig. 4.19

Transient blocking

The critical relay A2 cannot trip, because the reverse measurement signal [MEAS_BWD] is maintained for at least T1 (parameter 't1TransBl') and resets at the latest after T2 (parameter 't2TransBl'). The purpose of T2 is to ensure that blocking is maintained should auto-reclosure of the faulted circuit take place. T1 allows time for the incorrect signal 'Com Rx' to reset. Its setting is thus given by the reset time of relay B2 and the reset time of the communication channel. The receiver signal must not be prolonged.

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Tripping takes place instantaneously, if the tripping condition TBA is still fulfilled after the time T1. Tripping always causes the logic to be reset, after which it remains inactive for 100 ms. The faulted circuit will therefore be immediately tripped, for example, in the case of an unsuccessful auto-reclosure attempt.
P_TBA_BLOCK OUT3720 P_TBA_POTT OUT3707 PAR_B_T1_TRANSBL PAR3860 >=1 1 2 TONB I T Q 3 o & 7

P_MEAS_BWD INP3067 PAR_W_T2_TRANSBL PAR3880 P_D OUT3071

>=1 TON I T 4 5

>=1

100

6 TOFF I T Q

o <

&

FL_TRANSBL INP3832

BIT_TBE

Fig. 4.20
4.2.1.5.7.

Segment TRANSBL

Communication channel failure (Deblock)

This logic is only used in conjunction with a permissive underreaching transfer tripping scheme (PUTT OR2) or a permissive overreaching transfer tripping scheme (POTT). The logic causes the communication channel failure signal from the communication equipment (opto-coupler I/P 'Com Fail') to be interpreted for 100 ms as a receive signal. This enables tripping [BIT_UNBL] to take place in PUTT OR2 or POTT schemes in cases where the PLC receive signal is attenuated by the primary system fault on the line.
FL_UNBLOCK INP3833 P_HFREC INP3102 P_HFFAIL INP3103 & o 20 1 2 TONB I T Q

100

3 TONB I T Q

&

BIT_UNBL

Fig. 4.21

Segment DEBLOCK

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4.2.1.5.8.

Permissive underreaching transfer tripping (PUTT)

The PUTT logic is divided into a receive logic (segment PUTTREC) and a transmit logic (segment PUTSEND). The O/P signals from the receive logic (PUTTREC) are transferred to the transmit logic, while taking account of any weak infeed (Weak) [UWEAK_R, S, T] and short-term enable signals due to communication channel failure (Deblock) [BIT_UNBL]. The tripping criterion is thus available for evaluation in conjunction with the underimpedance starting characteristic (PUTT NONDIR) [PUTT_ NONDIR], the starting characteristic in the forward direction (PUTT FWD) [PUTT_FWD] or the overreaching zone, respectively the 2nd distance zone (PUTT OR2) [PUTT_OR2]. The O/P signals from the transmit logic (PUTTSEND) are passed on to the common transmit logic for PUTT, POTT and BLOCK OR schemes. The tripping (Trip) [TRIP_PUTT] and transmit (Tx) criteria [SEND_ PUTT] can be seen from the following diagram.
t
Delay (Def) Meas Main Delay (3) Meas Main Delay (2)

Com Rec Weak Infeed Start R+S+T Meas Bward Weak Infeed Start R+S+T Meas Fward

0 sec

Meas Main

Meas Oreach

t = Delay (1) = 0 sec : t = Com Rec :

Trip Send Trip (PUTT NONDIR) Trip (PUTT FWD) Trip (PUTT OR2) Send

= Meas Main = Meas Main = Com Rec * (Start R+S+T + Weak) = Com Rec * Meas Fward = (Com Rec + Unblock) * Meas Oreach = Meas Main = Meas Main = Meas Main = Meas Main = "0" = Start R+S+T (dir/nondir) = "0"
HEST 915 025 FL

t = Delay (2) :

Trip Send

t = Delay (3) :

Trip Send

t = Delay (Def) :

Trip Send

Fig. 4.22

PUTT NONDIR, PUTT FWD, PUTT OR2

4-33

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

FL_PUTT_NONDIR INP3810 P_START_ALL INP3050 FL_PUTT_FWD INP3811 P_UZ_FORWARD INP30C1 FL_PUTT_OR2 INP3812 P_MEAS_OR2 INP3052 P_TH2 INP3061 P_M_OWN OUT3084 BIT_UNBL P_HFREC INP3102 FL_WEAK INP3813

&

1 >=1 4

&

&

3 & 7

>=1

5 o

>=1 8 &

&

11

100

9 TOFFB I T Q 10 TOFFB I T Q

20 P_UWEAK_R INP3034 BIT_UWEAK_5000

o o & 12

P_UWEAKR_PUTT OUT3700

o P_UWEAK_S INP3035 o o

o P_UWEAK_T INP3036 o o

&

13

P_UWEAKS_PUTT OUT3701

14 >=1 15 >=1

P_UWEAKT_PUTT OUT3702 P_UWEAK_PUTT OUT3703 P_TRIP_PUTT OUT3704

Fig. 4.23

Segment PUTTREC

FL_PUTT_NONDIR INP3810 FL_PUTT_FWD INP3811 FL_PUTT_OR2 INP3812 P_TH3 INP3062 P_MEAS_MAIN INP3051 P_START_ALL INP3050

>=1

&

P_PUTT_ON OUT3721

P_SEND_PUTT OUT3722

Fig. 4.24

Segment PUTSEND

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

4.2.1.5.9.

Permissive overreaching transfer tripping (POTT)

The POTT logic is divided into a receive logic (segment POTTREC) and a transmit logic (segment POTSEND). The O/P signals from the receive logic (POTTREC) are transferred to the transmit logic, while taking account of any weak infeed (Weak) [UWEAK_R, S, T], short-term enable signals due to communication channel failure (Deblock) [BIT_UNBL] and transient blocking (Transbl) [BIT_TBE]. The O/P signals from the transmit logic (POTTSEND) are passed on to the common transmit logic for PUTT, POTT and BLOCK OR schemes, while taking account of the signal returned from the remote end of the line in the case of a weak infeed (Echo). The tripping (Trip) [TRIP_POTT] and transmit (Tx) criteria [SENDPOTT] can be seen from the following diagram.
t

Delay (Def) Meas Main Delay (3) Meas Main Delay (2)

Com Rec Weak Infeed Start R+S+T Meas Bward Weak Infeed Start R+S+T Meas Fward

0 sec

Meas Main

Meas Oreach

t = Delay (1) = 0 sec : t = Com Rec :

Trip Send Trip Trip Weak Send Send Echo

= Meas Main = Meas Oreach * notTransbl = (Com Rec + Unblock) * Meas Oreach * notTransbl = Com Rec * Weak * notMeas Bward * notMeas Oreach = Meas Oreach * notTransbl = Com Rec * notMeas Bward = Meas Main = "0" = Meas Main = "0" = Start R+S+T (dir/nondir) = "0"
HEST 915 026 FL

t = Delay (2) :

Trip Send

t = Delay (3) :

Trip Send

t = Delay (Def) :

Trip Send

Fig. 4.25

POTT

4-35

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

P_MEAS_OR2 INP3052 BIT_UNBL P_HFREC INP3102 BIT_TBE P_TH2 INP3061 P_M_OWN OUT3084 FL_ONE_CHL INP3824 P_EF_BLKHF INP31A3 P_MEAS_BWD INP3067 P_UWEAK_R INP3034 20

1 >=1

2 &

4 >=1 3 &

8 &

P_TBA_POTT OUT3707

o 5 TOFFB I T Q 6 TOFFB I T Q 7 TOFFB I T Q

200

9 o &

200 FL_WEAK INP3813 BIT_UWEAK_5000

o o o 10 o & o o o 11 o & o o o 12 >=1 13 >=1 P_UWEAKT_POTT OUT3712 P_UWEAK_POTT OUT3713 P_TRIP_POTT OUT3714 P_UWEAKS_POTT OUT3711 P_UWEAKR_POTT OUT3710

P_UWEAK_S INP3035

P_UWEAK_T INP3036

Fig. 4.26

Segment POTTREC

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

FL_POTT INP3820 P_MEAS_OR2 INP3052 BIT_TBE P_TH2 INP3061

1 1 :B

2 & o o

P_POTT_ON OUT3705

11 >=1

FL_ECHO INP3821 P_MEAS_BWD INP3067 P_M_OWN OUT3084 P_HFREC INP3102 P_EF_BLKHF INP31A3 FL_ONE_CHL INP3824

3 & 4 >=1

10 o & o

100

5 TOFFB I T Q 6 &

7 & 150

o 8 TONB I T Q

9 o & P_SEND_POTT OUT3706

Fig. 4.27

Segment POTSEND

4-37

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

4.2.1.5.10.

Overreaching blocking scheme (BLOCK OR)

The BLOCK OR logic is divided into a receive logic (segment BLOCREC) and a transmit logic (segment BLOSEND). The O/P signals from the receive logic (BLOCREC) are transferred to the transmit logic, while taking account of any transient blocking due to reversal of energy direction (Transbl). The O/P signals from the transmit logic are passed on to the common transmit logic for PUTT, POTT and BLOCK OR schemes. The tripping (Trip) and transmit (Tx) criteria can be seen from the following diagram.
t
Delay (Def) Meas Main Delay (3) Meas Main Delay (2)

Com Rec Weak Infeed Start R+S+T Meas Bward Weak Infeed Start R+S+T Meas Fward

0 sec

Meas Main

Meas Oreach

t = Delay (1) = 0 sec : t = t1Block :

Trip Send Trip Send

= Meas Main = Meas Bward = Meas Oreach * notComRec * notTransbl = Meas Bward + Transbl = Meas Main = "0" = Meas Main = "0" = Start R+S+T (dir/nondir) = "0"
HEST 915 027 FL

t = Delay (2) :

Trip Send

t = Delay (3) :

Trip Send

t = Delay (Def) :

Trip Send

Fig. 4.28

BLOCK OR

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FL_BLOCK_OR INP3830 P_HFFAIL INP3103 P_MEAS_OR2 INP3052 PAR_B_T1_BLOCK PAR3840 P_HFREC INP3102 P_TH2 INP3061 P_M_OWN OUT3084 BIT_TBE

& o

1 2 TONB I T Q 3 o & 4

>=1

o o o & 5 P_TRIP_BLOCK OUT3717 P_TBA_BLOCK OUT3720

Fig. 4.29

Segment BLOCREC

FL_BLOCK_OR INP3830 P_HFFAIL INP3103 P_TH2 INP3061 P_MEAS_OR2 INP3052 P_MEAS_BWD INP3067

& o

1 P_BLOCK_ON OUT3715

o 2 TOFFB I T Q o

&

100

>=1 & 4

BIT_TBE

P_SEND_BLOCK OUT3716

Fig. 4.30
4.2.1.5.11.

Segment BLOSEND

PLC transmit logic (HFSEND)

The task of the transmit logic is to boost (Com Boost) the PLC transmitter and transmit a signal (signaling relay O/P 'Com Send') [HFSEND] to the opposite end of the line (signaling relay O/P 'Com Boost') [HFBOOST]. General rules are: The underreaching zone transmits the signal in a permissive underreaching transfer tripping scheme (PUTT). The overreaching zone transmits the signal in a permissive overreaching transfer tripping scheme (POTT). The reverse measuring zone transmits the blocking signal in an overreaching blocking scheme (BLOCK OR).

4-39

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

P_PUTT_ON OUT3721 P_POTT_ON OUT3705 P_BLOCK_ON OUT3715 P_SEND_PUTT OUT3722 P_SEND_POTT OUT3706 P_SEND_BLOCK OUT3716 P_DISTBL OUT3077 P_UWEAK_R INP3034 P_UWEAK_S INP3035 P_UWEAK_T INP3036

>=1

>=1

&

BIT_HF_ON

>=1

4 6

o & 5 Q o & 8

P_HFSEND OUT3081

2000 P_START_ALL INP3050

TON I T

>=1

7 P_HFBOOST OUT3080

Fig. 4.31
4.2.1.5.12.

Segment HFSEND

Tripping logic

The main purpose of the tripping logic is coordination of single and three-phase tripping of the circuit-breaker (heavy-duty tripping relay O/Ps). It also provides additional starting and tripping signals. Single, respectively three-phase tripping is initiated when at least the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: starter picked up, i.e. underimpedance start or overcurrent start or undervoltage start (Weak) [UWEAK_R, S, T] from the POTT or PUTT receive logic trip by the relays own measuring unit or by the back-up overcurrent unit or by the short-zone logic or by the switch-onto-fault logic or by the zone extension logic or from the PUTT, POTT or BLOCK OR receive logic. no blocking signal is being generated by the enable and blocking logic. (This signal cannot block tripping by the back-up overcurrent unit or short-zone logic.) the parameter '3PhTripMode' is set to '1PhTrip' the starter of just one phase has picked up none of the conditions for three-phase tripping is fulfilled. The parameter '3PhTripMode' is set to 'Trip CB 3P'. The starters of more than one phase have picked up. The auto-reclosure function has instructed the distance function to trip all three-phases. Either the back-up overcurrent function or the short-zone logic has tripped.

Only single-phase tripping will take place when:

Any one of the following conditions will result in three-phase tripping:

4-40

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

operation of the switch-onto-fault logic A second trip occurs (e.g. evolving fault) during, for example, the auto-reclosure dead time. The parameter '3PhTripMode' is set to 'Trip CB 3P/Delay 3' and the zone 3 time has expired (auto-reclosure in the 2nd zone as well).
1 >=1

P_START_R INP3000 P_UWEAKR_PUTT OUT3700 P_UWEAKR_POTT OUT3710 P_START_S INP3001 P_UWEAKS_PUTT OUT3701 P_UWEAKS_POTT OUT3711 P_START_T INP3002 P_UWEAKT_PUTT OUT3702 P_UWEAKT_POTT OUT3712

BIT_R 2 >=1

3 >=1

4 &

BIT_S

5 & 6 & 8 >=1

7 >=1

BIT_T

BIT_TRIP1_345

P_OC_RST INP3054 P_DRST OUT3072 PAR_W_T1_TRIP PAR38C0

9 & 10 TOFF I T Q o

15 &

P_RST OUT3070

11 & 4

12 TONB I T Q 13 &

14 >=1

BIT_TRIP1_12 <

Fig. 4.32
BIT_TRIP1_345 P_THREE_PH_TRIP INP3A11 P_AR_1POL_INP INP3112 P_TH3 INP3062 P_TH3P INP3A10 P_OC_D INP3055 P_SOTF OUT3073 P_TRIP_STUB OUT30B6 BIT_TRIP1_12 P_UWEAK_PUTT OUT3703 P_UWEAK_POTT OUT3713

Segment TRIP1
3 >=1

1 &

o 2 >=1

BIT_THREE_P 4 >=1 P_WI OUT30B4

Fig. 4.33

Segment TRIP2

4-41

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

P_SOTF OUT3073 P_ZE_FOR_DIST INP3111 P_AR_ZE OUT3094 P_ZE_EN INP3814 P_MEAS_OR2 INP3052 P_START_ALL INP3050 P_TRIP_STUB OUT30B6 P_OC_D INP3055 P_MEAS_MAIN INP3051 P_TRIP_PUTT OUT3704 P_TRIP_POTT OUT3714 P_TRIP_BLOCK OUT3717 P_HF_OFF INP30C7 BIT_THREE_P BIT_R

1 &

2 >=1 3 &

6 >=1

5 RSFF S R

4 1 :B

8 >=1 9 & o

10 >=1

100

7 TOFFB I T Q

P_M_OWN OUT3084

14 & 11 >=1

18 >=1 15 & 16 & 17 o & o

BIT_S

12 >=1 13 >=1

BIT_T

P_D OUT3071 19 I01 I02 I03 I04 I05 I06 I07 O01 O02 O03 O04 O05 O06 O07 P_DRST OUT3072 P_D3PH OUT3085 P_D1PH OUT3083 P_DH OUT3087 P_DR OUT30B0 P_DS OUT30B1 P_DT OUT30B2

P_DISTBL OUT3077

P_EF_ENABLE INP3DC5 P_EF_TRIP_OUT INP31A1

Fig. 4.34
P_DR OUT30B0 P_DS OUT30B1 P_DT OUT30B2

Segment TRIP3
>=1 1

&

P_DRST OUT3072 P_D3PH OUT3085 6

o o

&

3 >=1 4

o & o o & o

7 TONB I T Q & 8

P_D1PH OUT3083 P_DH OUT3087

BIT_TRIP3_1

Fig. 4.35

Segment TRIP4

4-42

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

4.2.1.6.

Power swing blocking (PSB)

The purpose of the power swing blocking function is to prevent unwanted tripping of the distance protection function in response to power system instability with oscillatory fluctuations of power (power swings) or loss of synchronism (out-of-step). The power swing blocking function does not influence the operation of the back-up overcurrent function. When power swings occur, the electrical parameters of the system vary at a slower or faster rate in relation to the angle between the voltage vectors of the energy sources in different parts of the system. In the case of a fault on the other hand, step changes of these parameters take place. The parameters, which regardless of location are subject to appreciable variation in the general region around phase opposition ( = 180), are the resistance R and the voltage component U cos . The value of corresponds to the angle between phase voltage and current.

E1

U
Ucos

E2

)Ucos

E1

E2

Independent of:

-Relay location -Relay characteristics -Relay settings


HEST 915 028

Fig. 4.36

Power swing blocking

4-43

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

The voltage and current input variables are passed on to the evaluation system. The criterion for pick-up of the power swing blocking function is the continuous variation of (U cos ), which corresponds to the variation of real power in relation to current amplitude (P = I U . cos ). The value of (U cos ) is determined after every zero-crossing of the current. A blocking signal is generated, as soon as a repetitive variation of the value of (U cos ) is detected, i.e. a variation must be detected at least three times to count as a power swing. Two periods are needed to detect the faster power swings up to a frequency of 8 Hz. The power swing blocking function does not pick up during a fault, because the variation of (U cos ) in relation to time only occurs once and at a much higher rate than the functions operating range. Slow swings are evaluated over five periods by a second system. At its lowest operating limit, this system detects a frequency of 0.2 Hz. Together the two systems cover a range from 0.2 to 8 Hz and no setting is required during commissioning. The blocking signal 'PSB' is maintained for as long as the distance protection function is in the picked-up state. The power swing blocking function is only effective for the symmetrical three-phase condition and cannot block the distance function for asymmetrical faults (E/Fs and phase-to-phase faults). A blocking signal is not issued, if the zero-crossings of the current signal occur at relatively irregular intervals, because considerable differences between the zero-crossing intervals are a clear indication of a fault on the power system. Phase jumps in the current wave form occur at the incidence of a fault, as a consequence of incorrect switching and when CT saturation takes place. Since the currents during power swings are sinusoidal and do not contain a DC component, it is permissible to assume that the problem of CT saturation does not arise. Zero-crossings resulting from the slip are in any event excluded by the current enable setting of Imin.

4-44

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4.2.1.7.
FUPLA name 3P AR_1POL-INP AR_ZE BLOCK_ON BLOCK_OR CREL_E CREL_R CREL_S CREL_T D D_RELEASE D1PH D3PH DEADLINE1 DH DISTBL DISTBL DEL DR DRST DS DT ECHO EXTBL_DIST EXTBL_PSB HF_ON HFBOOST HFFAIL HFREC HFREC_EF HFSEND HW_RDY I0_VTSUP I2_VTSUP ISOL_OPEN M_OWN MANCL_DIST MEAS_BWD MEAS_MAIN MEAS_OR2

Signal designations and abbreviations


HMI name Signal description Preparation of a three-phase trip 1P recl. ZExtensionAR Single-phase reclosure by the auto-reclosure function Sig. from recl. function to switch distance function to overreach Overreaching blocking scheme selected BLOCK OR Start I0 Overreaching blocking scheme Residual current enable, I0 criterion R phase current enable S phase current enable T phase current enable Trip RST General trip signal before blocking gate from R, S or T phases Any trip before phase selection Trip CB 1P Trip CB 3P Dead line Trip Com Dist blocked DelDistBlk Trip CB R Trip CB Trip CB S Trip CB T Echo Ext blk dist Ext blk PSB Single-phase trip signal before blocking gate Three-phase trip signal before blocking gate Line isolator open; used when VTs on the busbars. Trip via the communication channel Tripping blocked Delayed tripping blocked signal Trip signal to R phase of CB General trip from R, S or T phase Trip signal to S phase of CB Trip signal to T phase of CB Transmission of an echo sig. in a POTT scheme Distance function blocked by external signal Power swing blocking blocked by external signal A transfer tripping mode is selected. Com boost Com fail Com Rx Signal to boost PLC power ready for transmission PLC channel failure Signal received by PLC (unused) Com Tx PLC signal transmitted Hardware standing by VT supervision I0> setting exceeded. VT supervision I2> setting exceeded. Isol open Line isolator open (only in conjunction with short-zone logic) Relays own measurement, no transfer tripping involved. Manual close Meas Bward Meas main Meas Oreach Signal from CB manual control switch Fault in the reverse direction Fault in zone 1, 2, 3, 4 or <Z (dir./non-dir.) acc. to sig. delay Fault in the overreach zone or zone 2 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x INT x x x PAR CPU OPT OUT

4-45

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

FUPLA name OC_D OC_RST ONE_CHL POTT POTT_ON PSBLOCK PUTT_FWD PUTT_NONDIR PUTT_ON PUTT_OR2 R RELAY_RDY RST S SEND_BLOCK SEND_POTT SEND_PUTT SOTF SOTF_10S SOTF_INIT ST1 ST1FWD ST2 ST2FWD ST3 ST3FWD ST4 ST4FWD START_ALL START_E START_OC START_R START_S START_T START_U0 START_UZ STDEF STOR

HMI name Trip O/C Start O/C

Signal description General O/C trip General O/C start (not used)

INT

PAR

CPU x x

OPT

OUT x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

POTT

Permissive overreaching transfer tripping POTT scheme selected

Power swing PUTT FWD PUTT NONDIR

Power swing function blocking signal PUTT for forwards only PUTT for the entire underimpedance characteristic A PUTT scheme is selected

PUTT OR2

PUTT only for overreach zone or zone 2 Starting or Uweak phase selection sig. for R phase

Relay ready Start RST

Relay standing by. General start with Uweak active Starting or Uweak phase selection sig. for S phase Tx signal from BLOCK OR scheme Tx signal from POTT scheme Tx signal from PUTT scheme

Trip SOTF SOTF10sec

Switch-onto-fault condition fulfilled Switch-onto-fault condition fulfilled (after 10 s) Switch-onto-fault start

Delay 1

Zone 1 time delay running Zone 1 set for forwards measurement

Delay 2

Zone 2 time delay running Zone 2 set for forwards measurement

Delay 3

Zone 3 time delay running Zone 3 set for forwards measurement

Delay 4

Zone 4 time delay running Zone 4 set for forwards measurement

Start R+S+T Start E Start OC Start R Start S Start T Start U0 Start UZ Delay def

General start with Uweak inactive General E/F start with I0 and/or U0 Overcurrent start General start by R phase with Uweak inactive General start by S phase with Uweak inactive General start by T phase with Uweak inactive Residual voltage start, U0 criterion Underimpedance start Lock-out timer running Overreach zone selected, i.e. T4<T2

4-46

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

FUPLA name T T1_BLOCK T1_TRANSBL T1_TRIP T2_TRANSBL TBA_BLOCK TBA_POTT TBE TH1 TH2 TH3 TH3P TH4 THDEF THREE_PH_TRIP TRANSBL TRIP_BLOCK TRIP_POTT TRIP_PUTT TRIP_STUB TRIP_ZE U0_VTSUP U2_VTSUP UNBL UNBLOCK UWEAK_POTT UWEAK_PUTT UWEAK_R UWEAK_S UWEAK_T UWEAKR_POTT UWEAKR_PUTT UWEAKS_POTT UWEAKS_PUTT UWEAKT_POTT UWEAKT_PUTT UZ_FORWARD VT_FAIL VTFAIL_DLY VTFAIL_IU0 VTFAIL_IU2

HMI name

Signal description Starting or Uweak phase selection sig. for T phase

INT x

PAR

CPU

OPT

OUT

t1Block t1TransBl t1EvolFaults t2TransBl

Waiting time for HFREC, default 40 ms Timer for monitoring the TBA signal, default 50 ms Timer for detecting evolving faults, default 3000 ms Max. duration of the TBE signal, default 3000 ms BLOCK OR tripping condition fulfilled. POTT tripping condition fulfilled. Transient blocking logic selected. End of zone 1 time x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Delay >=2

End of zone 2 time End of zone 3 time

3PhTripDel3

Three-phase trip after TH3 End of zone 4 time End of lock-out time

3ph trip TransBl

Always 3 phases tripped. Transient blocking logic Tripping signal from BLOCK OR scheme Tripping signal from PUTT scheme Tripping signal from POTT scheme

Trip Stub

Tripping by short-zone logic Tripping by zone extension logic U0> setting exceeded. U2> setting exceeded. Deblocking selected.

Unblock

PLC channel failure 'General Uweak condition fulfilled' from POTT 'General Uweak condition fulfilled' from PUTT Weak infeed in R phase Weak infeed in S phase Weak infeed in T phase 'Uweak condition fulfilled in R phase' from POTT 'Uweak condition fulfilled in R phase' from PUTT 'Uweak condition fulfilled in S phase' from POTT 'Uweak condition fulfilled in S phase' from PUTT 'Uweak condition fulfilled in T phase' from POTT 'Uweak condition fulfilled in T phase' from PUTT

Meas. Fward VTSup VTSup Delay

Fault in forwards direction V.t supervision operated. Delayed VT_FAIL signal V.t supervision using zero-sequence component V.t supervision using negative-sequence component

4-47

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

FUPLA name WEAK WI ZE_FOR_DIST

HMI name Weak Weak Infeed ZExtension

Signal description POTT/PUTT phase selection by weak infeed logic Weak infeed condition fulfilled. Signal switching distance function to overreach

INT

PAR x

CPU

OPT

OUT

x x

INT:

internal signal connecting two FUPLA segments P_.......... BIT_........ (not contained in the above table)

PAR: Parameter or mode which can be set. PAR_B_ (short-time element, TONB: delayed pick-up, TOFFB: delayed reset) PAR_W_...... (long-time element, TON: delayed pick-up,

TOFF: delayed reset) FL_......... (Flag, Mode)

CPU: Main processor signal P_.......... OPT: Opto-coupler input P_.......... OUT: Signal output which can be assigned to an output relay, LED, event recorder or disturbance recorder P_..........

4-48

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

4.2.2. 4.2.2.1.

Auto-reclosure Logic segments

The auto-reclosure logic comprises the several FUPLA segments, the block diagrams of which are shown below. The relationship between the inputs and outputs and the designations used for the HMI is given in Section 4.2.2.2.
1 &

P_MD1_EXT P_MD1_EXT_1P_1P P_MD1_EXT_1P_3P P_MD1_EXT_1P3P_3P P_MD1_EX_1P3P_1P3P P_MD1_1P_1PAR o o o

2 >=1 3 & BIT_MD_1P_1P

o o P_MD1_1P_3PAR 5 & o P_MD1_1P3P_3PAR 7 &

4 >=1 BIT_MD_1P_3P 6 >=1 BIT_MD_1P3P_3P 8 >=1 BIT_MD_1P3P_1P3P

P_MD1_1P3P_1P3P

Fig. 4.37

Segment MODE_1AR: Selection of the mode for the first auto-reclosure cycle

4-49

ABB Switzerland Ltd

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

P_AR_START P_AR_START_2 P_AR_START_3 P_TRIP P_TRIP_3P P_TRIP_2 P_TRIP_3P_2 P_TRIP_3 P_TRIP_3P_3 o 6 >=1 o & 4 9 >=1 o & 3 & 2 5 >=1

1 >=1

BIT_AR_START

P_AR_RUN BIT_MD_1P_3P BIT_MD_1P_1P

10 >=1

11 o &

13 >=1 12 &

BIT_DISCRT P_1AR_1P 7 >=1 o & 8 15 >=1 BIT_AR1_DEFTR

BIT_MD_1P3P_3P

14 NPLS In Out 17 RSFF S 16 NPLS In Out

P_AR_BLCKD BIT_MD_1P3P_1P3P

18 >=1 19 >=1

20 & 21 >=1 22 >=1 R 25 o & 24 >=1 26 RSFF S R 23 RSFF S

P_AR_3POL_OUT

P_CL_CB P_CL_CB2

27 o &

BIT_AR1_3P_EN

28 NPLS In Out

29 &

30 &

BIT_AR1_1P_EN

BIT_AR1 P_MAST_DEL

o o 31 & o o 33 o & o BIT_AR_TRIP 32 PPLS In Out 34 TON I Tim Q BIT_BLK_OPT_FIN

BIT_DEADT

BIT_ST_DEAD_T

TMSEC_OPERT

Fig. 4.38

Segment ARTRIP: Starting and tripping inputs, determination of the autoreclosure mode, AR initiation and fault duration time

4-50

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

P_CB_OP

100

1 TON I Tim 2 TOFF I Tim

3 >=1

P_RDY_OCO

100

o o

4 &

P_AR_RUN P_CB2_OP

100

5 TON I Tim 6 TOFF I Tim

10 &

7 >=1

P_RDY_OCO2

100

o 8 >=1

9 & 11 TOFF I Tim

16 >=1

P_CL_CB P_CL_CB2

50

12 o &

P_MANCL_AR BIT_AR_START BIT_AR_TRIP 13 o & o 14 o &

P_COND_BLCK P_EXTBL_AR P_TST_AROFF BIT_BLK_OPT_FIN P_MD1_EXT P_MD1_EXT_1P_1P P_MD1_EXT_1P_3P P_MD1_EXT_1P3P_3P P_MD1_EX_1P3P_1P3P TMSEC_BLCK_T BIT_INHIB_OUT P_INH_IN

15 & o o o o 17 TOFF I Tim Q 18 >=1

19 o & o 21 &

P_AR_BLCKD 20 >=1 P_AR_RDY

P_AR1_ZE BIT_AR1 P_AR2_ZE P_2AR P_AR3_ZE P_3AR P_AR4_ZE P_4AR

25 >=1

22 &

23 &

24 &

26 &

28 >=1

P_AR_ZEMD 29 &

27 o & o 30 RSFF S R 32 RSFF S R

P_AR_ZEOUT

BIT_CB1_DISABLED

31 &

BIT_CB2_DISABLED

Fig. 4.39

Segment BLOCK: Blocking and zone extension logic

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

BIT_ST_DEAD_T

&

2 COUNTX C Q0 R Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 3 >=1 & 4

BIT_ARINI BIT_AR1 P_2AR P_3AR P_4AR BIT_AR_FIN P_AR_RUN

P_AR_MD2 P_AR_MD3 P_AR_MD4

o & 5

8 >=1

&

&

7 BIT_LAST_AR <

P_AR_BLCKD 10 & 11 TON I Tim

9 ASSB <

BIT_AR1_1P_EN

P_1AR_1P

TMSEC_DEADT1_1P

Q 12 RSFF S R

13 o &

17 >=1

14 o & 16 &

BIT_AR1_3P_EN

TMSEC_DEADT1_3P

15 TON I Tim

TMSEC_DEADT1_EXT P_EXT_T1_EN

18 TOFF I Tim Q

20 >=1

19 &

27 >=1

TMSEC_DEADT2

21 TON I Tim

22 Q o &

TMSEC_DEADT3

23 TON I Tim

24 Q o &

TMSEC_DEADT4 28 TON I Tim

25 TON I Tim

26 Q o & BIT_DEADT

TMSEC_DISCRT_1P

Q 29 RSFF S R

31 o &

36 >=1

30 o &

32 PPLS In Out 33 o &

34 >=1 35 TOFF I Tim Q BIT_DISCRT P_1AR_3P

TMSEC_DISCRT_3P

37 o & o

Fig. 4.40

Segment ARCOUNT: Auto-reclosure attempt counter

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P_MAST_DEL P_AR_RUN BIT_CB1_WAIT BIT_DEADT BIT_CB1_DISABLED TMSEC_TIME_OUT

&

1 2 >=1 3

& o

4 TOFF I Tim Q o & BIT_T_OUT1 7 BIT_TOUT_TRIP1 17 o &

6 PPLS In Out 13 &

&

BIT_AR_TRIP P_MDSCBYPS_1P BIT_AR1_1P_EN BIT_AR1 & &

10 >=1 9 12 >=1 11 & 15 RSFF S 14 >=1 16 TON I Tim Q o P_CL_CB

P_MDSCBYPS_1P3P P_EXTSC_BYP P_SYN_CK P_CO_RDY P_DEADL

P_AR_BLCKD TMSEC_CL_T

18 PPLS In Out

19 NPLS In Out

20 o & o o

BIT_INIT_BLOCK

BIT_CB1_DEFTRIP

Fig. 4.41

Segment CLOSE1: Close signal for the first circuit-breaker

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P_MAST_DEL P_AR_RUN BIT_CB2_WAIT BIT_DEADT BIT_CB2_DISABLED TMSEC_TIME_OUT

&

1 2 >=1 3

& o

4 TOFF I Tim Q o & BIT_T_OUT2 7 BIT_TOUT_TRIP2 17 o &

6 PPLS In Out 13 &

&

BIT_AR_TRIP P_MDSCBYPS_1P BIT_AR1_1P_EN BIT_AR1 & &

10 >=1 9 12 >=1 11 & 15 RSFF S 14 >=1 16 TON I Tim Q o P_CL_CB2 19 o & o

P_MDSCBYPS_1P3P P_EXTSC_BYP P_SYN_CK2 P_CO_RDY2 P_DEADL2

P_AR_BLCKD TMSEC_CL_T

18 NPLS In Out BIT_INIT_BLOCK

o o

BIT_CB2_DEFTRIP

Fig. 4.42

Segment CLOSE2: Close signal for the second circuit-breaker

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P_CL_CB

300

1 TOFF I Tim

&

BIT_AR_TRIP BIT_DEADT P_AR_BLCKD 4 NPLS In Out P_AR_RUN P_CB_OP 3 >=1

5 RSFF S

Q 6 o &

BIT_CL_AND_TR1

&

o o & o 10 RSFF S R 8 9 RSFF S R 11 TON I Tim Q

BIT_CL1_UNS

BIT_CL1_SUC

40

12 & P_DEL_FLW

P_MAST_MDE

Fig. 4.43

Segment SUCCES1: Close supervision for the first circuit-breaker


1 TOFF I Tim

P_CL_CB2

300

&

BIT_AR_TRIP BIT_DEADT P_AR_BLCKD 4 NPLS In Out P_AR_RUN P_CB2_OP 3 >=1

5 RSFF S

Q 6 o &

BIT_CL_AND_TR2

&

o o & o 8 9 RSFF S R Q

BIT_CL2_UNS

BIT_CL2_SUC

Fig. 4.44

Segment SUCCES2: Close supervision for the second circuit-breaker

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P_MAST_MDE BIT_TOUT_TRIP1 BIT_TOUT_TRIP2 BIT_CB1_DEFTRIP BIT_CL1_UNS P_AR_BLCKD BIT_CB2_DEFTRIP BIT_CL2_UNS 3 >=1 1 >=1

13 >=1

16 &

2 RSFF S R 4 RSFF S R Q & 7

5 >=1

BIT_CB2_DISABLED BIT_CL2_SUC 6 >=1 o

BIT_CB1_DISABLED BIT_CL1_SUC

& o

BIT_AR_TRIP BIT_DISCRT BIT_DEADT BIT_AR1_DEFTR BIT_CL_AND_TR1 BIT_CL_AND_TR2 BIT_LAST_AR 10 >=1 o

&

11 &

12 & 500

15 TMOC I Tim Q 17 >=1

P_BLCK_TO_FLW

P_MAST_NOSUC

14 & 19 & 20 & 22 o & 23 >=1 24 TOFF I Tim Q 500

18 TMOC I Tim

21 >=1

P_DEF_TRP

TMSEC_INHIB_T

25 & 26 o &

BIT_INHIB_OUT P_INH_OUT

P_CB2_PRIORITY BIT_T_OUT2

o 27 o & o o

BIT_CB1_WAIT

BIT_T_OUT1

BIT_CB2_WAIT

Fig. 4.45

Segment DEFTRIP: Master/follower and duplex logic and definitive TRIP signal

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4.2.2.2.

Signal designations

The relationship between the designations of the FUPLA input and output signals and the parameter designations used in the HMI can be seen from the following tables. The tables do not show the connections between the various segments.
Timer settings
FUPLA signal name TMSEC_BLCK_T TMSEC_CL_T TMSEC_DEADT1_1P TMSEC_DEADT1_3P TMSEC_DEADT1_EXT TMSEC_DEADT2 TMSEC_DEADT3 TMSEC_DEADT4 TMSEC_DISCRT_1P TMSEC_DISCRT_3P TMSEC_INHIB_T TMSEC_OPERT TMSEC_TIME_OUT HMI designation t AR Block t Close t Dead1 1P t Dead1 3P t Dead1 Ext t Dead2 t Dead3 t Dead4 t Discrim. 1P t Discrim. 3P t Inhibit t Oper t Timeout HMI setting 0.05 300 0.05 300 0.05 300 0.05 300 0.05 300 0.05 300 0.05 300 0.05 300 0.10 300 0.10 300 0.05 300 0.05 300 0.05 300

Binary inputs
FUPLA signal name P_AR_MD2 P_AR_MD3 P_AR_MD4 P_AR_START P_AR_START_2 P_AR_START_3 P_AR_ZEMD P_AR1_ZE P_AR2_ZE HMI designation 2..4WE Modus 2..4WE Modus 2..4WE Modus Start Start 2 Start 3 ZE Prefault ZE 1. AR ZE 2. AR HMI setting 2 AR 3 AR 4 AR On On On

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FUPLA signal name P_AR3_ZE P_AR4_ZE P_CB_OP P_CB2_OP P_CB2_PRIORITY P_CO_RDY P_CO_RDY2 P_COND_BLCK P_DEADL P_DEADL2 P_EXT_T1_EN P_EXTBL_AR P_EXTSC_BYP P_INH_IN P_MANCL_AR P_MAST_DEL P_MAST_MDE P_MAST_NOSUC P_MD1_1P_1PAR P_MD1_1P_3PAR P_MD1_1P3P_3PAR P_MD1_1P3P_1P3P P_MD1_EXT P_MD1_EXT_1P_1P P_MD1_EXT_1P_3P P_MD1_EXT_1P3P_3P P_MD1_EX_1P3P_1P3P P_MDSCBYPS_1P P_MDSCBYPS_1P3P P_RDY_OCO P_RDY_OCO2

HMI designation ZE 3. AR ZE 4. AR CB Open CB2 Open CB2 Priority CO Ready CO Ready 2 Cond.Blk AR Dead line Dead line 2 Extend t1 Ext. Blk. AR Ext.SCBypas Inhibit Inp. Manual Close MasterDelay Master mode Mast.noSucc 1. AR Mode 1. AR Mode 1. AR Mode 1. AR Mode 1. AR Mode MD1_EXT_1P_1P MD1_EXT_1P_3P MD1_EXT_1P3P_3P MD1_EX_1P3P_1P3P SCBypas 1P SCBypas1P3P CB Ready CB2 Ready

HMI setting On On On 1. 1P-1P 1. 1P-3P 1. 1P3P-3P 1. 1P3P-1P3P Ext. selection -

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FUPLA signal name P_SYN_CK P_SYN_CK2 P_TRIP P_TRIP_2 P_TRIP_3 P_TRIP_3P P_TRIP_3P_2 P_TRIP_3P_3

HMI designation SynchroChck SynchroChck2 Trip CB Trip CB2 Trip CB3 Trip CB 3P Trip CB2 3P Trip CB3 3P

HMI setting -

Signal outputs FUPLA signal name P_1AR_1P P_1AR_3P P_2AR P_3AR P_4AR P_AR_3POL_OUT P_AR_BLCKD P_AR_RDY P_AR_RUN P_AR_ZEOUT P_BLCK_TO_FLW P_CL_CB P_CL_CB2 P_DEF_TRP P_DEL_FLW P_INH_OUT HMI designation First AR 1P First AR 3P Second AR Third AR Fourth AR Trip 3-Pol. AR Blocked AR Ready AR in Prog ZExtension. Blk.toFlwr. Close CB Close CB2 Def. Trip DelayFlwr. Inhibit Outp

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4.2.3. 4.2.3.1.

Breaker failure protection Introduction

This function provides backup protection to clear a fault after being enabled by the unit protection for the case that the circuit-breaker (CB) should fail. It has to operate as quickly and reliably as possible especially on EHV systems where stability is crucial. To this end, current detectors continuously monitor the line currents and if they do not reset after a preset time, which allows for the operating times of the unit protection and the circuit-breaker, a tripping command is issued to either attempt to trip the same circuit-breaker again or trip the surrounding circuit-breakers. Resetting of current detectors is influenced by the following factors: Even after the main CB contacts open, the current does not immediately drop to zero, but to a level determined by the fault resistance and the resistance of the arc across the open CB contacts. The current only becomes zero after the de-ionization time of the CB arc. The pick-up setting of the detector The fault level prior to operation of the CB Whether the main CTs saturate. If a CT saturates, its secondary current may not pass through zero at the same time as its primary current and if the primary current is interrupted at zero, the CT flux may be at some positive or negative value. The secondary current therefore decays through the burdens of the relays thus increasing the reset time.

The resetting time varies typically between 20 and 30 ms. Since for the above application, the current detectors should reset as quickly as possible, Fourier filter algorithms are included to minimize the affect of CT saturation and eliminate completely or substantially any DC offset. The block diagram below shows the basic functions, which are explained in the following Sections.

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Current detectors Redundant logic Red Trip Lx

Start Lx

Trip t1 Lx Retrip logic Retrip t1 Remote Trip Backup Trip t2 EFP Bus Trip CB Off CB On Start Ext Ext Trip EFP Ext Trip t2 1 1 1 Ext Trip t1 Trip t1 Trip t2 Unconditional logic End Fault logic EFS Rem Trip Uncon Trip t2 Uncon Trip t1

Remote logic

Back up logic

HEST 005 045 C

Fig. 4.46
4.2.3.2.

Block diagram

Three-phase/ single-phase mode

The function has three current detectors. When it is used in the threephase mode, each current detector measures the current in each of the three phases. In order to accommodate a fourth current detector measuring the neutral current, this function has to be duplicated and the second function set to the single-phase mode and the appropriate current pickup. The two functions then operate in parallel. This arrangement also covers the two special cases of phase-tophase-to-ground and three-phase-to-ground faults.
4.2.3.3. 'Redundant Trip'

The 'Redundant Trip' logic performs phase-segregated direct tripping of the same circuit-breaker without any intentional time delay, if the Start inputs are active and the corresponding current detectors have picked up. This ensures that the breaker receives a tripping command in the event of a unit protection trip circuit failure, which would otherwise cause a second attempt to trip the same breaker or backup tripping of the surrounding breakers.

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4.2.3.4.

'Retrip'

The unit protection issues a trip command and simultaneously starts individual phases or all three phases of the breaker fail function. A second attempt is made to trip the corresponding phase or phases after the first time step (t1), providing the current detectors have not reset. The 'Retrip' logic can be disabled if not required. Separate timers for each phase ensure correct operation during evolving faults.
4.2.3.5. 'Backup Trip'

A second time step (t2) follows the first time step (t1) and initiates backup tripping, which is always of all three phases. If the first time step is disabled, the second time step is started immediately, providing the current detectors have activated by the starting signal from the protection. The backup trip logic trips all surrounding breakers feeding the fault.
4.2.3.6. 'Remote Trip'

The 'Remote Trip' logic trips the breaker at the remote end of the line. Remote tripping can take place concurrently with the 'Retrip' or 'Backup' functions or not at all as desired. In contrast to the other tripping commands which remain activate for a given period after the initiating signal has reset, the remote tripping signal is an impulse with a width which is adjustable irrespective of when the starting signal from the protection resets.
4.2.3.7. 'Unconditional Trip'

This feature was introduced to respond to low-level faults with currents too low for the current detectors to pick up or do not initially cause any fault current at all such as mechanical protection devices like Buchholz, etc. The start input bypasses the current detectors and activates the time steps if the breaker is in the closed position. In all other respects, this logic is similar to the 'Retrip' and 'Backup' logics.
4.2.3.8. 'End Fault Trip'

While in the case of a fault between a circuit-breaker and a single set of CTs, the circuit-breaker may not fail, the affect on the power system and the action that has to be taken are the same as if the circuitbreaker had failed. Where there is only a single set of CTs on the busbar side of a circuitbreaker, the zones of protection do not overlap and a fault between the circuit-breaker and the CTs is seen as a line fault, although it belongs to the busbar zone and persists after the circuit-breaker has been

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tripped. The breaker failure protections 'End Fault Trip' logic ultimately clears such faults at the end of the second time step. This logic is enabled if the breaker is open and the current detectors are still picked up, indicating a fault between the breaker and the CTs. The speed of tripping is determined by the time delay setting. Depending on whether the single set of CTs is on the line side or bus side of the circuit breaker, either the section of busbar or the circuit breaker at the remote end of the line is tripped.
4.2.3.9. 'External Trip'

This function has been included to make the breaker fail protection more user-friendly and reduce the amount of systems engineering required. It generates an instantaneous trip when either of the following inputs is activated:

The input connected to the second time steps of other breaker fail protection devices in the station. The input connected to the end fault outputs of other breaker fail protection devices in the station.

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4.2.4. 4.2.4.1.

High-impedance General

In a high-impedance scheme, the measurement circuit represents a high-impedance across a circulating current circuit. High-impedance protection is used for phase and possibly earth fault protection for generators, motors and compensators restricted E/F protection for power transformers

The main advantage of a high-impedance scheme compared with a normal differential scheme is its better stability for relatively low through-fault currents (between IN and 5 IN). The disadvantages are the high voltage across the circulating current circuit during internal faults the special requirements to be fulfilled by the CTs

A high-impedance scheme is used to advantage where fault currents are relatively low, discrimination is absolutely essential.

This is the case for phase faults on air-cored compensators and earth faults on power transformers that are grounded via an impedance. In some instances solidly grounded transformers can also be protected. Either an overcurrent function with a series resistor or an overvoltage function can be used in a high-impedance scheme. The restricted earth fault protection (R.E.F.) described in the next Section is an example for the application of an overcurrent function. The required level of through-fault stability is determined by the value of the high impedance presented by the protection measuring circuit.

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4.2.4.2. 4.2.4.2.1.

Restricted E/F protection for a transformer Basic requirements

A restricted E/F scheme must be able to detect E/Fs in the protection zone remain stable during both phase and earth through-faults

The scheme is designed to remain stable in the case of a solidly grounded star-point for an external E/F current in the case of an impedance grounded star-point for the highest external phase and earth fault current

When designing a scheme, it is assumed that one CT is fully saturated and none of the others.
4.2.4.2.2. Components of a restricted E/F scheme

A restricted E/F scheme comprises the following items:


4.2.4.2.3.

RE.316*4 overcurrent function is connected to a measuring CT linear stabilizing resistor RS non-linear resistor shorting contacts where necessary

Design

The E/F current is determined by a) the generator and step-up transformer reactances when the HV circuit breaker is open (see Fig. 4.47). b) in addition to a) by the HV power system when the HV circuitbreaker is closed (see Fig. 4.48). As a result of the current distribution for a through-fault, the star-point CT conducts the highest current in the case of a solidly grounded transformer as shown in Fig. 4.48. Apart from the burden of the cables, the high fault level results in a high CT flux and a high probability of it saturating. The influence of external phase faults on the circulating current circuit is limited, especially if the connections between the CT cores can be kept short. Phase faults are therefore neglected when designing a scheme for a solidly grounded system. They may not be neglected, however, where a system is impedance grounded.

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The value of the stabilizing resistor is chosen such that the voltage drop caused by the highest external E/F and possibly phase fault current across the secondary winding and leads of the saturated CT cannot reach the pick-up setting of the protection (see Fig. 4.49). The knee-point voltage of the CTs is specified such that the they can supply sufficient current during an internal fault to enable the protection to trip. The knee-point voltage Uk of the CTs must therefore be appreciably higher than the voltage drop Ua. Symbols used: IE I2 I2N I1N IN R2 RL Ua , Ui Uk I RS IF Equations: Ua = (R2 + 2 RL) I2 Uk 2 Ua I = 0.25 I2N (solidly grounded star-point) I = 0.10 I2N (impedance grounded star-point) RS primary star-point current (AC component) for a through-fault secondary current of the non-saturated CTs CT secondary rated current CT primary rated current protection rated current secondary resistance of the saturated CT at 75C lead resistance according to the Figure voltage drops across the circulating current circuit for external and internal faults CT knee-point voltage current setting stabilizing resistor highest primary fault current (AC component) for an internal E/F

Ua I

Ui = RS I2 (I2 results from IF)

Umax = 2 2 Uk ( Ui Uk )

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4.2.4.2.4.

Example

Determination of the stabilizing resistor: CTs 1000/1 A R2 = 5 RL = 100 m = 0.5 50 4 mm 2

(CT lead gauge 4 mm2)

Maximum earth fault through current: IE = 10,000 A This is the E/F current on an HV system with the following data: xd" = x2 = 0.2 ; I2 = 10 000 xT = xT0 = 0.1 ; xsys = xsys 0 = 0.01

1 = 10 A 1000

Ua = (5 + 2 0,5) 10 = 60 V Uk 2 Ua = 120 V Chosen Uk = 200 V

Settings for a solidly grounded system: I = 0.25 IN = 0.25 A (The setting I = 0.1IN is usually chosen for a impedance grounded system.) Stabilizing resistor RS

U 60 = = 240 I 0,25 RS = 300 3 I1N 2 xNetz + xNetz0 3 1000 = 100 000 A 0,02 + 0,01

Chosen

Check of the overvoltage at maximum fault current IF = =

I2 = 100 000

1 = 100 A 1000

Ui = RS I2 = 300 100 = 30 000 V Umax = 2 2 Uk ( Ui Uk )


= 2 2 200 (30 000 200 ) = 6 905 V

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Since this value exceeds the permissible maximum peak value of 2,000 V, a non-linear resistor must be connected across the circulating current circuit to limit the voltage. Shorting contacts may also be necessary.

CT specification: Rated currents Winding resistance Knee-point voltage Magnetising current i.e. 1000/1 A R2 5 Uk = 200 V I2m 2 % I2N I2m 0.02 A at U2 = 60 V

The CTs must conform to British Standard 3938, Class X. The CTs should also: have evenly distributed secondary windings on a toroidal core (i.e. to minimize the secondary leakage flux) not have any winding correction

Stabilizing resistor specification: 300 ; 0.5 A

Test voltage: 2 kV

Non-linear resistor specification: E.g. Metrosil Type 600 A/S1.

Shorting contacts: The circulating current circuit must be short-circuited within the thermal rating time of the two resistors, if an internal fault cannot be tripped in a shorter time.

Overcurrent function settings: I-Setting Delay 0.25 IN 0.02 s

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T
4.286

Power system

4.286
HEST 935 005 FL

Fig. 4.47

E/F on the HV system supplied by the generator xd" = x2 = 0.2 ; xT = xT0 = 0.1

The current values are referred to the rated current of the transformer.

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95.8793

4.1238

105.4672

2.0619

5.4641

2.0619

Fig. 4.48

E/F on the HV system supplied by the generator and the HV system xT = xT0 = 0.1 ; xd" = x2 = 0.2 ; xsys = xsys 0 = 0.01

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95.8793

HEST 935 006 FL

Power system

RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

Saturated c.t. IE IE R2

Internal E/F

External E/F

RS I2
I>

Ui I2

RS VDR
I>

Shorting contact

HEST 935 007 FL

Fig. 4.49

Restricted E/F protection of a Y connected transformer winding

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4.2.5.

Application of the transformer differential protection in a 112 breaker configuration

A stable behavior of the differential protection function at through fault conditions is achieved by using a three feeder differential protection as it is shown in Fig. 4.50. Therefore, a RET316*4 version with a input transformer unit K22 and a software code ST310, ST320 or ST330 is needed.

Through Fault

RET316*4 ST3xx

HEST 985036 C

Fig. 4.50

Connection of the transformer differential protection in a 1 breaker configuration. Standstill protection

4.2.6. 4.2.6.1.

Standstill protection General

The purpose of the standstill protection is to isolate the generator from the system as quickly as possible, if it is connected to the system by mistake, e.g. when stationary, during start-up or when running without voltage. The protection must have a short operating time to minimize the mechanical stress on the rotors and bearings of generator and turbine, should the unit be connected to the system suddenly under these conditions. Nevertheless, it must remain stable during external faults and transients. Standstill protection can be provided by a fast overcurrent or power function. Function modules for both alternatives are included in the REG316*4 function library. The following example shows the overcurrent alternative.

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4.2.6.2.

Standstill protection using an overcurrent function

The overcurrent function is enabled by an undervoltage function, if the period without voltage exceeds a given time. The standstill protection scheme comprises the following items: an overcurrent function 'Current' an undervoltage function 'Voltage' a timer 'Delay'

The block diagram can be seen from Fig. 4.51. The computing requirement is 23 %.

Function No.1 Voltage U U-Setting Delay = 0.85 UN = 1.00 s Trip

Function No.2 Delay TRIP time Reset time = 0.0 s = 20.0 s Trip

Block Function No.3 Current I-Setting Delay = 1.5 IN = 0.02 s Trip Standstill protection
HEST 935 008 FL

Fig. 4.51

Block diagram of a standstill protection scheme based on an overcurrent function

4.2.7. 4.2.7.1.

Rotor ground fault protection Application

Ground faults on the rotor windings of synchronous generators and motors can be detected by the protection function 'Voltage' in combination with an ancillary unit Type YWX111-11 or YWX111-21. The scheme is connected by coupling capacitors (electrical insulation) to positive and negative poles of the rotor winding and to the shaft ground. The ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21, the coupling capacitors and the natural capacitance of the rotor winding form a balanced R/C bridge. In the event of a ground fault, the fault resistance shunts the capacitance of the rotor winding to the shaft and disturbs the balance of the bridge. The voltage difference across the bridge is applied to an input VT on the REG316*4 and causes its voltage function to trip.

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Mechanical design

The ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21 is accommodated in a casing of dimensions 183 113 81 mm for surface mounting on a panel.
4.2.7.2. Determining the settings

Since it is not possible with this scheme to set the value of leakage resistance directly, a voltage corresponding to the leakage resistance has to be determined for setting on the REG316*4 (U-Setting). The time delay t [s] before tripping takes place must also be set. The normal setting range for the leakage resistance R is between 0 and 5000 : U-Setting t = 0.5...3 V = 0.5...5 s

R: U-Setting: t:
4.2.7.2.1. Required data

leakage resistance between the rotor winding and ground (shaft) voltage setting operating time

No special data are required in order to determine the settings for the protection. Determining the settings by calculation is somewhat difficult and therefore they are determined by measurement.
4.2.7.2.2. Recommended settings for Rf , respectively 'U-Setting' and t

Basically any value may be set for Rf and the time delay t within their available ranges. Very sensitive settings are not recommended to prevent mal-operation of the protection during fast load regulation on the power system. This is especially the case in schemes which trip the field switch and shut the machine down. Recommendation: Stage 2: 'Trip' R 2000 t Stage 1: 1.5 s

'Alarm' R 5000 t 1.5 s

Note that the difference voltage across the bridge is low for high leakage resistances and high for low leakage resistances.

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4.2.7.3.

Functional check

The procedure for checking the function of the protection prior to installation or connection is given in Section 4.2.7.5.3. Alternatively a test circuit can be set up as shown in Fig. 4.54 and the procedure followed according to Section 4.2.7.5.4.
4.2.7.4. 4.2.7.4.1. Installation and wiring Location and ambient conditions

The ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21 must be mounted as close as possible to the REG316*4 (same cubicle or panel) to minimize the probability of interference. The coupling capacitors CK, on the other hand, should not be in the relay room, but as close as possible to the machine. The connecting cables to the primary system must be suitable for the insulation level of the rotor circuit.
4.2.7.4.2. Checking the wiring

Check the conformity of all connections with the wiring diagram for the plant. Check that the rated frequency and supply voltage of 100 V AC or 220 V AC agree with the data on the rating plate of the ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21. The supply voltage of 100 V AC or 220 V AC can be provided by the normal power distribution network or a VT connected to the generator concerned. The auxiliary supply can also be taken from the input terminals of an input transformer module of the REG316*4 used for measuring the generator voltage. Since duplicate grounds can be problematical, it may be necessary to interrupt the ground connection to terminal 3 of YWX111-11/-21 (connection to the shaft ground) in the cubicle or on the panel. A high percentage of harmonics produced by the excitation system between the excitation voltage and ground, can lead to an overload on the ancillary system YWX111-11/-21. When the power loss between the terminals 6 and 3 is more than 10 W, then the bridge between terminals 6 and 7 should be removed, and connect an external resistor between terminals 6 and 8. This data can be utilized for the explanation of the Fig. 4.52

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4.2.7.4.3.

Connection of a two-stage scheme

A two-stage protection scheme requires two 'Voltage' functions and one ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21. Usual utilization:
4.2.7.4.4.

Stage 1: Stage 2:

'Alarm' 'Trip'

The connection are the same as the one stage scheme.


Connection to excitation systems with shaft-mounted diodes

Schemes for protecting excitation circuits with diodes mounted on the shaft of the generator (rotating diodes) must have a connection via a slip-ring to just one pole of the rotor circuit. The two coupling capacitors CK1 and CK2 must thus be connected in parallel to either the positive or negative pole. Where there is a choice (several slip-rings), the connection of CK1/2 to the minus pole is to be preferred. The remaining connections must be in accordance with Fig. 4.55.
4.2.7.4.5. Adaptation of the scheme in the case of shaft filters

If the rotor circuit includes a so-called shaft filter to prevent damage to the bearings, the filter reduces the sensitivity of the protection. In such cases, the sensitivity can be restored to the desired level by increasing the value of R9 in the ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21. Standard: With shaft filter: R 9 = 120 (normal sensitivity) R 9 = 1 k (increased sensitivity) see Fig. 4.57.

Location of resistor R9:


4.2.7.5. Commissioning

The commissioning procedure is described in Sections 4.2.7.5.1. to 4.2.7.5.4. The tripping circuits of the REG316*4 should be interrupted while performing the tests according to Sections 4.2.7.5.3. and 4.2.7.5.4.
4.2.7.5.1. Pre-commissioning checks

Check the wiring according to Section 4.2.7.4. Check that the YWX111-11/-21 is connected to the correct auxiliary supply voltage of 100 V AC or 220 V AC.

Check that the shaft grounding brush of the generator makes proper contact and is in good working order.

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4.2.7.5.2.

Calibration of the ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21

The measuring bridge of which the YWX111-11/-21 is part must be balanced with the unit connected by appropriately selecting the values of the capacitors CX.

Fig. 4.52 USH: CR: CK1, CK2: CX: RE:

Calibration of the YWX111-11/-21 Aux. supply 100 V AC or 220 V AC Stray rotor ground (shaft) capacitance Coupling capacitors, 2 F each Calibration capacitor, Polyester, U 400 V External resistance 2.2 k, 137 W (Type designation FWA40-20, Ident-Nr. 1MRB380107P0001) AC voltmeter with battery supply

V:

Calibration can be carried out while the machine is stationary.


Procedure:

Interrupt the REG316*4 tripping circuits. Connect an AC voltmeter to terminals 1 and 2 of YWX111-11/-21. Connect a decade capacitor in place of CX. Close the excitation switch. Switch on the auxiliary supply USH. Vary CX until the output voltage across terminals 1 and 2 of YWX111-11/-21 becomes a minimum; typically 50 mVr.m.s..
Note:

It is possible that the 50 mVr.m.s. will not be reached in the case of schemes with shaft filters and increased YWX111-11/-21 sensitivity (R9 = 1 k).

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Solder in a capacitor or combination of capacitors with the total value determined for CX.
Theoretical value of CX

a)

Circuit according to Fig. 4.55a (or Fig. 4.52): CX = (CK1 + CK 2 ) CR CK1 + CK 2 + CR 3CK (3CS + CR ) 3CK + 3CS + CR

b)

Circuit according to Fig. 4.55b: CX =

4.2.7.5.3.

Measuring the voltage values

The value of the voltage across the bridge as measured on the YWX 111 in relation to different leakage resistances is determined by measurement with a variable resistor inserted in place of the leakage resistance as shown in Fig. 4.53.

Fig. 4.53

Measuring the voltages corresponding to leakage resistance Aux. supply 100 V AC or 220 V AC Coupling capacitors, 2 F each Test E/F resistor AC voltmeter with battery supply

USH: CK1, CK2: RP: V:

Leakage resistor RP: 0 , solid ground fault 2000 , 2.5 W 5000 , 2.5 W

The measurement can be carried out with the machine stationary.

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Procedure:


4.2.7.5.4.

Interrupt the REG316*4 tripping circuits. Connect RP = 5000 , 2000 or 0 to the positive pole of the excitation circuit. Close the excitation switch. Switch on the auxiliary supply USH.

Measure the voltage for different values of leakage resistance.


Set the voltage measured for 2000 or 5000 on the REG316*4. The voltages are usually in the range of 0.5 and 3 V. Repeat the procedure for RP = 5000 , 2000 or 0 , but connected to the minus pole.

Testing in operation

This test checks that the REG316 and the ancillary unit function correctly with the generator in operation. Once again a rotor fault is simulated by installing a leakage resistor. The protection must effectively trip.

Fig. 4.54 USH: CK1, CK2: RP: V:

Circuit for testing in operation Aux. supply 100 V AC or 220 V AC Coupling capacitors, 2 F each Test E/F resistor AC voltmeter with battery supply 1000 , 10 W, insulation voltage according to IEC recommendations (for different excitation voltages)

Leakage resistor RP:

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Procedure:

Test conditions: machine at rated speed with excitation and on load, grounding test switch ES open. Interrupt the REG316*4 tripping circuits. Set the voltage on the REG316*4 as measured according to Section 4.2.7.5.3. Close the grounding switch ES. Slowly reduce the voltage setting 'U-Setting' in steps until the protection trips.
Caution: The tripping signal is delayed.

Connect the test resistor RP to the minus pole of the excitation circuit and repeat the above procedure. Measure and record the voltage across terminals 1 and 2 of YWX111-11/-21 during the test. After the test has been completed, open the grounding switch ES and close the REG316*4 tripping circuits.

Checking the calibration of YWX111-11/-21

Measure the voltage across the bridge at terminals 1 and 2 of YWX111-11/-21 with the machine running on load with excitation. The reading should be 150 mVr.m.s. in normal operation (ES open). If it is higher, check the contact resistance of the shaft grounding brush (see Section 4.2.7.6.). repeat the calibration of YWX111-11/-21 according to Section 4.2.7.5.2.
Note:

It is possible that the 150 mVr.m.s. will not be reached in the case of schemes with shaft filters and increased YWX111-11/-21 sensitivity (R9 = 1 k).

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4.2.7.6. 4.2.7.6.1.

Maintenance Likely causes of problems

Should the protection become defective, i.e. operate incorrectly, the cause may be one of the following
4.2.7.6.2.

The shaft grounding brush is making poor contact see Section 4.2.7.6.2. The calibration of the YWX111-11/-21 is incorrect see Sections 4.2.7.5.2. and 4.2.7.5.4. The YWX111-11/-21 is grounded in the cubicle (terminal 3) causing a duplicate ground see Section 4.2.7.4.2. The protection is too sensitive (the setting for the level of leakage resistance is too high) or the time delay t is too short.

Maintenance

The ancillary unit requires no special maintenance. As with all safety systems, however, it should be tested at regular intervals. This can be carried out as described in Section 4.2.7.5. The shaft grounding brush should be checked and cleaned at frequent intervals and the contact pressure adjusted as necessary.
4.2.7.7. Fault-finding

Fault-finding is confined to testing the device according to Section 4.2.7.5. to determine whether it operates correctly. Faulty units should be returned to the nearest ABB agent or directly to ABB Switzerland Ltd., Baden, Switzerland.
4.2.7.8. Accessories and spares

When ordering accessories or spares, state the type and serial number of the unit for which they are intended. If a number of identical units is installed in a plant, keeping a spare unit on stock is recommended. Spare material must be stored in a clean dry room at moderate temperatures. Testing spare units in conjunction with the routine testing of units in operation is recommended.
4.2.7.9. Appendices

Fig. 4.55 Fig. 4.56 Fig. 4.57

Wiring diagram of the REG316 and the ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21 Internal operation and terminals of the YWX111-11/-21 Component side of the PCB in the YWX111-11/-21

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a) Connection to the DC side of the rotor circuit

b) Connection to the AC side of the rotor circuit Fig. 4.55 Wiring diagram of the REG316*4 and the ancillary unit Type YWX111-11/-21 coupling capacitors; 2 x 2 F, 8-20 kV, 0.55 A coupling capacitors; 3 x 0.5 F, 8-20 kV, 0.55 A filter capacitors for thyristor excitation auxiliary supply; 100 V or 220 V, 50/60 Hz shaft grounding brush

CK1, CK2: CK: CS: USH: B:

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Fig. 4.56

Internal operation and terminals of the YWX111-11/-21

Fig. 4.57

Component side of the PCB in the YWX111-11/-21, (derived from HESG 437 807)

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4.2.8. 4.2.8.1.

Application of the under reactance protection function Introduction

The under reactance protection function can be used for a number of purposes. It is normally used, however, to detect out-of-step conditions for load angles 90. It is similarly applicable to monitoring a maximum load angle, e.g. = 70.
4.2.8.2. Out-of-step conditions

The stability limit of a turbo-alternator with or without step-up transformer is illustrated at the upper left in Fig. 4.58 as a function of the impedance measured at the generator terminals and at the upper right as a power diagram. The operation of the protection is set to the circle (lower left of Fig. 4.58) to avoid tripping during a fault or power swings on the power system. The setting range permits the protection characteristic to be adjusted to the stability limit curve (see upper left of Fig. 4.58), which is applicable whether the generator is connected to a step-up transformer or directly to a busbar.
4.2.8.3. Monitoring a given load angle

The setting range also facilitates monitoring a given load angle, e.g. < 90, for:

alarm purposes when a certain maximum load angle is reached fulfilling special requirements, e.g. to take account of the influence of differing values of Xd and Xq at the stability limit salient pole machines

A load angle of < 90 represents an offset circle in the impedance plane (see left of Fig. 4.59). The centre of the circle lies on a straight line, which is displaced from the R axis by the angle . The circle is the locus of the operating points with the load angle . The corresponding characteristic in the power diagram is a straight line with a slope of . The value of the load angle is set by means of the phase-angle compensation setting, which must be increased by the amount (90 ). For = 70, the reference voltage R-S and the R phase current, the following phase-angle compensation must be set: 30 + (90 70) = 50 The reactance XA is set either to the synchronous reactance Xd or a value, which takes account of differing values of Xd and Xq. The following general statement applies:

XA =

X sin

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XB = 0 in Fig. 4.59. XB can also be positive or negative and represented in an impedance plane by circles, which do not pass through the origin. In a power diagram, these circles correspond to circles to the left and right of the straight lines through points C', A' and E'. Point A is common to all circles with the same load angle and the same XA setting (see Fig. 4.58).

Instable ZN XT 0 B SN Stable

Xd Instable Stable Instable A ~ Xd ~ XT

X'd ~ Xd

SN

Fig. 4.58

Stability limit of a generator/transformer set and the characteristic of the 'Minreactance' protection function

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Fig. 4.59

Locus of the load angle < 90

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Fig. 4.60

Operating characteristic for different settings of 'XB-Setting' and a load angle < 90

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4.2.9.

Stator ground fault protection for generators in parallel

This is a discriminative ground fault scheme for generators with ungrounded star-points. It covers 80 % of the winding and operates on the basis of a directional zero-sequence component in the various generator feeders. Since the capacitive component of a ground fault current does not usually provide a sufficiently reliable criterion for determining the feeder concerned, the ground fault current is artificially increased by adding a real power component. The latter is generated either by three single-phase VTs or a three-phase VT Whichever is the case, the secondaries are connected as a broken delta and a resistor (Re) is switched briefly into the delta after a ground fault has been detected. The combined VT and grounding transformer are connected to the continuously energized busbars. The number of generator feeders can vary. The protection scheme comprises two parts: The first part is a non-discriminative ground fault detector on each busbar comprising a: grounding transformer Ferro resonance damping resistor Rp switched grounding resistor Re zero-sequence voltage detector for switching in the resistor contactor interposing VT

The second part comprises the power function and either a corebalance or three bushing CTs to measure the zero-sequence current and discriminatively locate the ground fault after the real power component has been added.
4.2.9.1. Principle of operation

Initially a ground fault is detected non-discriminately due to the occurrence of a neutral voltage measured by a sensitively set voltage function. The grounding resistor Re is switched in circuit after a short delay (t1 = 0.1 s) to prevent operation during power system transients. Only then is the ground fault current large enough to enable the power functions on the generators to decide whether the ground fault is on their generator feeder or not. The delay for the power function is set to isolate the fault after 0.5 s. The grounding resistor Re is connected for 1.9 s. The resistor Re is switched out of circuit again after a delay of 2 s initiated by the voltage function. Two timers ensure correct operation of the scheme: T1 prevents operation during transients, t1 = 0.1 s T2 prevents 'pumping' when the grounding resistor Re is switched in and out of circuit, t2 = 1 s

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The protection operates with a maximum real power component in the ground fault current of 1220 A for a ground fault at the generator terminals. The neutral voltage is then a maximum. The ground fault current is proportional to the neutral voltage and is a maximum for a ground fault at the generator terminals and a minimum for a ground fault at the star-point. An offset of the of the neutral of the three phase voltages is caused: a) in normal operation by: asymmetries of the phase-to-ground the presence of a third harmonic component b) under abnormal operating conditions by switching transients internal and external ground faults To avoid any risk of mal-operation, the setting of the ground fault detector must be higher than any voltage offset, which can occur during normal operation. Under abnormal conditions, the voltage offset can be increased by the ferro resonance of the capacitance with the inductance of the VTs. The danger of mal-operation of the ground fault detector due to switching operations is minimized or even eliminated altogether by adding the resistor Rp and also a delay. The effectiveness of this measure depends on how low the resistor Rp can be. A low resistor, however, increases the current, the power of the resistor and the load on the VTs or grounding transformer.
4.2.9.2. Busbar ground faults

Should no ground fault be located on one of the generator feeders, it has to be on the busbars or possibly an outgoing feeder. In such a case, the voltage function operates and the alarm 'Busbar ground fault' is generated after the set delay of 2 s.
4.2.9.3. Ground fault protection during start-up

The power function can only detect a ground fault on the generator feeder when the circuit-breaker is closed. For the time that the circuitbreaker is open, ground fault protection is afforded by a sensitive voltage function which trips the excitation switch in the event of a stator ground fault after a delay of 0.5 s. This ground fault protection scheme is blocked once the circuit-breaker closes.

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4.2.9.4.

Grounding transformer

The following arrangements can be used to increase the ground fault current: 3 single-phase VTs with a maximum rating of 80 kVA for 10 s. This arrangement can be used at 6.66 A up to a rated generator voltage of 12 kV, at 5 A up to 16 kV and at 4 A up to 20 kV. 3 single-phase dry VTs can conduct 6.66 A at voltages higher than 12 kV.

Apart from a higher overload rating, a 3 single-phase grounding transformer also has the advantage of a negligible voltage drop.
Example for generators with a rated voltage of 10.5 kV and a ground fault current of 20 A (6.66 A per phase):
Voltage transformers U1N [V]
10500 3

Short-time sec. rating U2N [V] 167 S [kVA] 70 [A] 10 s 240

4.2.9.5.

Ferro resonance damping resistor Rp

For a ground fault in the busbar zone, the ground fault detector issues an alarm without interrupting operation. The resistor Rp must therefore be rated for continuous operation. It generally has a rating of 1 or 2 A, which is permissible for most VTs, but has only a limited damping capacity. The output power of the VT in the example varies at a continuous current of 2 A between 577 and 831 VA. When the main priority is to prevent mal-operation, the resistor Rp is chosen according to the maximum continuous rating of the VTs, which is usually in the range of 5 to 10 % of the permissible 10 s current. Where the VTs are also used for metering, it should be noted that the voltage and phase errors increase at the maximum continuous current.

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4.2.9.6.

Grounding resistor Re

The grounding resistor must be rated for 10 s. A voltage drop of 20 % is allowed if a VT is used as grounding transformer. For a ground fault current of 20 A and a rated voltage of UN = 10.5 kV, the recommended value of the resistor is:
UN [V] 10.500 Ubroken [V] 500 [] 250 Rp [A] 2 Re VT 1.7 I2 [A] 10 s 240

4.2.9.7.

Contactor

The contactor switches both ends of the grounding resistor Re.


4.2.9.8. Residual current CT

Alternative I: 1 core-balance CT 100/1 A, rated burden 2.5 . Alternative II: 3 bushing CTs, .../5 A - 33/1 A, rated burden 1.5 . The above burdens apply for CT leads of 2 100 m with a gauge of 4 mm2.
4.2.9.9. Required REG316*4 functions

The following REG316*4 functions are required for a discriminative ground fault scheme: 1 100 V voltage input 1 metering current input 1 to 4 tripping channels depending on the number of circuit-breaker tripping coils and whether redundancy is required or not 1 'Ground fault' signaling channel 2 signaling inputs

The start-up scheme requires: 1 100 V voltage input 1 or 2 tripping channels for the de-excitation switch 1 'Start-up ground fault' signaling channel 1 'Generator CB closed' signaling input

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4.2.9.10.

Protection sensitivity

For a ground fault at the generator terminals, a real power current of 20 A results in a voltage of approximately 80 V, respectively 100 V at the input of the REG316*4. The lower of the two voltages takes the voltage drops of three single-phase VTs into account. A current of 4 A and a voltage of 16 V are produced by a ground fault at 20 % of the winding from the start-point. The current at the input of the REG316*4 in the case of a core-balance CT with a ratio of 100/1 A is 0.04 A which corresponds to a power of 0.64 W at 16 V. This is detected by the power function with a setting of 0.5 % or 0.5 W at URN = 100 V and IRN = 1 A.

Fig. 4.61

Discriminative ground fault and start-up schemes for a generator feeder

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Fig. 4.62

Operation of the ground fault protection for a fault a) on the busbar b) on a feeder

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1 3 U> 2 5

P> 4

U> 9

UR UTR USR U TR U UT US
HEST 965039 FL

U SR

Legend:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Generator star-point VT Start-up scheme VT 3 neutral CTs for the generator ground fault current Power relay for the generator ground fault protection Grounding transformer Grounding resistor Re Ferro resonance damping resistor Rp Interposing VT Voltage relay for the busbar ground fault protection

Fig. 4.63

Three-phase diagram and vector diagram of the protection

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4.2.10.

100 % stator and rotor ground fault protection Stator ground fault protection

The ground fault protection of the entire stator winding comprises a 95 % scheme and a 100 % scheme (see Fig. 4.64). The zones of the two schemes overlap in the stator windings. Ground faults in the region of the generator terminals are detected primarily by the 95 % stator ground fault scheme. Ground faults near the star-point, on the other hand, can only be detected by the 100 % stator ground fault scheme. The functions required for the two schemes are

a 'Voltage' function for the 95 % stator ground fault protection the 'Stator-EFP' for the star-point zone protection

The 95 % scheme uses the generator voltage and detects a ground fault on the basis of the displacement of the star-point voltage it causes. The 100 % star-point scheme injects a voltage to permanently bias the star-point. The injection voltage has an impulse waveform with an amplitude of about 100 V and a frequency of 12.5 or 15 Hz. It is provided by an injection unit Type REX010 and an injection transformer unit REX011. The scheme measures the ground fault leakage resistance. The sensitivities of the two schemes can be set in the case of the

95 % scheme by the pick-up voltage (typically 5 V) 100 % star-point scheme by settings for the ground fault resistance (typically 5 k for alarm and 500 for tripping)

The zone of the 100 % scheme depends on the maximum zerosequence current at fundamental frequency flowing at the star-point. This occurs for a fault at the generator terminals. The low-frequency injection voltage is switched off when the zero-sequence current component at power system frequency exceeds 5 A. For a current of IE max = 20 A, the pick-up current of 5 A is reached for a ground fault at 25 % of the winding from the star-point. It is of advantage to limit the ground fault current to IE max 5 A so that the zone of the 100 % scheme extends over the whole stator winding.

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Fig. 4.64

100 % stator and rotor ground fault protection

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Rotor ground fault protection

The rotor ground fault protection injects a voltage with an amplitude of 50 V and a frequency of 12.5 or 15 Hz to permanently bias the potential of the rotor circuit in relation to ground. The scheme signals a ground fault when the leakage resistance of the rotor circuit falls below the value set on the protection. The injection voltage of 50 V is supplied by the same injection unit Type REX010 and injection transformer unit Type REX011 as are used for the stator ground fault scheme.

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October 2004

5.
5.1. 5.2. 5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.2.3. 5.2.4. 5.2.4.1. 5.2.4.2. 5.2.4.3. 5.3. 5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.3.2.1. 5.3.2.2. 5.4. 5.4.1. 5.4.2. 5.4.2.1. 5.4.2.2. 5.4.2.3. 5.4.2.4. 5.4.2.5. 5.4.2.6. 5.4.3. 5.4.4. 5.4.5. 5.4.5.1. 5.4.5.2. 5.4.5.3. 5.4.5.4. 5.4.5.5. 5.4.5.6. 5.4.5.7. 5.4.6. 5.4.6.1. 5.4.6.2. 5.4.6.3. 5.4.6.4. 5.4.6.5. 5.4.6.6. 5.4.7. 5.4.7.1. 5.4.7.2.

OPERATION (CAP2/316)
Summary............................................................................................5-5 Installing and starting CAP2/316........................................................5-6 PC requirements ................................................................................5-6 Installing CAP2/316 ...........................................................................5-6 Starting the HMI .................................................................................5-9 Starting and stopping CAP2/316......................................................5-10 Operating modes of the configuration program CAP2/316 ..............5-10 Starting CAP2/316 ...........................................................................5-11 Stopping CAP2/316 .........................................................................5-12 Operation .........................................................................................5-13 General ............................................................................................5-13 Screen display .................................................................................5-14 The status display ............................................................................5-14 Main menu items and icons .............................................................5-15 Step-by-step configuration of a device.............................................5-18 Short introduction.............................................................................5-18 Relay configuration ..........................................................................5-18 Binary input card 316DB6x ..............................................................5-20 Double indication .............................................................................5-21 Signal outputs of the card 316DB6x ................................................5-23 Tripping relay outputs of the card 316DB6x.....................................5-24 Light emitting diodes (LED)..............................................................5-25 Analog Digital converter................................................................5-26 Station and bay name ......................................................................5-28 System I/O .......................................................................................5-28 Configuring binary outputs ...............................................................5-29 Signal LED .......................................................................................5-30 Signal relays ....................................................................................5-31 Event recording................................................................................5-32 Trip indication relays ........................................................................5-33 Signal to SCS (Substation Automation System) ..............................5-34 Signal to RBO (Remote input output system) ..................................5-35 Signal to ITL (Interlocking) ...............................................................5-36 Configuring binary inputs .................................................................5-37 TRUE / FALSE.................................................................................5-38 Inputs via optocoupler (binary inputs) ..............................................5-39 Output from a protection function.....................................................5-40 Inputs from SCS (Substation automation system) ...........................5-41 Inputs from RBI (Remote input output system)................................5-42 Inputs from ITL (Interlocking data) ...................................................5-43 Configuring protection functions ......................................................5-44 Protection functions in the library and active functions ....................5-44 Inserting a function...........................................................................5-45
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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

5.4.7.3. 5.4.7.4. 5.4.7.5. 5.4.8. 5.4.8.1. 5.4.8.2. 5.4.9. 5.4.9.1. 5.4.9.2. 5.4.10. 5.4.10.1. 5.4.10.2. 5.5. 5.5.1. 5.5.1.1. 5.5.1.2. 5.5.1.3. 5.5.1.4. 5.5.2. 5.5.2.1. 5.5.2.2. 5.5.2.3. 5.5.2.4. 5.5.2.5. 5.5.2.6. 5.5.2.7. 5.5.3. 5.5.3.1. 5.5.3.2. 5.5.3.3. 5.5.3.4. 5.5.3.5. 5.5.3.6. 5.5.3.7. 5.5.4. 5.5.5. 5.6. 5.6.1. 5.6.2. 5.6.3. 5.6.4. 5.6.5. 5.6.6. 5.7. 5.7.1. 5.7.2. 5.7.3.

Deleting a function ...........................................................................5-45 Copying a function ...........................................................................5-46 Configuring a function ......................................................................5-47 Listing the settings ...........................................................................5-50 Displaying the parameters ...............................................................5-50 Displaying the reference value of analog and process measurements....................................................................5-51 Saving and loading the configuration from a file ..............................5-51 Saving the configuration to a file......................................................5-52 Loading a saved configuration from a file ........................................5-52 Down-/uploading a configuration from the device ............................5-52 Uploading a configuration from the device.......................................5-52 Downloading a configuration to the device ......................................5-54 Monitor menu ...................................................................................5-54 Event handling .................................................................................5-55 Displaying new events .....................................................................5-55 List of the events..............................................................................5-56 Clearing the event list ......................................................................5-57 Clearing latched outputs ..................................................................5-58 Processing of measurements ..........................................................5-58 Displaying A/D converter channels ..................................................5-59 Displaying the process measurement values ..................................5-59 Displaying binary inputs, signal outputs, trip relays and LEDs ........5-61 Displaying remote analog or binary in-/outputs................................5-61 Displaying ITL in-/outputs ................................................................5-62 Displaying SCS outputs ...................................................................5-63 Displaying FUPLA signals................................................................5-63 Test function ....................................................................................5-65 Activating the protection functions ...................................................5-66 Activating trip outputs, signal outputs and LED outputs...................5-67 Activating the RBO outputs (Remote Binary Outputs) .....................5-68 Activating the analog outputs (remote output) .................................5-69 Event handling, measurement and diagnostic information ..............5-69 Parameter set switching...................................................................5-69 Toggling binary outputs....................................................................5-70 Diagnostics ......................................................................................5-71 Disturbance recorder .......................................................................5-72 Configurating CAP2/316 ..................................................................5-73 Changing the language....................................................................5-73 Changing the password ...................................................................5-74 Automatic deletion of the event list after a download.......................5-74 Downloading device firmware ..........................................................5-74 EA63 firmware download .................................................................5-75 Configurating the communications port ...........................................5-75 Help menu........................................................................................5-76 User Manual.....................................................................................5-76 RIO580/ LON/ MVB/ IEC60870-5-103 User Manual........................5-76 About CAP2/316 ..............................................................................5-76
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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

5.8. 5.8.1. 5.8.1.1. 5.8.1.2. 5.8.2. 5.8.2.1. 5.8.2.2. 5.9. 5.9.1. 5.9.2. 5.9.2.1. 5.9.2.2. 5.9.2.3. 5.10. 5.10.1. 5.10.2. 5.10.3. 5.10.3.1. 5.10.3.2. 5.10.3.3. 5.10.3.4. 5.10.3.5. 5.10.4. 5.10.4.1. 5.10.4.2. 5.10.4.3. 5.10.4.4. 5.10.4.5. 5.10.4.6. 5.10.4.7. 5.10.5. 5.10.5.1. 5.10.5.2. 5.10.5.3. 5.10.5.4. 5.10.6. 5.10.7. 5.10.8. 5.10.8.1. 5.10.8.1.1. 5.10.8.1.2. 5.10.8.1.3. 5.10.8.2. 5.10.8.3. 5.10.8.4. 5.10.8.5. 5.10.8.5.1. 5.10.8.5.2. 5.10.8.5.3.

Import / Export of data .....................................................................5-77 Importing files...................................................................................5-77 Loading MBA parameters (mbaXX.par)...........................................5-77 Loading RIO parameters (*.rio)........................................................5-77 Exporting files ..................................................................................5-78 SigTOOL (*.sig)................................................................................5-78 Saving RIO parameters (*.rio)..........................................................5-78 Operation with several sets of parameters ......................................5-79 Switching over a parameter set .......................................................5-79 Creating parameter sets ..................................................................5-80 Assigning a protection function to a parameter set..........................5-80 Copying a configured protection function.........................................5-81 Logic interconnection .......................................................................5-81 Local operation ................................................................................5-82 Summary..........................................................................................5-82 Limitations........................................................................................5-82 General description..........................................................................5-82 Mechanical assembly and front view ...............................................5-82 Electrical connection ........................................................................5-83 Password .........................................................................................5-83 Passive operation ............................................................................5-83 LDU keypad .....................................................................................5-84 The three status LEDs .....................................................................5-85 General ............................................................................................5-85 Starting the device ...........................................................................5-85 Protection functions inactive ............................................................5-85 Normal device operation ..................................................................5-86 Pick-up of a protection function (General start) ...............................5-86 Protection trip (General Trip) ...........................................................5-86 Fatal device error .............................................................................5-87 Text display (LCD) ...........................................................................5-87 General ............................................................................................5-87 Language .........................................................................................5-87 Interdependence ..............................................................................5-87 Configurability ..................................................................................5-87 Menu structure .................................................................................5-88 Entry menu.......................................................................................5-90 Main menu .......................................................................................5-90 Measurands .....................................................................................5-91 A/D Channels...................................................................................5-91 Function measurands ......................................................................5-92 Binary signals...................................................................................5-93 Event list ..........................................................................................5-96 Users guide .....................................................................................5-96 Disturbance recorder .......................................................................5-96 Diagnosis menu ...............................................................................5-97 Diagnosis Info ..................................................................................5-97 IBB-Status-Info.................................................................................5-98 Process bus info ..............................................................................5-98
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5.10.8.5.4. 5.10.8.6. 5.10.9. 5.10.9.1. 5.10.9.2. 5.10.9.3. 5.10.9.4.

LED Description ...............................................................................5-98 Reset-Menu .....................................................................................5-99 Automatic display...........................................................................5-100 General description........................................................................5-100 Starting the automatic display........................................................5-100 Stopping the automatic display ......................................................5-100 Automatic display cycle..................................................................5-100

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ABB Switzerland Ltd

5.
5.1.

OPERATION (CAP2/316)
Summary The HMI program CAP2/316 has been designed to be largely selfsufficient and requires a minimum of reference to the manual. This approach achieves a number of advantages: The same program can be utilized for both the RE.216 and the RE.316*4 devices. Functions can be selected from extremely user-friendly menus with full screen displays and windows. 'Pop-up' prompts wherever practical to guide the user and avoid errors, see Section 6.11. Provision for creating, editing and checking parameter sets off-line, i.e. without being connected to the protection device. Provision for reading or writing parameter sets from and to files. Self-explanatory texts using a minimum of mnemonic codes. Provision for the user to enter customized descriptions for functions, inputs and outputs. The possibility to view and analyse event lists offline or online. Copy Paste Windows functionality for configuration of comments. Call up of HELP with the 'F1' key, for clarifications or aid to problems - from help files stored in PDF format.

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5.2. 5.2.1.

Installing and starting CAP2/316 PC requirements Processor Operating system i486 / 50 MHz or higher Windows XP / Windows 2000/ Windows NT 4.0 Hardware memory Free disk space Interfaces 128 MB 50 .. 500 MB 1 serial interface USB with USB serial connector PC Card with serial I/O converter

5.2.2.

Installing CAP2/316 Start menu Install the complete software packet on one disk. Stop all other application programs and insert the installation CD into the CD-ROM drive. The following start-up menu will pop up.

Fig. 5.1

Start menu of the installation CD

NOTICE: Ensure that the latest installation instructions are available. You are recommended to go through the Readme.txt, which is stored in the installation CD.

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Installation of the CAP2/316 1. Stop all user programs, and insert the installation CD into the CDROM drive 2. The start menu will pop-up automatically. In case this does not happen select 'Start' and 'Execute' buttons. In the 'Open' menu and with the 'Search' button, change the drive to the CD-ROM and executeCD-Start.exe 3. When the next window pops-up execute 'Start Install' 4. Follow the installation instructions as displayed on the screen regarding Language, License contract, Registration and the destination directory. 5. Select the installation sequence:

Fig. 5.2

Selection menu for start of the installation

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6. When 'Customize' is selected the possibilities shown in the figure below are available:

Fig. 5.3

Installation components

It is important, that the selected option boxes are checked. The description on the right side displays the required amount of storage space. 7. Select 'Next' and follow the instructions. 8. Once all inputs are completed the installation will begin automatically.

NOTICE: All available options are displayed. This includes existing installed CAP2/316 versions. If the box corresponding to the installed versions were inadvertently crossed, this would lead to the deinstallation of that version.

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RE.316*4 1KHA000835-UEN

ABB Switzerland Ltd

5.2.3.

Starting the HMI To start the HMI, click on the 'Start' icon at the bottom left hand corner of your PC display, and select 'Program Files', 'ABB Industrial IT', 'Protect IT', 'RE..16', 'RE..16 Selector'.

Fig. 5.4

Window displayed on selection of RE..16 Selector

The selector searches all COM interfaces for a connected relay. If a connected relay is found, then the corresponding CAP2/316 will be started on-line, else the user can start one of the installed CAP2/316 off-line.

Fig. 5.5

CAP2/316 off-line

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5.2.4.

Starting and stopping CAP2/316 On clicking on the 'Continue' button the HMI is started with the selected parameters.

Fig. 5.6

Window on start of the CAP2/316

5.2.4.1.

Operating modes of the configuration program CAP2/316 The configuration program can be started in three modes. off-line: If no device is connected at the start of the CAP2/316, it starts off-line. Even if a device is connected, the user can choose to start in off-line mode. In this case the device type has to be selected in the box 'General Device'. Normally the RE.216 is pre-selected, however, the RE.316 can be selected for configuring such a device. See Section 5.2.4.2. on-line If a device is connected then the CAP2/316 starts in the online mode. One can switch from off-line to on-line mode (with a connected device) by selecting 'Connect' from the 'Communication' menu. See Section 5.4.10.1. If the program is started with a connected device, then the software automatically selects the correct device type.

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Demo

If at startup 'Demo' is selected in the 'Communication' field, then a virtual device with predefined configuration is simulated. This mode permits configuration changes, however this does not have any effect on the event list and the measurand values. The demo mode enables familiarisation with the CAP2/316 without requiring a connected device. For example, it is possible to display the event list and measurand values of a predefined device.

Fig. 5.7 5.2.4.2.

Selection of the device type

Starting CAP2/316 As soon as the program starts select the mode of operation and the device type, and click on the box 'Continue'.
Change from off-line to Demo, or if a device is connected , then from on-line to off-line. Select the device type

'Continue' starts the configuration program

Fig. 5.8

Start the CAP2/316

The main program starts with the selected parameters, when 'Continue' is selected. If a device is connected, then at first all settings are loaded into the main memory of the PC. This procedure lasts a while. See Section 5.4.10. The communication port number (1..4) and communication speed (9600, 19200) can be selected by clicking on the button 'Setting'. If accidentally the CAP2/316 is started without a connected device, and then retroactively an appropriate device is connected, one can execute 'Check on-line'. Thereby one has the possibility to switch to
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the online mode without having to start the program once again. The device type is selected automatically.

NOTICE: If the configuration program has to operate in the 'online' mode with data exchange between the PC-HMI and the unit, ensure that the serial data cable is connected. The connection is established between the configured serial port of the PC-HMI and the fiber optical connector on the device front. The device must be in operational mode i.e. the green LED in on state or blinks. If changing over the cable from one device to another, stop and restart the CAP2/316 program, after the cable is re-connected. If the device is not time synchronized via the IBB, and if the device is so parameterized, then the CAP2/316 acquires the PC clock time.

5.2.4.3.

Stopping CAP2/316 Similar to other Windows programs, stop the CAP2/316 from the pulldown main menu 'File' 'Exit' or ALT-F4.

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5.3. 5.3.1.

Operation General The HMI can be in one of four modes: Menu: Operation: Output: Wait: User can select a sub-menu item. User can enter data, e.g. parameter settings, confirmation of prompts, password etc. Display of measured variables, event lists etc. This can occur in any one of the above states, while a function is being executed (menu is blocked, other programs can still execute, Multitasking feature of Windows).

If a selection is made in the main menu or in the icon bar, a new Window is opened. In this Window it is possble to select further submenus. In order that a modification becomes effective, click on the 'OK' or 'Save to file' button. To discard changes click on the 'Cancel' button.

NOTICE: If off-line changes are made and it is intended to load these into the device, then these changes should be saved onto the disk, before the connection to the device is established. As soon as the device is connected the configuration in the device is uploaded into the HMI (working memory). The configuration or modifications made before are thereby overwritten. If the previously made modifications are to be saved to the device, these must be read in into the HMI after establishing connection to the device, and then downloaded from the HMI to the device. See Section 5.4.10.1. If from sub-menus further sub-menus are opened, then the changes will become active and taken over as the actual configuration if it is confirmed with 'OK' in the topmost sub-menu.

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5.3.2. 5.3.2.1.

Screen display The status display The following information is displayed in the lowermost frame of the CAP2/316:

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

Fig. 5.9

Status Display

1) Help: Information regarding the active menu item. 2) Software version of the CAP2/316 It is mandatory that this value corresponds to the version number (x) in front of the dot and with the sub-version number (y) after the dot. See item 3. below in the status line. (Example: x.yz; the revision index is represented as a character (z)). 3) Software version of the device (CPU Firmware): Provides information of the firmware-version of the device. To guarantee an accurate communication between the device and the PC, the firmware number of the device must correspond to the SW version number of the CAP2/316 as described under point 2). 4) Provides information of the utilized communication protocol to the substation automation system (SCS) resp. which type of firmware is stored in the device: 'SPA', 'IEC103', 'LON' or 'MVB'. 5) Displays whether the configuration program is in the: 'on-line', 'off-line' or 'Demo' mode of operation. 6) Displays the active parameter set: 'Parset (14) '. 7) Displays the configured communication port 'COM (14) '. 8) Displays the active interface to the device: The data displays which port is connected to the PC: 'TC57' = Communication is via the Frontend 'SPA' = Communication is via the interface at the rear. 9) Displays the relay type: 'REC316*4', 'REG316*4', 'REL316*4', or 'RET316*4'.

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5.3.2.2.

Main menu items and icons From the main menu list or the icons bar the user can activate the following

Main menu Icon header

Fig. 5.10

Main menu items and icons

Main menu:
File: Open and save the settings, open the event list Import MBA and RIO parameters, Export from SIGTool and RIO parameters Printer configuration End the configuration (HMI) program View: Activate the toolbar or status bar View Edit parameters View the Reference values Configuration: Create the relay configuration, the protection functions and the station and bay name The configuration menus can also be activated from the icon bar. Monitor: Event list: Display, or, print all the events in the device event list memory, or, clear the memory. Clear latched outputs. Measurements: Display the variables of the protection system and the process input values of the A/D converter. Test-Functions: Test the protection function of the parameter sets Checking of the LEDs, tripping and signalling relays. Diagnostics All relevant information to analyse a fault. Disturbance recorder: Upload the DR file, if configured.

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Communication:

Connect or disconnect communication to the device. Upload / download set files from / to the device. The set files can also be cleared from the device. Configuration of the communication only possible in offline mode.

Options:

Set the language or change the password. Clear the event list after download of the set file. Download 'Firmware' to the processor or the line differential protection card 316EA63.

Help:

Select the operation manual or other HW / SW specific manuals. Information about the license and SW version.

The above is valid for the 'on-line' mode. In the 'off-line' mode it is possible to use the following menu items i.e. 'File', 'View', 'Configuration', 'Help' and some of the sub-menus in 'Options' and 'Monitor'.

NOTICE: The above mentioned menus, with the exception of 'Configuration', 'Options', 'Help', is meaningful only when the system is in 'on-line' mode with active communication to the device. All displays are an exact replica of the data in the device.

Icon list The icon bar is activated in the 'View' menu by selection 'Toolbar'. This facilitates a fast selection of the configuration menus. Create a new set file. If the currently open set file is not saved, it will be lost!. Save the current set file. If the set file in the PC memory has to be saved under a different file name, use the 'Save as' sub-menu in the menu 'File'. Create the device configuration. The hardware related device configuration such as AD Converter, Binary channels, Tripping channels, Signalling channels and the Software key.

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Configuration of the system (In- /Output) parameters: The system parameters concern those that are independent of the functions. The significance of the parameters is explained in Section 5.4.4 and Section 3.4.5. Configuration of the parameter for the InterBayBus: This is required for connection to the control system e.g. LON, SPA, MVB. The description of the parameterisation is explained in the respective documentation of the bus. Monitoring of the IBB is possible in the pull down menu 'Monitor' 'Diagnostics' 'IBB Information' (see 'Help'). Configuration of the potection functions and selecting all possible functions from the functions library. Configuration of the PC COM interface Communications port (COM 1...4) as well as the baud rate (9600, 19200 baud). ABB recommends use of 9600 baud. Call up the CAP2/316 short description. When 'Help' is called up in the main menu, in addition to the operating instructions, the complete description of the IBB is available.

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5.4.

Step-by-step configuration of a device This section guides you step-by-step the items to be configured so that the configuration can be successfully downloaded into the device. Start the CAP2/316 (see Section 5.2.4.2.).

5.4.1.

Short introduction It is mandatory that the following sequence is followed for the configuration of the device:
Section(s)

1) Configure the relay 2) Configure the binary inputs / outputs (comments and latching) 3) Configure the AD converter (Sec. Nom value, Reference value, Prim/Sec.-ratio, Comments) 4) Configure the station- and bay name 5) Configure system in- /outputs 6) Configure the protection function 7) Save the complete device configuration 8) Download the configuration to the device

5.4.2. 5.4.2.1., 5.2.4.3., 5.4.2.4., 5.4.2.5. 5.4.2.6.

5.4.3. 5.4.4. 5.4.7. 5.4.9.1. 5.4.10.1.

5.4.2.

Relay configuration The relay identification code on the rear of the device is used for the relay configuration. Information regarding the relay type and the relay identification code are available in the Datasheet in Section 8. The configuration menu of the individual cards is opened by clicking on the 'Edit' button by the side of the definition of each of the cards (s. Fig. 5.11). A typical order code is shown below: A1,B0,C5,D0,U1,K63,H2,E1,I3,F1,J3,Q0,V0,R0,W0,Y2,N1,M1,SR200.

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The relay identification code is explained in detail in the data sheet. Use this table to help in the configuration shown below:

Fig. 5.11

'Relay Configuration RE.316*4' Determines the rated frequency 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Defines the type of the A/D converter unit (316VC61 or 316EA62/ 316EA63 for longitudinal distance protection). Determines the type in- /output unit in Slots 1 ... 4. Determines the predefined variant of the converter unit. The first part (letter code) of the software key. Second part (number) of the software key.

Nominal Frequency: A/D Converter:

Slot Nr. 1 to Slot Nr. 4: A/D Config K: SW Vers SX: SW Vers S.XXX:

A major part of the configuration is achieved once the parameters defined above A/D Config K and SW Vers are configured. When the 'A/D Config K' parameter is configured, the predefined values as per the connection diagram in Chapter 12 are loaded. The converter 'Sec.nom.value' has to be configured in addition. This is explained in Section 5.4.2.6. With the SW Vers, licensed protection functions are available from the software library. The SW Vers (SW key) configured in the CAP2/316 must tally with the software key in the device. If this is not the case, then it will not be possible to download the configuration to the device. There are a few more parameters to be configured and comments to be defined for the In / Output cards as per the Sections 5.4.2.1. to 5.4.2.6.

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5.4.2.1.

Binary input card 316DB6x The following window opens on clicking the 'Edit' button next to the 316DB6x (slot Nr. 14) card in the 'Relay Configuration' menu:
Binary inputs are not displayed in the event list

Channel number

Comments of binary inputs

Fig. 5.12

Configuration window for the binary input events

The comments for the binary inputs can be configured in this window, for display in the event list. A check in the box next to the comments supresses display in the event list.

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5.4.2.2.

Double indication By clicking on the folder 'Double Indication' it is possible to define up to 30 double indications.
1st select double indication channel Run time supervision 2nd input is selected automatically

Fig. 5.13

Configuration of 'Double indication'

When a double signal is configured, then a change of state of one of two consecutive binary signals results in a display in the event list. On configuring the first binary input the second consecutive binary input is automatically configured as the second input of the double indication. The parameter 'Runtime supervision' enables or disables the runtime supervision for each double indication. What is the runtime supervision: Double signals are needed to unequivocally determine the status (position) of switchgears. For this purpose, the two signals detecting the end positions of the switch are connected to two consecutive inputs and form a 'double indication'. Double indications are presented in a somewhat different form in the event list. Instead of 'on' or 'off', the signals are listed as '0-0', '0-1', '1-0' or '1-1', whereby '0-1' means that the switch is closed and '1-0' that it is open. The switch is moving when the signals produce '0-0', while the combination '1-1' should not occur at all in normal operation.

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The event '0-0' only signifies a transitory status while the switch (CB or isolator) is actually moving. Providing everything is functioning normally this signal is less interesting and therefore can be suppressed. Should on the other hand, the switch stick in an intermediate position, this signal becomes very important. The runtime supervision enables these two conditions to be distinguished. It can be set independently for each double indication and is active for a setting other than zero. The event '0-0' is thus initially suppressed and remains so, as long as the switch reaches either its open or closed limit position before the end of the runtime supervision setting. This prevents the event list from becoming filled up with unnecessary data. The '0-0' event is subsequently displayed in the event list, should a switch not reach its end position within the specified time. The time stamp corresponds to the start of the switch movement. The status '1-1' is never suppressed even during the period of the runtime and appears in the event list immediately. This status indicates that the switch is 'Open' or 'Closed' simultaneously. This impossible situation is reported as a fault of the switch feedback. The configuration of the double indication for the remote in- /output system RIO580 is described in the respective documentation. Timer data: Min. setting: Max. setting: Increments: Default setting: 0.0 s 60.0 s 0.1 s 0.0 s (i.e. runtime disabled)

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5.4.2.3.

Signal outputs of the card 316DB6x Two outputs are available: Optical LED outputs on the frontend of the relay (see Section 5.10.8.5.4.) or signalling relay contacts.
Latched signal output Comment of the signal outputs

Fig. 5.14

Selection window for the 'Signal Outputs'

The comments of the signal outputs document and provide a better overview of the configuration of the device as supplemental information for the signal in the event list. Latched outputs can be reset when they are acknowledged with the binary input 'ExtReset', from the local interface (LDU), or from the CAP2/316 in the main menu 'Monitor' and sub-menus 'Event Handling' 'Clear latched outputs' (see Section 5.10.8.6.).

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5.4.2.4.

Tripping relay outputs of the card 316DB6x A tripping output matrix can be created from the OUTPUT-command of the various protection functions or by the combination of output channels (see Section 5.4.7.5.):
Latched tripping output Comments of the trip latched output in the output-matrix

Fig. 5.15

Configuration window of the 'Trip Out Latched'

The in-/output cards 316DB61 and 316DB62 have two 'Trip Out Latched' intermediate relays. The 316DB63 output card does not have this functionality.
The comments of the 'Trip Out Latched' serve the purpose of documentation of this output. This is then displayed in the tripping matrix of the function. The 'Trip Out Latched' outputs can be reset when they are acknowledged with the binary input 'ExtReset', from the local interface (LDU), or from the CAP2/316 in the main menu 'Monitor' and submenus 'Event Handling' 'Clear latched outputs' (see Section 5.10.8.6.).

NOTICE: The 'OUTPUT' command of a function sets the 'General Trip' combination signal only if the tripping matrix is configured and the event recorder is parametrized. An exception is the distance function, for which the 'General Trip' combined OR signal is always set.

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5.4.2.5.

Light emitting diodes (LED) A maximum of 2 8 'LEDs' can be parameterized. If only one slot of the 316DB6x is populated than only 8 LEDs can be used on the front end of the device (LED 1 ... 8). The LEDs channels 9 ... 16 can be utilized if the 2nd slot of the device is also populated. The slots 3 and 4 cannot control the LEDs.
Latching LED Comments of the LEDs

Fig. 5.16

Configuration window for the 'Signal LEDs'

NOTICE: The first channel (green LED 1) is reserved for the function READY display and therefore cannot be configured for other puposes. The second channel (red LED 2) is mainly utilized for displaying a TRIP activation. The remaining 3..16 channels are yellow LEDs. Latched LED outputs can be reset when they are acknowledged with the binary input 'ExtReset', from the local interface (LDU), or from the CAP2/316 in the main menu 'Monitor' and sub-menus 'Event Handling' 'Clear latched outputs' (see Section 5.10.8.6.). In contrast to the signalling and trip output relays, the LEDs are also latched when the power to the device is switched OFF and then ON.

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5.4.2.6.

Analog Digital converter On clicking the 'Edit' button next to the 'A/D Config K' the following window is displayed (see Section 5.4.2.):

Fig. 5.17

Configuration of the A/D converter

In sub-menu 'Configuration Transformers RE.316' the following parameters can be configured which are described in detail in Section 3.4.2. Modify channel type: When in the relay configuration the Parameter 'A/D Config K' is set to K = 00 or K 80, then for each analog channel the converter type can be selected. Three phase converter can only be selected for channels 1...3, 4...6 or 7...9. Normally the relay is preconfigured with the 'A/D Config K' and therefore need not be reconfigured.

Fig. 5.18

Configuration channel type with K=00

Prim/Sec ratio: This value is required for the IEC60870-5-103-protocol, for the display of the measurand values in the sub-menu 'Monitor' of the 'Main menu', and for the signal display in the evaluation program 'E_Wineve'. For three phase A/D converters this value is valid for all three phases simultaneously.

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Sec.nom.val: Configure the nominal rated value of the current and voltage transformer. For three phase A/D converters this value is valid for all three phases simultaneously. Ref. value: With the reference value the relay nominal rated value can be adapted to the primary equipment nominal value. For three phase A / D converters this value is valid for all three phases simultaneously. Comments: Comments up to 25 characters can be configured for each channel.

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5.4.3.

Station and bay name The station and bay name for a device can be configured. This is displayed on the topmost line of the CAP2/316 display, along with the file name. Up to 12 characters can be used for each name. This can be configured by selecting the menu 'Configuration', 'Station Name_Bay name'.

Fig. 5.19

Station and bay name configuration

The station- and bayname is also displayed on the local control unit (LDU) if one is utilized. 5.4.4. System I/O The most important parameters, which are utilized as an ABB standard, are presented here. For details regarding the system parameters see Section 3.4.5. To access the system parameters select 'Configuration' and then 'System Parameters'.

LED Sig Mode = ResetSigAll Relay Ready = depending on the application configure a signalling relay binary output. Per default the signalling relay Nr. 6 is configured, as this has a N/O, N/C contact. General Trip = LED 2 (red LED) Ext Reset = depending on the application connect to an external input, for resetting the latched outputs.

Fig. 5.20

System parameter

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5.4.5.

Configuring binary outputs A binary output can be configured with 'Edit' in the 'System Parameters' menu or as an output of a protection function. Two physical output sinks can be configured per source (e.g. output of a function). The listing in the event recording, signal transmission to the substation automation system 'SCS', signal to a remote I/O 'Remote Binary Output' (RBO), as also the 'Interlocking Data' signal to ITL do not count as physical outputs. Therefore these can be used in addition to both physical sinks (see Section 5.4.5.3.). If an attempt is made to utilize more than two physical sinks, then further assignments are not possible. Typical sources are Outputs from system parameters such as 'Relay Ready', 'Modem Error' etc. Output from a protection function (e.g. 'Start Overcurrent')

Physical sinks are Signal LEDs Signal relays Trip relays

Other sinks are: Event recorder / event list Signal transmission to the SCS (Substation Automation System), RBO (Remote Binary Output), ITL (Interlocking data)

Source

Sink Nr. 1 physical Sinks Sink Nr. 2

Each 1x ER, SCS, RBO, ITL Fig. 5.21 Definition of the source binary outputs

NOTICE: Use the trip matrix if more than two sinks are required per source. Normally the trip matrix is utilized for trip signals. (see Section 5.4.7.5). The 'General Start' and 'General Trip' are available in duplicate.

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5.4.5.1.

Signal LED On selecting the 'Edit' button next to a source card and the folder 'Signal LEDs' the following window is displayed:
Slot Channel number of the signal LED Allocation of the signal LED

Fig. 5.22

Signal LED

Comment text if defined for the inputs and outputs are displayed. A tick in the box enables the selection of the text. Select the second slot to configure the signal LEDs in this slot. If the allocation is made for an output and confirmed with 'OK', then in the box next to the 'Edit' button the following text will be displayed: Lx: L = LED on the front of the relay x = LED channel number 1 ... 16 Example: L02, (signal LED, channel 02)

NOTICE: The first channel (green LED 1) is reserved for the function READY display, and, hence cannot be used. If a channel is already utilized, it is displayed in grey, and cannot be selected The second channel (red LED 2) is mainly utilized for displaying a TRIP activation. (Parameterization of the 'General Trip' see Section 5.4.4.) The channels 8 to 16 on the relay front can only be configured if the second slot is populated. Slots 3 and 4 cannot control LEDs.

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5.4.5.2.

Signal relays On selecting the 'Edit' button next to a source, and on selecting the folder 'Signal Relays' the following window is displayed:
Slot Channel number for the signalling relays Allocation of the signalling relays

Fig. 5.23

Signal relays

Comment text if defined for the inputs and outputs are displayed. A tick in the box enables the selection of the text. Select the second slot to configure the signal LEDs in this slot. An allocated channel is shown as a grey block, and cannot be reused. If the allocation is made for an output and confirmed with 'OK', then in the box next to the 'Edit' button the following text will be displayed: Sxyy: S = Signal relay x = Slot number (1 ... 4) yy = Channel number (1 ... 10)

Example: S106, (signal relay, channel 06)

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5.4.5.3.

Event recording On selecting the 'Edit' button next to a source, and on selecting the folder 'Event Recording' the following window is displayed:
Event recording On / Off

Fig. 5.24

Event recording

If the event recording is activated with 'On' and 'OK', then an 'ER' is displayed in the field next to the 'Edit' button.

NOTICE: The 'Start' message of a function sets the 'General Start' message only if the 'Event Recording' is parameterized. The distance function is an exception whereby the start signal 'Start R+S+T' is always displayed as an event and results in the 'General Start' combined signal. In the case of the differential protection function, the 'Start' signal is displayed in the 'General start' when the 'Event Recording' is parameterized.

NOTICE: A 'Start' command from a function sets the 'General Start' message only if the trip matrix is configured and the 'Start' message is parameterized in the 'Event Recording'. The distance function is an exception whereby the 'General Start' signal is always configured.

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NOTICE: A 'Start' measurement value from a function is displayed in the event recorder only when the 'Start' message is parameterized in the 'Event Recording'.

5.4.5.4.

Trip indication relays On selecting the 'Edit' button next to a source, and on selecting the folder 'Trip Relays' the following window is displayed:
Selection of slot Channel number for the trip relay Allocation of the trip relay

Fig. 5.25

'Trip Relay' indication

The allocation of a source of a trip relay is similar to that of the indication relay see Section 5.4.5.2. Once the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the field next to the 'Edit' button will have the following text: Cxyy: C = Trip relay x = Slot number (1 ... 4) yy = Channel number (01 ... 02) Example: C101, (trip relay Slot 1, Channel 01)

NOTICE: Trip Relays can also be utilized for Indication. In general the Trip Relay is used for the Trip Matrix to activate the protection function (see Fig. 5.40). It is possible to use an OR function for the trip and the trip relay indication. Thereby the trip relay can be activated by an indication output or from the tripping matrix.

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5.4.5.5.

Signal to SCS (Substation Automation System) On selecting the 'Edit' button next to a source, and on selecting the folder 'Signal to SCS' the following window is displayed:
SCS group selection SCS data point Allocation of 'Signal to SCS'

Fig. 5.26

'Signal to SCS'

Select the group from which the signal is to sent to the SCS (Station Control System = Substation automation system). The SCS groups 1c 24c are used for transmitting short signals to the MVB interbaybus (signal capturing). If a channel is already selected then it is displayed in grey and cannot be allocated again. Once the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the field next to the 'Edit' button will have the following text: SCxxyy: SC = SCS signal xx = number of the SCS group (1 ... 24) yy = data point within a group (01 ... 32) (*) = (c) signal capturing, ( ) no signal capturing Example: SC503, (SCS group 5, data point 03)

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5.4.5.6.

Signal to RBO (Remote input output system) On selecting the 'Edit' button next to a source, and on selecting the folder 'Signal to RBO' the following window is displayed:
RBO Group = module address Output relay within the module Allocation to 'Signal to RBO' Utilized output

Fig. 5.27

'Signal to RBO'

To allocate a signal to a RBO (Remote Binary Output) select the device (RBO-Grp xx). If the channel has already been allocated, then it cannot be selcted once again, the field is displayed in gray. Once the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the field next to the 'Edit' button will have the following text: RBOxxyy: RBO = RBO signal xx = module address (1 ... 80) yy = output relay within a module (01 ... 16) Example: RBO302, (output module with the address 3, output relay 02)

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5.4.5.7.

Signal to ITL (Interlocking) On selecting the 'Edit' button next to a source, and on selecting the folder 'Signal to ITL' the following window is displayed:
ITL Group Signal number Allocation of the Signal to ITL Utilized Signal

Fig. 5.28

Signal to ITL

An interlocking telegram comprises 48 signals. These are grouped in the ITL-Grp 1 the signals 1 to 16, in the ITL-Grp 2 the signals 17 to 32 and in the ITL-Grp 3 the signals 33 to 48. Once the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the field next to the 'Edit' button will have the following text: ITLxx: ITL = ITL signal xx = signal number (1 ... 48). Example: ITL1, (ITL signal 1)

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5.4.6.

Configuring binary inputs A binary input can be configured by selecting a pushbutton in the 'System Parameters' or in a protection function.

Click on the respective button

Fig. 5.29

Example: Configuration of a binary input

Each binary input can be allocated to many sinks. However one sink can have only one source. Typical sources are: Signal from SCS (Substation Automation System), RBI (Remote Binary Input), ITL (Interlocking data) Output from a system parameter e.g. 'Relay Ready', 'Modem Error' etc. (similar to a protection function) Output of a protection function (e.g. 'Start Overcurrent') Predefined values (Always ON, Always OFF) Binary inputs acquired via Opto-coupler inputs

Typical sinks are: Input from a function (e.g. Blocking 'Under frequency' with 'Breaker Open') Inputs from system parameters e.g. 'Ext Reset' Source Sink Nr. 1 Sink Nr. 2

Sink Nr. xx Fig. 5.30 Definition of source sink binary inputs

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5.4.6.1.

TRUE / FALSE By clicking on the selector button next to a source, and then selecting the folder 'TRUE/FALSE' the following window is displayed:
Binary input 'Always FALSE'

Fig. 5.31

TRUE / FALSE

The binary input of a function can be set to ON (logical 1) or OFF (logical 0). This allocation can be performed by clicking on the 'Edit' button next to the binary input and selecting the 'TRUE/FALSE' folder. Once the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the field next to the 'Edit' button will have the following text: Always ON ('1') Always OFF ('0') or

NOTICE: The default value for all inputs is 'Always OFF'. If a particular input is no longer used it should be set to 'Always OFF'.

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5.4.6.2.

Inputs via optocoupler (binary inputs) By clicking on the selector button next to a source, and then selecting the folder 'Binary Inputs' the following window is displayed:
Selection of slot Input channelnumber Allocation of optocoupler channel Inversion input signal

Fig. 5.32

Binary input

Each input to a function can be allocated to a normal or inverted system binary input (optocoupler input). The allocation is done in the folder of the programable binary input of a function. The allocation is done by clicking on the button of the programable input of a function. In the menu 'Binary inputs' select the slot number and then the desired channel number. By clicking on the 'Inv.' box the input to the function will be inverted. Comments if configured for this input will be displayed. If the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the button next to the input will display the follwing text: (*) Slot x / y: (*) = (-) Inverted, ( ) normal input x = Card / slot number (1 ... 4) y = Optocoupler input channel number (1 ... 10) Cancel the channel selection by configuring the 'TRUE / FALSE' (see Section 5.4.6.1.).

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5.4.6.3.

Output from a protection function By clicking on the selector button next to a source, and then selecting the folder 'Output from Function' the following window is displayed:
Select the function Allocation of the function output Inversion of the function output Signal name

Fig. 5.33

Output from a protection function

Each function input can be allocated as normal or inverted to an output of a protection function. The allocation is done in the folder of the programable binary input of a function. The allocation is done by clicking on the button of the programable input of a function. In the menu 'Binary inputs' select the folder 'Output from function' and the channel number. By clicking on the 'Inv.' box the input to the function will be inverted and sent to the output. Comments provides the association of the signal output to the function (e.g. Trip, Start of function etc.) If the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the button next to the input will display the follwing text: (*) f x y: (*) = (-) inverted, ( ) normal input x = function number (0 ... 48) or IBB y = signal name (Start, Trip ... )

Cancel the channel selection by configuring the 'TRUE / FALSE' (see Section 5.4.6.1.).

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5.4.6.4.

Inputs from SCS (Substation automation system) By clicking on the selector button next to a source, and then selecting the folder 'Inputs from SCS' the following window is displayed:
SCS group selection Signal input channel number Allocation of the signal from SCS Inversion of input from function

Fig. 5.34

Input from SCS

Each function input can be allocated a normal or inverted input from the SCS. The allocation is done in the folder of the programmable binary input of a function. The allocation is done by clicking on the button of the programmable input of a function. In the 'Select Binary Input' window select the folder 'Input from SCS' select the 'SCS Grp Nr.' and the channel number within this group. By clicking on the 'Inv.' box the input will be inverted and transmitted to the input of the function. If the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the button next to the input will display the follwing text: (*) SCS xx / yy: (*) = (-) inverted, ( ) normal input xx = number of the SCS group (1 ... 24) yy = channel number within a SCS group (01 ... 32) Cancel the channel selection by configuring the 'TRUE / FALSE' (see Section 5.4.6.1.).

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5.4.6.5.

Inputs from RBI (Remote input output system) By clicking on the selector button next to a source, and then selecting the folder 'Inputs from RBIs' (Remote Binary Input) the following window is displayed:
RBI Group = module address Signal input channel number Allocation of the input from the RBI Inversion of the input to the Function

Fig. 5.35

Input from RBI

Each function input can be allocated a normal or inverted input from the RBI. The allocation is in a manner similar to that for the SCS input (see Section 5.4.6.4.). If the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the button next to the input will display the follwing text:

(*) RBI xx / yy: (*) = (-) inverted, ( ) normal input xx = module address (1 ... 80) yy = input number of the device (01 ... 19) Cancel the channel selection by configuring the 'TRUE / FALSE' (see Section 5.4.6.1.).

NOTICE: The inputs 17, 18 and 19 deliver special information. Input 17: Input 18: Input 19: A value of 1 denotes that the device is transmitting and receiving data ('Device connected'). A value of 1 denotes Channel A of the device is defective ('Line A defect'). A value of 1 denotes Channel B of the device is defective ('Line B defect').

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5.4.6.6.

Inputs from ITL (Interlocking data) By clicking on the selector button next to a source, and then selecting the folder 'Inputs from ITL' (Interlocking data) the following window is displayed:
ITL Group = Field device address Output channel Allocation to the input from ITL Inversion of the input

Fig. 5.36

Input from ITL data

Each function input can be allocated a normal or inverted input from the ITL data. The allocation in a manner similar to that for the SCS input (see Section 5.4.6.4.). If the allocation is confirmed with 'OK', then the button next to the input will display the follwing text: (*) ITL xx / yy: (*) = (-) inverted, ( ) normal input xx = address of the source signal from the field device (1 ... 64) yy = signal number (1 ... 49) Cancel the channel selection by configuring the 'TRUE / FALSE' (see Section 5.4.6.1.).

NOTICE: The Input Number 49 Signal, provides the information whether the device is active (Signal is 1) or not (Signal is 0).

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5.4.7. 5.4.7.1.

Configuring protection functions Protection functions in the library and active functions Function library Function list in device
5)

4) 6) 7)

9)

2)

3)

1)

8)

Fig. 5.37

Function library and active functions

To open the 'Select Protection Function' sub-menu, select 'Configuration' in the main menu, and then 'Protection Functions' from the pull down menu. Function library As described in Section 5.4.2, as per the SW Vers Sx.xxx as well as the configured relay identification, the respective protection functions can be loaded into the device. These are displayed in the function library on the left hand side of the 'Select Protection Function' window. The scope of the functions in the function library is dependant on the Software key (SW Vers Sx.xxx). List of functions in the device On the right side of the 'Select Protection Function' window the functions which are stored in the device are displayed. Legend 1) Configured functions with the ANSI code and the corressponding symbol. 2) A green button next to the right of the ANSI code indicates that the minimal requirements of the function have been configured. If the

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button is red, then the function is not correctly configured and therefore cannot be activated. 3) The number between the button and the function is the function number. This is utilized for the allocation of the output from the function (see Section 5.4.6.3.). 4) For each of the functions a short description of the function is provided. The ANSI code of the function is provided before the desription. The ANSI code represents the exact meaning and functionality of the protection function, and overrides the text description / clarification. 5) This provides an overview of the function configured for the various parameter sets, which can be defined by item 6) below. 6) A tick in the P1..4 box indicates if the function is configured for the respective parameter set (see Section 5.9.2.1.). 7) Displays from which function this particular function has been copied. The A/D converter, the trip signal card and the signal outputs cannot be changed (see Section 5.4.7.2.). 8) The bar display and the numeric value provide information of the capacity utilization of the CPU by the currently configured protection functions in the device. 9) The protection functions in the device can be further added from the function library with the 'drag and drop' method (see Section 5.4.7.2.). 5.4.7.2. Inserting a function In order to insert a new function from the function library into the device configuration, select the function with the left mouse button, and drag it across to the device configuration side with the button pressed, and then drop it by releasing the button. The function is added to the end of the list. In case the new function is to be placed in a empty place ('No Func'), drag the function to this placeholder and then drop it. In order to replace an existing function with a new function, the old function has to be first deleted which results in a 'No Func', if it is not the last function in the device. If a particular function placeholder has to be left free then insert a 'No Func' in this spot from the library. 5.4.7.3. Deleting a function An activated function can de deleted, by selecting this with the left mouse button. Then press the right mouse for the pop-up menu and select 'Delete'. Fig. 5.38 Deleting a function

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5.4.7.4.

Copying a function If the configuration of a parametrized function has be reutilized to a large extent in a second parameter set, then this function can be copied. The new copied function inherits all the configuration of the original function. In the new copied function the following parameters cannot be changed: all analog inputs all signalling outputs all trip output channels

If these parameters are changed in the original function, then these are automatically changed in the copied function. The configuration of the binary input and the parameter 'ParSet1...4'' has to be configured once again in the copied function. The source of the binary inputs must be active in the same parameter set as that of the copied function. The copied function cannot be active in the same parameter set as the original function, and the parameter set of the copied must be greater than that of the original: P1 pO P4 and pO < pK P4

pO = parameter set number of the original function pK = parameter set number of the copied function If copies of a function exist, the original function cannot be deleted (see Section.5.9.2.2.).

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5.4.7.5.

Configuring a function To configure a function double click with the left mouse button on the function or position the mouse pointer on the desired function, click the right mouse button and select 'Properties' from the pop-up menu (as described in Section 5.4.7.3). Example: Configuration of a current function.
7) 1) 2) 3)

4) 5) 6)

Fig. 5.39

Configuration of a function

The configuration and setting of the parameters are not explained here. This is explained in detail in Chapter 3. The configuration guidelines and a description of the function can be called up by pressing the 'F1' key. A prerequisite is that during the installation of the configuration program the complete operating instructions should also be installed (see Section 5.2.2.). 1) In the case of a RE.316*4 device the default value for 'Run On CPU' is CPU-1, as the device has only one CPU. 2) The trip channels can be configured by clicking on the button next to the trip. The trip channel matrix will be displayed, which are configured with a tick mark. When the mouse is moved near the selected trip matrix, as described in Section 5.4.2.4 below, the configured description of the trip channel is displayed. A grey background indicates that the trip channels are configured for another protection function. Click on the button 'OK' to activate the configuration. In the box next to the 'Trip' the text 'Select' will be displayed, to indicate that the trip channel has been configured. An empty text field i.e. '.......' indicates the trip channel is not configured.

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Function number

Function type

Configured trip channels

Comments for the trip channel

Trip channel matrix

Fig. 5.40

Trip signals as per the trip matrix

Notice : ABB recommends that the trip channels are configured via the trip channel matrix. This facilitates the simultaneous activation of the trip channel from different protection functions.

NOTICE: A 'Trip' command from a function activates the combined 'General trip' signal only if the trip matrix is conf