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A Project Report on

Fast food habit of student

[A fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Management studies] Submitted by: Mr.Abhishek.Mukesh.Verma (S.Y.B.M.S.)

Project Guide: Prof. S. K. Bapat

Bharat College of Commerce & Science Hendre pada, Kulgaon, Badlapur (W). University of Mumbai Academic year 2011-2012

Bharat College of Commerce and Science Badlapur -421503


I PROF. Shripad k Bapat. Hereby certify that ABHISHEK VERMA of Bharat College of

commerce and science SY.B.M.S. (4th Semester) has completed the project on FAST FOOD HABITS OF STUDENTS in the academic year 2010-2011. The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

Prof.S.K.Bapat (Project Guide)

It was interesting job to prepare project on Fast Food Habits of Student which was an attempt to gain more knowledge on the topic and at the same time to know about new option in the Fast Food


This project was like a dream for me. It would not have been possible for me to achieve this dream without the help & support of some valuable persons. I am thankful to our respected PROF. S. K. BAPAT for allowing us to work on this project. I also thankful to my friends project And at last great thanks for my father for helping my

to support me.


Acknowledgement Table of Contents List of Tables

Sr. No.

Name of Chapter Introduction Review of Literature Research Design Analysis and Interpretation of Data Conclusions and Suggestions

Page No.

1 2 3 4 5


Table No. Title Page No.



When you send your older children off to college, you hope they'll make good grades and have healthy eating habits. Unfortunately, this may not be the case '" at least as far as the eating habits go. According to a new study carried out at the University of Leicester, college student food choices may leave much to be desired from a health perspective '" and it could set them up for future health problems later. What is true of childhood traumas in relation to abuse is just as true for cultural learning regarding food. The rest of childrens lives will be dominated and regulated by the rules about food that they learned as children. Specific food habits are found to be dependent upon the subject having been fed that way as a child, indicating that childhood food habits persist into late adolescence. Parents supply and guide their childrens intake of food while the child is growing. It is under these circumstances that children are taught, by the influence of their parents, to exercise internal or external control of eating. Whether or not these eating habits, developed at an early age through observation and practice, stay with the child through adulthood is unknown. The literature demonstrates the significant impact of early experiences with food and the attitudes about nutrition influenced by parents, control of the feeding environment, positive and negative behaviors, and eating habits. Fast food success has drawn much attention to the industry and the food itself. Animal rights advocates and health buffs alike criticize fast food on its effect on the health of its customers and the health of the globe. Not


only is fast food proven to be bad for the health because of its high fat content and the probable health hazards fast food chains are prone to, but also its effect on employment and agricultural concerns. Fast food affinity is equated with bad eating habits. A typical meal from a fast food restaurant, say a serving of fries and a cheeseburger, amount to about 1,000 calories. This is about half of the recommended dietary allowance. This is mainly because of the large portions that fast foods are accustomed to serving. The tendency is for people to enlarge their appetites by eating beyond their limit, because of being afraid for the food to go to waste. Fast food is everywhere. It is available from main commercial blocks to gas service stations. In short, it is available and accessible. This partnered with the biological propensity towards food high in fat and sugar, leads to widespread obesity. A particular man filed a lawsuit in the United States against four fast food chains because, according to him, the fast foods greasy and salty food led him to being obese and unhealthy. Magnifying this issue, a documentary titled Supersize Me was created. This showed the life of a man who dined on fast food for an entire month. The result was tens of pounds gained. Ultimately, dining regularly or almost totally on fast food will pose serious risks to ones health. But it cannot be totally blamed for health problems. Mainly because it still rests on the persons choice. There are plenty of fast food diners in perfect shape. The key is in moderation and smart choice. Another issue in the fast food industry is the health hazards that fast food chains are prone to. A particular hazard is the E-coli bacteria that meat products are susceptible to. Because of the long supply chain through which fast food chains operate in, the handling and sourcing of the meat is very hard to monitor. This issue remains unsolved. Employment issues are also abundant in the fast food industry. Mainly because working in a fast food does not require a college diploma or


reasonable career experience, fast foods employ teenagers as part-time crew and unskilled adults that accept low pay. There are widespread cases wherein workers were forced to work longer hours without pay. The agriculture industry also suffers because of fast food chains. It has led to mass slaughters of cattle. Because fast food chains require so much meat and poultry, their demand leads them to make deals with large slaughter corporations. These deals and practices crowd out smaller businesses. Fast food domination has several implications both for the health of individuals and for the health of the entire globe. Ultimately, people can exercise their power of choice responsibly. Be more conscious with what they eat and where their food came from. This is the starting point for a healthier lifestyle.

We are in a habit of eating or munching food while performing routine tasks. Most of us are careless about the type of food, timing, size and the portion of it we are consuming. In this way we keep on eating things that are not healthy. According to a recent survey eating between the meals have been increased among people of all ages. Chips, pretzels, crackers, fries and bread are some of the very common between the meals snacks (especially while people are at work). This savory, flavorful and tangy food has one thing in common they have their unique taste which is quite enough to make you addict to them. Fast food as they are they have zero caloric value no vitamins, minerals, protein or fiber. This makes them poor for every organ of our body. Regardless of their nutritional value we enjoy them. People generally have a belief that snacks mean only that food which is good on their taste buds. Snacks means much more than that. Having a healthy snack that is less in carbohydrates and more in other nutrients can fulfill your appetite making you feel less hungry and you will be able to cut down the regular meals in quantity. For this purpose you have to adapt healthy eating habits and there are several possible solutions for this.


Types of Fast Food: Fast food includes burgers, pizzas, French fries, chips, noodles, pasta and fish. These food have been processed and refined in such a way that they loss most of the key nutrients and they are zero in fiber as well as they have poor water content.  Why Students Prefer to EAT Fast Food: Fast food is ready-to-cook and we are so busy that we cannot make something rather we prefer to eat ready-made food. Fast food is tasty to eat and our taste buds like them because either they have loads of salt and spice or else sugar. They are usually presented in colorful and presentable packaging which increases the appetite. They are easy to carry along because of the packaging. Eating fast food is still regarded as fashion in some societies. Some people do not have knowledge of the negative effects of fast food on our health. Fast food is marketed everywhere and fast food restaurants are readily available in every locality that is why people and student go for it.


 Problems caused by Fast Food:

Fast food are poor on digestive tract because to digest food in mouth and stomach we need enzymes and fast food does not have them when food is absorbed by the intestine it again needs enzymatic activity and lastly when it is in large intestine it needs fiber and water to excrete but they don't have such nutrients.

Snacks are another type of fast food which includes chips, pretzels, chocolates, sweets, ice creams, sweets, biscuits and crisps. These are also highly processed but along with that they contain allot of additives, preservatives and artificial colors. Most of the people do not have knowledge about either their presence or else their harmful effects.

 Problems caused by Snacks:

Due to the presence of wide variety of additives and preservatives, there are chances of many health related risks by eating unhealthy snacks too often. These additives are synthetic product which body cannot digest and in poor quality biscuits and chips one cannot be sure the origin of those additives etc. Artificial colors are another very dangerous ingredients of these foods.

Soft Drinks:
Soft drinks include coke, Pepsi, sprite, fanta, lemonade and other these types of cold drinks with different brand names. They contain high content of sugar, and color too.

 Problems caused by Soft Drinks:

Soft drinks contain sugar and color. Presence of sugar in high quantity means that they are not healthy for diabetic patients and frequently drinking soft drinks can also become a cause of diabetes too. Presence of color is another big problem except sprite and 7up all other soft drink contains color which is not healthy for us. Black soft drink contains low amount of Phosphorus in them, consumption of which can cause serious problems to our

teeth. Phosphorus reduces coating on our teeth called Enamel. Reduction of enamel leads to tooth sensitivity towards hot & cold

Some people say that margarine is also junk food as it is hydrogenated and during this process the natural oil changes from its natural state to an artificial one and they prefer butter or margarine. Butter though rich in saturated fats is low in trans-fat and has many other nutrients too.

 Problems Caused by Margarine:

Moderate use of margarine should be done if not possible to avoid it all together. Margarine contains many trans-fat and hence it causes coronary diseases as well as increases risk of cancer and many other diseases.



RESEARCH: The term research has two words Re+Search. Re means again and Search means to find out something new.

DEFINATION: In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. In fact research is a process which unrevealing the facts underlying a phenomenon. Thus it is a simple process to look at phenomenon again and again from different dimensions. Research is oriented towards the discovery of relationship that exists among different phenomena of the world. Research is based on fundamental assumption that invariant relationships exist between certain antecedents and certain consequents so that under a specific set of conditions , certain consequents can be expected to follow the introduction of given antecedent.

Research is a point of view, an attitude of inquiry or a frame for mind. It asks questions which have hitherto not been asked, and it seeks to answer them by following a fairly definite procedure. It is not a mere theorizing, but rather an attempt to elicit facts and to face them once they have been assembled.

POPULATION: A group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics from which data can be gathered and analyzed. A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. In ecology the


population of a certain species in a certain area is estimated using the Lincoln Index. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that interbreeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Normally breeding is substantially more common within the area than across the border

SAMPLING: In statistics and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Researchers rarely survey the entire population because the cost of a census is too high. The three main advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower, data collection is faster, and since the data set is smaller it is possible to ensure homogeneity and to improve the accuracy and quality of the data. Each observation measures one or more properties (such as weight, location, color) of observable bodies distinguished as independent objects or individuals. In survey sampling, weights can be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design, particularly stratified sampling (blocking). Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice. In business and medical research, sampling is widely used for gathering information about a population. Types of samples:The best sampling is probability sampling, because it increases the likelihood of obtaining samples that are representative of the population. y Probability sampling (Representative samples):Probability samples are selected in such a way as to be representative of the population. They provide the most valid or credible results because they reflect the characteristics of the population from which they are selected (e.g., residents of a particular community, students at an


elementary school, etc.). There are two types of probability samples: random and stratified. I. Random Sample:-

The term random has a very precise meaning. Each individual in the population of interest has an equal likelihood of selection. This is a very strict meaning -you can't just collect responses on the street and have a random sample. The assumption of an equal chance of selection means that sources such as a telephone book or voter registration lists are not adequate for providing a random sample of a community. In both these cases there will be a number of residents whose names are not listed. Telephone surveys get around this problem by random-digit dialing -but that assumes that everyone in the population has a telephone. The key to random selection is that there is no bias involved in the selection of the sample. Any variation between the sample characteristics and the population characteristics is only a matter of chance. II. Stratified Sample:-

A stratified sample is a mini-reproduction of the population. Before sampling, the population is divided into characteristics of importance for the research. For example, by gender, social class, education level, religion, etc. Then the population is randomly sampled within each category or stratum. If 38% of the population is college-educated, then 38% of the sample is randomly selected from the college-educated population. Stratified samples are as good as or better than random samples, but they require fairly detailed advance knowledge of the population characteristics, and therefore are more difficult to construct.

y Non probability samples (Non-representative samples):As they are not truly representative, non-probability samples are less desirable than


probability samples. However, a researcher may not be able to obtain a random or stratified sample, or it may be too expensive. A researcher may not care about generalizing to a larger population. The validity of non-probability samples can be increased by trying to approximate random selection, and by eliminating as many sources of bias as possible. I. Quota Sample:-

The defining characteristic of a quota sample is that the researcher deliberately sets the proportions of levels or strata within the sample. This is generally done to insure the inclusion of a particular segment of the population. The proportions may or may not differ dramatically from the actual proportion in the population. The researcher sets a quota, independent of population characteristics. II. Purposive Sample:-

A purposive sample is a non-representative subset of some larger population, and is constructed to serve a very specific need or purpose. A researcher may have a specific group in mind, such as high level business executives. It may not be possible to specify the population -- they would not all be known, and access will be difficult. The researcher will attempt to zero in on the target group, interviewing whoever is available. III. Convenience Sample :-

A convenience sample is a matter of taking what you can get. It is an accidental sample. Although selection may be unguided, it probably is not random, using the correct definition of everyone in the population having an equal chance of being selected. Volunteers would constitute a convenience sample. Non-probability samples are limited with regard to generalization. Because they do not truly represent a population, we cannot make valid inferences about the larger group from which they are drawn. Validity can be increased by approximating random selection as much as possible, and making every attempt to avoid introducing bias into sample selection.


Research Method Adopted. In every research programmed data plays an important role. There are two types of data which are useful in every research activity. For the proposed study data is to be collected from primary and secondary sources 1. Primary Data: Primary data is to be collected through survey method. For these purpose 25 samples from various respondents using personal interviews will be conducted. A structured questionnaire including around close ended and open ended questions has been prepared and the same has been on direct contacting respondents and getting their correct responses for the topic under study. In addition to these informal discussions with professor and students is to be conducted to have the clear insight in to the subject matter. In this way the first hand information is to be collected from the above mentioned sources. y Advantages 1. Minimizes response bias, can provide information which cannot be obtained otherwise. 2. Uses people's knowledge and experiences allowing for in depth qualitative information can encourage participation from those who will not speak or respond to a personal interview. 3. Opportunity to get insider view can provide in-depth information.

y Disadvantages 1. Limited to measuring behavior, time consuming, and subject to investigator bias. 2. There is no confidentiality and thus some opinions may not be expressed, social pressure


3. Relationship between the two parties may influence the answers.

2. Secondary Data: Secondary data is to be collected from various sources like books, magazines, internet sites etc. All these information collected is to be used to facilitate the overall understanding of the topic under study. For the purpose of the above mentioned study the appropriate statistical techniques will be used to analyze the data such as percentage, averages etc.

y Advantages 1. Secondary data, if available, can be secured quickly and cheaply. 2. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. Thus the use of secondary data extends the researcher's space and time reach. 3. The use of secondary data broadens the database from which scientific generalizations can be made. 4. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings based on primary data. y Disadvantages/limitations 1. The most important limitation is the available data may not meet, our specific research needs. 2. The available data may not be as accurate as desired. 3. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print, because of time lag in producing them. 4. Finally information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists.