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INDO-GERMAN WINTER ACADEMY 2007

ELEMENTARY CASCADE THEORY AND GAS TURBINE PERFORMANCE

AVIRAL CHOPRA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING IIT KANPUR TUTORS: DR. G. BIWAS, DR. S. SARKAR

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance

Outline
Gas Turbine Engines Axial Flow Turbines Turbine Performance Cascade Theory Compressor Cascade Turbine Cascade

Conclusion
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Gas Turbine Engines

Theory Of Gas Turbine Engines


A gas turbine engine extracts energy from a flow of hot gas produced by combustion of gas or fuel oil in a stream of compressed air. The system has three major parts: Compressor: compresses the incoming air to high pressure

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Gas Turbine Engines

Theory Of Gas Turbine Engines


Combustor: Burns the fuel and produces high-pressure, hightemperature gas

Turbine: Extracts the energy from the high-pressure, highenergy gas flowing from the combustion chamber

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Gas Turbine Engines

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Gas Turbine Engines

Working Of A Simple Turbojet


Turbine extracts energy from the gas to rotate compressor The pressurized gas from compressor is furnished to maintain the cycle Burning of fuel-air mixture provides stream of hot expanding gases Out of the total energy development, approximately 60% is extracted to maintain the engine cycle The rest is available to develop useful thrust directly

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Axial Flow Turbines

Axial Flow Turbines


Compared to compressor More Efficient Simpler Design Blade shape Dependent on Stress and Cooling Not as much on aerodynamics Axial Turbine Stage Row of stationary blades: Nozzle Row of rotating blades: Rotor

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Axial Flow Turbines

2-D Theory Of Axial Turbines

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Axial Flow Turbines

Work Done, WT
Power Output:

In axial turbine stage,

Using diagram, we express work output in terms of rotor blade angles Combined Velocity diagram WT
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Axial Flow Turbines

Types Of Axial Turbines


Impulse Turbines Entire Pressure drop in nozzle Symmetrical Rotor blades 50 % Reaction Turbines Pressure drop same in Nozzle and Rotor Thus, symmetrical blading 2 = -3 , 2 = -3

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Axial Flow Turbines

Dimensionless Parameters
, Blade loading or temperature drop coefficient Expresses work capacity of a stage

, Flow coefficient =Vf / U = (tan 2 tan 1) R, degree of reaction,


fraction of overall enthalpy drop (or pressure drop) occurring in the rotor =
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Axial Flow Turbines

Gas Flow Angles in terms of , , R

Thus, R in terms of Exit Angles:

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Axial Flow Turbines

ZERO EXIT SWIRL


Given stator angle In Impulse stage, all flow velocities are higher Thus, lower efficiency

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Work capacity and degree of reaction R of axial turbine stages design for zero exit swirl.

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Turbine Performance

STAGE EFFICIENCY
Total-to-Static Turbine efficiency, ts Total-to-Total Turbine Efficiency, tt

Useful work is shaft power Kinetic Energy of exhaust, V32 /2 is a loss

Exhaust Kinetic Energy is not a loss

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Turbine Performance

STAGE EFFICIENCY
Using

we obtain

Thus tt > ts Actual Turbine Work

T-S diagram: expansion in a turbine

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

STAGE EFFICIENCY
Estimation of stage losses and is difficult Loss Coefficients for Nozzle and Rotor are defined using cascade tests Effect of loss expressed as difference in static enthalpy Enthalpy loss coefficient for nozzle, Enthalpy loss coefficient foe rotor,

Thus,

and

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

TURBINE STAGE PERFORMANCE


Given
Turbine Design Fluid at high Re

We get:

where stagnation states 02 and 03 are at the turbine inlet and outlet

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

OVERALL PERFORMANCE
tt is constant over wide range of Rotational Speed Pressure Ratio Performance is limited by 2 factors: Compressibility Stress Trade-off between maximum temperature and maximum rotor speed, U Thus, elaborate cooling methods are adopted
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

ELEMENTARY CASCADE THEORY


An array of blades representing the blade ring of actual turbo machinery is called the cascade. Turntable: to vary the incidence angle Pressure and velocity measurements made upstream and downstream of cascade
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Cascade Tunnel

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

WHY CASCADE THEORY


To simulate actual conditions, cascade of blades could be tested in annular form in wind tunnel In such case of rotating device, difficult to appreciate flow physics Hence, blades generally tested as straight cascade or cascade tunnel This way: Mechanical complications reduced 2-D flow conditions simplifies interpretation of test results
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

CASCADE NOMENCLATURE

Blade Camber Angle, = 1 + 2

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

COMPRESSOR CASCADE
Stagger angel, (+ve here) (b/w Axis and chord line) Blade inlet angle, 1I = + 1 Blade outlet angle 2I = 2 Air inlet Angle, 1 = + 1 + i Air outlet Angle, 2 = - 2 + Deflection, = 1 2 =+i- Deviation, = 2 2I Incidence Angle, i = 1 1I
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

TURBINE CASCADE

Note: Stagger Angel, is ve here

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

COMPRESSOR CASCADE

Velocity Triangle

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

COMPRESSOR CASCADE
Vm is the mean velocity that makes an angle with the axial direction m. Circulation, = S ( VW1-VW2 ) Lift, L = VM = VM S( VW1-VW2 ) Lift is perpendicular to m line S,C -depend on the design of the cascade Lift Coefficient
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

TURBINE CASCADE

Velocity Triangle

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

EFFECT OF VISCOUS FLOW


Till now, Inviscid flow assumption In reality, loss in pressure Loss in total pressure = Loss in Static pressure = Loss due to Frictional loss ( boundary layer formation) Mixing of blade wakes
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

Variation of Stagnation Pressure Loss and Deflection


Fixed Incidence Loss in Dimensionless form

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

Cascade Mean Deflection and Pressure Loss Curves


Nominal Deflection = * Stalling Deflection = s

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

DESIGN DEFLECTION CURVES


Test results for different geometric forms by varying
Camber Pitch/ Chord ratio

In the range of incidence likely to be used, * is mainly dependent on:


Pitch/ chord ratio Air outlet angle

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

COMPRESSOR CASCADE (VISCOUS CASE)


Due to losses in total pressure, an axial force, Thus, Drag, Lift is reduced, so Effective Lift

Lift Coefficient

Drag Coefficient

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

TURBINE CASCADE (VISCOUS CASE)


Here, Drag contributes to work. So, drag is useful component Drag, Effective Lift,

Lift Coefficient

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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

COMPRESSOR BLADE EFFICIENCY


Due to viscous effect, static pressure rise is reduced, so Blade efficiency,

b is max if

, or
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Approximation: in expression of Lift, effect of Drag is ignored.

Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

TURBINE BLADE EFFICIENCY


Blade Efficiency,

For small CD / CL ratio

= (b)compressor
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance Cascade Theory

BLADE EFFICIENCY
If Drag is not neglected in expression of Lift

Nature of variation of b wrt mean flow angle m


Note: b does not vary much in the range 15 m 75, which provides flexibility in design.
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance

CONCLUSION
Compared to axial compressors, axial turbines are simpler in design and more efficient Elaborate cooling techniques are adopted in turbines to have
Less stress at higher temperature More rotor speed

Cascade theory gives a thorough idea about the performance of compressor and turbine blades Through cascade analysis, a wide database is created which aids in the design of compressor or turbine blades
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Elementary Cascade Theory And Gas Turbine Performance

THANK YOU

Aviral Chopra Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

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