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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH

Hi mates, Zezo + Yanal + A3raj talking , We are going to study microbiology and we will know the reason of studying it and why it will be beneficial to dental students, and why we need to study microbes, we will study the first organisms on earth and how these micro organisms appear on the earth for the first time, and we will study diseases knowledge and micro organisms that micro biology concerned of. I know that you had taking some of it in school but its one important material and you will take it even wider Microbiology ???? 0.0

Micro .. biology , it is the biology of tiny creators , tiny organisms that include fungi, bacteria, protozoa, Cyanc bacteria and Archaeac So, biology is the study of living organisms and micro is the study of tiny living organisms that no one can see them by his naked eyes ( john cena :P ) , he needs microscopes to see these organisms .. bla bla bla .. bl mo5tasar micro organisms can be found everywhere ( s77a Dr ) So we will get more knowledge about these different types of these micro organisms Divisions of micro organisms, there is a cellular pathologically infection agents and there is bacteria which is cellular, and one important thing in cellular we have prokaryotic ( bacteria ) eukaryotic ( our cells , plant cells and animal cells ) .. ( s77aaaaa ) Viruses, we just have to know that they are a cellular organisms. Germs : micro organisms that carries diseases, they are carrying them all the time , germs and viruses are infection agents they going to harm us, these organisms that cause us harm and

disease we can call them pathogenic agent or pathogenic micro organisms, and the one that doesnt cause diseases we can call them non pathogenic. Pathogenic organisms ( agents ) they have special weapons and characteristics that going to cause us diseases, and non pathogenic organisms will not cause us any diseases, we can eat, drink, and sniff them without getting infected with any kind of disease, while others may give us severe infections depending on the disease factor that they carry

Why we study micro organisms ?? </3 ..( wj3 ras ) This is very important thing because we are living while they are around us, we live with micro organisms, some of them may get us infections, so we need to study them in order to get treatment and to know our enemy or our alley, and these micro organisms live in and on us and in our mucosal part ( FAKRET ANA W ZEZO 3AYSHEN L7ALNA TL3 FE M3NA MICRO ORGANISMS ) :ppp Everyone of us is born with no micro organisms living in or in him, and after few days they start gathering on our skin and mucosa like bacteria, fungi and many other things that we call them Norma flora or Micro biota ( s77aaa ) The reason of the micro organism presence is to initiate defense mechanism and this is by fighting other organisms with different ways, 1- Presence of them on our skin to prevent other organisms from attacking us. 2- They can spread anti-biotic that fight and kill these pathogenic micro organisms.

3- Taking a place on our skin to prevent pathogenic micro organisms from taking this place and get us infected. 4- Fight with pathogenic micro organisms on the nutrients not allowing them to have any of it, so without the nutrients they will die.

We should mention that sometimes these pathogenic organisms are part of Normal flora and we can call them opportunistic organism that wait for the opportunity to get us infection, but the other parts of Norma flora are stronger than these organisms so they prevent them from getting us infections, and one thing to be mentioned, never ever use bacterial killer soap because you will kill all the Norma flora part, giving the opportunity for these organisms to attack our body, just use the normal soap ( , ) LOOL :D Micro organisms are very important creators of this planet. So why they are important to us ?? why we need micro organisms ?? 1- They live around us 2- We can get anti-biotic and treatment from them 3- Helping us by coexisting with us in different ways 4- Some of them produce many things such as penicillin that was discovered by Alexandar Fliming in 1928, and penicillin was discovered by coincidence where he plant bacteria on a plate and provide food and reasons to live and left it for 24 hour, and he came back and notice that there is something above the plate, it was like a cotton, he took them, studied and identified them, and he found that it was not bacteria, it was fungi that produce chemical

materials that inhabit the growing of bacteria, and he called the fungi Penicillium, and what it produce is Penicillin, since that time they use it as a fighter for bacterial infectors specially with Tai brown positive bacteria, this is one of the benefits of micro biology 5- 50% of anti-biotic in the pharmacy comes from Strebtomioces and the others comes from fungi and the other bacteria Another thing to be mentioned that we should start finding new organisms to give us anti-biotic because some pathogenic organisms at this time they dont be affected by their anti-biotic like Stafo cocus arius, this bacteria is very important for dental student because it can cause infection beneath teeth and even it can cause abscess in gum and it can be killer, doctors used to treat it with Hepsilline, but sometimes it doesnt work, so we need to find new micro organisms in order to fight such kind of these bacteria that want to be treated with the anti-biotic in the next few years 6- Some bacteria help us be decomposing died materials and give us nutrients can be used for planting things, and for growing things, so they provide us with an important stuff and even there is the garbage decomposing this is very important cause like in Brazil they use bacteria special kinds of them and fungi in order to just decompose the garbage and even make the natural gas from it and a very big industry branch in Brazil is formed cause of the garbage decomposing and they can through it produce huge amounts of energy and reduce the garbage amount which can cause a big series Microbiology has got many branches There is the basic microbiology genetic microbiology which is (ta5a9o9 eldactoora ) and (shahadetha beldoctora kanat fe hada

elmajal) and there is basic microbiology medical microbiology diagnostic microbiology basic oral microbiology ((for dental students )) food microbiology and industrial microbiology and many others different branches They use multiuse bacteria in order to make different things like the food microbiology that we use it in making different kind of food like bacteria in yogurt and in making alcohol and in fertilizing things these we can use some kind of microbiology in making and preparing them Even some bacteria and micro organisms live by eating t7aleb and another use for micro organism is in genetic engineering where they can use them to produce different kinds of treatment like insulin which is used for people who have Diabetic and they use some bacteria that produce whatever you plant in it and they let it produce the insulin and then separate it and put it in packages and give it to Diabetic patients Even we can use microorganisms in air cycles such as nitrogen cycle where if you have a land and u used to plant it and then u stopped and u didnt give it water then u should give the soil some nitrogen by using urea which is full of n2 and here comes the rule of the microorganisms in order to stabilizing the nitrogen in the because that these microorganisms helps in recycling the nitrogen and as we mentioned it helps in making it more stable Bacteria also helps in digestion of food where we have a kind of bacteria in the small intestine that produce vitamin k which is important for the digestion of food ,and it also help in the digestion by it self The use of bacteria in the food industry has many ways such as producing bread, yogurt, alcohol and some kind of cheese and even we use another micro organism such as fungi in making another kind of cheese that we eat

Other micro organisms such as bacteria and fungi are sacrofibes that can decompose dead materials into nutrient for the soil such as sulfate and this help the soil to be much better Some micro organisms can produce nitrogen and give it to the soil by taking it as a different formula from the formula that the soil needs , and there is some kind of bacteria that we can find it legumes and these bacteria provides the nitrogen for these plants and live in coexistence with these plants where these plant provide food for these bacteria and these bacteria provides nitrogen for it, and you can see then if you pull one of these plants from the soil as a bubbles thats found in the end of each root Bacteria and some other micro organisms produce anti-biotic to fight other types of bacteria and this is very important for us because we can use these anti-biotic to fight these bacteria if they harm us, we can imagine anti-biotic like anti bodies, where anti bodies attack and try to kill the cause of diseases and they act as soldiers, thats if they can, but if they cant we are going to use these anti bodies that has killed that bacteria before in killing the bacteria that cause us the disease Microbes and another micro organisms can be used in the genetic engineering where we can manipulate the genes that these bacteria carries getting these genes out replace with another genes and make the bacteria produce whatever we want and the best type of bacteria for this is Escherichia coli , many discovers things was reached because of this manipulating even sometimes scientist put genes that in our body and considering the type of genes that we mentioned , scientists study it a lot and they know each gene in it and what dose each gene produce such as proteins and other things , so thats why this kind of bacteria is very important for us in genetic engineering

Microbes are model cells that they help us to discover our cells and how they work because if we took a sample of cells and we put it under microscope we are just going to see nucleus, cytoplasm, and even some times some structure of the cells , but we will not be able to see the work that is being done inside our cells , because there is a lot of work , such as what goes in the nucleus and outside of it , and what goes inside the cytoplasm and outside of it , and the process of transferring things between cells, but all of that we managed to know it by studying bacteria, because it helps us to know our body much more by manipulating it to our benefit , because they are easier to be studied Microbes and bacteria the pathogenic ones , they can cause diseases in two different ways , the first way is by the bacteria by itself, where it can pass the infection from one person to another , because it has some weapons that it uses it in carrying disease or infection people. The second way is by releasing toxic materials thats are capable of destroying our cells by itself, and this bacteria can be in our bodies or in our skin or in the air Categories of diseases are two infection disease and microbial toxication For the infection diseases it happens by pathogenic colonizing, where the bacteria goes inside the body or outside and start to multiply, and they have different ways that helps them to stuck in our bodies, such as if they have special kinds of hands or methods thats make them stuck inside and outside the body and cant be removed by any fluid not even the blood or anything, and then they will keep in multiplying and make colonies, and once they do that, if a one cell of bacteria has a weapon that cause disease, this weapon will increase in number raising with it the opportunities in causing the disease and it will go and infect other people

The microbial toxication is where bacteria produced toxic caused disease, and this disease infect many other people, the best example for that is the wedding parties everywhere, but for Jordanian people we like to eat MANSAF ( abay sho kabse m3ay 3 mansaf .. 1 am ) , (( 3omre ma shftha bs el Dr 7akatha )) , Mansaf is being cocked in summer 6 hours before the wedding and its being put in the sunshine, some of the cockers may have Stafu urias and this goes inside mansaf and make a colony there and start producing toxic in the food, and when people eat this food they will have a food poisoning because ( mlabas 3 looz ) of this bacteria, and they will suffer from vomiting and other features of food poisoning First micro organisms was found before five billion years, even before human, and they are the reason of life on this planet, we discover this by studying micro organisms carbons fossils, but certainly they are not accurate, but we say that they are here since 3.5 billion years, and the eldest ones are Cyanc bacteria, Arohaeac, and for sure diseases was there since the human and animal were found on earth, but certainly these diseases were not known back there, but know we know them because we have advance technology and we considered ourselves the best and the most advanced civilization, and maybe there is some other bacteria we dont know about it, and we cant treat them now and know what is going to happen if we infected by them Scientist studied micro organisms by studying the dead bodies of ( el fra3na ) , and they discovered by doing X-rays and many other researches that they have ( ) and they died because of it, and we should know that these disease comes from micro organisms Now we are going to talk about the people that we own them ( hye l7alha ) the preferred of studying micro organisms. The first one of them and he was the father of microscopes and the father of microbiology was Anton Von Leuwenhook in 1673, he was

not a scientist by its meaning, he didnt have a PhD in science but he was a thinker and an observative man, he used to play with lenses and he made the basic microscopes and the first ones, he used to draw whatever he observed, and he managed to discover protozoa and the first bacteria Louis Pasteur he was a French science in 1828, he was a chemist that works in fermentation to get the best kind of alcohol specially the wine by using bacteria because he was in the wine country France, fermentation can give us many things depending on the type of the microorganisms that has been used then he and others discovered acetone and propanol and steroids from fermentation, then he discovered the process of pasteurizing, here we are going to compare the difference between fresh milk and pasteurized milk, fresh milk when its boiled it loose a lot of proteins, but pasteurized milk kills the pathogenic organisms, so he was the one who discovered pasteurization, he also discovered Vaccine ( ) for Rabies ( ) and Anthrax ( ,) and that was for the first time, he also discovered that there is bacteria lives in O2 and one thats called Anaerobic that can live in the presence of oxygen, and some that can live in both environments. Robert Koch in 1843-1910, German physician, he put the method that says each disease has its own causes, he also discovered that some bacteria have spores and other doesnt have, in most condition the one that doesnt have it are harmless, but the others that have it are very harm full, because these spores are protein coats that let the bacteria survive more, because bacteria covers with these coats when the condition around it are not good like coldness and drought, and that let it stand for over 10 years, when it feels that the conditions around it is good it hatches this coat and goes into vegetative cells, normal bacteria cell, spores dont multiply but when they transform into vegetative cells they can multiply

He also discovered the Anthrax causes and thats been caused by Bacillus Anthracis and in the new technology has developed it to become a biologic weapon that people if they sniff it or digested it, it will directly produce killer toxins that kill us right away He also discovered the way to verification of bacteria by Kochs Postulates, and thats by Cultivation of bacteria ( sa77a daktora )

His method was like this : First, he took a sample from spleen or blood or pus. Second, isolating bacteria from this sample. Third, growing this bacteria and cultivation then make sure that he has formed a pure culture that contains only one kind of bacteria. Forth, he plants this bacteria in another individual. Fifth, he makes sure that this individual had also been infected with this disease from the bacteria by having the same symptoms. Sixth, he took another sample and compared it under microscope with the first bacteria, and he found that some diseases have the same pathogenic cause, but others have more than one cause And he had a big role in microbiology In microbiology there is careers of diseases and the reason of getting infection is because of our immunity is weak or because of the micro organism is so strong that beats our immunity ( 5 dgaayeg w el dktoora bt7ke neha nfsha tkon 3alme .. d3oolha :P , w kul wa7d feko 7or w y5tar elle bdo yah ) Microbiology consists of many branches:

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Protozoa microbiology Virus microbiology Bacteria microbiology Microscopic microbiology Infection microbiology

The last important thing is developing of Vaccines because there is new diseases that comes and all diseases that vanish but they are coming back, so we must develop new ways in microbiology to treat these diseases. ( etl3ooo brrrraaaaaaaaaaaa ) :PPPPP ::DDDDDDDDD

ZEZO NO LUCK(al7oot ) (abuadam ) (A7MAD FAWZI ) ::::: ba7eb ahde tafrege la akatr ensan ba7eboh beldof3ah w agla ensan w a7san ensan w b7eb a7kelo enoh lawla wjoodak b 7ayate kan ma enkatab hada eltafreeg wala kan 3melet eshe w (AKEED MA 7A7KELKOM MEEN ) :p hadoool kolhom elak <3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 <3<3 <3 ;) 7bebe enta W afdal shokor w a7la shokor la abu rayan yanal elthaher w m7ammad el a3raj l2nho sa3adoone b ketabet haltafreeg 7bebe abu samra 7bebe a5oooy eltooom Btw shabab W :/ SABAYA :/ elle 3endo e3terad 3la eltafreeg e7na mntgabal ele3teradat w asfeen 3ala ay 5a6a2 sar w enshallah y3jebkom w testafeedo mno w dero balkom yalle bedkom tfargo ba3deen eno eldr bt7ke no9 kalamah 3araby w enta bdak tog3od etarjem elmohem enshallah mnshooofkom 3la 5eer m3 tafreeg tany ((ALWAYS REMEMBER F.A.I.L (first attempt in learning ) ))) m3 ta7yat ((((AL7oot Abu Adam ))))) YANAL DYA2 ELTHAHER :::::::::: Wish that you will understand it very well and we are sorry for any mistake .. we might be late

but its really was hard because of the recorder anyway thanks a lot for every one work for us .. and we always have to be one hand to be the best and give the best :D Again and again THANKS ALL, Good luck, wish that we all will pass with a high marks this semester Finally, I apologize for anyone that I have made bad for him and I really didnt mean to do that, and apologize for the (BEEEH) lec. :P .. enjoy it to get it ^ _^

MOHAMMAD A3RAJ ::::::: BEDESH AKTOB ESHE :p :p