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Chapter Objectives

Discuss the impact of information technology on business strategy and success

Define an information system and describe its components

Use profiles and models to understand business functions and operations

Explain how the Internet has affected business strategies and relationships

Identify various types of information systems and explain who uses them

Chapter Objectives

Explain systems development tools, including modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools

Distinguish between structured analysis and object-oriented methodology

Describe the systems development life cycle

Discuss the role of the information technology department and the systems analysts who work there

Introduction

Companies use information as a weapon in the battle to increase productivity, deliver quality products and services, maintain customer loyalty, and make sound decisions.

Information technology can mean the difference between success and failure

and make sound decisions.  Information technology can mean the difference between success and failure Figure

Figure 1-1

The Impact of Information Technology

Combination of hardware and software products and services that companies use to manage, access, communicate, and share information

A vital asset that must be used effectively, updated constantly, and safeguarded carefully

The Impact of Information Technology

The Future of IT

Responsible for half of all productivity growth and a third of all economic growth between 1995-1999

Online population worldwide is expected to increase 60 percent between 2001-2004

is expected to increase 60 percent between 2001-2004 more information about Future of IT visit ite.com/sad6e/more

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Figure 1-3

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The Impact of Information Technology

The Role of Systems Analysis and Design

Step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems

Plan, develop, and maintain information systems

high-quality information systems – Systems Analyst • Plan, develop, and maintain information systems Figure 1-4 7

Figure 1-4

The Impact of Information Technology

Who develops Information Systems?

Internet-based application services

Outsourcing

Custom solutions

Enterprise-wide software strategies

How versus What

Information System Components

A system is a set of related components that produces specific results

A Mission-critical system is one that is vital to a company’s operations

Information systems have five key components: hardware, software, data, processes, and people

have five key components: hardware, software, data, processes, and people Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 Figure 1-7
have five key components: hardware, software, data, processes, and people Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 Figure 1-7

Figure 1-5

Figure 1-6

have five key components: hardware, software, data, processes, and people Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 Figure 1-7
have five key components: hardware, software, data, processes, and people Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 Figure 1-7

Figure 1-7

Figure 1-8

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Information System Components

Hardware

Is the physical layer of the information system

physical layer of the information system – Moore’s Law Figure 1-9 more information about ore’s Law

Figure 1-9

of the information system – Moore’s Law Figure 1-9 more information about ore’s Law visit scsite.com

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10

Information System Components

Data

Is the raw material that an information system transforms into useful information

Tables

Linking

Is the raw material that an information system transforms into useful information – Tables – Linking

Figure 1-10

Information System Components

Processes

Define the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results

People

Users, or end users, are the people who interact with an information system, both inside and outside the company

Understanding The Business

Business Models

BPR (business process reengineering)

Models – Business models – Business processes – BPR (business process reengineering) Figure 1-11 Figure 1-12

Figure 1-11

Models – Business models – Business processes – BPR (business process reengineering) Figure 1-11 Figure 1-12

Figure 1-12

Understanding The Business

New Kinds of Companies

Companies are classified based on their main activities:

main activities: – Production-oriented – Service-oriented – Brick-and-mortar – Dot-com (.com) Figure 1-13 15

Figure 1-13

Impact of the Internet

E-Commerce (I-Commerce)

B2C (Business-to-Consumer)

B2B (Business-to-Business)

EDI, XML, HTML

Web-Based System Development

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Figure 1-14

Figure 1-15

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How Business Uses Information Systems

In past, IT managers divided systems into categories based on the user group the system served

Office systems

Operational systems

Decision support systems

Executive information systems

How Business Uses Information Systems

Today, it makes more sense to identify a system by its functions, rather than by users

Enterprise computing systems

Transaction processing systems

Business support systems

Knowledge management systems

User productivity systems

How Business Uses Information Systems

Support company-wide operations and data management requirements

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Figure 1-16

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How Business Uses Information Systems

Transaction processing systems Efficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands as a group rather than individually

Efficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands as a group rather than individually Figure

Figure 1-17

How Business Uses Information Systems

Provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company

What-if

a company – Management information systems (MIS) – Radio frequency identification (RFID) – What-if Figure 1-18

Figure 1-18

How Business Uses Information Systems

Called expert systems

Simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules

Many use fuzzy logic

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Figure 1-19

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How Business Uses Information Systems

Technology that improves productivity

Word processing is an example

Information systems integration

Most large companies require systems that combine transaction processing, business support, knowledge management, and user productivity features

Information System Users and Their Needs

A systems analyst must understand the company’s organizational model in order to recognize who is responsible for specific processes and decisions and to be aware of what information is required by whom.

responsible for specific processes and decisions and to be aware of what information is required by

Figure 1-20

Information System Users and Their Needs

Systems Development Tools and Techniques

Systems analysts must know how to use a variety of techniques such as modeling, prototyping, and computer-aided systems engineering tools to plan, design, and implement information systems.

Systems analysts work with these tools in a team environment

Systems Development Tools and Techniques

Modeling

Used to describe and simplify an information system:

Systems Development Tools and Techniques

Early working version of an information system

Speeds up the development process significantly

Important decisions might be made too early, before business or IT issues are thoroughly understood

Can be an extremely valuable tool

Systems Development Tools and Techniques

Framework for systems development and support a wide variety of design methodologies

more information on E tools visit scsite.com/

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Figure 1-21

Figure 1-23

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Figure 1-22

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Systems Development Methods

Structured analysis and object-oriented analysis are both popular methodologies for developing computer-based information systems.

A systems analyst should understand the alternative methodologies and their individual strengths and weaknesses.

Systems Development Methods

Uses a set of process models to describe a system graphically

Uses a set of process models to describe a system graphically – Systems development life cycle

Figure 1-24

Systems Development Methods

Development Methods  Object-oriented (O-O) analysis – O-O analysis combines data & processes into

O-O analysis combines data & processes into objects

Object is a member of a class

Class is a collection of similar objects

Objects possess properties

Methods change an object’s properties

Messages request specific behavior or information from another object

Figure 1-25

32

Systems Development Methods

Joint Application Development and Rapid Application Development

JAD – Team based fact finding

RAD – compressed version of the entire process

Systems Development Methods

Other development methodologies Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF)

methodologies – Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF) more information about rosoft Solutions Framework, t the

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Figure 1-26

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The Systems Development Life Cycle

SDLC used to plan and manage the systems development process

It includes the following steps:

Systems planning

Systems analysis

The Systems Development Life Cycle

Traditionally pictured as a waterfall model, but is also presented as an interactive model depicting real world practice and the constant dialog among users, managers, and systems developers

real world practice and the constant dialog among users, managers, and systems developers Figure 1-27 Figure

Figure 1-27

real world practice and the constant dialog among users, managers, and systems developers Figure 1-27 Figure

Figure 1-28

36

The Systems Development Life Cycle

Systems planning

Purpose is to identify the nature and scope of the business opportunity or problem

Systems request – begins the process & describes problems or desired changes

Systems planning includes preliminary investigation whose key part is a feasibility study

The Systems Development Life Cycle

Systems Analysis

Purpose is to build a logical model of the new system

First step is requirements modeling, where you investigate business processes and document what the new system must do

End product is the System requirements document

The Systems Development Life Cycle

Systems Design

Purpose is to create a blueprint that will satisfy all documented requirements

Identify all outputs, inputs, and processes

Avoid misunderstanding through manager and user involvement

End product is system design specification

The Systems Development Life Cycle

Systems Implementation

New system is constructed

Write, test, & document programs

File conversion occurs

Users, managers, IT staff trained to operate and support the system System evaluation performed

The Systems Development Life Cycle

Systems Operation and Support

New system supports operations

Maintenance changes correct errors or meet requirements

Enhancements increase system capability

After several years of operation, systems need extensive changes SDLC ends with system replacement

Systems Development Guidelines

Planning

Involve users throughout the development process

Listening is Very Important

Create a Time Table with Major Milestones

Identify Interim Checkpoints

Remain Flexible

Develop Accurate Cost and Benefit Information

Information Technology Department

The information technology (IT) department develops and maintains a company’s information systems.

The IT group provides technical support includes six main functions: application development, systems support, user support, database administration, network administration, and Web support

systems support, user support, database administration, network administration, and Web support Figure 1-29 43

Figure 1-29

Information Technology Department

Team may include users, managers and IT Staff members

Provides hardware and software support

Provides users with technical information, training, and productivity support

Information Technology Department

Database design, management, security, backup, and user access

Includes hardware and software maintenance, support, and security

Design and construction of web pages and presence. Important for e-commerce

The Systems Analyst Position

A systems analyst investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a company’s information systems

On large projects, the analyst works as a member of an IT department team

Smaller companies often use consultants to perform the work

The Systems Analyst Position

Responsibilities

Translate business requirements into practical IT projects to meet needs

Required Skills and Background

Solid communication skills and analytic ability

to meet needs  Required Skills and Background – Solid communication skills and analytic ability Figure

Figure 1-30

The Systems Analyst Position

Professional credential

Career Opportunities

Job titles

Company organization

Company size

Salary, location, and future growth

Chapter Summary

IT is a combination of hardware, software, and telecommunications systems that support business

The essential components of an information system are hardware, software, data, processes, and people

Companies are production oriented, service oriented, or a combination of the two

Chapter Summary

Based on their function and features, information systems are identified as enterprise computing systems, transactional processing or operational systems, business support systems, knowledge management systems, or user productivity systems

Organization structure usually includes levels. Each level has different responsibilities and information needs

Chapter Summary

Systems analyst use modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools. Modeling produces a graphical representation of the process, prototyping involves creation of an early working model, and CASE tools assist in various systems development tasks

Various development methodologies exist, including structured analysis and object- oriented analysis

Chapter Summary

The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) consists of five phases: systems planning, systems analysis, systems design, systems implementation, and systems operation and support

An IT department develops, maintains and operates a company’s information systems

Chapter Summary

Systems analysts need a combination of technical and business knowledge, analytical ability, and communication

Systems Analysis & Design 6 th Edition End Chapter 1

Systems Analysis & Design 6 th Edition

End Chapter 1