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Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Structure, Function and Comparison


Non organelles



Chloroplast Mitochondrion


Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Cell Wall

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi Apparatus

Cell organization and specialization

b) List the organelles which has i) single layer membrane ii) double layers membrane Golgi apparatus Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria Ribosome Chloroplast c) Identify organelles and non organelles i) organelles ii) non organelles Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Cytoplasm Ribosome Cell wall Nucleus mitochondria Chloroplast nucleolus vacuole

d) Complete structures ( organelle / part of cell ) and functions in table below Organelle / part Function of cell Nucleus Controls the activities of the cell. Responsible for cell reproduction and repair of worn-out parts of the cell. Chloroplast Absorb light for photosynthesis Ribosome The main sites of protein synthesis Rough Transports proteins made by the ribosomes endoplasmic through the cistemea reticulum Smooth Is the site of lipid and steroid synthesis endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Processing, packaging and transporting phospholipids and glycoprotein Mitochondrion Is the main site where aerobic respiration takes place to release energy for cell activities. Vacuole Contains water and dissolved substances such as sugars and mineral salts. Plasma Controls the chemicals that enter or leave the membrane cell. Allows only some substances to pass trough it and stops others. Cytoplasm Supports the organelles such as mitochondria, vacuoles and chloroplast in the cell. Site where most of the cell activities and chemicals reactions take place. Cell wall It protects and gives support to the cell It gives the cell a regular shape. 2.1.3 Predict type of organelle which is found in large numbers in each cell shown below. Explain why.

Organelle : mitochondria Explanation : mitochondrion is a site for cellular respiration which Organelle : mitochondria release Explanation : mitochondrion energy. Sperm cells require large is a site for cellular amounts of energy to respiration which release propel towards the uterus energy. Nerve cells require large amounts of energy to

Nerve cell

Organelle : ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria Explanation : Ribosome : synthesis enzyme ( protein ) Rough endoplasmic reticulum : transport protein

Organelle : mitochondria Explanation : mitochondrion is a site for cellular respiration which release energy. Muscles require large amounts of energy to

Organelle : chloroplast Explanation : absorbed light for photosynthesis

Meristematic cells Organelle: mitochondria Explanation : mitochondrion is a site for cellular respiration which release energy. Meristematic cells require large amounts of energy to run mitosis.

2.2 Appreciating the uniqueness of the cell. 2.2.1State organelle which is involve in the process of protein synthesis such as enzyme in the passage below A genetic material for a type of enzyme will be synthesis found in nucleus / chromosome. Double Helix DNA open and a RNA chain which carry the material move out from nucleus to ribosome. Protein which has been synthesis by ribosome will be sent to rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported to golgy apparatus by transport vesicle . From golgi apparatus protein which has been modified transported out of the cell and applied at targeted organs. Base on the above statement what conclusion can be made?

In a cell there are many types of organelles which cooperated to synchronize the function of the cell

b) What will happen if the organelles that you identified in figure 6 (a) and 6(b) does not present in the cell and state the effect .

N Organelle o. 1 Nucleus 2 Golgi apparatus

effect of the absent All cell activity cannot be controlled. Synthesis of carbohydrates, glycoprotein and hormone cannot be finished. Protein which has been modified cannot be transport out of the cell. Synthesis and transported of fat and glycerol cannot be done. No energy produced


Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion

Amoeba sp.

No. Component 1 Nucleus 2 3 4 Pseudopodium Food vacuoles Contractile vacuole

Function -carry genetic information -Controls and regulates all the activities of the cell -for movement - surrounds and engulfs the food particle -contains enzyme for food digestion -collected and eliminated excess water // regulated osmotic concentration of fluid cell

Cell membrane

- regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell (only allows small molecules) Amoeba 1 approaches the AMOEBAS FEEDING food particle

4 food is digested by digestion enzyme and absorbed into cytoplasm Formation of food vacuole 2

Amoebas Pseudopodium surrounds and engulfs the food particles

Cell Organisation Analogy of formation cell to tissue Types of Celll Cell x Types of tissue Tissue R One type of cell Cell y Tissue S Two types of cell Cell z Tissue T Three types of cell The number of celll types

1. Fill in the coloumn with the number of cell type forming the R, S and T tissue 2. What observation can be made about tissue?. : (i) R . Identical cell is formed one type of tissue, cell x (ii) S. is formed by cell x and cell y (iii) T Three types of cell are involved to form one tissue, cell x, cell y and cell z. 3. What inference can be made about tissue? Tissue is formed by one or two or three types of cell 4. Give examples of tissue R, S and T (i) R .epitelium, cardiac, smooth muscle, adipose tissue (ii) S. blood ( erytrocyte dan leucocyte) (iii) T.. nerve ( afferent neurone, efferent neurone and interneurone)

Figure of SKIN

The Skin is an organ Base on figure, identify the tissues which are involved to form skin. Tissue Epithelium Nerve Blood Erector muscle Importance of tissue specialisation on multicellular animals To provide the need of organism from environment to cells in the body and from cells to environment. Carry out specific task as : Role Description


Transportationblood tissue- erytrocyte transport oxygen from lungs to body cells and carbon dioxide from cells to lungs through Blood Circulatory system Digestion - tissue,epithelium secretes extracellular enzyme to digest complex substances into simple substances for absorption Protection epithelium tissue at skin to prevent from bacteria - epithelium tissue at trachea to prevent from dust - adipose tissue at skin to protect heat lost - organ surrounded by adipose tissue to protect internal organ Connection nerves tissue- carry information from sensory organ to spinal cord




TYPICAL STRUCTURE skin Body cavities At alementary canal


STRUCTURE : blood Loose fibrous Compact bone


STRUCTURE : Skeletel muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle

STRUCTURE Sensory neuron Interneuron Motor neuron

CELL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS 1. Identify the cell types that form the vascular tissue on the plant bulk. - tracheid and vessel xylem ( xylem tissue) - companion cell and sieve tube ( floem tissue) 2. Referring to the diagram, explain about the function of each tissue

Parenchyma tissue store sugar and starch gives support and shape to herbaceous plants

Sclerenchyma tissue have cell walls which are uniformly thickened by lignin and may be dead give support and mechanical strength to mature regions of a plant

Vascular tissue xylem tissue transport water and dissolved minerals salts from the roots to the other parts of the plant thickened with lignin to provide support and mechanical strength to the plant floem tissue transport organic compounds such as newly synthesised carbohydrates and amino acids in the leaf to other parts of the plant.