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# M1: Introduction to Statistics This module discusses the importance of statistics; some common misconceptions and skepticism about

statistics; basic statistical concepts of population, sample, variable, and scale of measurement; common sampling methods; key concepts in experimental design; and finally several useful graphical tools for summarizing data information. Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Begin to think critically about the ways data are collected, processed, analyzed, interpreted, and presented Use several methods of obtaining samples Use several types of graphs to present numeric facts

Required Reading Chapters 1 (sections 1.1 through 1.3) and 2 (sections 2.1 through 2.3) Module 1 commentary 1.1 What Is Statistics? 1.2 Sampling 1.3 Experimental Design 1.4 Graphic Display of Data Discussions I told you a bit about myself on the course Welcome page. Now I'd like you to introduce yourself to me and to your classmates. Please tell us a something about yourself and let us know why you're taking this course. In this module, we also have an introductory discussion of statistics. You'll find forums called "Introductions" and "Do You Use Statistics?" near the end of this module. You can also access our course discussion forums through the Communicate tab. Discussion participation is not graded in this course, but it is my hope that you will join our discussions and enrich your experience. For all modules in the course, I have posed questions for optional discussion. Let's use these discussions to connect our different perspectives and construct an evolving knowledge base. Please feel free to positively critique and actively respond to comments and questions from other students. During your time in the course, also check out the Questions and Answers Forum, as well as the Student Lounge, for questions and answers about the material we are studying, or other discussion topics that may arise.

Test Yourself Each chapter of our textbook is made up of several sections (Chapter 1, for example, consists of Sections 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3). These sections contain exercise problems. The answers to the oddnumbered problems are provided in the textbook. At the end of each chapter, you will also find additional Chapter Review problems. Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Try not to look at the answers until after you have done the exercises. (If you look at the answers first, you're not really testing yourself.) You should not submit your answers for grading.

Section 1.1 Problems: 5 and 9 Section 1.2 Problems: 7 and 15 Section 1.3 Problems: 3 and 5 Section 2.1 Problem: 9 Section 2.2 Problem: 7 Section 2.3 Problem: 1

Textbook Assignment Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 1."

Section 1.1 Problems: 6 and 10 Section 1.2 Problems: 4, 6, and 16 Section 1.3 Problems: 4 and 6 Section 2.1 Problem: 12 Section 2.2 Problems: 3 and 8 Section 2.3 Problem: 2

M2: Measures of Center and Variation This module introduces several measures of center of a sample:

## and several measures of variation:

Range Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) Standard Deviation (SD) Interquartile Range (IQR)

## Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Explain and compute some common measures of center of a sample Explain and compute some common measures of variation in a sample

Required Reading Chapter 3 (Sections 3.1, 3.2 but excluding Coefficient of Variation and Chebyshev's Theorem, and 3.3) Module 2 commentary 2.1 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 2.2 Measures of Center 2.3 Measures of Variation Discussions Please join our "Measures of Center and Variation" discussion. You'll find the forum near the end of this module. You can also access our course discussion forums through the Communicate tab. Discussion participation is not graded in this course, but it is my hope that you will join our discussions and enrich your experience. During your time in the course, also check the Questions and Answers Forum, as well as the Student Lounge, for questions and answers about the material we are studying, or other discussion topics that may arise. Test Yourself

Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Section 3.1 Problems: 7 and 9 Section 3.2 Problems: 5, 7, and 9 Section 3.3 Problem: 5 Textbook Assignment Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 2." Section 3.1 Problems: 6, 10 Section 3.2 Problems: 6, 10 (a), (b) Section 3.3 Problems: 8

M3: Probability Uncertainty and randomness are ubiquitous. Probability theory is the tool to describe random phenomena. This module introduces several important concepts and rules of probability:

Interpretations of Probability Events and Probabilities Basic Rules for Probability Conditional Probability Probability Rules for Compound Events

## Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Define and calculate the classical probability of an event Describe and use some basic rules of probability Compute the conditional probability of an event Explain the concepts of independent events and mutually exclusive events

Required Reading Chapter 4 (Sections 4.1 and 4.2) Module 3 commentary 3.1 Probability 3.2 Conditional Probability and Probability Rules for Compound Events Discussions Please join our "Probability" discussion, which you'll find in the forum near the end of this module. Test Yourself Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Section 4.1 Problems: 7 and 9 Section 4.2 Problems: 5, 7, and 9 Textbook Assignment

Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 3." Section 4.1 Problems: 6 and 10 Section 4.2 Problems: 6, 10(a) and (b), and 24

M4: Probability Distributions This module introduces the concepts of random variables and their probability distributions, and explores two specific classes of probability distributions:

## Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Discuss the notions of random variables and their probability distributions Explain what a binomial distribution is and compute binomial probabilities Describe the properties of a normal distribution and compute normal distribution probabilities

Required Reading Chapter 5 (Sections 5.1, but excluding Linear Combination of Independent Random Variables; 5.2 and 5.3) Chapter 6 (Sections 6.1, but excluding Control Charts; 6.2 and 6.3, but excluding Checking for Normality) Module 4 commentary 4.1 Random Variables and Probability Distributions 4.2 Binomial Distributions 4.3 Normal Distributions Discussions Please join our "Probability Distributions" discussion, which you'll find in the forum near the end of this module. Test Yourself Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Section 5.1 Problems: 1, 7, and 9 Section 5.2 Problems: 5 and 9 Section 5.3 Problems: 9 and 21

Section 6.1 Problem: 7 Section 6.2 Problems: 9, 17, 23, 31, 37, and 39 Section 6.3 Problems: 7, 25, and 29 Textbook Assignment Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 4." Section 5.1 Problems: 10 and 14 Section 5.2 Problems: 12 and 16 Section 5.3 Problems: 10 and 22 Section 6.1 Problem: 8 Section 6.2 Problems: 8, 38, and 40 Section 6.3 Problems: 8, 26, and 30

M:5 Sampling Distributions This module describes the behaviors of two important statistics: the sample mean and the sample proportion. These behaviors are the foundations for devising the procedures introduced in later modules. Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Understand and use the sampling distribution of the sample means Describe the most important statistical property, called central limit theorem Understand and use the sampling distribution of the sample proportions

Required Reading Chapter 7 (Sections 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3 but excluding Control Charts for Proportions (P-Charts)) Module 5 commentary 5.1 The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Means 5.2 The Central Limit Theorem 5.3 The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Proportions Discussions Please join our "Sampling Distributions" discussion, which you'll find in the forum near the end of this module. Test Yourself Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Section 7.2 Problems: 9, 15, and 17 Section 7.3 Problems: 5, 7, and 9 Textbook Assignment Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 5." Section 7.2 Problems: 10, 14, and 18

Section 7.3 Problems: 6, 8, and 10 Mid-course Exam When you've finished the assignments for this module, you should be ready to take the Midcourse Examination. Show all your work to receive full credit. Please feel free to use your book, my commentary, and your notes to complete the exam. However, you may wish to try to solve each problem on your own before resorting to these aids, so you can see where you need to study more. Submit your completed exam in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Mid-course Exam." Reminder: Your Course End Date Your access to the online classroom will expire on the course End Date, which is indicated in the initial e-mail you received when you enrolled. As you work through the course, please keep the End Date in mind, and if you want to save any commentary or assignments for future reference, please make sure to print or copy/paste those materials before your access ends.