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ECONOMICS Contributed by: Dr.

Monica Gupta
1. Which of the following is an example of how the question of "what goods and services to produce?" is answered by the command process? A. government subsidies for affordable housing B. laws regarding equal opportunity in employment C. government allowance for the deduction of interest payments on private mortgages D. government regulations concerning the dumping of industrial waste Opportunity cost is best defined as A. the amount given up when choosing one activity over all other alternatives. B. the amount given up when choosing one activity over the next best alternative. C. the opportunity to earn a profit that is greater than the one currently being made. D. the amount that is given up when choosing an activity that is not as good as the next best alternative. In a market economy, which of the following is the most important factor affecting scarcity? A. the needs and wants of consumers B. the price of the product C. the degree to which the government is involved in the allocation of resources. D. all of the above are equally important. Which of the following is not considered by economists to be a basic resource or factor of production? A. money B. machinery and equipment C. technology D. unskilled labor Select the group that best represents the basic factors of production. A. land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship B. land, labor, money, management skills C. land, natural resources, labor, capital D. land, labor, capital, technology Which of the statements below best illustrates the use of the market process in determining the allocation of scarce resources? A. "Let's make this product because this is what we know how to do best." B. "Although we're currently making a profit on the products we make, we should consider shifting to products where we can earn even more money." C. "Everyone is opening video stores, why don't we?" D. "We can't stop making this product. This product gave our company its start." Which of the following is the best example of "what goods and services should be produced?" A. the use of a capital intensive versus a labor intensive process of manufacturing textiles B. the production of army helicopters versus the production of new commercial jet aircraft C. the manufacturing of computer workstations in Hong Kong or in Germany D. the leasing versus the purchasing of new capital equipment

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Which of the following is the best example of "how should goods and services be produced?" A. adherence to technical specifications in the production of jet aircraft. B. the production of jet aircraft for the air force or for a commercial airline. C. the use of additional full-time workers versus the use of supplementary part-time workers D. the production of a new manufacturing facility Which of the following is the best example of opportunity cost? A. a company's expenditures on a training program for its employees B. the rate of return on a company's investment C. the amount of money that a company can earn by depositing excess funds in a money market fund D. the amount of profit that a company forgoes when it decides to drop a particular product line in favor of another one From the standpoint of a soft drink company the question of "What goods and services should be produced?" is best represented by which of the following decisions: A. whether or not to hire additional workers B. whether or not to increase its advertising C. whether or not to shut down selected manufacturing facilities D. all of the above are examples E. none of the above are examples Scarcity is a condition that exists when A. there is a fixed supply of resources. B. there is a large demand for a product. C. resources are not able to meet the entire demand for a product. D. all of the above. Managerial economics is best defined as A. the study of economics by managers. B. the study of the aggregate economic activity. C. the study of how managers make decisions about the use of scarce resources. D. all of the above are good definitions. In the text, the authors refer to "Stage II" of the process of changing economics as: A. demand management B. cost management C. diminishing returns D. profit taking Which of the following is the best example of the "command" process? A. MCI-Worldcom buys Sprint. B. Striking auto workers force General Motors to shut down its factories. C. Banks raise their fees on late payments by credit card holders. D. The FCC requires local telephone companies to provide access to their local networks before being able to offer long distance service. A critical element of entrepreneurship (as opposed to managerial skills) is A. leadership skills. B. risk taking. C. technology.

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D. political skills. 16. In the text, a key factor in the changing "economics of a business" is: A. the need to grow revenues B. increasing competition C. rising labor costs D. the need to expand market share Transaction costs include: A. costs of negotiating contracts with other firms. B. cost of enforcing contracts. C. the existence of asset-specificity. D. all of the above. A company will strive to minimize A. transaction costs. B. costs of internal operations. C. total costs of transactions and internal operations combined. D. variable costs. Company goals that are concerned with creating employee and customer satisfaction and maintaining a high degree of social responsibility are called ___________ objectives. A. social B. noneconomic C. welfare D. public relations ______________ risk involves variation in returns due to the ups and downs of the economy, the industry and the firm. A. structural B. fluctuational C. business D. financial _____________ risk concerns the variation in returns that is induced by leverage. A. business risk B. premium C. business D. financial Unlike an accountant, an economist measures costs on a(n) _______________ basis. A. implicit B. replacement C. historical D. conservative When a company manages its business in such a way that its cash flows over time, discounted at the appropriate discount rate, will cause the value of the company's common stock to be at a maximum, it is called __________________ maximization. A. profit B. stockholder wealth

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C. asset D. none of the above 24. When a firm earns a normal profit, its revenue is just enough to cover both its ____________ cost and its ___________ cost. A. accounting; opportunity B. accounting; replacement C. historical; replacement D. explicit; accounting A large corporation's profit objective may not be profit or wealth maximization, because A. stockholders have little power in corporate decision-making. B. management is more interested in maximizing its own income. C. managers are overly concerned with their own survival and may not take all prudent risks. D. all of the above. Accounting costs A. are historical costs. B. are replacements costs. C. usually include implicit costs. D. usually include normal profits. The calculation of stockholder wealth involves A. the time-value of money concept. B. the cash flow stream. C. business and financial risk. D. all of the above. As an objective, the maximization of profits ignores A. the timing of cash flows B. the time-value of money concept. C. the riskiness of cash flows. D. all of the above. Another name for stockholder wealth maximization is A. profit maximization. B. maximization of earnings per share. C. maximization of the value of the common stock. D. maximization of cash flows. MVA (Market Value Added) A. will always be a positive number. B. may be a negative number. C. measures the market value of the firm. D. none of the above. How long is the "short-run" time period in the economic analysis of the market? A. three months or one business quarter B. total time in which sellers already in the market respond to changes in demand and equilibrium price

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C. total amount of time it takes new sellers to enter the market D. total amount of time it takes original sellers to leave the market 32. A new taco-making machine that is similar in size and cost to hot dog carts has encouraged more street vendors to begin selling tacos. What short-run impact do you think this might have on the market for hot dogs? A. decrease in the demand for hot dogs B. increase in the demand for hot dogs C. decrease in the supply of hot dogs D. increase in the supply of hot dogs Which of the following is not a non-price determinant of demand? A. tastes and preferences B. income C. technology D. future expectations Which of the following is not a nonprice determinant of supply? A. costs B. technology C. income D. future expectations Which of the following statements is not true? A. an increase in demand causes equilibrium price and quantity to rise. B. a decrease in demand causes equilibrium price and quantity to fall. C. an increase in supply causes equilibrium price to fall and quantity to rise. D. a decrease in supply causes equilibrium price to rise and quantity to rise. A short-run time period is A. the period of time in which sellers already in the market respond to a change in equilibrium price by adjusting the amount of their fixed inputs. B. the amount of time it takes for the market price to reach a new equilibrium as a result of some initial change in supply or demand. C. the amount of time it takes for sellers and buyers to decide on whether to enter a new market. D. the amount of time it takes for buyers to change their purchasing habits as a result of a change in market price. Which of the following would cause a decrease in the demand for fish? A. the price of red meat increases. B. the price of fish increases. C. the price of chicken decreases. D. the number of fishing boats decreases. Which of the following would cause a short run decrease in the quantity supplied of personal computers? A. the price of workstations decreases. B. the price of PC software decreases. C. the number of PC manufacturers decreases. D. the cost of manufacturing PCs decreases.

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Which of the following will not cause a short run shift in the supply curve? A. a change in the number of sellers B. a change in the cost of resources C. a change in the price of the product D. a change in future expectations In the short run, a change in the equilibrium price will A. always lead to inflation. B. cause a shift in the demand curve. C. cause a shift in the supply curve. D. cause a change in the quantity demanded or supplied. Which of the following applies most generally to supply in the long run? A. Average cost must decline. B. Sellers are able to make adjustments in all of their factors of production. C. Sellers are only able to make adjustments in their variable factors of production. D. All original sellers will leave the market. A movement along the demand curve may be caused by A. a change in non-price determinants of demand. B. a change in consumer expectations. C. a change in demand. D. a change in supply. The rationing function of price A. occurs when there is a movement of resources into or out of markets as a result of changes in the equilibrium market price. B. is also known as the guiding function of price. C. occurs when consumers change their tastes and preferences. D. occurs only when the market experiences severe shortages. The switch to the use of HFCS from sugar in soft drinks was prompted in large part by its relatively lower price. Assuming a competitive market, what effect would this change have on the equilibrium price and output for soft drinks? A. price rises, output falls B. price falls, output rises C. price rises, output rises D. price falls, output falls Which of the following best describes the "guiding function" of price? A. In response to the surplus or shortage in two markets, price serves as a "guiding function" by decreasing in one market and increasing in the other market in the short run. B. The guiding function of price is the movement of resources into or out of markets in response to a change in the equilibrium price of a good or service. C. The guiding function of price occurs when the market price changes to eliminate the imbalance between supply and demand caused by a shortage or surplus at the original price. D. The guiding function usually occurs in the short run while the rationing function usually occurs in the long run.

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Which of the following best applies to the distinction between the "long run" and the "short run"? A. The short run is a period of approximately 1-6 months while the long run is any time frame longer. B. In the short run, only new firms may enter, while in the long run firms may either enter or exit the market. C. The rationing function of price is a short run phenomenon whereas the guiding function is a long run phenomenon. D. All of the above statements are correct. Which of the following would indicate that price is temporarily below its market equilibrium? A. There are a number of producers who are left with unwanted inventories. B. There are a number of customers who must be placed on waiting lists for the product. C. Firms decide to leave the market. D. The government must step in and subsidize the product. Comparative statics analysis in economics is best illustrated as A. the comparison of equilibrium points before and after changes in the market have occurred. B. a comparison of two types of markets. C. the comparison of the percentage of change in the one variable divided by the percentage change in the other variable. D. an analytical technique used to show best case scenarios of demand and supply curves. The guiding function of price is A. the movement of price to clear the market of any shortages or surpluses. B. the use of price as a signal to guide government on the use of market subsidies. C. a long run function resulting in the movement of resources into or out of markets. D. the movement of price as a result of changes in the demand for a product. If the price of a substitute product increases, which of the following is most likely to happen in the market for the product under consideration in the short run? A. supply will increase. B. firms will leave the market. C. firms in the market will devote more of their variable inputs to the making of this product. D. firms in the market will devote less of their variable inputs to the making of this product. Which of the following would lead to a short-run market surplus for fish? A. the price of fish increases. B. a new government study shows that fish have a greater risk of contamination from pollution. C. an increase in the price of chicken. D. a decrease in the number of fishing companies. Suppose demand is expressed as QD = 300 - 50P. If we want to make this equation consistent with the typical supply and demand diagram, this equation must be stated as: A. P = 300 - 50Q B. P = 6 - .02Q C. P = 50 - 300Q D. Q = 6 - .02P

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Which of the following refers to a shift in the demand curve? A. "This new advertising campaign should really increase our demand." B. "Let's drop our price to increase our demand." C. "We dare not raise our price because our demand will drop." D. "If new sellers enter the market, the demand for the product is bound to increase." In a perfectly competitive market, if the cost of production falls, we can expect: A. sellers to earn more profit. B. sellers to earn less because price will fall. C. consumers to buy more. D. consumers to buy less. Which of the following gives the clearest indication of a perfectly competitive market? A. the product is standardized B. there is relatively easy entry into the market C. buyers and sellers are price takers D. the buyers and sellers are relatively small E. all of the above are equally clear indicators In 1998, the following event(s) caused a significant decline in the price of sugar: A. favorable weather in important sugar growing countries B. economic conditions in Asia reduced sugar demand C. lowered demand for other products made of sugar D. all of the above Which of the following will result in an increase in demand for residential housing in the short run? A. a decrease in the price of lumber B. an increase in the wages of carpenters C. an increase in real household incomes D. a decrease in the prices of residential housing A decrease in the price of personal computers can result from A. a decrease in the price of chips. B. improvements in methods of assembling computers. C. an increase in the gross national product. D. both a. and b. Which of the following can result in an increase in the supply of residential housing in the short run? A. a decrease in the price of lumber B. a decrease in real household incomes C. an increase in the wages of electricians D. none of the above Which of the following is a key determinant of both supply and demand? A. income B. future expectations C. tastes and preferences D. sales tax Which of the following could cause a long-run shift in demand as part of the "guiding function of

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price"? A. B. C. D. 62.

a change in tastes and preferences an increase in price caused by a shift in supply income shift caused by an economic recession an increase in number of buyers

A market is in equilibrium when A. supply is equal to demand. B. the price is adjusting upward. C. the quantity supplied is equal to the quantity demanded. D. tastes and preference remain constant. Which of the following indicates that there is a shortage in the market? A. demand is rising B. demand is falling C. price is rising D. price is falling The rationing function of price occurs when A. price is falling, thereby reducing a market surplus. B. new sellers enter the market. C. buyers leave the market. D. none of the above. The sensitivity of the change in quantity demanded to a change in price is called A. income elasticity. B. cross-elasticity. C. price elasticity of demand. D. coefficient of elasticity. The sensitivity of the change in quantity consumed of one product to a change in the price of a related product is called A. cross-elasticity. B. substitute elasticity. C. complementary elasticity. D. price elasticity of demand. The minimum wage is an example of a government imposed A. price control. B. price ceiling. C. price floor. D. both a and b. E. both a and c. A product that is similar to another, and can be consumed in place of it, is called A. a normal good. B. an inferior good. C. a complementary good. D. a substitute good. Two goods are _____________ if the quantity consumed of one increases when the price of the

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other decreases. A. normal B. superior C. complementary D. substitute 70. A tax that is imposed as a specific amount per unit of a product is a(n) A. excise or specific tax. B. sales or ad valorem tax. C. compound duty. D. income tax. The government unit that wants to achieve "revenue enhancement" will find it considerably more favorable to enact an excise tax on products whose demand is A. highly elastic. B. relatively elastic. C. highly inelastic. D. unitary elastic. A product consumed in conjunction with another is called a(n) A. inferior good. B. complementary good. C. normal good. D. substitute good. Two products are ______________ if the quantity consumed of one increases when the price of the other increases. A. normal B. inferior C. complementary D. substitutes When total revenue increases from $18,000 to $26,000 when quantity increases from eight to ten, marginal revenue is equal to A. $3,000. B. $4,000. C. $8,000. D. $2,600. When total revenue reaches its peak (elasticity equals 1), marginal revenue reaches A. 1. B. zero. C. -1. D. cannot be determined from the information provided. The demand for items that go into the production of a final product is called A. marginal demand. B. aggregate demand. C. partial demand. D. derived demand.

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Remembering that demand elasticity is defined as the percentage change in quantity divided by the percentage change in price, if price decreases and, in percentage terms, quantity rises more than price has dropped, total revenue will A. increase. B. decrease. C. remain the same. D. either increase or decrease. When a one percent change in price results in a one percent change in quantity demanded in the opposite direction, demand is A. relatively inelastic. B. unitary elastic. C. perfectly elastic. D. perfectly inelastic. The owner of a produce store found that when the price of a head of lettuce was raised from 50 cents to $1, the quantity sold per hour fell from 18 to 8. The arc elasticity of demand for lettuce is A. -0.56. B. -1.15. C. -0.8. D. -1.57. When purchases of tennis socks decline following an increase in the price of tennis sneakers (other things remaining equal), the relationship between these two items can be described as A. substitutable. B. complementary. C. unique. D. ordinary. If the income elasticity coefficient equals 1, the proportion of a consumer's income spent on a given product after a change in income will be _________ the proportion of income spent on that product prior to the income change. A. greater than B. less than C. equal to D. either greater than or equal to In general, if there are many good substitutes for a given product, the demand elasticity will be A. high. B. low. C. indeterminate. D. zero. The derived demand curve for a product component will be more inelastic A. the larger is the fraction of total cost going to this component. B. the more inelastic is the demand curve for the final product. C. the more elastic are the supply curves of cooperating factors. D. the less essential is the component in question. As incomes rise and consumers feel "better off," they will shift consumption away from ___________ goods toward goods more commensurate with their improved economic status.

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inferior superior normal inelastic

If the consumption of sugar does not change at all following a price increase from 49 cents per pound to 58 cents per pound, the demand for sugar is considered to be A. relatively inelastic. B. perfectly elastic. C. perfectly inelastic. D. unitary elastic. When the consumption of chicken (whose price has not changed) increases following an increase in the price of beef, the two products can be considered to be A. complements. B. substitutes. C. unrelated. D. correlated. When a one percent change in price causes a change in quantity demanded greater than one percent, demand for the product is A. relatively elastic. B. relatively inelastic. C. perfectly elastic. D. unitary elastic. If the income elasticity of a particular product is -0.2, it would be considered A. a superior good. B. a normal good. C. an inferior good. D. an elastic good. If a firm decreases the price of a product and total revenue decreases, then A. the demand for this product is price elastic. B. the demand for this product is price inelastic. C. the cross elasticity is negative. D. the income elasticity is less than 1. The following form of a demand curve will exhibit constant elasticity over its relevant range: A. Q = a - bP B. Q = a/Pb C. Q = aP-b D. none of the above If a regression coefficient passes the t-test, it means that A. the regression equation is valid. B. the regression coefficient is significantly different from zero. C. the regression coefficient can be used for forecasting. D. the regression coefficient should be included in the regression equation.

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Which of the following is a test of the statistical significance of the entire regression equation? A. t-test B. R2 C. F-test D. Durbin-Watson test Which of the following is a test of the statistical significance of a particular regression coefficient? A. t-test B. R2 C. F-test D. Durbin-Watson test Which of the following is a measure of the explanatory power of the regression model? A. t-test B. R2 C. F-test D. Durbin-Watson test When a regression coefficient is significant at the .05 level, it means that A. there is only a five percent chance that there will be an error in a forecast. B. there is 95 percent chance that the regression coefficient is the true population coefficient. C. there is a five percent chance or less that the estimated coefficient is zero. D. there is a five percent chance or less that the regression coefficient is not the true population coefficient. Which of the following refers to a relatively high correlation among the independent variables of a regression equation? A. autocorrelation B. the identity problem C. statistically insignificant regression coefficients D. multicollinearity When the R2 of a regression equation is very high, it indicates that A. all the coefficients are statistically significant. B. the intercept term has no economic meaning. C. a high proportion of the variation in the independent variable can be accounted for by the variation in the independent variables. D. there is a good chance of serial correlation and so the equation must be discarded. The coefficient of a linear regression equation indicates A. the change in the dependent variable relative to a unit change in the independent variable. B. the change in the independent variable relative to a unit change in the dependent variable. C. the percentage change in the dependent variable relative to a unit change in the independent variable. D. The percentage change in the independent variable relative to a unit change in the dependent variable.

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For the regression equation Q = 100 - 10X1 + 25X2, which of the following statements is true? A. X2 is the more important variable because it is positive. B. When X1 decreases by one unit, Q decreases by 10 units. C. When X1 increases by 10 units, Q decreases by 1 unit. D. When X1 increases by one unit, Q decreases by 10 units.

100. When using regression analysis for forecasting, the confidence interval indicates: A. the degree of confidence that one has in the equation's R2. B. the range in which the value of the dependent variable is expected to lie with a given degree of probability. C. the degree of confidence that one has in the regression coefficients. D. the range in which the actual outcome of a forecast is going to lie. 101. Which of the following indicators will always improve when more variables are added to a regression equation? A. the magnitudes of the coefficients B. the t-test C. R2 D. the standard errors of the coefficients 102. Which value from the Durbin-Watson test indicates the least likelihood of serial correlation? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 5 103. The use of a dummy variable in regression analysis A. indicates that a researchers does not really know what to include in the equation. B. indicates that a variable is expected to either have or not have an impact on a dependent variable. C. indicates that insufficient data is available for the analysis. D. indicates the use of hypothetical data. 104. In using regression analysis to estimate demand, which of the following problems is most directly a result of insufficient data? A. the identification problem B. the problem of a low R2 C. the problem of high standard errors D. the problem of insignificant F-statistics 105. In the estimation of demand, the "identification problem" refers to A. the problem of selecting the proper level of significance. B. the problem of deciding whether to use time series or cross sectional data. C. the problem of separating out the effects of price on the quantity demanded when supply cannot be not held constant. D. the problem of having insufficient variation in prices. 106. The t-statistic is computed by A. dividing the regression coefficient by the standard error of the estimate. B. dividing the regression coefficient by the standard error of the coefficient.

C. dividing the standard error of the coefficient by the regression coefficient. D. dividing the R2 by the F-statistic. 107. Which of the following is most likely to indicate a statistically significant regression coefficient? A. t > R2 B. R2 > .90 C. t > 2 D. F > 4 108. Which indicator shows how well a regression line fits through the scatter of data points? A. F-test B. R2 C. t-test D. Durbin-Watson test 109. A dummy variable is also called A. an approximate variable. B. a discrete variable. C. a zero-sum variable. D. an improper variable. 110. A manager will have the least confidence in an explanatory variable that: A. does not pass the F-test. B. is expressed as a dummy variable. C. does not pass the t-test. D. constitutes only a small part of R2. 111. From a management policy perspective, which regression result is the most useful? A. a regression equation that passes the F-test B. a regression equation whose explanatory variables all pass the t-test C. a regression equation that has the highest R2 D. a regression equation that has the least number of dummy variables Answer the following questions on the basis of the regression results below (standard errors in parentheses, n = 200). QD = -500 (250) R2 = .12 where QD = 10,500, quantity demanded of product "A" PA = $10, price of product "A" PB = $8, price of product "B" I = $12,000, per capita income A = $20,000, monthly advertising expenditure 112. Which of the variables does not pass the t-test at the .05 level of significance? A. PA - 100PA + (50) 50PB + .3I + .2A (30) (.1) (.08)

B. C. D. E.

PB A I all the variables pass the t-test.

113. As a researcher, which aspect of the results would be of greatest concern? A. the negative value of the constant (i.e., -500) B. the relatively low impact of the competitor's price C. the fact that not all of the variables are statistically significant D. the poor fit of the regression line 114. As the manager of Product A, which of the following would be of greatest concern (based on the regression results above)? A. none of the factors below would be of concern B. an impending recession C. pressure on you by your salespersons to lower the price so that they can boost their sales D. a price reduction by the makers of product B 115. Which of the following cannot be determined on the basis of the above regression results? A. the degree of price elasticity of product B B. whether or not product A is "normal" C. the degree of competition between A and B D. all of the above can be determined Answer the following questions on the basis of the information below. (Standard errors in parentheses, n = 150.) QD = 1000 (20) 50PA + (7) 10PB + (.04) .05I

where QD = quantity demanded of product "A" PA = price of product "A" PB = price of a competing product "B" I = per capita income 116. Using the "rule of 2," which of the following variables can be deemed statistically significant? A. PA B. PB C. I D. all of the above E. none of the above 117. If PA = $20, PB = $18 and I = $15,000, which of the following statements is true? A. Product A is a superior good. B. Product B is a close competitor of product A. C. Product A is price elastic. D. All of the above are true. E. None of the above are true.

118. For which of the following variables should a "two tail" t-test be applied? A. P B. I C. PC D. should be applied for all. 119. The fact that a person with a forceful and persuasive personality but not necessarily the greatest amount of knowledge and judgment can exercise a disproportionate amount of influence is a major drawback of A. the Delphi method of forecasting. B. the market research method. C. opinion polling. D. the jury of executive opinion approach. 120. The forecasting technique, which predicts technological trends and is carried out by a sequential series of written questions and answers is A. the Delphi method. B. the market research method. C. opinion polling. D. the jury of executive opinion approach. 121. Average weekly claims for unemployment insurance, money supply and the index of stock prices are all examples of A. leading indicators. B. coincident indicators. C. lagging indicators. D. none of the above. 122. One of the series included among the lagging indicators is A. the change in sensitive material prices. B. the index of industrial production. C. employees on non-agricultural payrolls. D. average duration of unemployment. 123. The following is not one of the leading indicators: A. index of consumer expectations, U. of Michigan. B. change in consumer price index for services. C. vendor performance, slower deliveries diffusion index. D. manufacturers' new orders, nondefense capital goods. 124. Which of the following is a leading economic indicator? A. Average hours, manufacturing B. Money supply M2 C. Stock prices, 500 common stocks D. All of the above 125. The method of forecasting with leading indicators can be criticized A. for occasionally forecasting a recession when none ensues. B. for forecasting the direction of the economy but not the size of the change in economic activity. C. for frequent revisions of data after original publication. D. all of the above.

126. A general rule of thumb is that if, after a period of increases, the leading indicator index sustains ____ consecutive declines, a recession (or at least a slowing of the economy) will follow. A. three B. four C. five D. six 127. The forecasting technique which involves the use of the least squares statistical method to examine trends, and takes into account seasonal and cyclical fluctuations, is known as A. compound growth rate projection. B. the Delphi method. C. time series projection. D. exponential smoothing projection. 128. Quantitative forecasting that projects past data without explaining the reasons for future trends is called A. scientific forecasting. B. dumb forecasting. C. empirical forecasting. D. naive forecasting. 129. The following is not a drawback of forecasting using the compound growth rate method: A. only considers first and last observations. B. considers only equal absolute changes. C. disregards fluctuations between the original and terminal observations. D. does not consider any trends in the data. 130. Charting observations on a semi-logarithmic graph will help the analyst to ascertain whether A. absolute changes from period to period are constant. B. whether percentage changes from period to period are constant. C. whether percentage changes from period to period are declining. D. both b. and c. 131. A major problem in projecting with a trend line is that A. only straight-line projections can be accommodated. B. it is valid only if the trend is upward. C. it will not forecast turning points in activity. D. it is a very complex method of forecasting. 132. The following is the exponential trend equation to forecast sales (S): A. S = a + b(t) B. S = a + bt C. S = a + b(t) + c(t)2 D. none of the above 133. Among the advantages of the _____________ technique of forecasting are ease of calculation, relatively little requirement for analytical skills, and the ability to provide the analyst with information regarding the statistical significance of results and the size of statistical errors. A. least-squares trend analysis

B. compound growth rate C. visual trend-fitting D. expert opinion 134. Among the advantages of the least-squares trend analysis techniques is A. the ease of calculation. B. relatively little analytical skill required. C. its ability to provide information regarding the statistical significance of the results. D. all of the above. 135. The forecasting method that involves using an average of past observations to predict the future (if the forecaster feels that the future is a reflection of some average of past results) is the A. moving average method. B. econometric forecasting method. C. exponential smoothing method. D. both a. and b. E. both a. and c. 136. An explanatory forecasting technique in which the analyst must select independent variables that help determine the dependent variable is called A. exponential smoothing. B. regression analysis. C. trend analysis. D. moving average method. 137. When the more recent observations are more relevant to the estimate of the next period than previous observations, the naive forecasting method to employ is A. exponential smoothing. B. compound growth rate. C. trend analysis. D. moving averages. 138. The difference between the short-run and the long-run production function is: A. three months or one business quarter. B. the time it takes for firms to change all production inputs. C. the time it takes for firms to change only their variable inputs. D. more information is required to answer this question. 139. A firm using two inputs, X and Y, is using them in the most efficient manner when A. MPX = MPY B. PX = PY and MPX = MPY C. MPX/PY = MPY/PX D. MPX/MPY = PX/PY 140. Which of the following is not true about the law of diminishing returns? A. It is a short run phenomenon. B. It refers to diminishing marginal product. C. It will have an impact on the firm's marginal cost. D. It divides Stage I and II of the production process. E. All of the above are true.

141. Which of the following indicates when Stage II ends and Stage III begins in the short run production function? A. When AP = 0 B. When MP = 0 C. When MP = AP D. When MP starts to diminish 142. Which of the following indicate when Stage I ends and Stage II begins in the short run production? A. When AP = 0 B. When MP = 0 C. When MP = AP D. When MP starts to diminish 143. Which of the following statements about the short-run production function is true? A. MP always equals AP at the maximum point of MP. B. MP always equals zero when TP is at its maximum point. C. TP starts to decline at the point of diminishing returns. D. When MP diminishes, AP is at its minimum point. E. None of the above is true. 144. Assume a firm employs 10 workers and pays each $15 per hour. Further assume that the MP of the 10th worker is 5 units of output and that the price of the output is $4. According to economic theory, in the short run, A. the firm should hire additional workers. B. the firm should reduce the number of workers employed. C. the firm should continue to employ 10 workers. D. more information is required to answer this question. 145. Which of the following is the best example of two inputs that would exhibit a constant marginal rate of technical substitution? A. trucks and truck drivers B. natural gas and oil C. personal computers and clerical workers D. company employed computer programmers and temporary supplemental computer programmers 146. Decreasing returns to scale A. indicates that an increase in all inputs by some proportion will result in a decrease in output. B. must always occur at some point in the production process. C. is directly related to the law of diminishing returns. D. All of the above are true. E. None of the above is true. 147. A firm that operates in Stage III of the short run production function A. has too much fixed capacity relative to its variable inputs. B. has too little fixed capacity relative to its variable inputs. C. has greatly overestimated the demand for its output. D. should try to increase the amount of variable input used. 148. Which of the following combination of inputs is most closely reflective of decreasing marginal rate

of technical substitution (MRTS)? A. oil and natural gas B. sugar and high fructose corn syrup C. computers and clerks D. keyboards and computers 149. In the short run, finding the optimal amount of variable input involves which relationship? A. MP = MC B. AP = MP C. MP = 0 D. MRP = MFC 150. The perfect substitution of two inputs implies that A. two inputs can be substituted at a ratio of 1 to 1. B. one input can be substituted for another up to some point. C. two inputs can be substituted at some constant ratio. D. one input can be substituted for another. 151. If a firm finds itself operating in Stage I, it implies that A. variable inputs are extremely expensive. B. it overinvested in fixed capacity. C. it underinvested in fixed capacity. D. fixed inputs are extremely expensive. 152. If MRP > MLC, it means that a firm should A. use less labor. B. use more labor. C. increase its fixed capacity. D. decrease its fixed capacity. 153. In the long run, a firm is said to be experiencing decreasing returns to scale if a 10 percent increase in inputs results in A. an increase in output from 100 to 110. B. a decrease in output from 100 to 90. C. an increase in output from 100 to 105. D. a decrease in output from 100 to 85. 154. When is it not in the best interest of a company to hire additional workers in the short run? A. when the average product of labor is decreasing B. when the firm is in Stage II of the production process C. when the marginal revenue product equals zero D. when the wage rate is equal to or greater than labor's marginal revenue product 155. When the law of diminishing returns takes effect A. firms must add increasingly more input if they are to maintain the same extra amount of output. B. firms must add decreasingly more input if they are to maintain the same extra amount of output. C. more input must be added in order to increase its output. D. a firm must always try to add the same amount of input to the production process.

156. An isoquant indicates A. different combinations of two inputs that can be purchased for the same amount of money. B. different combinations of two inputs that can produce the same amount of output. C. different combinations of output that can be produced with the same amount of input. D. different combinations of output that cost the same amount to produce. 157. If a firm used a combination of inputs that was to the left of its isocost line, it would indicate that A. it is exceeding its budget. B. it is not spending all of its budget. C. it is operating at its optimal point because it is saving money. D. none of the above. 158. In economic theory, if an additional worker adds less to the total output than previous workers hired, it is because A. there may be less that this person can do, given the fixed capacity of the firm. B. he/she is less skilled than the previously hired workers. C. everyone is getting in each other's way. D. the firm is experiencing diminishing returns to scale. 159. In a call center, which of the following could be considered to be a variable input in the short run? A. the level of computer-telephony software being utilized B. the number of call center representatives on duty at the center C. the number of call center managers or supervisors D. the size (e.g., square footage) of the call center 160. A major advantage of the __________________ production function is that it can be easily transformed into a linear function, and thus can be analyzed with the linear regression method. A. cubic B. power C. quadratic D. none of the above 161. _______________ functions are very useful in an analyzing production functions, which exhibit both increasing and decreasing marginal products. A. Cobb-Douglas B. straight-line C. quadratic D. cubic 162. The following equation has been derived from a _________________ total production function: MP = b + 2cV - 3dV2 A. cubic B. quadratic C. power D. linear 163. The following Cobb-Douglas production function, Q = 1.8L0.74K0.36 exhibits

A. B. C. D.

increasing returns. constant returns. decreasing returns. both a. and b.

164. The following is not one of the strengths of the Cobb-Douglas production function: A. both marginal product and returns to scale can be estimated from it. B. it can be converted into a linear function for ease of calculation. C. it shows a production function passing through increasing returns to constant returns and then to decreasing returns. D. the sum of the exponents indicates whether returns to scale are increasing, constant or decreasing. 165. When seven units of a variable factor used, total plant production is 44.1 units. Marginal product at this point is .7. The elasticity of production is A. 6.3. B. 0.11. C. 9. D. 0.143. 166. An advantage of using the cross-sectional regression method in estimating production is that A. the problem of technological change over time is overcome. B. there is no need to adjust data, which are in monetary terms for geographical differences. C. we can assume that all plants operate at their most efficient input combinations. D. all of the above. 167. When the exponents of a Cobb-Douglas production function sum to more than 1, the function exhibits A. constant returns. B. increasing returns. C. decreasing returns. D. either increasing or decreasing returns. 168. Which of the following cost functions indicates that the law of diminishing returns takes effect as soon as production begins? A. 1000 + 2.5Q + .05Q2 B. 1000 + 2.5Q C. 1000 + 2.5Q - 1.2Q2 + .03Q3 D. Not enough information to determine this 169. Which of the following relationships is correct? A. When marginal product starts to decrease, marginal cost starts to decrease. B. When marginal cost starts to increase, average cost starts to increase. C. When marginal cost starts to increase, average variable cost starts to increase. D. When marginal product starts to decrease, marginal cost starts to increase. 170. The law of diminishing returns begins first to affect a firm's short-run cost structure when A. average variable cost begins to increase. B. marginal cost begins to increase. C. average cost begins to increase.

D. average fixed cost begins to decrease. 171. Which of the following statements best represents a difference between short-run and long-run cost? A. less than one year is considered the short run; more than one year the long run. B. there are no fixed costs in the long run. C. in the short run labor must always be considered the variable input and capital the fixed input. D. all of the above are true. 172. The relationship between MC and AC can best be described as follows A. when AC increases, MC starts to increase. B. when MC increases, AC starts to increase. C. when MC decreases, AC decreases. D. when MC exceeds AC, AC starts to increase. 173. Average fixed cost is A. AC minus AVC. B. TC divided by Q. C. AVC minus MC. D. TC minus TVC. 174. Which of the following cost relationships is not true? A. AFC = AC - MC B. TVC = TC - TFC C. the change in TVC/the change in Q = MC D. the change in TC/ the change in Q = MC 175. Economists consider which of the following costs to be irrelevant to a short-run business decision? A. opportunity cost B. out-of-pocket cost C. historical cost D. replacement cost 176. Which of the following is a relevant cost? A. replacement cost B. sunk cost C. historical cost D. fixed cost E. all of the above are relevant. 177. Which of the following is a reason for economies of scale? A. fixed costs are spread out as volume increases. B. the law of diminishing returns does not take effect. C. input productivity increases as a result of greater specialization. D. there is greater savings in transportation costs. 178. Diseconomies of scale can be caused by A. the law of diminishing returns. B. bureaucratic inefficiencies. C. increasing advertising and promotional costs. D. all of the above.

179. When a firm increased its output by one unit, its AC rose from $45 to $50. This implies that its MC is A. $5. B. between $45 and $50. C. greater than $50. D. cannot be determined from the above information. 180. When a firm increased its output by one unit, its AC decreased. This implies that A. MC < AC. B. MC = AC. C. MC < AFC. D. The law of diminishing returns has not yet taken effect. 181. When a firm increased its output by unit, its AFC decreased. This is an indication that A. the law of diminishing returns has taken effect. B. MC < AFC. C. AVC < AFC. D. the firm is spreading out its total fixed cost. 182. The main factor that explains the difference between accounting cost and economic cost is A. opportunity cost. B. fixed cost. C. variable cost. D. all of the above help to explain the difference. 183. Economies of scale is indicated by A. declining long run AVC. B. declining long run AFC. C. declining long run AC. D. declining long run TC. 184. Which of the following distinctions helps to explain the difference between relevant and irrelevant cost? A. accounting cost vs. direct cost B. historical cost vs. replacement cost C. sunk cost vs. fixed cost D. variable cost vs. incremental cost 185. Which of the following distinctions does not help to explain the difference between relevant and irrelevant cost? A. historical vs. replacement cost B. sunk vs. incremental cost C. variable vs. fixed cost D. out-of-pocket vs. opportunity cost E. all help to explain the difference 186. Which of the following actions has the best potential for experiencing economies of scope? A. producing a product that has appeal to a wider segment of the market B. producing computers and software C. producing spaghetti and soft drinks

D. producing cars and trucks 187. The learning curve indicates that A. economies of scale is taking effect. B. repetition of various production tasks cause unit costs to decrease. C. workers must learn new skills in order to improve. D. it takes time to learn a new skill. 188. When a firm's MC curve shifts to the right, it implies that A. new firms are entering the market. B. labor productivity is decreasing. C. labor productivity is increasing. D. the firm's overhead costs are decreasing. 189. When a firm experiences increasing returns to scale A. its AFC will decrease. B. its AFC will increase. C. its AC will increase. D. its AC will decrease. 190. If a firm's rent increases, it will affect its cost structure in the following way: A. AVC will increase. B. MC will increase. C. TFC will increase. D. all of the above will increase. 191. Assuming the existence of economies of scale, if a firm finds that it can reduce its unit cost by decreasing its scale of production, it means that A. it has too much production capacity relative to its demand. B. it should try to produce less. C. the law of diminishing returns has not taken effect. D. it has too much fixed overhead relative to its variable cost. 192. Which of the following relationships implies that a firm's short run cost function is linear? A. MC = AC B. MC = AVC C. AC = AFC + AVC D. MC > AC 193. The marginal cost will intersect the average variable cost curve A. when the average variable cost curve is rising. B. where average variable cost curve equals price. C. at the minimum point of the average variable cost curve. D. the two will never intersect. 194. Which of the following cost functions will exhibit both decreasing and increasing marginal costs? A. a cubic cost function B. a quadratic cost function C. a linear cost function D. all of the above

195. If total cost equals $2,000 and quantity produced is 100 units, A. then fixed cost is $200 and average variable cost is $18. B. then fixed cost is $600 and average variable cost is $14. C. then fixed cost is $500 and marginal cost is $15. D. then either a. or b. can be correct. 196. The learning curve A. is really no different from a marginal cost curve. B. calculates average cost at a particular point in time. C. shows the decrease in unit cost as more of the same product is produced over time. D. none of the above. 197. Which level indicates the point of maximum economic efficiency? A. lowest point on AC curve B. lowest point on AVC curve C. lowest point on MC curve D. none of the above 198. MC increases because A. MC naturally increases as firm nears capacity. B. labor is paid overtime wages when volume increases. C. in the short run, MC always increases. D. the law of diminishing returns takes effect. 199. Which of the following is the best example of economies of scope? A. Coca-Cola expands its global operations to sub-Sahara Africa. B. alcohol for car fuel is produced from corn. C. Amazon.com decides to rent out its Web site to independent e-commerce companies. D. a company reduces its cost by getting bigger discounts for bulk purchases. 200. The distinction between sunk and incremental costs is most helpful in answering which question? A. how many more people should be added to the production process? B. what is the correct price to charge? C. should we begin to build a new factory? D. should we continue developing a new software application that we began last year? 201. The results of many empirical studies of short-run cost functions have shown that total costs conform to a A. quadratic total cost function. B. power cost function. C. linear cost function. D. cubic cost function. 202. Among the problems encountered when time series analysis is used to estimate cost functions is A. that technological changes may have occurred. B. that accounting changes may have occurred during the period analyzed. C. that some costs are recorded on the books of account at a time other than when they are incurred. D. all of the above. 203. The method of estimating long-run costs in which knowledgeable professionals familiar with

production facilities and processes calculate optimal combination of inputs to produce given quantities and then estimate costs is known as A. engineering cost estimating. B. the survivorship method. C. regression analysis. D. none of the above. 204. When the survivorship method of cost estimating is used, an increase, over time, in the proportion of industry product produced by medium size firms indicates the existence of A. continuing economies of scale. B. continuing diseconomies of to scale. C. a U-shaped long-run average cost curve. D. large technological changes. 205. The major advantages of using cross-sectional analysis for long-run costs studies include A. the inclusion in the sample of different plants of different sizes. B. the avoidance of having to adjust for inflationary trends. C. the avoidance of having to account for interregional cost differences. D. all of the above. E. a and b. above. 206. A short-run total cost function of the following form: TC = 100 + 32Q - 4Q2 + 0.4Q3, indicates the existence of A. a linear total cost curve. B. a constant average variable cost curve. C. a U-shaped average total cost curve. D. a constant marginal cost curve. 207. Which of the following products is the best example of perfect competition? A. automobiles B. apples C. soap D. video cassettes 208. Which of the following is not characteristic of perfect competition? A. a differentiated product B. no barriers to entry or exit C. large number of buyers D. complete knowledge of market price 209. Which of the following conditions would definitely cause a perfectly competitive company to shut down in the short run? A. P < MC B. P = MC < AC C. P < AVC D. P = MR 210. In economic analysis, any amount of profit earned above zero is considered "above normal" because A. normally firms are supposed to earn zero profit.

B. this would indicate that the firm's revenue exceeded both its accounting and opportunity cost. C. this would indicate that the firm was at least earning a profit equal to its opportunity cost. D. this would indicate that the firm's revenue exceeded its accounting cost. 211. If a perfectly competitive firm incurs an economic loss, it should A. shut down immediately. B. try to raise its price. C. shut down in the long run. D. shut down if this loss exceeds fixed cost. 212. At the point at which P = MC, suppose that a perfectly competitive firm's MC = $100, its AVC = $80 and its AC = $110. This firm should A. shut down immediately. B. continue operating in the short run. C. try to take advantage of economies of scale. D. try to increase its advertising and promotion. 213. A perfectly competitive firm sells 15 units of output at the going market price of $10. Suppose its average cost is $15 and its average variable cost is $8. Its contribution margin (i.e., contribution to fixed cost) is A. $30. B. $150. C. $105. D. cannot be determined from the above information. 214. When a firm produces at the point where MR = MC, the profit that it is earning is considered to be A. maximum. B. normal. C. above normal. D. not enough information is provided. 215. When a firm has the power to establish its price, A. P = MR B. P = MC C. P > MR D. P < MR 216. When MR = MC, A. marginal profit is maximized. B. total profit is maximized. C. marginal profit is positive. D. total profit is zero. 217. In the short run, which of the following would indicate that a perfectly competitive firm is producing an output for which it is receiving a normal profit? A. P > AC B. AVC < P < AC C. P = AC D. P = AVC

218. A firm that seeks to maximize its revenue is most likely to adhere to which of the following? A. MR = MC B. MR = 0 C. MR = P D. MR < MC 219. Which of the following is true for a monopoly? A. P = MC B. P = MR C. P > MR D. P < MR 220. Which of the following characteristics is most important in differentiating between perfect competition and all other types of markets? A. whether or not the product is standardized B. whether or not there is complete market information about price C. whether or not firms are price takers D. all of the above are equally important 221. Suppose a firm is currently maximizing its profits (i.e., following the MR = MC rule). Assuming that it wants to continue maximizing its profits, if its fixed costs increase, it should A. maintain the same price. B. raise its price. C. lower its price. D. not enough information to answer this question. 222. Suppose a firm is currently maximizing its profits (i.e., following the MR = MC rule). Assuming it wants to continue maximizing its profits, if its variable costs decrease, it should A. lower its price in response to the lower costs. B. raise its price in order to earn more profits. C. maintain the same price. D. not enough information to answer this question. 223. Which of the following is true about a monopoly? A. its demand curve is generally less elastic than in more competitive markets. B. it will always earn economic profit. C. it will try to charge the highest possible price. D. it will always be subject to government regulation. E. none of the above is true. 224. Assume a profit maximizing firm's short run cost is TC = 700 + 60Q. If its demand curve is P = 300 - 15Q, what should it do in the short run? A. shut down B. continue operating in the short run even though it is losing money C. continue operating because it is earning an economic profit D. cannot be determined from the above information 225. Assume a perfectly competitive firm's short run cost is TC = 100 + 160Q + 3Q2. If the market price is $196, what should it do? A. produce 5 units and continue operating

B. produce 6 units and continue operating C. produce zero units (i.e., shut down) D. cannot be determined from the above information 226. A monopoly will usually produce A. where its demand curve is inelastic. B. where its demand curve is elastic. C. where its demand curve is either elastic or inelastic. D. only when its demand curve is perfectly inelastic. 227. The main difference between the price-quantity graph of a perfectly competitive firm and a monopoly is A. that the competitive firm's demand curve is horizontal, while that of the monopoly is downward sloping. B. that a monopoly always earns an economic profit while a competitive company always earns only normal profit. C. that a monopoly maximizes its profit when marginal revenue is greater than marginal cost. D. that a monopoly does not incur increasing marginal cost. 228. When the slope of the total revenue curve is equal to the slope of the total cost curve A. monopoly profit is maximized. B. marginal revenue equals marginal cost. C. the marginal cost curve intersects the total average cost curve. D. the total cost curve is at its minimum. E. both a. and b. Answer the following questions on the basis of the numerical example below. Average Marginal Fixed Quantity Price Revenue Cost 0 152 1 142 142 100.00 2 132 122 50.00 3 122 102 33.33 4 112 82 25.00 5 102 62 20.00 6 92 42 16.67 7 82 22 14.29 8 72 2 12.50 9 62 -18 11.11 10 52 -38 10.00 Average Variable Cost 138.30 124.20 112.70 103.80 97.50 93.80 92.70 94.20 98.30 105.00 Average Total Marginal Cost Cost 138.30 110.10 89.70 77.10 72.30 75.30 86.10 104.70 131.10 165.30

238.30 174.20 146.03 128.80 117.50 110.47 106.99 106.70 109.41 115.00

229. Assuming this firm is a short run profit maximizer or loss minimizer, which statement best describes its present situation? A. It should shut down immediately. B. It is incurring a loss but should continue operating in the short run. C. It is earning a only a normal profit. D. It is earning above normal profit. E. Insufficient data to answer this question.

230. Suppose this firm is operating in a perfectly competitive market as price taker. If the market price is $90, in the short run, this firm should A. produce 8 units of output. B. produce 9 units of output. C. produce 7 units of output. D. produce 0 units of output (i.e., shut down). E. insufficient information to answer this question. 231. This same price-taking firm would be earning an economic profit as long as the market price is greater than A. $72.30. B. $106.70. C. $92.70. D. Insufficient information to answer this question. 232. Oligopoly may be associated with all of the following except A. many firms. B. a standardized product. C. advertising. D. price followers. E. and b. 233. If firms are earning economic profit in a monopolistically competitive market, which of the following is most likely to happen in the long run? A. some firms will leave the market B. firms will join together to keep others from entering C. new firms will enter the market, thereby eliminating the economic profit D. firms will continue to earn economic profit 234. Mutual interdependence means that A. all firms are price takers. B. each firm sets its own price based on its anticipated reaction by its competitors. C. all firms collaborate to establish one price. D. all firms are free to enter or leave the market. 235. In which of these markets would the firms be facing the least elastic demand curve? A. perfect competition B. pure monopoly C. monopolistic competition D. oligopoly 236. In the long run, the most helpful action that a monopolistically competitive firm can take to maintain its economic profit is to A. continue its efforts to differentiate its product. B. raise its price. C. lower its price. D. do nothing, because it will inevitably experience a decline in profits. 237. If an oligopolistic firm decides to raise its price, A. other firms will automatically follow.

B. none of the other firms will follow. C. other firms may follow if it is the price leader. D. only some of the firms will follow. 238. The main difference between perfect competition and monopolistic competition is A. the number of sellers in the market. B. the ease of exit from the market. C. the degree of information about market price. D. the degree of product differentiation. 239. The demand curve, which assumes that competitors will follow price decreases but not price increases, is called A. an industry demand curve. B. an inelastic demand curve. C. a kinked demand curve. D. a competitive demand curve. 240. The existence of a kinked demand curve under oligopoly conditions may result in A. price flexibility. B. price rigidity. C. competitive pricing. D. none of the above. 241. When a company is faced by a kinked demand curve, the marginal revenue curve A. will be upward sloping. B. will be horizontal. C. will always be zero at the quantity produced. D. will be discontinuous. 242. Porter's "Five Forces" Model is based on A. the laws of supply and demand. B. the law of diminishing returns. C. the Structure-Conduct-Performance model. D. the key factors affecting demand. 243. The four-firm concentration ratio A. indicates the total profitability among the top four firms in an industry. B. is an indicator of the degree of monopolistic competition. C. indicates the presence and intensity of an oligopoly market. D. is used by the government as a basis for anti-trust cases. 244. All of the following are conditions which are favorable to the formation of cartels, except: A. the existence of a small number of firms. B. geographic proximity of firms. C. homogeneity of the product. D. easy entry into the industry. E. all of the above conditions are favorable to the formation of cartels. 245. Prices under an ideal cartel situation will be equal to A. monopoly prices. B. competitive prices.

C. prices under monopolistic competition. D. marginal cost. 246. A cartel price will be established at the quantity where A. total cost equals the industry total revenue. B. average cost equals the industry revenue. C. the sum of the members' marginal costs equals industry marginal revenue. D. marginal cost equals industry price. 247. Cartel agreements tend to break down A. during economic downturns. B. because of price "chiseling" by one or more members. C. when there is overcapacity in the industry. D. because of all of the above. 248. Barometric price leadership exists when A. one firm in the industry initiates a price change and the others may or may not follow. B. one firm imposes its best price on the rest of the industry. C. when all firms agree to change prices simultaneously. D. when one company forms a price umbrella for all others. 249. Dominant price leadership exists when A. one firm drives the others out of the market. B. the dominant firm decides how much each of its competitors can sell. C. the dominant firm establishes the price at the quantity where its MR = MC, and permits all other firms to sell all they want to sell at that price. D. the dominant firm charges the lowest price in the industry. 250. Dominant price leadership tends to break down A. as markets grow and new firms enter the industry. B. as technology changes. C. when the dominant firm decides to make the industry more competitive. D. both a. and b. above. 251. The oligopolistic situation in which a company's objective is to maximize revenue subject to a minimum profit requirement is usually referred to as A. the aggregate model. B. the Baumol model. C. the aggressive model. D. the Marshall model. 252. In the Baumol model, the total quantity sold will usually be larger than A. if perfect competition prevailed. B. if total costs were minimized. C. if profit were maximized. D. if companies were interdependent. 253. In the Baumol model, a change in fixed costs will A. increase total quantity sold. B. have no effect on total quantity sold. C. decrease total quantity sold.

D. have an effect on total quantity sold. 254. Price discrimination exists when A. two different sellers charge different prices for the same product. B. one company sells identical products in different markets at different prices. C. the ratio of price to marginal cost differs for similar products. D. both b. and c. above. 255. In order that price discrimination can exist, A. markets must be capable of being separated. B. markets must be interdependent. C. different demand price elasticities must exist in different markets. D. demand price elasticities must be identical in all markets. E. both a. and c. 256. Third-degree price discrimination exists when A. the seller knows exactly how much each potential customer is willing to pay and will charge accordingly. B. different prices are charged by blocks of services. C. when the seller can separate markets by geography, income, age, etc., and charge different prices to these different groups. D. when the seller will bargain with buyers in each of the markets to obtain the best possible price. 257. The result for the seller of being able to practice price discrimination will be A. higher profits. B. lower demand elasticity. C. lower quantity sold. D. cost minimization. 258. The practice by a monopolist of charging each buyer the highest price he/she is willing to pay is called A. first-degree discrimination. B. second-degree discrimination. C. third-degree discrimination. D. fourth-degree discrimination. 259. When state universities charge higher tuition fees to out-of-state students than to local students, the universities are practicing A. first-degree discrimination. B. second-degree discrimination. C. third-degree discrimination. D. fourth-degree discrimination. 260. The following are possible examples of price discrimination, except: A. prices in export markets are lower than for identical products in the domestic market. B. senior citizens pay lower fares on public transportation than younger people at the same time. C. a product sells at a higher price at location A than at location B, because transportation costs are higher from the factory to A. D. subscription prices for a professional journal are higher when bought by a library than

when bought by an individual. 261. A tying arrangement exists when A. a company sells two products that are substitutes for one another. B. a company requires that a customer tie itself down by signing a long-term purchasing agreement. C. a buyer is required to buy both a specific product and its complementary product from the same supplier. D. a company offers discounts to customers if they are willing to buy two different products. 262. Under conditions of first-degree price discrimination A. production may equal that which would exist under perfect competition. B. production may exceed that which would prevail under perfect competition. C. prices will be lower than under perfect competition. D. production will always be lower than under perfect competition. 263. If a product which costs $8 is sold at $10, the profit margin is A. $2. B. 25%. C. 20%. D. none of the above. 264. If a product which costs $8 is sold at $10, the mark-up is A. $2. B. 25%. C. 20%. D. none of the above. 265. The correct expression for cost plus pricing is A. Price = Cost (1 + profit margin). B. Price = Cost + profit margin. C. Price = Cost (1 + mark-up). D. Price = Cost + (1 + mark-up). 266. If the demand elasticity for a product is -2, and a profit-maximizing firm sells the product for $10, its marginal cost must be A. $5. B. $10. C. $15. D. $8. 267. When mark-up equals 50%, then demand elasticity will be A. -1. B. -1.5. C. -2. D. -3. 268. The pricing of a product at each stage of production as the product moves through several stages is called A. transfer pricing.

B. cost plus pricing. C. penetration pricing. D. monopolistic pricing. 269. A company which charges a lower price than may be indicated by economic analysis to gain a foothold in the market is practicing A. price skimming. B. psychological pricing. C. penetration pricing. D. prestige pricing. 270. Assume that a multinational company produces components in country A, and ships them to a subsidiary in country B. In order to increase its profits, A. the company should charge a high transfer price for the components if income taxes in country B are higher than in country A. B. the company should charge a low transfer price for the components if income taxes in country B are higher than in country A. C. the company should charge a high transfer price for the components if income taxes in country A are higher than in country B. D. none of the above. 271. The term "capital budgeting" refers to decisions A. which are made in the short run. B. which concern the spreading of expenditures over a period lasting less than one year. C. where expenditures and receipts for a particular undertaking will continue over a relatively long period of time. D. where a receipt of cash will occur simultaneously with an outflow of cash. 272. Capital budgeting projects include all of the following with the exception of A. the purchase of a six-month treasury bill. B. the expansion of a plant. C. the development of a new product. D. the replacement of a piece of equipment. 273. If $1,000 is placed in an account earning 8% annually, the balance at the end of seven years will be A. $1,080. B. $1,560. C. $2,000. D. $1,714. 274. The payback period for a project, requiring an initial outlay of $10,000 and producing ten uniform annual cash inflows of $1,500, is A. six years. B. six years and eight months. C. six years and six months. D. seven years. 275. The net present value of a project is calculated as follows: A. the future value of all cash inflows minus the present value of all outflows. B. the sum of all cash inflows minus the sum of all cash outflows. C. the present value of all cash inflows minus the present value of all cash outflows.

D. none of the above. 276. The discount rate used to discount all the cash flows to the present is usually called A. the cost of capital. B. the internal rate of return. C. the minimum required rate of return. D. all of the above. E. and c. above. 277. A proposed project should be accepted if the net present value is A. positive. B. negative. C. larger than the internal rate of return. D. smaller than the internal rate of return. 278. A project which requires an initial investment of $10,000 is expected to have annual cash flows of $2,800 each for the next five years. This project should be accepted if the cost of capital is A. 12%. B. 13%. C. 14%. D. 15%. 279. A project which requires an initial investment of $10,000, is expected to have annual cash flows of $2,800 each for the next five years. This project should not be accepted if the cost of capital is A. 13%. B. 12%. C. 11%. D. 10%. 280. A project which requires an initial investment of $25,000, has the following for annual cash inflows: Year 1 2 3 4 Cash Inflow $5,000 8,000 12,000 8,000

If the cost of capital is 12%, the present value of the cash inflows is A. $25,282, and the project can be accepted. B. $24,467, and the project can be accepted. C. $24,467, and the project should be rejected. D. $25,282, and the project should be rejected. 281. Other things being equal, the higher the cost of capital, A. the higher the NPV of a project. B. the higher the IRR of the project. C. the lower the NPV of the project. D. the cost of capital has no effect on the NPV of the project. 282. The internal rate of return of a project can be found A. by discounting all cash flows at the cost of capital.

B. by averaging all cash inflows, and calculating the interest rate, which will make them equal to the average investment. C. by calculating the interest rate, which will equate the present value of all cash inflows to the present value of all cash outflows. D. none of the above. 283. A project with an initial investment of $30,000, and five equal annual cash inflows of $8,000, has an internal rate of return of A. 10.4%. B. 10.0%. C. 11.2%. D. 11.5%. 284. A project whose acceptance eliminates another project from consideration is called A. independent. B. mutually exclusive. C. replacement. D. complementary. 285. The internal rate of return equals the cost of capital when A. NPV = 0 B. NPV > 0 C. NPV < 0 D. none of the above 286. When two mutually exclusive projects are considered, the NPV calculations and the IRR calculations may, under certain circumstances, give conflicting recommendations as to which project to accept. The reason for this result is that in the NPV calculation, cash inflows are assumed to be reinvested at the cost of capital, while in the IRR solution, reinvestment takes place at A. the hurdle rate. B. the accounting rate of return. C. the prime rate. D. the project's internal rate of return. 287. Writers of financial and economic literature generally recommend the use of NPV rather than IRR as the theoretically more correct technique because A. the financial objective of the firm is the maximization of stockholder wealth, and the NPV measures the value of projects. B. the IRR does not consider the size of the project. C. the NPV reinvestment assumption is usually more realistic than the IRR assumption. D. the dollar figure produced by NPV calculations is preferred to the percentage results of the IRR method by a majority of managers. E. a., b. and c. above. 288. When analyzing a capital budgeting project, the analyst must include in his calculation all of the following except: A. all revenues and costs in terms of cash flows. B. only those cash flows that will change if the proposal is accepted (i.e., incremental cash flows). C. interest payments on debt financing connected with the project. D. any effect (impact) the acceptance of the project under consideration will have on other

projects now in operation. 289. A piece of equipment was purchased for $20,000 and depreciated on a straight-line basis over 5 years to $0 book value at the end of five years. The company decides to sell this piece of equipment at the end of three years for $9,000. The income tax rate is 34%. The tax consequence of this transaction will be: A. a tax liability of $3,060. B. a tax refund of $340. C. a tax liability of $340. D. a tax liability of $1,000. 290. A company purchased a machine for $100,000 four years ago. It was being depreciated on a straight-line basis over five years. The company decides to replace this machine today with a more productive machine that costs $125,000. The old machine can be sold today for $25,000. The income tax rate is 40%. The net initial investment in the new machine is A. $125,000. B. $100,000. C. $105,000. D. $102,000. 291. An increase in net working capital required at the beginning of an expansion project must be considered to be A. a cash inflow. B. a reallocation of assets. C. a cash outflow. D. none of the above. 292. Usually, the cost of capital for newly issued stock is ________________ the cost of retained earnings. A. lower than B. higher than C. same as D. either higher or lower than 293. A stock whose rate of return fluctuates less than the rate of return of a market portfolio will have a beta that equals A. 1. B. less than 1. C. more than 1. D. either a. or c. above. 294. The equation for the required rate of return on an individual stock given by the Capital Asset Pricing Model is A. kj = Rf + (Rf - km) B. kj = Rf - (km - Rf) C. kj = Rf + (km - kf) D. kj = km + (km - kf) 295. Company A has a beta of 1.3. The risk-free rate of interest is 6% and the rate of return on a market portfolio is 14%. Based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model, the required rate of return on Company

A's stock should be A. 18.2%. B. 20%. C. 7.8%. D. 16.4%. 296. A company's capital structure is made up of 40% debt and 60% common equity (both at market values). The interest rate on bonds similar to those issued by the company is 8%. The cost of equity is estimated to be 15%. The income tax rate is 40%. The company's weighted cost of capital is A. 11.5%. B. 12.2%. C. 10.9%. D. 8.9%. 297. Capital rationing A. exists when a company sets an arbitrary limit on the amount of investment it is willing to undertake, so that not all projects with an NPV higher than the cost of capital will be accepted. B. generally does not permit a company to achieve maximum value. C. seems to occur quite frequently among corporations. D. all of the above. 298. A company expects next year's free cash flow to be $800,000, and to grow at a rate of 7% in the foreseeable future. The company estimates its cost of capital to be 13%. The estimated value of this company is A. $13,333,333. B. $6,153,846. C. $11,428,571. D. the data are insufficient to calculate an answer. 299. When future events cannot be assigned probabilities, we are talking about A. risk. B. uncertainty. C. a clouded future. D. financial risk. 300. Probabilities, which can be obtained by repetition or are based on general mathematical principles are called A. statistical. B. empirical. C. a priori. D. subjective. 301. Probabilities, which are based on past data or experience, are called A. a priori. B. objective. C. uncertain. D. statistical. 302. In finance, risk is most commonly measured by A. the probability distribution.

B. the standard deviation. C. the average deviation. D. the square root of the standard deviation. 303. When comparing two projects with different returns and different standard deviations, the risk measure which can be used is called the A. variance. B. certainty equivalent. C. coefficient of correlation. D. coefficient of variation. 304. One standard deviation above and below the expected value includes about A. 34% of the observations. B. 68% of the observations. C. 95% of the observations. D. 48% of the observations. 305. The risk adjusted discount rate A. is the sum of the risk-free rate and the risk premium. B. includes risk in the denominator of the present value calculation. C. includes risk in the numerator of the present value calculation. D. can be written as k = rf + RP. E. all except c. above. 306. The use of the same cost of capital (risk adjusted discount rate) for all capital projects in a corporation A. is usually the correct procedure. B. is incorrect since different divisions of the corporation may be faced with different levels of risk. C. is incorrect since different capital projects, even in the same division, may be faced with different levels of risk. D. both b. and c. 307. If a risky cash flow of $10,000 is equivalent to a riskless cash flow of $9,300, the certainty equivalent factor is A. 0.93. B. 0.07. C. 1.07. D. 1.93. 308. If the risk adjusted discount rate method and the certainty equivalent methods are to give the same results, then the certainty equivalent factor (at) must equal (where rf is the risk-free interest rate, and k is the risk adjusted cost of capital) A. (1 + rf)t times (1 + k)t B. (1 + k)t divided by (1 + rf)t C. (1 + rf)t divided by (1 + k)t D. (1 + k)t minus (1 + rf)t 309. Two projects have the following NPV's and standard deviations:

NPV Standard deviation

Project A 200 75

Project B 200 100

A person who selects project A over project B is A. risk seeking. B. risk indifferent. C. risk averse. D. none of the above. 310. A source of business risk is A. the firm's leverage. B. general business conditions. C. the firm finding an oil well on its property. D. inflationary changes in costs. E. b. and d. above. 311. The use of sensitivity analysis will generally result in A. the calculation of a certainty equivalent NPV. B. the calculation of a best case, a base case and a worst case. C. the calculation of the coefficient of variation. D. the calculation of the probability of the maximum profit. 312. Simulation analysis A. permits the calculation of expected value and standard deviation. B. does not permit the calculation of expected value and standard deviation. C. is too complex to ever be used in actual business situations. D. does not consider probabilities. 313. The expected value is A. the total of all possible outcomes. B. the arithmetic average of all possible outcomes. C. the average of all possible outcomes weighted by their respective probabilities. D. the total of all possible outcomes divided by the number of different possible outcomes. 314. A project has an expected NPV of $800, and a standard deviation of $300. It is almost certain that the actual NPV will turn out to be A. no less that $-100. B. no less than $200. C. no more than $1,100. D. no more than $1,700. E. both a. and d. above. 315. An advantage of the decision tree is that A. it eliminates the need for calculating the cost of capital. B. it eliminates the need for calculating probabilities. C. it causes the analyst to consider important events that may occur in the course of the project, and decisions and actions that may have to be undertaken. D. all of the above. 316. A real option can present management with the opportunity to

A. B. C. D.

vary output. abandon a project. postpone a project. all of the above.

317. The use of real options in capital budgeting A. may raise the NPV of a capital project. B. makes the analysis of the project considerably easier. C. allows management to make decisions more quickly. D. eliminates the need for calculating the project's risk adjusted discount rate. 318. Which of the following is not considered a rationale for the intervention of government in the market process in the United States? A. the redistribution of income B. the reallocation of resources C. the long run planning of scarce resources D. the short run stabilization of prices E. all of the above 319. Which of the following is the best example of a good or service that provides a benefit externality? A. the construction of a private road that allows vehicles if a toll is paid B. a public library C. a bookstore that is open to everyone D. all of the above E. none of the above 320. Which of the following is not an example of a cost externality? A. the dumping of industrial waste into a lake B. unsightly billboards C. a neighbor that blasts his stereo system D. the building of a new type of jet fighter bomber E. all of the above 321. The demand for products that provide benefit externalities is generally ___________ the demand for products that do not. A. greater than B. less than C. the same as D. greater or less (depending on the market) than 322. The supply for products that exhibit cost externalities is generally _______________ the supply for products that do not. A. greater than B. less than C. the same as D. greater or less (depending on the market) than 323. Which of the following is an example of a government action to internalize a cost externality? A. a fine imposed on a company that pollutes a stream B. the closing of a public library C. a sales tax on jewelry

D. the increase on bridge tolls 324. When cost externalities exist, an optimal equilibrium can be attained if the government A. restricts production. B. levies a tax for the difference between private costs and social costs. C. prohibits production. D. all three above. E. both a. and b. 325. The Coase theorem states that, in the presence of cost externalities, an optimal equilibrium can be attained A. with government taxation. B. by prohibiting production. C. by correctly defining property rights and through negotiation between the parties. D. none of the above. 326. Tying arrangements that lessen competition were made illegal by A. the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. B. the Clayton Act. C. the Celler-Kefauver Act. D. the Robinson-Patman Act. 327. One school of anti-trust thought argues that, rather than ensuring efficiency, anti-trust laws are really aimed at A. protecting small independent firms against large corporations. B. outlawing all monopolies whether they perform "bad acts" or not. C. price differentiation due to differences in quality and cost. D. restricting interlocking directorates. 328. Which of the following would NOT be considered a synergistic benefit from a merger? A. an improvement in distribution systems B. economies of scale in production C. decreased cost of capital D. none of the above 329. A merger between two companies in unrelated fields of business A. will always lead to economies of scale. B. will generally increase the value of the unified firm compared to the value of the two companies before the merger because of the benefits of diversification. C. may not have any synergistic effects. D. will necessarily lead to an increase in the market power of the merged company. 330. What economic conditions are relevant in managerial decision-making? 331. What factors lead to competitive advantage for a firm? 332. What are the typical types of risk faced by a firm? 333. What are the four stages of change faced by firms? 334. How do the three basic economic questions relate to the firm?

A. If a stock is expected to pay an annual dividend of $20 forever, what is the approximate present value of the stock, given that the discount rate is 5%? B. If a stock is expected to pay an annual dividend of $20 forever, what is the approximate present value of the stock, given that the discount rate is 8%? C. If a stock is expected to pay an annual dividend of $20 this year, what is the approximate present value of the stock, given that the discount rate is 8% and dividends are expected to grow at a rate of 2% per year? 335. The demand curve is given by: QD = 5000 - 10 P Find equations for: A. Total revenue B. Marginal revenue 336. For the demand curve given in the previous question, find the price and quantity at which total revenue is maximized and the maximum revenue. 337. For each of the following sets of supply and demand curves, calculate equilibrium price and quantity. A. QD = 1000 - P QS = P B. QD = 1500 - 2P QS = 100 + 2P C. QD = 2000 - 3P QS = -300 + 3P 339. For each of the following cost functions, find MC, AC, and AVC. A. TC = 40,000 + 20 Q B. TC = 1000 + 2Q + 0.1 Q2 340. For each of the cost functions given in the previous question, if possible, find minimum AC and minimum AVC. 341. For each of the following changes, show the effect on the demand curve, and state what will happen to market equilibrium price and quantity in the short run. A. Consumers expect that the price of the good will be higher in the future. B. The price of a substitute good rises. C. Consumer incomes fall, and the good is normal. D. Consumer incomes fall, and the good is inferior. E. A medical report is published showing that this product is hazardous to your health. F. The price of the product rises. 342. For each of the following changes, show the effect on the supply curve, and state what will happen to market equilibrium price and quantity in the short run. A. The government requires pollution control filters that raise production costs. B. Wages of workers in this industry fall.

C. There is an improvement in technology. D. The price of the product falls. E. Producers expect that the price of the product will fall in the future. F. Interest rates rise, increasing the cost of capital. 343. Suppose that the demand for oranges increases. Carefully explain how the rationing function of price will restore market equilibrium. 344. Explain the long-run effects of the guiding function of price in the scenario stated in the previous question. 345. Suppose that macroeconomic forecasters predict that the economy will be expanding in the near future. How might managers use this information? 346. For each of the following sets of supply and demand curves, calculate equilibrium price and quantity. a. QD = 2000 - 2P QS = 2P b. QD = 500 - P QS = 50 + P c. QD = 5000 - 10P QS = -1000 + 5P 347. Annual demand and supply for the Entronics company is given by: QD = 5,000 + 0.5 I + 0.2 A - 100P QS = -5000 + 100P where Q is the quantity per year, P is price, I is income per household, and A is advertising expenditure. A. If A = $10,000 and I = $25,000, what is the demand curve? B. Given the demand curve in part a., what is equilibrium price and quantity? C. If consumer incomes increase to $30,000, what will be the impact on equilibrium price and quantity? 348. The market for milk is in equilibrium. Recent health reports indicate that calcium is absorbed better in natural forms such as milk, and at the same time, the cost of milking equipment rises. Carefully analyze the probable effects on the market. 349. Industry supply and demand are given by: QD = 1000 - 2P QS = 3P A. What is the equilibrium price and quantity? B. At a price of $100, will there be a shortage or a surplus, and how large will it be? C. At a price of $300, will there be a shortage or a surplus, and how large will it be? 350. Because there is less opportunity for substitution the broader the definition of a product (e.g., bread in general), rather than a particular brand or variety of bread, the (higher; lower) its price elasticity will tend to be.

351. A product has an arc demand elasticity of -3. At a price of $6, 1,000 units are sold per period. If price is lowered to $5.647, the quantity sold per period will be ___________ units. 352. A product has an arc elasticity of -2.3. At a price of $8, 500 units are sold per period. In order to sell 600 units per period, the price will have to be decreased to __________. 353. A product has an arc price elasticity of -0.8. At a price of $7, 1,000 units are sold per period. In order to sell 1,200 units, price will have to be lowered to ________, and the revenue will be ___________. 354. The arc price elasticity of a product is -0.75. At a price of $4, 700 units are sold per period. If price is raised to $4.50, the units sold per period will be ________, and the revenue will become __________. 355. A product's demand function if of the form q = 18 - p. At a quantity of 5, the point elasticity is __________. Between quantities of 6 and 7, the arc elasticity is _________. 356. A product's demand function is of the form q = 20 - 0.75p. At a price of $14, the point elasticity will be ________. Between prices of $11 and 12, the arc elasticity will be _________. 357. The initial price of a cup of coffee is $1, and at that price, 400 cups are demanded. If the price falls to $0.90, the quantity demanded will increase to 500. A. Calculate the (arc) price elasticity of demand for coffee. B. Based on your answer, is the demand for coffee elastic or inelastic? C. Based on your answer to a., if the price of coffee is increased by 10%, what will happen to the revenues from coffee? Carefully explain how you know. 358. The demand curve is: QD = 500 - 1/2P A. Calculate the (point) price elasticity of demand when price is $100. Is demand elastic or inelastic? B. Calculate the (point) price elasticity of demand when price is $700. Is demand elastic or inelastic? C. Find the point at which point elasticity is equal to -1. 359. Suppose that the price elasticity of demand for wheat is known to be -0.75. Will a good wheat crop (which increases the supply of wheat) be likely to increase or decrease the revenues of farmers? Carefully explain. 360. The income elasticity for most staple foods, such as wheat, is known to be between zero and one. A. As incomes rise over time, what will happen to the demand for wheat? B. What will happen to the quantity of wheat purchased by consumers? C. What will happen to the percentage of their budgets that consumers spend on wheat? D. All other things equal, are farmers likely to be relatively better off or relatively worse off in periods of rising incomes? 361. The demand for salt is relatively price inelastic, while the demand for pretzels is relatively price elastic. How can you best explain why? 362. Unions have generally been far more successful in organizing and raising wages in skilled trades such as carpentry than in unskilled trades. Use the laws of derived demand to explain why.

363. Governments impose excise taxes on goods that have inelastic demand, such as cigarettes, more often than in other cases. Why? 364. Demand and supply in the wheat market are given by: QD = 2000 - 1000 P QS = -500 + 1000 P where Q is millions of bushels and P is price per bushel. A. Find the equilibrium price and quantity. B. Suppose that the government wishes to support farm income and thus sets a price floor of $1.50/bushel. Find the size of the farm surplus. C. What is the cost of this program to the government? 365. Demand is given by: QD = 6000 - 50P Domestic supply is: QS = 25P Foreign producers can supply any quantity at a price of $40. A. If foreign producers can sell in the domestic market, what is the equilibrium price? What is the equilibrium quantity? How much is sold by domestic and foreign producers, respectively? B. Under domestic government pressure, foreign producers voluntarily agree to restrict their goods. What will happen to the price and quantity? What will happen to the amount that domestic producers supply? What will happen to revenues of domestic and foreign producers? 366. You are told that the price elasticity of demand for widgets is -0.75, the income elasticity of widgets is 2, and the cross-price elasticity of widgets and gadgets is 4. Carefully explain what information you can gather from each of these figures. The following questions refer to this regression equation. (Standard errors in parentheses.) Q = 15,000 - 10 P + 1500 A + 4 P + 2 I (5,234) (2.29) (525) (1.75) (1.5) R2 = 0.65 N = 120 F = 35.25 Standard error of Y estimate = 565 Q = Quantity demanded P = Price = 7,000 A = Advertising expense, in thousands = 54 PX = price of competitor's product = 8,000 I = average monthly income = 4,000 367. Calculate the elasticity for each variable and briefly comment on what information this gives you in each case. 368. Calculate t-statistics for each variable and explain what this tells you.

369. How is the R2 value calculated, and what information does this give you? 370. How would you evaluate the quality of this equation overall? Do you have any concerns? Explain. 371. When would you use a one-tailed rather than a two-tailed t-test when checking significance levels? 372. Should this firm be concerned if macroeconomic forecasters predict a recession? Explain. 373. The firm is considering changing its price to $9,000. Predict the quantity demanded at that price, all other things equal, and develop a 95% confidence interval for your estimate. 374. What is multicollinearity? In general, how would you know if you had a problem with multicollinearity, and how could you correct it? 375. How could a manager use the information contained in this regression equation? 376. Why is the identification problem more likely with time-series estimates of demand? 377. (Qualitative; quantitative) ______________ forecasting is based on judgments of individuals or groups while (qualitative; quantitative) ____________ forecasting generally utilizes significant amounts of prior data as a basis for prediction. 378. The (lagging; coincident) ____________ indicators identify peaks and troughs of a business cycle, while the (lagging; coincident) ___________ indicators confirm upturns and downturns in economic activity. 379. The demand equation for the Widget Company has been estimated to be: QD = 20,000 + 10 I - 50P + 20 PC where Q = monthly number of widgets sold, I = average monthly income, P = price of widgets, and PC = average price of competing products. a. If next month's income is forecast to be 2,000, the price of competing products is forecast to be $20, and the price of widgets will be set at $30, forecast sales. b. What will sales be if the price is dropped to $20? 380. The Gadget Company believes that sales are growing according to a linear trend. Q = 50,000 + 200t where t is time, and t = 0 in 1990. A. Forecast sales for 2003. B. Do you see any problems with this forecasting method? 381. If $1,000 is placed in an account earning 8% annually on January 1, 1999, how much would be in this account on January 1, 2013? 382. You are given the following straight-line trend equation: Sales = 1,275 + 89.3t, where 1990 represents t = 1. Project sales for 2000. 383. The following are the sales achieved by Jensen Fabrics during the last 7 years: 1993 $116,000

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

124,000 127,000 146,000 155,000 154,000 162,000

Using the compound growth rate calculation, what would be your estimate for sales in 2000? 384. The following are the actual sales for the last six periods: Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sales 750 820 600 850 900 700

Using a 3-month moving average, what would be your prediction for period 7? 385. The following are the actual sales for the last six periods: Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sales 750 820 600 850 900 700

If the exponential smoothing forecasting method is used, and the smoothing factor is .6, what will be the forecast for period 7? 386. Given the following production function, Q = 7V + .6V2 - .1V3, calculate total quantity, average product and marginal product when V = 6. 387. The following table shows the weekly relationship between output and number of workers for a factory with a fixed size of plant. Number Of Workers Output 0 0 1 50 2 110 3 300 4 450

5 6 7 8 9 10 A. B. C. D.

590 665 700 725 710 705 Calculate the marginal product of labor. At what point does diminishing returns set in? Calculate the average product of labor. Find the three stages of production.

388. Based on the table above, if the wage rate is $500 and the price of output is $5, how many workers should the firm hire? 389. A firm has two plants, one in the United States and one in Mexico, and it cannot change the size of the plants or the amount of capital equipment. The wage in Mexico is $5. The wage in the U.S. is $20. Given current employment, the marginal product of the last worker in Mexico is 100, and the marginal product of the last worker in the U.S. is 500. a. Is the firm maximizing output relative to its labor cost? Show how you know. b. If it is not, what should the firm do? 390. A firm is making a long-run planning decision. It wants to decide on the optimal size of plant and labor force. It is considering building a medium-sized plant and hiring 100 workers. Engineering estimates suggest that at those levels, the marginal product of capital will be 100 and the marginal product of labor will be 75. If the wage rate is $5 and the rental rate on capital is $10, is the firm making the right decision? Support your answer. 391. For each of the following functions, describe returns to scale. A. Q = K + L B. Q = K1/2L1/4 C. Q = K2L 392. How would you choose to estimate a production function for a single plant? How would you choose to estimate a production function for a number of firms in an industry? Explain. 393. What are the major issues that must be considered in measuring inputs for regression analysis of production functions? 394. What does the expansion path represent? 395. Q = K1/2L1/2 w = $2, r = $2 The firm would like to know the minimum cost of producing 2000 units of output. Find the combination of inputs that minimizes the cost of producing 2000 units, the total cost, and identify the expansion path. 396. Q = K1/2L1/2 w = $2, r = $2 The firm would like to know the maximum output that can be produced for $8,000. Find the

combination of inputs that maximizes output for a cost of $8,000, the amount of output that can be produced, and identify the expansion path. Answer the following questions on the basis of the data below. Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TP 0 10000 25000 45000 60000 70000 75000 78000 80000 AP 10000 12500 15000 15000 14000 12500 11143 10000 MP 0 10000 15000 20000 15000 10000 5000 3000 2000 TRP 0 25000 62500 112500 150000 175000 187500 195000 200000 MRP TLC 0 25000 9000 9000 37500 18000 9000 50000 27000 9000 37500 36000 9000 25000 45000 9000 12500 54000 9000 7500 63000 9000 5000 72000 9000 MLC

397. The law of diminishing returns begins when the __________ unit of output is produced. 398. Output level 7500 lies in what stage of the production process? __________ 399. The optimal number of labor inputs to use is __________. 400. One of the major strengths of (cross-sectional; time series) cost estimation is that adjusting the various costs for inflation or other price changes is not necessary. 401. You have opened your own word-processing service. You bought a personal computer, and paid $5,000 for it. However, due to the cost changes in the computer industry, the current price of an equivalent machine is $2,500. You could sell any used machine for $1,000. If you were not word processing, you could earn $20,000 per year at an alternative job. Assume that the interest rate is 10%. You can also hire an assistant who can do everything that you can do for $20,000 per year (you would still continue to do word processing). One person using one computer can produce 11,000 typed pages per year, and the price per page for your service is $2. You are considering three options: (1) expand your business by hiring an assistant, (2) leave your business the way it is, (3) shut down. Based on the costs and revenues above, which should you do? Explain and show any relevant calculations. 402. Fred's Widget company has purchased $500,000 in equipment, which can be sold for a salvage value of $300,000 at any time. The best interest rate on alternative investments is 5%. What is the cost of using this machinery for one year? How would your answer be different if the machinery had not yet been purchased? 403. The following table shows the relationship between output and number of workers in the short run. If the wage is $50/day, find marginal cost of production. Number Of Workers Output 0 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

50 110 300 450 590 665 700 725 710 705

404. How would each of the following affect the firm's marginal, average, and average variable cost curves? A. An increase in wages. B. A decrease in material costs. C. The government imposes a fixed amount of tax. D. The rent that the firm pays on the building that it leases decreases. 405. A firm experiences increasing returns to scale; that is, doubling all its inputs more than doubles its output. What can be inferred about the firm's short-run costs? 406. Carefully explain if the following statements are true, false, or uncertain: A. If average cost is increasing, marginal cost must be increasing. B. If there are diminishing returns, the marginal cost curve must be positively sloped. C. Marginal costs decrease as output increases because the firm can spread fixed costs over more units. 407. Carefully explain the difference between diseconomies of scale and diminishing returns. 408. For each of the following cost functions, find MC, AC, and AVC. A. TC = 20,000 + 10 Q B. TC = 18,000 + Q + 0.2 Q2 409. For each of the cost functions given in the previous problem, if possible, find minimum AC and previous minimum AVC. 410. Consider a firm that has just built a plant, which cost $20,000. Each worker costs $5.00 per hour. Based on the information above, fill in the table.

411. A perfectly competitive firm has total revenue and total cost curves given by: TR = 100Q

TC = 5,000 + 2Q + 0.2 Q2 A. Find the profit-maximizing output for this firm. B. What profit does the firm make? 412. What does it mean to say that a perfectly competitive firm is a price taker? Can't a firm set any price it chooses? 413. Why would a firm choose to remain in an industry in which it makes an economic profit of zero? 414. You've been hired by an unprofitable firm to determine whether it should shut down its operation. The firm currently uses 70 workers to produce 300 units of output per day. The daily wage (per worker) is $100, and the price of the firm's output is $30. The cost of other variable inputs is $500 per day. Although you don't know the firm's fixed cost, you know that it is high enough that the firm's total costs exceed its total revenue. You know that the marginal cost of the last unit is $30. Should the firm continue to operate at a loss? Carefully explain your answer. 415. Suppose that a perfectly competitive industry is in long-run equilibrium, and demand increases. Explain the short- and long-run effects on the firm and the industry. 416. Market price is $50. The firm's marginal cost curve is given by: MC = 10 + 2Q A. Find the profit-maximizing output for the firm. B. At this output, is the firm making a profit? Explain your answer. 417. A monopolist has demand and cost curves given by: QD = 1000 - 2P TC = 5,000 + 50Q A. Find the monopolist's profit-maximizing quantity and price. B. Find the monopolist's profit. 418. A monopolist has demand and cost curves given by: QD = 10,000 - 20P TC = 1,000 + 10Q + .05Q2 A. Find the monopolist's profit-maximizing quantity and price. B. Find the monopolist's profit. 419. True, false, or uncertain? Any firm that is not covering fixed costs should shut down in the short run. 420. TC = 1000 + 2Q + 0.1 Q2 A. What is the lowest price at which this firm can break even? B. What is the lowest price at which this firm will produce in the short run? 421. Convenience stores with gas stations tend to sell an essentially identical variety of goods and services. Yet this is generally considered to be a monopolistically competitive industry selling differentiated products. How can this be considered a differentiated product? 422. Describe the transition from short-run to long-run equilibrium in a monopolistically competitive industry. 423. How is a monopolistically competitive industry like perfect competition? How is it like monopoly?

424. Why might a concentration ratio be a poor measure of actual industry competition? 425. When one automaker begins offering low cost financing or rebates, others tend to do the same. What two oligopoly models might offer an explanation of this behavior? 426. Fast food restaurants tend to cluster together. That is, on one corner, there may be four similar fast-food restaurants. How can this be explained using a location game theory model? 427. The following matrix shows the payoffs for an advertising game between Coke and Pepsi. The firms can choose to advertise or to not advertise. Numbers in the matrix represent profits; the first number in each cell is the payoff to Coke. (Numbers in millions.)

Coke (rows)/Pepsi (columns) Advertise Don't Advertise Advertise (10, 10) (500, -50) Don't Advertise (-50, 500) (100, 100) A. Explain why this would be described as a Prisoner's Dilemma game B. Explain the probable outcome of this game 428. Some countries, such as Israel, have absolute policies of not negotiating with terrorists if they take hostages. How does this relate to sequential games and the idea of credible commitment? 429. A. What is the grim trigger strategy, and how does it solve the Prisoner's Dilemma in repeated games? B. Under what circumstances is it likely to fail? 430. Microsoft has integrated many components into its Windows operating systems, such as a web browser, media player, etc. How might this be an example of non-price competition? 431. A firm in an oligopolistic industry has the following demand and total cost equations: p = 600 - 20Q TC = 700 + 160Q + 15Q2 Calculate A. B. C. D. quantity at which profit is maximized. maximum profit. quantity at which revenue is maximized. maximum revenue.

E. maximum quantity at which profit will be at least $580. F. maximum revenue at which profit will be at least $580. 432. A monopolistic firm operates in two separate markets. No trade is possible between market A and market B. The firm has calculated the demand functions for each market as follows: Market A Market B p = 15 - Q p = 11 - Q

The company estimates its total cost function to be TC = 4Q Calculate A. quantity, total revenue and profit when the company maximizes its profit and charges the same price in both markets. B. quantity, total revenue and profit when the company charges different prices in each market and maximizes its total profit. 433. Why does each of the following facilitate the creation and stability of a cartel? A. High barriers to entry B. An identical product C. Similar costs 434. Industry demand is given by: QD = 1000 - P All firms in the industry have identical and constant marginal and average costs of $50/unit. A. If the industry is perfectly competitive, what will industry output be? What will be the equilibrium price? What profit will each firm earn? B. Now suppose that there are five firms in the industry, and that they collude to set price. What price will they set? What will be the output of each firm? What will be the profit of each firm? 435. Why do cartels tend to break up? 436. A monopolist sells to two consumer groups, students and non-students. Demand for students: Q = 500 - 1/2 P Demand for non-students: Q = 750 - 2P MC = 20 Find the profit-maximizing price/quantity combination in each market if the groups can be separated. 437. McDonald's charges a higher price for a Big Mac in New York city than it does in a small town in Iowa. Is this an example of third degree price discrimination? Explain. 438. Some charge that third degree price discrimination is unfair or that it reduces social welfare. Why does charging one group a lower price hurt anyone? 439. Firms that make game systems like Playstation and Nintendo typically charge a price close to

average cost on the game system itself, and do not change that price even when the systems are scarce or demand increases. Why might this be a profit-maximizing strategy? 440. In the Sunday newspaper, there are usually coupons that you can clip and take to the store to save money on products. Anyone can buy a newspaper, and the value of the coupons easily exceeds the price of the newspaper for most consumers. Is this an example of price discrimination? Explain. 441. Would it ever make sense for a firm to charge a price at or below the cost of the product? 442. Superstar actors typically get contracts that specify that they get a percentage of "the gross", the total revenues that the movie brings in. Why might actors want contracts structured that way? Why might producers be willing to agree to that, and how does this make the goals of actors and producers different? 443. What is the "new" economy? 444. What is a B2C business model? 445. Why does an e-commerce B2C retailer have an advantage over a traditional brick and mortar retailer? 446. What is the focus of a B2B business model? 447. What is the primary challenge facing dot com firms? 448. What effect would you expect the Internet to have on the cross-price elasticity of demand for substitute goods sold there? Explain your reasoning. 449. What effect would you expect the Internet to have on business costs? Explain your reasoning. 450. What effect would you expect the Internet to have on the competitiveness of industries? Explain your reasoning. 451. In considering a capital budgeting proposal, you estimate that cash sales during one of the years of the project will be $250, cash expenses (other than interest expense) will be $140, interest expense on the debt incurred $20, depreciation of the project's fixed assets $35, and the income tax rate 34%, how much will be the cash flow for that period? 452. If, at the end of the project life, a piece of equipment having a book value of $3,000 is expected to bring $4,500 upon resale, and the income tax rate is 40%, how much will be the cash flow? 453. If, at the end of the project life, a piece of equipment having a book value of $4,000 is expected to bring $3,000 upon resale, and the income tax rate is 40%, how much will be the cash flow? 454. If an expansion proposal is accepted, allowing an otherwise idle (and useless) machine with a market value and book value of $2,000 to be utilized, should it be recorded as a cash outflow, and if so, how much? 455. A firm's most recent annual dividend was $2 per share; its shares sell for $40 in the stock market, and the company expects its dividend to grow at a constant rate of 5% in the foreseeable future. Using the dividend growth (Gordon) model, what would you estimate its equity cost of capital to be?

456. You deposit $10,000 in a savings account today. If the interest rate is 3%, what is the value in 20 years? 457. You start working at age 20 and you plan to deposit $5,000 in a savings account every year for the next 45 years. a. At the end of this time, how much money will you have if the interest rate is 5%? b. You decide that's not enough money. How much will you have to save every year if you wish to have $1,000,000 when you retire? 458. An aircraft company has signed a contract to deliver a plane 3 years from now. The price they will receive at the end of 3 years is $20 million. If the firm's cost of capital is 6%, what is the present value of this payment? 459. An aircraft company has signed a contract to sell a plane for $20 million. The firm buying the plane will pay for it in 5 annual payments (at year end) of $4 million. If the firm's cost of capital is 6%, what is the net present value of this payment? 460. A firm must spend $10 million today on a project that is expected to bring in annual revenues of $1.5 million for the next 10 years (beginning at the end of year 1). A. If the firm's cost of capital is 5%, what is the NPV of this project? B. If the firm's cost of capital is 10%, what is the NPV of this project? C. What is the internal rate of return? 461. You win the $20 million state lottery, and you have a choice of taking an amount of money per year or a flat payment now. The flat payment that the state offers you is $9.82 million. A. What discount rate is the state using? B. Should you take the money or the annuity? 462. If the interest rate is 7% and the tax rate is 15%, what is the after-tax cost of capital for the firm? 463. The price of Widget Inc.'s stock is currently $50. The last dividend that they paid was $1. If dividends are expected to increase at a 10% annual rate, what is the firm's equity cost of capital? 464. If a company's stock is perceived to be more risky than average, what will happen to their equity cost of capital? Explain using the capital asset pricing model. 465. The XYZ Company has estimated expected cash flows for 1996 to be as follows:
Probability .10 .15 .50 .15 .10 Cash flow $120,000 140,000 150,000 180,000 210,000

Calculate A. B. C. D.

expected value standard deviation coefficient of variation the probability that the cash flow will be less than $100,000

466. You are given the following risky cash flows and certainty equivalent factors for a four-year project:
Certainty Equivalent Factor .95 .92 .88 .84

Period 1 2 3 4

Cash Flow $2,500 3,000 4,000 3,000

The initial investment for this project is $8,000, and the risk-free interest rate is 6%. Calculate the net present value of the project. 467. What are the major sources of risk for the firm? 468. You buy a lottery ticket for $1. If you win, you receive $3 million. The odds of your numbers coming up are 1:10,000,000. What is the expected value of this gamble? 469. Project A and Project B both have expected values of $5,000. Project A has a standard deviation of $1,000, while Project B has a standard deviation of $3,000. Comment on the desirability of these projects. 470. Project C has an expected value of $500 and a standard deviation of 50. Project D has an expected value of $300 and a standard deviation of 10. Comment on the desirability of these projects. 471. The Widget Company has estimated the following revenue possibilities for the year:
Sales Probability 100 0.15 150 0.20 220 0.30 290 0.20 310 0.15 A. Find expected revenue. B. Find the standard deviation. C. Find the coefficient of variation.

472. Savings accounts pay very low rates of interest. The average return on the stock market is about 10-12%, in the long run. Why would anyone put money into a savings account? 473. A two-period project has the following probabilities and cash flows:
Probability .25 .50 .25 Cash flow 500 600 700

Period 1:

Period 2:

.30 .50 .20

300 500 700

The discount rate is 7%, and the initial investment is $1,000. How much is the expected NPV of this project? 474. Two projects have the following NPV's and standard deviations:
Project A NPV 200 Standard deviation 75 Project B 300 100

Which of the two projects is more risky? 475. You are given risky cash flow data for a three-year project:
Year 1 2 3 Cash flow $2,000 3,000 4,000

The initial cash outflow is $6,000; the risk-free interest rate is 6%, and the risk-adjusted discount rate is 10%. Calculate the NPV by both the risk-adjusted discount rate method and the certainty equivalent method in such a way that the NPV will be the same using either method. 476. What additional sources of risk come from international investments? Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. a b a a a b b c d e c c b d b b d c b c d b b

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279. 280. 281. 282. 283. 284. 285. 286. 287. 288. 289. 290. 291. 292. 293. 294. 295. 296. 297. 298. 299. 300. 301. 302. 303. 304. 305. 306. 307. 308. 309. 310. 311. 312. 313. 314. 315. 316. 317. 318. 319. 320. 321. 322. 323. 324. 325. 326. 327. 328. 329.

a c c c a b a d e c c d c b b c d c d a b c d b d b e d a c c e b a c e c d a c b d b a a e c b a d c

330. Such factors as market structure, supply and demand conditions, technology, government regulations, international factors, expectations about the future, and the macro economy are economic factors that play a role in managerial decision-making. 331. Cost leadership (lower costs than competing firms), product differentiation, selection and focus on a market niche, outsourcing and merger strategies, and international focus or expansion are factors in the competitive advantage of the firm. 332. Changes in supply and demand conditions, changes in technology, increased competition, changes in interest rates and inflation rates, exchange rate changes, and political risk are typical types of risk faced by firms. 333. Stage I: Market dominance, in which the only strategy required to earn a profit is sufficient markup over cost. (Cost-plus) Stage II: Technology and competition place pressures on the firm, often resulting in cost-cutting, downsizing, restructuring, and reengineering. (Cost management) Stage III: Focus on growth of top lines of business. (Revenue management) Stage IV: Striving for continued profitable growth. (Revenue plus) 334. Firms must choose WHAT goods and services to produce, HOW to produce them (through appropriate choice of resources and technology), and FOR WHOM they will be provided (what segment of the market on which to focus). 335. a. P = D/k = 20/.05 = $400 b. P = 20/.08 = $250 c. P = D1/(k - g) = 20/(.08 - .02) = $333.33 336. a. TR = P*Q = (500 - 1/10 Q)Q = 500Q - 1/10 Q2 b. MR = 500 - 1/5Q 337. MR = 500 - 1/5Q 0 = 500 - 1/5Q Q = 2500 P = 250 TR = $625,000 338. a. Q = 500, P = 500 b. Q = 800, P = 350 c. Q = 850, P = 383.33 339. a. MC = 20 AC = (40,000/Q) + 20 AVC = 20 Both MC and AV are 20 at all quantities. There is no minimum point. b. MC = 2 + 0.2Q AC = (1000/Q) + 2 + 0.1Q AVC = 2 + 0.1Q MC and AVC are both upward sloping straight lines. There is really no minimum point. 340. a. Set MC = AC. 20 = (40,000/Q) + 20 In this case, AC is decreasing everywhere, and thus there is no minimum average cost (although it will approach $20). Set MC = AVC. 20 = 20 Q = 0, and at that point, AVC = $20.

b. Set MC = AC. 2 + 0.2Q = (1000/Q) + 2 + 0.1Q Q = 100, and at that point, AC = $22. Set MC = AVC. 2 + 0.2Q = 2 + 0.1Q Q = 0, and at that point, AVC = $2. 341. a. Demand increases (now); equilibrium price and quantity increase. b. Demand increases; equilibrium price and quantity increase. c. Demand decreases; equilibrium price and quantity fall. d. Demand increases; equilibrium price and quantity increase. e. Demand decreases; equilibrium price and quantity fall. f. This is a movement along the demand curve, and the quantity demanded will decrease. 342. a. Supply decreases; equilibrium price rises and quantity falls. b. Supply increases; equilibrium price falls and quantity rises. c. Supply increases; equilibrium price falls and quantity rises. d. This is a movement along the supply curve, and the quantity supplied will decrease. e. Supply increases (now); equilibrium price falls and quantity rises. f. Supply decreases; equilibrium price rises and quantity falls. 343. The increase in demand causes a shortage at the original equilibrium price; the quantity supplied is less than the new quantity demanded at that price. The existence of the shortage will cause the price to rise. As price rises, the quantity supplied will increase and the quantity demanded will decrease (along the new demand curve) until equilibrium is reached at a higher price (and quantity). 344. In the long run, the higher price of oranges will signal more firms to enter the orange market, as it will seem more profitable than some other markets. As firms enter, supply increases, causing the price to fall relative to the short-run price and quantity to increase further. The higher short-run price has guided more resources into the market. 345. Economic expansion increases consumer incomes, which will increase the demand for normal goods and decrease the demand for inferior goods. Thus a producer of normal goods might be anticipating a future increase in demand and thus considering expansion, while a producer of inferior goods might be preparing for a decrease in demand and considering contraction or a movement into a different product line. 346. a. Q = 1000, P = 500 b. Q = 275, P = 225 c. Q = 1000, P= 400 (See the appendix to Chapter 2 for similar problems) 347. a. QD = 19,500 - 100P b. P = $122.50, Q =7,250 c. The new demand curve is: QD = 22,000 - 100P Thus the new equilibrium price is $135, and the new quantity is 8,500.

348. The heath reports are likely to cause an increase in the demand for milk. Alone, this would increase both the equilibrium price and quantity of milk. The increase in equipment costs will cause a decrease in the supply of milk, and this alone would cause an increase in equilibrium price and a decrease in equilibrium quantity. Taken together, both effects will lead to an increase in price, and thus we can be certain that the equilibrium price will rise. The effect on quantity is unclear as the supply and demand shifts move quantity in different directions. 349. a. P = $200, Q = 600. b. At a price of $100, there will be a shortage. The quantity demanded will be 800, and the quantity supplied will be 300, and thus there will be a shortage of 500 units. c. At a price of $300, there will be a surplus. The quantity demanded will be 400, and the quantity supplied will be 900, and thus there will be a surplus of 600 units. 350. 351. 352. 353. 354. 355. 356. 357. lower 1,200 $7.392 $5.571, $6,685 641, $2,884 -2.6, -1.77 -1.11, -0.76 a. Arc elasticity = -2.11. b. Elastic. c. Revenues will fall. Demand is elastic, and thus a 1% increase in price will lead to a greater percentage decrease in quantity demanded. Revenues fall because the price increase does not make up for the reduction in sales.

358. a. Elasticity = -1/2 (100/450) = -0.11, and is inelastic. b. Elasticity = -1/2(700/150) = -2.5, and is elastic. c. Elasticity is -1 at the midpoint of the demand curve, which is at a price of $500 and a quantity of 250. 359. A good wheat crop that increases the supply of wheat will cause the equilibrium price wheat to decrease (and quantity to increase). Since demand is inelastic, total revenues will fall, as the percentage change in quantity will be less than the percentage change in price. 360. a. Demand will increase, since wheat has a positive income elasticity. b. The quantity of wheat purchased will increase. c. The percentage of consumer budgets spent on wheat and other staple goods will fall, since the percentage change in the demand for wheat will be less than the percentage change in income. d. Farmers are likely to be relatively worse off, since the demand for what they are selling will be rising less rapidly than the demand for other goods that they are likely to purchase. 361. Salt has few substitutes, and takes up a small percentage of the consumer's budget, and thus demand is likely to be inelastic. While pretzels are also a small part of the budget, there are many substitutes available. 362. There are at least two reasons. One is that the elasticity of substitution between skilled workers and other factors of production is low; thus firms cannot substitute some other factor of production if wages rise. Secondly, skilled labor is likely to be a relatively small percentage of total costs, and thus raising wages does not cause a large increase in total costs (which would lead to a reduction in

supply, an increase in price, and a decrease in output). Unskilled labor has more substitutes and is likely to be a larger share of costs for firms that employ it, and thus if unions raise wages, firms employ other factors of production, and many workers will be laid off. 363. Imposing an excise tax reduces the supply of the good, reducing equilibrium quantity and raising the price. If demand is elastic, taxes will tend to reduce quantity by a significant amount, and thus government tax revenues will be relatively small. However, if demand is inelastic, the reduction in quantity will be small, and government tax revenues will be higher. (Governments may also impose taxes to deter consumption, but this is likely to be ineffective if elasticity is low.) 364. a. P = $1.25, Q = 750. b. If P = $1.50, QD = 500 and QS = 1000. The surplus is 500 (million) bushels. c. $1.50*500 = $750 million. 365. a. P = $40. Q = 4,000. Of that, domestic producers supply 1,000 units, and foreign producers supply 3,000 units. b. The quantity restriction will cause equilibrium price to rise and quantity to decrease. Domestic producers will sell more, and foreign producers will sell less. Revenues of domestic producers will rise. The effect on the revenues of foreign producers is unclear; if demand is inelastic, they may rise. 366. Demand for this good is inelastic with respect to price. This is a normal good as income elasticity is greater than zero, and it is a luxury/superior good as income elasticity is greater than one. Widgets and gadgets are substitutes, and they are good substitutes because cross-price elasticity is elastic (large). 367. Based on the figures above, QD = 24,850 Price elasticity = -10(7,000/66,000) = -1.06. Demand is elastic (at this point). Advertising elasticity = 1500(54/66,000) = 1.23. The product is elastic with respect to advertising; a 1% increase in advertising expense will lead to a greater than 1% increase in sales. Cross elasticity = 4(8000/66,000) = 0.48. Cross-elasticity is positive, implying that the products are substitutes, but it is less than one, suggesting that they are not particularly good substitutes and the competitor's price has little impact on the firm's sales. Income elasticity = 2(4000/66,000) = 0.12. The product is income inelastic; thus it is a normal good (necessity), and is not particularly responsive to income fluctuations. 368. Price: 10/2.29 = 4.37 Advertising: 1500/525 = 2.86 Competitor's price: 4/1.75 = 2.29 Income: 2/1.5 = 1.33 All variables are statistically significant with the exception of income. Thus we can conclude that the other variables do have an impact on the quantity demanded of this product. 369. R2 = RSS/TSS = 1 - (ESS/TSS), where TSS = sum of squared deviations of the sample values of Y from their mean, RSS = sum of squared deviations of the estimated values from their mean, and ESS = sum of the squared deviations of the sample values from their estimated values. The R2 value tells you what percentage of the variation in the dependent variable is explained by variation in the independent variables, or the "goodness of fit" of the equation. In this case, 65% of the variation in quantity demanded is explained by variation in the independent variables.

370. The overall equation is significant, as shown by the F-test. The R2 value is reasonably high. One variable is not significant (might be desirable to re-estimate the equation without it, although the inclusion of irrelevant variables does not affect the properties of the OLS model). The sample size is sufficiently large. There are no significant concerns. {Other answers are possible.} 371. You would use a one-tailed test when the sign of the variable is important. That is, if you only want to know if the independent variable has a statistically significant effect on the dependent variable, a two-tailed test should be used. If direction of effect is important, then a one-tailed test should be used. 372. Based income elasticity from this equation (0.12), no. The good is income inelastic, so a recession should not cause a significant decrease in sales. Note also that income is not statistically significant in this equation, making it even less of a concern. 373. At a price of $9,000, the point estimate of quantity demanded would be 46,000. With a sample size of 120, the t-value is approximately 1.984. The standard error of the Y(Q) estimate is 565. Thus we can predict with 95% confidence that quantity demanded will be between 44,879 and 47,120. 374. Multicollinearity occurs when the independent variables are correlated. One indication of multicollinearity is that the equation will pass the F-test, but individual variables will not have significant t values. Multicollinearity can sometimes be corrected by omitting some of the correlated variables or by choosing proxy variable. 375. Many answers are possible. A manager might note that demand is elastic, and thus that sales might respond to a price decrease. Likewise, sales should respond to increases in advertising. Sales are less likely to be impacted by income changes or by changes in the price of the competitor's product. The equation could be used to forecast expected sales based on changes in one or more of the variables. The equation could be used to help in coordinating production plans or with other parts of the firm. 376. Identification problems occur when it is possible that both demand and supply are shifting. Thus a series of observations is not identifying points along a single demand curve; it is identifying a series of equilibrium points that may or may not be along a single curve. This is most likely to be a problem in time series estimation of demand curves, simply because over any reasonably long time period it is quite likely that both supply and demand will change somewhat. 377. Qualitative; quantitative 378. coincident; lagging 379. a. The forecast for sales is 38,900 b. The forecast for sales will be 39,400. 380. a. 52,600 b. The equation was apparently estimated in 1990. The farther away from the original year, the less likely the equation is to be correct, as there are many factors that may disturb the trend. 381. 382. 383. 384. 385. $2,937 2,257.3 $171,200 (growth rate is 5.7%) 817 761

386. 42, 7, 3.4 387. Number Of Workers Output MP AP 0 0 --1 50 50 50 2 110 60 55 3 300 190 100 4 450 150 112.5 5 590 140 118 6 665 75 110.83 7 700 35 100 8 725 25 90.63 9 710 15 78.89 10 705 -5 70.5 a. See table. b. Diminishing returns sets in after the third worker is hired. c. See table. d. Stage I is between the first and approximately the 5th worker (until APL is maximized); Stage II is from the 5th worker to the 9th worker (MPL still positive), and Stage III begins with the hiring of the 10th worker (MPL becomes negative). 388. Number Of Workers Output MP MRP 0 0 --1 50 50 $250 2 110 60 $300 3 300 190 $950 4 450 150 $750 5 590 140 $700 6 665 75 $375 7 700 35 $175 8 725 25 $100 9 710 15 $ 75 10 705 -5 -The firm should hire 5 workers. At the 6th worker, MRPL < MLC. 389. a. Maximizing output between plants requires that (MPL/w)U.S. = (MPL/w)MEXICO. Since 100/5 (=20) is not equal to 500/20 (=25), the firm is not maximizing output relative to its labor cost. b. The firm should hire more U.S. workers and fewer Mexican workers, all other things equal. 390. No, the firm is not making the right decision. Minimizing cost (maximizing output) requires that (MPL/w) = (MPK/r). 100/10 < 75/5, so the firm should plan to build a smaller plant and employ more workers, all other things equal. 391. a. Constant returns to scale.

b. Decreasing returns to scale. c. Increasing returns to scale. 392. Estimating a production function for a single plant generally uses time-series analysis, because it is possible to know if technology and other variables have remained constant over time. To estimate a production function for a number of firms in an industry, it is customary to use cross-sectional analysis because it is unlikely that technology and other relevant factors have remained constant for all firms in the industry over time, and cross-sectional analysis removes this problem. 393. How is labor to be measured? Can it be measured in hours, and if not, how can the labor of labor actually used in production be expressed? How are materials to be measured? How are capital assets, which have different rates of depreciation and input intensity, to be measured? 394. The expansion path represents the cost-minimizing choice of inputs, given constant input prices, for different levels of output. * This problem refers to the appendices. 395. MPL = 1/2 K1/2L-1/2 MPK = 1/2 K-1/2L1/2 Optimization requires: MPL/w = MPK/r This results in K = L, which is the equation of the expansion path. Q = K1/2L1/2 = 2000 Substitute the expansion path relationship to yield: K* = L* = 2000 Then total cost = TC = 2*2000 + 2*2000 = $8,000 * This problem refers to the appendices. 396. Note that this problem is the dual of the previous problem. MPL = 1/2 K1/2L-1/2 MPK = 1/2 K-1/2L1/2 Optimization requires: MPL/w = MPK/r This results in K = L, which is the equation of the expansion path. TC = 8,000 = 2L + 2K Substitute the expansion path relationship to yield: K* = L* = 2000 Then Q = K1/2L1/2 = 2000. * This problem refers to the appendices. 397. 398. 399. 400. 401. 4th Stage II 6 cross-sectional Option 1: Revenue = $22,000 Opportunity cost of your time = 20,000 Opportunity cost of interest on salvage value of existing computer = 100

Economic profit = $1,900 Option 2: You still earn $1,900 as above. Revenue from additional worker = 22,000 Wages = 20,000 Opportunity cost of interest on purchase of new computer = 250 Depreciation = 1,500 Economic profit from additional worker = $250 Total economic profit = $2,150 Option 3: Revenue = 0 No costs, since opportunity costs no longer apply, and fixed costs are sunk. Economic profit = 0 (Could possibly view the $1,000 you get from selling the used computer as revenue, but makes no difference to final solution of problem.) Option 2, expand your business, is the best option. (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 402. Short-run cost = $15,000 Cost if the machinery was not purchased = $200,000 + $25,000 = $225,000 Explanation: The short run cost is just the forgone interest. The short-run depreciation is sunk, and the salvage value doesn't change. The long run cost (if the machine has not been purchased is the depreciation cost plus the foregone interest on the whole $500,000. (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 403. Number Of Workers Output MP MC (=w/MP) 0 0 --1 50 50 1.00 2 110 60 0.91 3 300 190 0.26 4 450 150 0.33 5 590 140 0.36 6 665 75 0.67 7 700 35 1.43 8 725 25 2.00 9 710 15 3.33 10 705 -5 -(See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 404. a. Wages are a variable cost, so MC, AVC, and ATC increase. b. Materials are a variable cost, so MC, AVC, and ATC decrease. c. A fixed or lump-sum tax increases ATC but not MC or AVC. d. Rent is generally viewed as a fixed cost, so ATC decreases, but MC and AVC are unchanged. (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 405. Returns to scale is a long-run phenomenon because all inputs must be changed. Thus we can infer little about the firm's short-run costs from this information, other than the firm is likely to experience

diminishing marginal returns in the short run due to the fact that it will have a fixed factor of production (and thus short-run marginal costs will rise with output). (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 406. a. True. If average cost is increasing, marginal cost must be above average cost, so marginal cost must be increasing. b. True. If there are diminishing returns, each worker produces less than the one before him. Thus each unit must be getting more expensive (because you pay workers the same amount but they produce less). c. False. Marginal costs have nothing to do with fixed costs. The statement would be correct if it was about average costs. (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 407. Diseconomies of scale means that, in the long run, average costs are rising, usually due to coordination problems or decreasing returns to scale. Diminishing returns means that, in the short run, marginal product is falling (or marginal cost is rising) because each worker is producing less than the one before him, due to the fact that capital (or some other factor of production) is fixed. There is no connection between these things. (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 408. a. MC = 10 AC = (20,000/Q) + 10 AVC = 10 b. MC = 1 + 0.4Q AC = (18,000/Q) + 1 + 0.2Q AVC = 1 + 0.2Q (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 409. a. Set MC = AC. 10 = (20,000/Q) + 10 In this case, AC is decreasing everywhere, and thus there is no minimum average cost (although it will approach $10). Set MC = AVC. 10 = 10 Q = 0, and at that point, AVC = $10. b. Set MC = AC. 1 + 0.4Q = (18,000/Q) + 1 + 0.2Q Q = 300, and at that point, AC = $121. Set MC = AVC. 1 + 0.4Q = 1 + 0.2Q Q = 0, and at that point, AVC = $1. (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.) 410. See the graph. (See also Appendix 2A for similar cost problems.)

411. a. MR = 100 MC = 2 + .4Q 100 = 2 + .4Q Q* = 245 b. Profit = 100*245 - 5,000 - 2(245) - 0.2 (245)2 = $7,005 412. A firm can set any price it chooses, but it a perfectly competitive industry, it will do no good to choose anything but the market price. At a higher price, no one will buy (since products are assumed to be identical) and at a lower price, you lose revenue without gaining sales, since you can presumably sell all you want to at the market price. Thus the firm is said to be a price taker. Thus 413. Making an economic profit of zero does not mean that the firm is not making any money. It means that it is covering all its costs, including opportunity costs. This means that all resources employed are earning just as much as they would in their next best use, and thus that there is no gain from ng next-best moving them to their next-best use. next 414. VC = $7,000 + 500. Thus AVC = 7500/300 = $25. Since P>AVC, the firm should continue to operate in the short run. 415. Short run: An increase in demand raises equilibrium price and quantity. Existing firms produce more (because the higher price means that MR = MC at a higher quantity) and earn positive economic profits. Long run: Positive profits attract new firms into the industry. The increase in supply reduces price industry. and further increases quantity. Firms continue to enter until economic profits return to zero, and there is no further incentive for entry. 416. a. 50 = 10 + 2Q Q* = 20 b. It is impossible to say without further information. We know that at a quantity of 20, the firm will maximize profit or minimize loss, but without information on total costs, we cannot tell if there is a profit or loss. 417. a. MR = 500 - Q MC = 50 50 = 500 - Q Q* = 450 P* = $275 b. Profit = 275*450 - 5,000 - 50*450 = $96,250

418. a. MR = 500 - 0.1 Q MC = 10 + 0.1Q 10 + 0.1Q = 500 - 0.1 Q Q* = 2,450 P* = $377.50 b. Profit = (377.50)*2450 - 1,000 - 10*2450 - 0.05(2450)2 = $599,250 419. False. Fixed costs are sunk and should have no effect on short-run decisions. If a firm is not covering variable costs, it should shut down, because those costs are avoidable. 420. a. MC = 2 + 0.2Q AC = (1000/Q) + 2 + 0.1Q Set MC = AC. 2 + 0.2Q = (1000/Q) + 2 + 0.1Q Q = 100, and at that point, AC = $22. This is the lowest price at which the firm can break even. b. AVC = 2 + 0.1Q Set MC = AVC. 2 + 0.2Q = 2 + 0.1Q Q = 0, and at that point, AVC = $2. This is the lowest price at which the firm will produce in the short run. 421. These stores are differentiated by location. 422. In the short run, firms in a monopolistically competitive industry may make a positive profit. However, since there are assumed to be no significant barriers to entry, positive profits attract entry. As more firms (or varieties) enter, the demand for each firm (or variety) decreases, and thus prices and profits fall until there is no further incentive for entry. 423. Monopolistic competition is like perfect competition in that there are many firms and no barriers to entry (and thus long-run economic profits will be zero). It is like monopoly in that firms sell products that are not perfect substitutes for each other, and thus firms have some market power, and prices will be above marginal cost. 424. Concentration ratios measure national competition within a line of goods that are substitutes in production. Where there is much international competition, where competition is regional rather than national, where there is competition from goods that are substitutes in consumption but not production, and for other reasons listed in the text, competition ratios may be poor measures of competition. 425. (1) Kinked demand curve: the assumption behind the kinked demand curve model is that rivals follow price decreases but not price increases. One automaker offering rebates, etc., is essentially a price cut, and so others will follow. (2) Price leadership: This could also be viewed as a price leader setting a new price and others following. 426. Similar to the beach kiosk model, restaurants cluster because they attract the most customers that way. One explanation might be: assume that customers have identical transportation costs, are distributed uniformly, and have no preference for one restaurant over another. Then they will always go to the closest restaurant. If one located far away from the other, it would attract customers on the other side of it, but only half of the ones between it and its rival. If it locates next to its rival, it gets all the customers on that side, and thus maximizes profit.

427. a. The joint profit-maximizing outcome is for neither to advertise. But there is a temptation to cheat, the dilemma, and thus the firms are likely to end up where they are collectively worst off. b. The dominant strategy for each firm is to advertise, and thus the probable outcome is that each will earn $10 million. 428. Prior to the taking of hostages, it is desirable to "play tough" and state that you will not deal with terrorists. But once hostages are taken, you have an incentive to try to free them. However, the terrorists can figure your incentives, too, so your threat is not credible. Absolute policies that are publicly announced and followed through may create reputation effects that make the policies credible, and thus countries may reach the desired outcomehostages are not taken because terrorists believe that they will not negotiate. 429. a. The grim trigger refers to the threat to price low (or whatever the competitive strategy is) forever if the cartel member(s) deviate from the cartel strategy. It may solve the Prisoner's Dilemma because it can make the potential future loss from cheating greater than the one-period gain. b. If the one-period gain from cheating is sufficiently high relative to the discounted present value of future profits received by a cartel member, or if the firm does not value profits received in the future, the grim trigger will not be a deterrent. (It also may not be a credible threat.) 430. There are a number of possible answers, including enhancing the attributes of the product (increasing demand), increasing switching costs to increase customer loyalty (reduce elasticity), etc. 431. If revenue and cost schedules are calculated: a. 6 b. 680 c. 15 d. 4500 e. 8 If results are calculated with equations: a. 6.286 b. 682.86 c. 15 d. 4500

f. 3520

e. 8

f. 3520

432. If revenue and cost schedules are calculated: a. Q = 9; p = 8.5; TR = 76.5; TC = 36; profit = 40.5 b. Market A: Q = 5 to 6; p = 9 to 10; TR = 50 to 54; TC = 20 to 24; profit = 30 Market B: Q = 3 to 4; p = 7 to 8; TR = 24 to 28; TC = 12 to 16; profit = 12 Combined profit = 42 If equations are used: a. Q = 9; p = 8.5; TR = 76.5; TC = 36; profit = 40.5 b. Market A: Q = 5.5; p = 9.5; TR = 52.25; TC = 22; profit = 30.25 Market B: Q = 3.5; p = 7.5; TR = 26.25; TC = 14; profit = 12.25 Combined profit = 42.5 433. a. A successful cartel implies positive profits. Positive profits attract entry, if it is possible, and increasing the number of firms in the industry erodes the cartel's control and pricing power (or

makes it more difficult to negotiate with the larger number of firms in the industry). b. If products are not identical, then consumers may have brand preferences, and thus it is possible for firms to cheat on the cartel by promoting non-price differences. c. If costs are similar, profits are similar, and the incentives of each firm will be similar, all other things equal. This makes it easier to agree on price and more "fair" in the sense that firms will receive similar profits. 434. a. P = 50, so Q = 950. Each firm earns an economic profit of zero. b. MR = 1000 - 2Q. Set MR = MC 50 = 1000 - 2Q Q = 475 P = $525 Each firm produces 1/5 the output, or q = 95. Profit for each firm is $45,125. 435. There are many reasons, but one of the best is that there is an incentive to cheat. While the cartel maximizes joint profits, individual profit could be increased if the firm could sell more at the cartel price. If everyone does that, output increases and the price falls. 436. Students: P = 1000 - 2Q MR = 1000 - 4Q Set MR = MC. 20 = 1000 - 4Q 245 = Q, P = $510 Non-students: P = 375 - 1/2 Q MR = 375 - Q Set MR = MC. 20 = 375 - Q 355 = Q, P = $197.50 437. No, or not necessarily. Costs differ between the two markets, because land is more expensive in New York City. Thus the higher price reflects that. 438. There's an equity issue about charging different prices to different people, but the real social welfare issue is not about charging a lower price to one group; it's about charging a higher price to the other. If the firm charged a single price, it would be somewhere in between the two group prices, in most cases. So some customers who would be able to buy at a lower price in the combined market pay more (or do not buy at all) in the separated market. 439. These firms are selling two products, the systems and the games. These are complementary products. If they increase the price of the systems, they reduce the demand for games (and games are repeat purchases rather than one-time purchases). Additionally, the system is the "hook", or the loss leader that draws customers in. Once you have the system, the switching cost of moving to another system is significant. Thus the systems are cheap, and the games are expensive. 440. Yes, it is. Consumers with more time are likely to have a more elastic demand for products, and thus they are willing to clip the coupons (and may not buy except at the lower price). Other consumers with less time won't deal with the coupons and thus will pay a higher price. This is essentially the same idea as movie matinee pricing. 441. This might be an example of penetration pricing in which the firm is trying to gain market share.

(Two other reasons not discussed in the text: limit pricing to prevent entry, and predatory pricing to drive out rivals.) 442. Actors want to maximize revenue with this sort of contract, while producers wish to maximize profit. It is clearly advantageous to the actor, since cost overruns won't impact what they receive. But it might also suit producers, because if actors are interested in maximizing revenue, they have an incentive to promote the movie and try to increase sales (and to do a good job). This might be more of an incentive than a cut of the profits, over which they have less control. 443. The new economy is the term used to refer to the explosion of investment in information technology and the related productivity boom in the late 1990s. 444. B2C business models target direct sales to consumers via the Internet. 445. Startup costs are significantly lower, other costs such as inventory and catalog printing costs may be lower. Information collection and analysis of customers is likely to be easier and less costly. 446. A B2B model is a business selling directly to other businesses via the Internet, usually with the goal of reducing costs for firms through a wide variety of possible activities. 447. Arguably, it is figuring out how to make money. Early companies confused revenue maximization with profit maximization and assumed that if lots of people looked at their sites, they would eventually make some money. This has proved to be wrong, and attempts to charge for services have resulting in more failures than successes. 448. Other answers are possible, but one argument is that it will increase cross-price elasticity because it makes search for goods much faster and less costly. Thus products will be more sensitive to changes in the price of substitutes. 449. The Internet and B2B firms are likely to reduce business costs by facilitating transactions and allowing other cost savings such as better inventory management. 450. One argument is that it should increase the competitiveness of industries. This is because it reduces information and search costs and thus reduces market power. It also facilitates entry. (However, some suggest that it may have the opposite effect in the long run due to economies of scale, etc., so there are clearly many possible answers to this question.) 451. $84.50 (250 - 140 - 35)*(.66) + 35 = 84.50 452. $3,900 453. $3,400 454. Yes, $2,000 455. 10.25% (2)(1.05)/40 + .05 456. FV = PV(1+i)n = 10,000(1.03)20 = $18,061 457. a. FV = 5,000 {((1+ i)n - 1)/i} = $798,500 b. You will have to save $6,261 per year. 458. PV = 20/(1.06)3 = $16.79 million 459. PV = $16.85 million 460. a. Present value of the revenues = $11.58 million, so NPV = $1.58 million.

461.

462. 463. 464.

465.

b. Present value of the revenues = $9.22 million, so NPV = -$0.78 million. c. 8.15% a. 8% (This is essentially the internal rate of return on the project). b. In general, it depends on what return you think you can get on the money. If you think you can do better than 8%, you're better off with the cash. 07(1 - .15) = 5.95% ke = D1/P0 + g = 1.10/50 + .10 = 12.2% A stock that is more volatile (riskier) than the market average will have a beta of greater than 1. This means that the return that stockholders will require will be greater than average [kj = Rf + (km Rf)]. In other words, the company will have to pay stockholders more since they must take a greater risk, and the equity cost of capital will rise. a. $156,000 b. $23,749 c. 0.152 d. 0.91% (z-statistic is 2.36)

466. $1,648 467. Economic uncertainty, competition (actions of competitors), changes in demand, changes in technology, changes in input costs. 468. Expected value = (3 million)(0.0000001) + (-1)(0.9999999) = -$0.69, or you expect to lose 69 cents. 469. Both have the same expected value, but A has a lower standard deviation. It is 99% certain that the return from A will be between $2,000 and $8,000. However, for B, it is 99% certain that the return will be between $-4,000 and $14,000. Project B is more risky and thus less desirable. 1. Explain the need for demand analysis by business managers. What are the factors affecting demand for mobiles in india? 2. Demonstrate the rational stage for a producer in short run production function. 3. The Jain robot Companys marketing officials report to the companys chief executive officer that the demand curve for the companys robot in 2006 is P = 3000 40 Q, where P is the price of a robot, and Q is the number sold per month a. Derive the marginal revenue schedule for the firm b. If the firm wants to maximize its rupee sales volume, what price should it charge? 4. Why are long run cost curves L shaped? 470. CVC = 50/500 = 0.10 CVD = 10/300 = 0.03 Project D has a lower coefficient of variation and thus is more desirable. Even though its expected value is lower, its lower standard deviation (and thus lower risk) makes up for this. 471. a. Expected revenue is $215.50. b. Standard deviation = 72.90. c. Coefficient of variation = 0.34. 472. The stock market gives a higher return for higher risk. Particularly if you are very averse to risk, you might find the savings account to be an attractive alternative. 473. $-20.

474. Since the two projects have different NPV's and different standard deviations, relative risk can be measured by the coefficient of variation. Project A has a CV of.375, project B .333. Thus, the relative risk of project B is less. 475.
CE Year Cash Flow Factor* 1 2000 0.963636 2 3000 0.928595 3 4000 0.894828 Total Less initial investment NPV Riskless Risky Cash Flow Cash Flow Riskless Discounted Discounted Cash Flow at 6% at 10% 1927 1818 1818 2786 2479 2479 3005 3579 3005 7303 7303 6000 6000 1303 1303

*CE factors: 1.06/1.1 = 0.963636 1.062/1.12 = 0.928595 1.063/1.13 = 0.894828 476. Exchange rate risk, and political risks such as regulation, discrimination, and expropriation.

Contributed by: Prof. Swati Agarwal


1. Managerial economics deals with the problem of A. B. C. D. An individual firm. An industry. An economy. Global economy.

2. Managerial Economics as a specialized branch of Economics A. B. C. D. Provide ready-made solutions to business problems. Provide logic and methodology to find solutions to business problems. Provide theoretical background to analyze business problems. provide alternative answers to specific business problems.

3. Managerial economics as a new branch of Economics A. B. C. D. Highlights on analyzing business problems. Acts totally independent of other subjects. Uses new techniques to identify business and management problems. Applies economic theories and concepts to solve business and management problems.

4. Demand for a product refers to A. Various quantities that are demanded by consumers. B. Various amounts desired by consumers. C. Total quantity of a product demanded during a given period of time.

D. Total quantity of a product demanded at a particular price in the market during a given period of time. 5. The relationship between price and demand is A. B. C. D. Direct. Inverse. Proportionate. positive.

6. Which of the assumptions on which the demand is based are A. Production Costs. B. Technology. C. Prices of Inputs. D. Prices of other related goods and tastes and preferences. 7. In case of increase in demand, the demand curve A. Shifts backwards. B. Shifts forward. C. Will have upward slope. D. Will be horizontal. 8. The Law of Demand assuming other things to remain constant, establishes the relationship between A. B. C. D. Income of the consumer and the quantity of a good demanded by him. Price of a good and the quantity demanded. Price of a good and the demand for its substitute. Quantity demanded of a good and the relative prices of its complimentary goods.

9.Demand forecasting is made - for the A. For the existing products only. B. New products only. C. For both the existing products & for the new products. D. For the substitutes only. 10. Complete enumeration method and Sample survey method are the two variants of A. B. C. D. Collective Opinion method. Expert opinion method. Direct interview method. End-Use method.

11. Historical data is used in estimating future demand under A. Survey method. B. Expert opinion method. C. Statistical method. D. Complete Enumeration method. 12. An increase in supply demand remaining constant will change the equilibrium

A. Causing a fall in price. B. Causing a backward shift in supply curve. C. Causing no change in price. D. Causing a rise in price. 13. If the proportionate change in supply is exactly equal and proportionate to the change in price than elasticity of supply is A. Equal to zero. B. Greater than one. C. Less than one. D. Equal to one. 14. Which of the following is not an economic activity? A. A chartered accountant doing his own activity. B. A teacher teaching in a college. C. A son looking after his ailing mother. D. A manager managing his organization. 15. Production function explains A. The relationship between Qty of inputs employed and the corresponding total production cost. B. The relationship between the firms total revenue and total production cost. C. The relationship between qty of inputs used and the corresponding output obtained. D. The relationship between market price charged and quantity supplied. 16. In case of short run production function Qty of fixed input remains constant and A. Qty of either one or two variable inputs change. B. Qty of one or two variable inputs are kept constant as Qty of fixed inputs change. C. The Qty of both fixed as well as variable inputs remains constant. D. The Qty of both variable and fixed input change. 17. In case of long run production A. The Qty of both fixed and variable inputs are changed. B. The Qty of both fixed and variable inputs are kept constant. C. The Qty of both fixed and variable inputs are changed in the same proportions. D. The Qty of both fixed and variable inputs are changed in different proportions. 18. Williamson's model is an example for A. Profit maximization model. B. Non- Profit maximization model. C. Managerial utility model. D. Behavioral model. 19. Marris model is an example for

A. Profit- maximizing model. B. Non-profit maximizing model. C. Behavioral model. D. Growth maximizing model. . 20. Average revenue curve of the firm is the same as the demand curve of the consumer except in the context of A. Perfect competition. B. Monopolistic competition. C. Monopoly. D. Discriminatory monopoly. . 21. What is MR? A. MR=TRn-TRn-1. B. MR=TR/TQ. C. MR=TR/TC. D. MR=TR/AC. 22. Total revenue will increase with the reduction in price when the price elasticity of demand for the product is A. Relatively elastic. B. Relatively inelastic. C. Unitary elastic. D. Perfectly elastic. 23. A market situation where there are only a few large buyers for the product is called A. Oligopoly. B. Pure competition. C. Oligopsony. D. Duopsony. 24. The amount of consumers' surplus will be more A. In the presence of a substitute. B. In the absence of a substitute. C. In the absence of a complement. D. None of the above. 25. Cash-reserve-ratio refers to A. A ratio between the liquid cash to be maintained by a commercial bank with that of total deposits of the bank. B. A ratio between the total deposits with that of liquid cash maintained by a bank. C. The % of total deposits to the % of cash that must be invested by a bank as per instructions of the central bank of the country. D. The % of liquid cash to be maintained by a bank with that of its investment.

26. When national income of a country is calculated in terms of constant prices, it is called as A. Nominal GNP. B. GNP at current prices. C. GNP at constant prices. D. GDP at constant prices. 27. Consumption function clearly reveals that over production and unemployment occur in a free enterprise economy and it is not self adjusting A. Price control is needed. B. Control on investment is essential. C. Control on supply is required. D. State interference is a must. 28. The study of money supply, inflation, deflation, monetary policy, fiscal policy, physical control etc., come under . A. Micro economics. B. Public economics. C. Macro economics. D. Growth economics. 29. Supply of money, interest rates and credit control measures together determine the nature of working of A. B. C. D. Government policy. Monetary policy. Credit policy. Financial policy.

30. Out of the four government measures to solve the adverse effects of negative externalities which one is incorrect? A. B. C. D. Introduction of emission standards. Prescribing emission fees. Indirect government regulations. Introduction of transferable emission permits.

31. Public goods refers to A. B. C. D. Goods supplied by public to people. Goods supplies by people to public. Goods supplied by government to PSEs. Goods supplied by government for the consumption of common man.

32. Decision-making implies A. Taking a final decision on a particular issue. B. Giving judgment on a particular issue.

C. Selecting the best out of several alternative course of actions. D. Selecting alternative solutions. 33. X and Y are two products which are considered as close substitutes of each other if A. B. C. D. Increase in the price of one leads to decrease in the demand of another and vice-versa. Increase in the price of one leads to increase in the demand for the other and vice-versa. Increase in the price of one will have no impact on the demand for the other Fall in the price of one lead to fall in the demand of the other.

34. To estimate future demands an instant food manufacturing company can conveniently make use of. A. B. C. D. Survey of buyers intentions. Collective opinion method. Expert opinion method. End - use method.

35. To avoid halo effects and ego involvements in demand forecasting a firm can make use of. A. B. C. D. Input output method. Opinion poll method. Delphi method or expert opinion method. Sample survey method.

36. The market supply schedule helps the management to know A. B. C. D. The quantity to be produced. The quantity to be supplied & the quantity to be withheld. The quantity to be supplied & the price to be charged. The quantity to be produced & the quantity to be withheld.

37. Supply schedule of a firm shows quantities of a commodity A. B. C. D. Offered for sale at varying prices. Produced at varying prices. Planned at varying prices. That can be delivered at varying prices.

38. Diminishing returns occur A. When the qty of the fixed input is increased and return to the variable input falls. B. when the size of the plant is increased in the long run. C. when units of a variable input are added to a fixed input and marginal product falls. D. when units of a variable input are added to a fixed input and total product falls. . 39. If a production function is homogenous of degree one it implies that A. There is decreasing return to scale. B. There is increasing return to scale. C. There is constant return to scale.

D. None of these. 40. Profit maximizing model is of the view that the success a firm depends on A. B. C. D. sales maximization. Market share expansion. profit maximization. Growth maximization.

41. In a perfectly competitive market a profit maximizing firm is A. B. C. D. A price-maker. A price- taker. A price-searcher. A price avoider.

42. Suppose a firm is selling 5 units of the output at the price of Rs.15 per unit. Now if it wants to sell 6 units instead of 5 units and there by the price of the product falls to Rs.14 then the marginal revenue will be A. B. C. D. Rs.14. b Rs.10. Rs.15. Rs.9.

. 43. An oligopolist facing a kinked demand curve if reduces his price after the kink he may not be able to make a good gain because a demand curve will be . A. Vertical. B. Positively sloping. C. More inelastic. D. More elastic. 44. The prices statutorily determined by the government for certain important goods like steel, cement, etc., is called A. B. C. D. Mark-up pricing. Customary pricing. Full cost pricing. Administered prices.

45. The firms join together to strengthen their bargaining position against the consumer in the determination of price it is called A. B. C. D. Acceptance pricing. Price leadership. Collusive oligopoly. Independent pricing.

46. The government has to tax on consumers when A. MSB < MPB of an activity.

B. MSB > MPB of an activity. C. MSB = MPB of an activity. D. MPB < MSB of an activity. 47. The short run, as economists use the phrase is characterized by A. B. C. D. At least one fixed input and firms neither leaving nor entering the industry. A period where the law of diminishing returns does not hold good. All factor inputs are fixed. All factor inputs are variable.

48. The II phase of the law of variable proportion is described as the most economic region because of the following reasons except A. B. C. D. The producer is employing the most ideal factor combinations. Total output is highest when marginal product zero. Total output is highest even before the marginal product is zero. Represents the range of rational production decision.

49. Out of the four statements which one is the incorrect according to Boumal, Increase in expenses of sales promotion would lead to A. B. C. D. Forward shift in the demand curve to the right Backward shift in the demand curve to the left Neither forward nor backward shift in demand curve Backward bending in the demand curve

50. A firm operating under conditions of perfect competitions can A. B. C. D. Determine the price of its product. Determine only the size of its output. Promote the sales through effective advertisement. Capture the market by cutting down the price.

51. Demand pull inflation is the result of A. B. C. D. Increase in production. Increase in the supply of goods. Increase in money supply. Increase in the cost of production.

52. Optimum economic efficiently in resource allocation to produce different goods and services is possible when A. MPB + MEB = MPC + MEC B. MPB + MPC = MEB+ MEC C. MPB + MEC = MEB + MPC D. MPC + MEC = MPB + MEB