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# M1: Introduction to Statistics This module discusses the importance of statistics; some common misconceptions and skepticism about

statistics; basic statistical concepts of population, sample, variable, and scale of measurement; common sampling methods; key concepts in experimental design; and finally several useful graphical tools for summarizing data information. Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Begin to think critically about the ways data are collected, processed, analyzed, interpreted, and presented Use several methods of obtaining samples Use several types of graphs to present numeric facts

Test Yourself Each chapter of our textbook is made up of several sections (Chapter 1, for example, consists of Sections 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3). These sections contain exercise problems. The answers to the oddnumbered problems are provided in the textbook. At the end of each chapter, you will also find additional Chapter Review problems. Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Try not to look at the answers until after you have done the exercises. (If you look at the answers first, you're not really testing yourself.) You should not submit your answers for grading.

Section 1.1 Problems: 5 and 9 Section 1.2 Problems: 7 and 15 Section 1.3 Problems: 3 and 5 Section 2.1 Problem: 9 Section 2.2 Problem: 7 Section 2.3 Problem: 1

Textbook Assignment Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 1."

Section 1.1 Problems: 6 and 10 Section 1.2 Problems: 4, 6, and 16 Section 1.3 Problems: 4 and 6 Section 2.1 Problem: 12 Section 2.2 Problems: 3 and 8 Section 2.3 Problem: 2

M2: Measures of Center and Variation This module introduces several measures of center of a sample:

## and several measures of variation:

Range Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) Standard Deviation (SD) Interquartile Range (IQR)

## Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Explain and compute some common measures of center of a sample Explain and compute some common measures of variation in a sample

Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Section 3.1 Problems: 7 and 9 Section 3.2 Problems: 5, 7, and 9 Section 3.3 Problem: 5 Textbook Assignment Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 2." Section 3.1 Problems: 6, 10 Section 3.2 Problems: 6, 10 (a), (b) Section 3.3 Problems: 8

M3: Probability Uncertainty and randomness are ubiquitous. Probability theory is the tool to describe random phenomena. This module introduces several important concepts and rules of probability:

Interpretations of Probability Events and Probabilities Basic Rules for Probability Conditional Probability Probability Rules for Compound Events

## Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Define and calculate the classical probability of an event Describe and use some basic rules of probability Compute the conditional probability of an event Explain the concepts of independent events and mutually exclusive events

Required Reading Chapter 4 (Sections 4.1 and 4.2) Module 3 commentary 3.1 Probability 3.2 Conditional Probability and Probability Rules for Compound Events Discussions Please join our "Probability" discussion, which you'll find in the forum near the end of this module. Test Yourself Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Section 4.1 Problems: 7 and 9 Section 4.2 Problems: 5, 7, and 9 Textbook Assignment

Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 3." Section 4.1 Problems: 6 and 10 Section 4.2 Problems: 6, 10(a) and (b), and 24

M4: Probability Distributions This module introduces the concepts of random variables and their probability distributions, and explores two specific classes of probability distributions:

## Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Discuss the notions of random variables and their probability distributions Explain what a binomial distribution is and compute binomial probabilities Describe the properties of a normal distribution and compute normal distribution probabilities

Required Reading Chapter 5 (Sections 5.1, but excluding Linear Combination of Independent Random Variables; 5.2 and 5.3) Chapter 6 (Sections 6.1, but excluding Control Charts; 6.2 and 6.3, but excluding Checking for Normality) Module 4 commentary 4.1 Random Variables and Probability Distributions 4.2 Binomial Distributions 4.3 Normal Distributions Discussions Please join our "Probability Distributions" discussion, which you'll find in the forum near the end of this module. Test Yourself Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Section 5.1 Problems: 1, 7, and 9 Section 5.2 Problems: 5 and 9 Section 5.3 Problems: 9 and 21

Section 6.1 Problem: 7 Section 6.2 Problems: 9, 17, 23, 31, 37, and 39 Section 6.3 Problems: 7, 25, and 29 Textbook Assignment Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 4." Section 5.1 Problems: 10 and 14 Section 5.2 Problems: 12 and 16 Section 5.3 Problems: 10 and 22 Section 6.1 Problem: 8 Section 6.2 Problems: 8, 38, and 40 Section 6.3 Problems: 8, 26, and 30

M:5 Sampling Distributions This module describes the behaviors of two important statistics: the sample mean and the sample proportion. These behaviors are the foundations for devising the procedures introduced in later modules. Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to

Understand and use the sampling distribution of the sample means Describe the most important statistical property, called central limit theorem Understand and use the sampling distribution of the sample proportions

Required Reading Chapter 7 (Sections 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3 but excluding Control Charts for Proportions (P-Charts)) Module 5 commentary 5.1 The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Means 5.2 The Central Limit Theorem 5.3 The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Proportions Discussions Please join our "Sampling Distributions" discussion, which you'll find in the forum near the end of this module. Test Yourself Do the following exercises and then check your answers. Section 7.2 Problems: 9, 15, and 17 Section 7.3 Problems: 5, 7, and 9 Textbook Assignment Complete the following exercises, and submit them in the drop box near the end of this module. You may either paste your answers into the text field of the drop box or attach them to your drop box submission in a document saved in rich text format (.rtf). If you attach a document, name the document "[Your name], XB2, Module 5." Section 7.2 Problems: 10, 14, and 18