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Introduction to Alloy Phase Diagrams Page 1 of 3

Introduction to Alloy Phase Diagrams


Hugh Baker, Editor

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Introduction to Alloy
ffd8ffe000104a46
ffd8ffe0
ffd8ffe0
Phase
ffd8ffe0
Diagrams Page 2ffd8ffe00
of 3
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0104a4649
494600010201006
00104a46
00104a46
00104a46
00104a46
460001020
000600000ffe20c5
49460001
49460001
49460001
ffd8ffe000104a46
4946000
100480048
4946000102010048
84943435f50524f4
02010048
02010048
02010048
1020100
0000ffe20
00480000ffe20c584
6494c4500010100
00480000
00480000
00480000
4800480
ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201
c58494343
943435f50524f4649
000c484c696e6f02
ffe20c584
ffe20c584
ffe20c584
000ffe20
5f50524f4
005f005f0000ffe20c584943435f50
4c4500010100000c
1000006d6e74725
943435f5
943435f5
943435f5
c5849434
6494c4500
524f46494c4500010100000c484c
484c696e6f021000
247422058595a20
0524f464
0524f464
0524f464
010100000
35f50524
696e6f021000006d6e7472524742
006d6e7472524742
07ce000200090006
94c45000
94c45000
94c45000
c484c696e
f46494c4
2058595a2007ce00020009000600
2058595a2007ce00
If,
instead, the substance is kept at constant
pressure
(as in many metallurgical systems),
003100006163737
10100000
10100000
10100000
6f0210000
Thermodynamic
Principles
0200090006003100
5000101
310000616373704d534654000000
ffd8ffe000104a464946
ffd8ffe000104a4649460001020100
06d6e7472
04d534654000000
c484c696
c484c696
c484c696
00616373704d5346
0049454320735247420000000000
00000c48
00010201004800480000
6000600000ffe20c584943435f50524
524742205
e6f02100
e6f02100
The reactions
between components, the phases
formed004945432073524
ine6f02100
a system,
and the shape of the
resulting phase diagram can be
5400000000494543
000000000000000000f6d6000100
4c696e6f
ffe20c584943435f50524
f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f
8595a2007 and how they apply
742000000000000
0006d6e7
0006d6e7
0006d6e7
explained and understood through knowledge000000d32d485020200000000000
of the principles,
laws, and terms of thermodynamic,
2073524742000000
0210000
021000006d6e74725247422058595a
f46494c4500010100000
ce0002000
to the system.
000000000000000
47252474
47252474
47252474
0000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000
2007ce000200090006003100006163
06d6e747
900060031
c484c696e6f021000006
000000f6d6000100
0f6d600010000000
22058595
22058595
22058595
0000000000000000000000000000
73704d534654000000004945432073
000061637
2524742
d6e74725247422058595
000000d32d485020
Internal
Energy. The sum of the kinetic energy
(energy
of motion)
and potential energy
(stored energy) of a
0d32d4850202000
a2007ce0
a2007ce0
a2007ce0
524742000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000
3704d5346
2000000000000000
system2058595a
is called its internal energy, E. Internal a2007ce0002000900060
energy000000000000000
is 00200090
characterized
solely by the state
of the system.
00200090
00200090
0000f6d6000100000000d32d485020
540000000
1163707274000001500000003364
0310000616373704d534
0000000000000000
2007ce00
000000000000000
00600310
00600310
00600310
200000000000000000000000000000
049454320
657363000001840000006c777470
0000000000000000
65400000000494543207
0200090
Closed
System. A thermodynamic system that
undergoes
no interchange
of mass (material)
with its surroundings is
000000000000000
00061637
00061637
00061637
000000000000000000000000000000
735247420
74000001f000000014626b707400
0000000000000000
and
35247420000000000000
called 0060031
a closed system. A closed system, however,
can
interchange
energy
with
its
surroundings.
000000000000000
3704d534
3704d534
3704d534
000000000000000000000000000000
000000000
0000000000000000
000204000000147258595a000002
000000000000000f6d60
0000616
000000116370727400000150000000
000000000000000
65400000
65400000
65400000
000000000
0000000000000000
18000000146758595a0000022c00
00100000000d32d48502
First Law.
The First Law of Thermodynamics,
as stated
by Julius
von Mayer, James000000000
Joule, and Hermann von
373704d
3364657363000001840000006c7774
000000000000000
00049454
00049454
00049454
1163707274000001
0000146258595a00000240000000
Helmholtz
in
the
1840s,
states
that
energy
can
be
neither
created
nor
destroyed.
Therefore,
it is called the Law of
02000000000000000000
7074000001f000000014626b707400
f6d600010
5346540
001163707274000
32073524
32073524
32073524
5000000033646573
Conservation of Energy. This law means that 14646d6e64000002540000007064
the
total energy
of an isolated system remains
constant throughout any
00000000000000000000
000204000000147258595a00000218
0000000d3
0000000
001500000003364
74200000
74200000
74200000
6300000184000000
operations that are carried out on it; that is, for6d6464000002c400000088767565
any
quantity
of
energy
in
one
form
that
disappears
000000146758595a0000022c000000
00000000000000000000
2d4850202 from the system, an
6c77747074000001
4945432
657363000001840
00000000
00000000
00000000
equal
quantity
of
another
form
(or
other
forms)
will
appear.
640000034c000000867669657700
146258595a0000024000000014646d
000000000
Second Law. While the First Law establishes00000000000000000000
the relationship
between the heat absorbed
and the work performed by a
f000000014626b70
000006c77747074
00000000
00000000
00000000
0735247
0003d4000000246c756d69000003
6e640000025400000070646d646400
000000000
system, it places no restriction on the source of
the heat7400000204000000
or its flow direction. This restriction,
however, is set by the
00000000000000000116
000001f000000014
0000000f
0000000f
0000000f
4200000
For
example,
a closed gaseous
to
which
a
quantity
of
heat
energy
0002c400000088767565640000034c
000000000
f8000000146d6561730000040c00
Second
Law ofconsider
Thermodynamics,
which system
was advanced
by
Rudolf
Clausius
and
William
Thomson
(Lord Kelvin). The
37072740000015000000
147258595a000002
626b70740000020
6d600010
6d600010
6d600010
0000008676696577000003d4000000
W, isthat
extracted.
The First Law
the
change
in
internal
energy,
dE,
of
the
system
as follows:
000000000
Second0000000
Law states
the spontaneous
flow describes
of
heat
always
is
from
the
higher
temperature
body
to
the lower
0000247465636800000430000000
1800000014675859
03364657363000001840
400000014725859
0000000d
0000000d
0000000d
0000000
246c756d69000003f8000000146d65
000000000
temperature
body. In other words, all naturally
occurring
processes
tend
to
take
place
spontaneously
in
the direction
0c725452430000043c0000080c67
5a0000022c000000
dE =
000006c7774707400000
5a0000021800000
32d48502
32d48502
32d48502
61730000040c000000247465636800
000000000
0000000
that will
lead to equilibrium.
5452430000043c0000080c625452
146258595a000002
1f000000014626b70740
In the vast
majority of industrial processes and0004300000000c725452430000043c
material
applications,
the only work done
by or on a system is limited
0146758595a0000
02000000
02000000
02000000
000000000
00f6d600
4000000014646d6e
430000043c0000080c7465787400
00002040000001472585
to
pressure/volume
terms.
Any
energy
contributions
from
electric,
magnetic,
or
gravitational
arepossessed
neglected,by all
0000080c675452430000043c000008
00000000
00000000
00000000
Entropy.
The Second Law is not conveniently
stated 022c00000014625
in
terms
of
entropy, S, another 000000000
propertyfields
of state
0100000
6400000254000000
000000436f707972696768742028
95a00000218000000146
except
for
electrowinning
and
electrorefining
processes
such
as
those
used
in
the
production
of
copper,
aluminum,
0c625452430000043c0000080c7465
000000000
00000000
00000000
00000000 T) in a system
systems.
Entropy represents the energy (per degree
of 8595a0000024000
absolute
temperature,
that is not available
for
70646d6464000002
000d32d
ffd8ffe000104a464946000102010060
63292031393938204865776c6574
magnesium,
the
alkaline
metals,
and
the
alkaline
earths.
With
the
neglect
of
field
effects,
the
work
done
by a system
758595a0000022c00000
787400000000436f70797269676874
000000000
work. In terms of entropy, the Second Law states
that
all
natural
processes
tend
to
occur
only
with
an
increase
in
000014646d6e640
00000000
00000000
00000000
c400000088767565
742d5061636b61726420436f6d70
can
be 4850202
measured
by summing
theprocess
changesalways
in00600000ffe20c584943435f50524f464
volume,
dV,astimes
each
pressure
causing
a change.
Therefore,
when field
202863292031393938204865776c65
0146258595a000002400
000001163
entropy,
and the direction
of the
is
such
to
lead
to
an
increase
in
entropy.
For
processes
taking
place
000025400000070
00000000
00000000
00000000
640000034c000000
94c4500010100000c484c696e6f02100
0000000
616e790000646573630000000000
effects
are neglected,
the First
can be written:
74742d5061636b61726420436f6d70
707274000
0000014646d6e6400000
in a system
in equilibrium
withLaw
its surroundings,
the
change
in
entropy
is
defined
as
follows:
8676696577000003
646d6464000002c
00000000
00000000
00000000
0006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce0
0000127352474220494543363139
0000000
616e79000064657363000000000000
001500000
25400000070646d64640
dE
=
d4000000246c756d
400000088767565
00000000
00000000
00000000
0020009000600310000616373704d534
001273524742204945433631393636
36362d322e310000000000000000
003364657
0000000
00002c40000008876756
69000003f8000000
65400000000494543207352474200000
640000034c00000
00000000
00000000
00000000
2d322e310000000000000000000000
363000001
0000001273524742204945433631
0000000
5640000034c000000867
146d656173000004
00000000000000000000000f6d600010
086766965770000
00000000
00000000
00000000
Enthalpy.
Thermal energy changes under constant
pressure
(again
neglecting any field
effects) are most
ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201004800480000ffe20c584943435f5
12735247422049454336313936362d
840000006
3936362d322e3100000000000000
0000000
0c00000024746563
6696577000003d400000
0000000d32d485020200000000000000
conveniently expressed in terms of the enthalpy,
H,
of
a
system.
Enthalpy,
also
called
heat
content, is defined by:
03d4000000246c7
00000000
00000000
00000000
322e31000000000000000000000000
c77747074
0000000000000000000000000000
0524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e747252474
6800000430000000
0000000
0246c756d69000003f80
00000000000000000000000000000000
56d69000003f8000
00000000
00000000
00000000
000000000000000000000000000000
000001f00
Third Law. A principle advanced by Theodore
Walter
Nernst,
Max
Planck,
0c72545243000004
H = 00000000000000000000000000000000
E000000000000
+Richards,
PV Enthalpy,
like
internal
energy,
is
aand others, often called Third
0000000
00000146d65617300000
22058595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000
000146d65617300
00000000
00000000
00000000
000001462
Law of Thermodynamics, states that the entropy
of
all
chemically
homogeneous
materials
can be taken as zero at
3c0000080c675452
00000000000000000116370727400000
40c00000024746563680
0000000
function
of
thetemperature
state of the (0
system,
as isprinciple
the product
PV.
00049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d600010
6b7074000
00040c000000247
01163707
01163707
01163707
absolute
zero
K). This
allows
calculation
of
the
absolute
values
of
entropy of pure substances
430000043c000008
15000000033646573630000018400000
00004300000000c72545
0000000
002040000
solely
from
heat
capacity.
465636800000430
27400000
27400000
27400000
0c62545243000004
0000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000
06c77747074000001f000000014626b7
Heat Capacity.
is the amount of heat required 001472585
to raise its temperature one
2430000043c0000080c6
0000000 The heat capacity, C, of a substance
0000000c7254524
15000000
15000000
15000000
3c0000080c746578
07400000204000000147258595a00000
degree; that is:
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
75452430000043c00000
95a000002
Gibbs0000000
Energy. Because both S and V are difficult
to 30000043c000008
control
experimentally,
term, Gibbs energy, G, is
7400000000436f70
03364657
03364657
03364657 an additional
218000000146758595a0000022c00000
180000001
80c625452430000043c0
0001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77
introduced,
whereby:
0000000
7972696768742028
0c6754524300000
36300000
36300000
36300000
0146258595a0000024000000014646d6
46758595a
000080c7465787400000
6329203139393820
0000000
747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a00
43c0000080c62545
18400000
18400000
18400000
Ge640000025400000070646d646400000
0000022c0
000436f7079726967687
4865776c6574742d
2c400000088767565640000034c00000
0000116
2430000043c0000
06c77747
06c77747
06c77747
000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000
000001462
5061636b61726420
42028632920313939382
08676696577000003d4000000246c756
However,
if the substance is kept at constant
volume
(dV =07400000
0):
3707274
080c74657874000
07400000
07400000
58595a000
000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c4000000887
436f6d70616e7900
dG = dE + PdV d69000003f8000000146d65617300000
+ 04865776c6574742d506
VdP -TdS
-SdT 1f000000
However,
00000436f7079726
1f000000
1f000000
0000015
002400000
0064657363000000
40c00000024746563680000043000000
1636b61726420436f6d7
67565640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69
967687420286329
014626b7
014626b7
014626b7
0000000
0014646d6
0000000012735247
and
00c725452430000043c0000080c67545
0616e790000646573630
000003f8000000146d6561730000040c000000247465636800000430
e64000002
203139393820486
07400000
07400000
07400000
3364657
dE = TdS -PdV
4220494543363139
2430000043c0000080c6254524300000
00000000000001273524
540000007
5776c6574742d50
20400000
20400000
20400000
3630000
0000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c
36362d322e310000
43c0000080c7465787400000000436f7
Therefore,
74220494543363139363
0646d6464
61636b617264204
01472585
01472585
01472585
0000000000000000
0184000
07972696768742028632920313939382
625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f707972696768
62d322e3100000000000
000002c40
36f6d70616e79000
95a00000
95a00000
95a00000
0012735247422049
04865776c6574742d5061636b6172642
0006c777
000008876
74202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b617264204
00000000000127352474
454336313936362d
064657363000000
21800000
21800000
21800000
0436f6d70616e7900006465736300000
4707400
756564000
22049454336313936362
322e310000000000
36f6d70616e790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454
000000001273524
01467585
01467585
01467585
00000000012735247422049454336313
0001f000
0034c0000
d322e310000000000000
0000000000000000
936362d322e310000000000000000000
742204945433631
95a00000
95a00000
95a00000
336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049
0000146
008676696
00000000000000000000
mhtml:file://E:\ASM\ASM\Volume%203\B-Intoduction%20to%20Alloy%20Phase%20D...
11/24/2005
0000000000000000
00012735247422049454336313936362
3936362d322e310
22c00000
22c00000
22c00000
577000003
26b7074
454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000
000000000000
Q
=
d322e310000000000000000000000000
000000000000000
01462585
01462585
01462585
d40000002
0000020
000000000000000000000H
-TS and
0E
dE+ PV -TS
00000000000000000000000000000