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18198331 NLM MEDLINE 20080116 20080313 20081121 0890-9369 (Print) 22 2 2008 Jan 15 Understanding of bat wing evolution takes flight. 121-4 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Cooper, Kimberly L Cooper KL Tabin, Clifford J Tabin CJ eng F32 HD 052349/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States R37 HD 32443/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States Comment Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural United States Genes Dev Genes & development 8711660 0 (Homeodomain Proteins) IM Genes Dev. 2008 Jan 15;22(2):141-51. PMID: 18198333 Animals Chiroptera/*genetics *Evolution Forelimb/anatomy & histology Fossils *Genetic Variation Homeodomain Proteins/*genetics Wing/*growth & development 2008/01/17 09:00 2008/03/14 09:00 2008/01/17 09:00 22/2/121 [pii] 10.1101/gad.1639108 [doi] ppublish Genes Dev. 2008 Jan 15;22(2):121-4.

16618938 NLM MEDLINE 20060427 20060615 20081120 0027-8424 (Print) 103 17 2006 Apr 25 Development of bat flight: morphologic and molecular evolution of bat wing digits. PG - 6581-6

AB - The earliest fossil bats resemble their modern counterparts in possessing greatly elongated digits to support the wing membrane, which is an anatomical hall mark of powered flight. To quantitatively confirm these similarities, we performed a morphometric analysis of wing bones from fossil and modern bats. We found that the lengths of the third, fourth, and fifth digits (the primary supportive elements of the wing) have remained constant relative to body size over th e last 50 million years. This absence of transitional forms in the fossil record led us to look elsewhere to understand bat wing evolution. Investigating embryoni c development, we found that the digits in bats (Carollia perspicillata) are initially similar in size to those of mice (Mus musculus) but that, subseq uently, bat digits greatly lengthen. The developmental timing of the change in win g digit length points to a change in longitudinal cartilage growth, a process that depends on the relative proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. We found that bat forelimb digits exhibit relatively high rates of chondrocyt e proliferation and differentiation. We show that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) can stimulate cartilage proliferation and differentiation and incre ase digit length in the bat embryonic forelimb. Also, we show that Bmp2 expres sion and Bmp signaling are increased in bat forelimb embryonic digits relative to mouse or bat hind limb digits. Together, our results suggest that an up-regulation of the Bmp pathway is one of the major factors in the develo pmental elongation of bat forelimb digits, and it is potentially a key mechanism i n their evolutionary elongation as well. AD - Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Science s Center, 12800 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. FAU - Sears, Karen E AU - Sears KE FAU - Behringer, Richard R AU - Behringer RR FAU - Rasweiler, John J 4th AU - Rasweiler JJ 4th FAU - Niswander, Lee A AU - Niswander LA LA - eng SI - GENBANK/DQ279782 SI - GENBANK/DQ279783 SI - GENBANK/DQ279784 SI - GENBANK/DQ279785 GR - F32 HD050042-01/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States GR - HD32427/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States PT - Comparative Study PT - Journal Article

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Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 20060417 United States Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of Am 7505876 0 (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins) 0 (DNA, Complementary) IM Animals Base Sequence Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/genetics Chiroptera/anatomy & histology/embryology/*genetics/*physiology DNA, Complementary/genetics *Evolution, Molecular *Flight, Animal Fossils Mice Molecular Sequence Data Signal Transduction Wing/*anatomy & histology/embryology/*physiology PMC1458926 NLM: PMC1458926 2006/04/19 09:00 2006/06/16 09:00 2006/04/19 09:00 2006/04/17 [aheadofprint] 0509716103 [pii] 10.1073/pnas.0509716103 [doi] ppublish Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 25;103(17):6581-6. Epub 2006 Apr 17. 11353869 NLM MEDLINE 20010524 20010719 20081120 0027-8424 (Print) 98 11 2001 May 22 Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation. 6241-6 Molecular and morphological data have important roles in illuminating evolutionary history. DNA data often yield well resolved phylogenies for l taxa, but are generally unattainable for fossils. A distinct advantage of morphology is that some types of morphological data may be collected for e

xtinct and extant taxa. Fossils provide a unique window on evolutionary history a nd may preserve combinations of primitive and derived characters that are not fou nd in extant taxa. Given their unique character complexes, fossils are critical in documenting sequences of character transformation over geologic time and m ay

elucidate otherwise ambiguous patterns of evolution that are not revealed by molecular data alone. Here, we employ a methodological approach that allow s for the integration of molecular and paleontological data in deciphering one o f the most innovative features in the evolutionary history of mammals-laryngeal echolocation in bats. Molecular data alone, including an expanded data set that includes new sequences for the A2AB gene, suggest that microbats are parap hyletic but do not resolve whether laryngeal echolocation evolved independently in different microbat lineages or evolved in the common ancestor of bats and was subsequently lost in megabats. When scaffolds from molecular phylogenies a re incorporated into parsimony analyses of morphological characters, includin g morphological characters for the Eocene taxa Icaronycteris, Archaeonycteri s, Hassianycteris, and Palaeochiropteryx, the resulting trees suggest that la ryngeal echolocation evolved in the common ancestor of fossil and extant bats and was subsequently lost in megabats. Molecular dating suggests that crown-group bats last shared a common ancestor 52 to 54 million years ago. AD - Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. FAU - Springer, M S AU - Springer MS FAU - Teeling, E C AU - Teeling EC FAU - Madsen, O AU - Madsen O FAU - Stanhope, M J AU - Stanhope MJ FAU - de Jong, W W AU - de Jong WW LA - eng SI - GENBANK/AF337537 SI - GENBANK/AF337538 SI - GENBANK/AF337539 SI - GENBANK/AF337540 SI - GENBANK/AF337541 SI - GENBANK/AF337542 SI - GENBANK/AF337543 PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't PT - Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. DEP - 20010515 PL - United States TA - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A JT - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of Am erica JID - 7505876 RN - 0 (DNA, Complementary) SB - IM MH - Animals MH - Base Sequence MH - Chiroptera/classification/*genetics

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DNA, Complementary Ecosystem *Evolution, Molecular *Fossils Humans Molecular Sequence Data Phylogeny PMC33452 NLM: PMC33452 2001/05/17 10:00 2001/07/20 10:01 2001/05/17 10:00 2001/05/15 [aheadofprint] 10.1073/pnas.111551998 [doi] 111551998 [pii] ppublish Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 22;98(11):6241-6. Epub 2001 May 15.