Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2327

For you

Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madrid

2012

Dictionary reference list used at http://bhagavata.org to the file that was loaded from: sacred-texts.com and has been extended with definitions of the Monier-Williams dictionary (indicated with an *=) and the ISKCON Vedabase (marked*V) and (partly) adapted to the transliteration used at srimadbhagavatam.org (see also http://www.uni-koeln.de/philfak/indologie/tamil/mwreport.html mwreport.html or the html-version). Transliteration functions: n with ~= J or n'; n with an accent is a G; A = aa or , I = ii or , U= uu or , T= th, z=s', M=m/n (with dot), H=h (ha), N= n, 4= stressed in pronunciation, S (s with lower dot)=sh, R= ri (the original list this list began with sometimes spells the s' or z as sh, thus creating confusion on the spelling of the s with a above; but this is not so for words from the MW dictionary with a *= behind them). Apart from the transcription of Devangar letters care has to be taken of accents,f Udtta and Svarita, both represented by the digit 4. Furthermore in MW entries the indication of vowel sandhi ("blending of short and long vowels'') by circumflex is represented here by the number 7 if placed above a single vowel and by 9 if spanning two vowels. The (rare) combination of two separate vowels in MW
3

is represented by adding the number 0 to the second vowel.Updated: see bottom of the page (check for regular updates)

A AUM = Primordial Sound OMkaara = the syllable om a = not aa *= from all sides, up to, even, until, up to the limit, not, all over, aa+ghraa = to smell aa+char.h = to practice aa+yaa = to come aa+ruh.h = to climb aaudau = in the beginning
4

aauM-kaara = the sound AUM aaH = to sit aabda = year aabdaphala = yearly prognostication, also varshhaphala aabhaa* =1 P. {-bhAti} (Impv. 2. sg. {A4-bhAhi} RV.; pf. {-babhau}) to shine or blaze towards RV. AV.; to irradiate, outshine, illumine RV. AV. TB. BhP.; to appear, become visible or apparent BhP. MBh. Hariv. Rjat. &c.; to look like Kaths. MBh. &c. aa-bhaa* =2 f. splendour, light; a flash; colour, appearance, beauty MBh. Mn. Sus'r. Pacat. &c.; a reflected image, outline; likeness, resemblance MBh. R.; (mfn.) ifc. like, resembling, appearing R. Kvya7d. S'is'. &c. (e.g. {hemA7bha}, shining like gold); [cf. Hib. {avibh}, `" likeness, similitude "'; {avibe}, `" neatness, elegance "'; {avibhcal}, `" a spark of fire "' ?] [145,2] aabhri * = P. {-bha4rati} (pf. {A4-jabhAra} RV.; aor. P. sg. {A74bhArSam} RV. &c.) to bring towards or near; to carry or fetch; to effect, produce RV. AV. VS. S'Br. &c.; to fill up, fill, attract (one's attention) BhP aabrahmabhuvanaat.h = up to the Brahmaloka planet

aabhaj * = P. (Impv. 2. sg. %{A4-bhaja}; pf. %{A4babhAja}; aor. Subj. 2. sg. %{A4-bhAg} RV. viii, 69, 8) A1. (Impv. 2. sg. %{A4-bhajasva}, &c.) to cause to share or partake; to help any one to anything, let any one have anything RV. AV. AitBr. S3Br. &c.; to revere, respect BhP.: Caus. (Impv. 2. sg. %{-bhAjayasva}) to cause to partake Comm. on Br2A1rUp. i, 3, 18. aabhajanIya * = mfn. id. Sa1y. on RV. aabharaNaM = ornaments aabharaNam.h = (n) ornaments, jewellery aabhaa = color aabhaasaM = the original source * = aabhaasa * = m. splendour, light R. Veda1ntas. 195; colour, appearance R. Sus3r. Bhag.; semblance, phantom, phantasm of the imagination; mere appearance, fallacious appearance Veda1ntas. S3a1n3khS3r.; reflection; intention, purpose; (in log.) fallacy, semblance of a reason, sophism, an erroneous though plausible argument (regarded by logicians as of various kind); ifc. looking like, having the mere appearance of a thing Gaut. Sa1h. &c. aabhaasha m. speech , talking ; addressing R. ; a
6

saying , proverb ; introduction , preface L.aabhaashya * = 1 mfn. to be addressed, worthy of being spoken to or conversed with MBh. Ragh. \\2 ind. p. having addressed, having spoken to. aabhaasvara* = mfn. (Pn. 3-2, 175) shining, bright L.; m. N. of a class of deities, sixtyfour in number; N. of a particular set of twelve subjects ({AtmA jJAtA damo dAntaH zAntir jJAnaM zamas tapaH kAmaH krodho mado moho dvAdazA7bhAsvarA ime} T.) aabhaata* = mfn. shining, blazing; appearing, visible MBh. Mn. &c. abhi* = ind. (a prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) to, towards, into, over, upon. (As a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the notion or going towards, approaching, &c. (As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it expresses superiority, intensity, &c.; e.g. {abhitAmra}, {abhi-nava} q.v. (As a separate adverb or preposition) it expresses (with acc.) to, towards, in the direction of, against; into S'Br. and KtyS'r.; for, for the sake of; on account of; on, upon, with regard to, by, before, in front of; over. It may even express one after the other, severally Pn. 1-4, 91 e.g. {vRkSaM vRkSam abhi}, tree after tree [cf. Gk. $; Lat. {ob}; Zend &18820[61,1] {aibi}, {aiwi}; Goth. {bi}; Old High Germ. {b}].

abhii* = 1 mfn. fearless R. Ragh.\\* = 2 ( {i}), {abhye4ti} (Imper. 2. sg. {abhI74hi}; impf. 3. pl. {-Ayan}, 3. sg. . {-Ayata}; ind. p. {abhI74tya}) to come near, approach, go up to or towards (acc.) RV. &c.; (with {sakAzam} or {samIpam} or {pArzve}) id. Pacat.; to go along or after (acc.) RV. &c.; to enter, join, go over to Mn. Bhathth.; (with a pr. p.) to begin to, (perf. 3. pl. {abhI7yu4H}) S'Br.; to reach, obtain RV. &c.; to get or fall into (acc.) MBh. &c.; to come to, fall to one's share (with acc.) Bhathth.; (said of the sun) to rise (as if he came nearer; also with {abhitarAm} [q. v.] instead of {abhi}) AitBr., (with {astam}) to set MBh. i, 1797 (cf. {abhy-aya}): Pass. {abhI7yate}, to be perceived, known BhP.: Intens. (1. pl. {-Imahe}) to ask, request RV. i, 24, 3. aabhiikshNa * = mfn. (fr. {abhIkSNa}), repeated, frequent L.; ({am}) n. continued repetition. aabhUka* = mfn. empty, having no contents; powerless. aabhuuta* = mfn. produced, existing. aachar.h = to behave, interact aaca* = m. N. of a man Rjat.; see {Aca-parAca} and {Aco7paca} ss.vv. aacaksh * = A1. %{-caSTe} (Pot. 2. sg. %{8

cakSIthAs} ; perf. %{-cacakSe}) to look at , inspect RV. vii , 34 , 10 ; to tell , relate , make a communication about (acc.) , announce , declare , make known , confess TS. vii S3Br. &c. ; to acquaint , introduce to (acc.) MBh. xiii , 1986 R. ; to address any one (acc.) Das3. ; to call , name S3Br. A1s3vGr2. &c. ; to signify Pa1n2. Sch. aacar* = {-carati}, to come near to (acc.), approach RV.; to lead hither (as a path) TS. ii [131,3]; to address, apply to (acc.) Pacat.; to proceed, manage, behave one's self. RPrt. Mn. ii, 110, &c.; to use, apply p. RPrt.; to examine (a witness) Mn. viii, 102, &c.; (with or without {saha}) to have intercourse with ChUp. Mn. xi, 180; to act, undertake, do, exercise, practise, perform MundUp. Mn. (v, 22 impf. {A7carat}, `" has done it "') MBh. &c.; to throw into the fire KtyS'r. aacaara * = m. (ifc. f. {A} Yj. i, 87, &c.) conduct, manner of action, behaviour, good behaviour, good conduct Mn. MBh. &c.; custom, practice, usage, traditional or immemorial usage (as the foundation of law) ib.; an established rule of conduct, ordinance, institute, precept; a rule or line MBh. iii, 166; = {AcArika} below Sus'r.; (with Buddhists) agreeing with what is taught by the teacher Sarvad.; ({I}) f. the plant Hingtsha Repens L. aacara* = see {dur-Aca4ra}.
9

aacaara* = &c. see {A-car}. acarama * mfn. not last, not least; said of the Maruts RV. v, 58, 5. aacaraNa * = n. approaching, arrival (as of the dawn) RV. i, 48, 3; undertaking, practising, performing Kd. Sh.; conduct, behaviour Vedntas., (cf. {sv-Ac-}); a cart, carriage ChUp. (m. Comm.) aacarataH = acting aacarati = he does aacaraan.h = performing aacaaraH = behavior aacaarya = a religious teacher aacaarya(H) = (Masc.nom.S)teacher; preceptor aacaaryaM = the teacher aacaaryaaH = teachers aacaaryaan.h = teachers aacaaryopaasanaM = approaching a bona fide spiritual
10

master aacchaadakam.h = (n) covering sheet, chaddar aacit* =1 (Impv. 2. sg. {-cikiddhi}; perf. 3. sg. {ciketa}) to attend to, keep in mind RV.; (Subj. 1. sg. {ciketam}; perf. 3. sg. {-ciketa}, p. m. nom. {cikitvA4n}) to comprehend, understand, know RV. AV. v, 1, 2; to invent RV. viii, 9, 7; (Subj. {-cetat} or {ci4ketat}; perf. . 3. pl. {-cikitre} or {-cikitrire}) to appear, become visible, distinguish one's self RV.: Desid. (1. pl. {-cikitsAmas}) to wait for, watch clandestinely, lurk RV. viii, 91, 3. \\ =2 {t} f. attention to (gen.) RV. vii, 65, 1 aada * = mfn. ifc. taking , receiving (cf. % {dAyA7da4}.) aadadi * = mfn. procuring RV. viii , 46 , 8 , obtaining , recovering RV. i , 127 , 6 ; ii , 24 , 13. aadaana = taking aadaara * =N. of a plant that can be substituted for the Soma. aadaa * = 1. A1. %{-datte} , (Pa1n2. 1-3 , 20) , ep. also rarely P. (e.g. 1. sg. %{-dadmi} , or %{-dadAmi}) , Ved. generally A1. [Pot. 1. pl. %{-dadImahi} [136,3] ;
11

impf. 3. sg. %{A7datta} ; perf. 1. and 3. sg. %{-dade} ; perf. p. %{-dadAna4} RV. iv , 19 , 9 , or %{-da4dAna} RV. x , 18 , 9 AV.] , but also P. (impf. sg. %{A7dam} , %{A7das} , %{A7dat} , and 1. pl. %{A7dAma} aor. 3. du. %{A7ttAm} VS. xxi , 43) `" to give to one's self "' , take , accept , receive from (loc. instr. or abl.) RV. &c. ; to seize , take away , carry off , rob ib. ; to take back , reclaim Mn. viii , 222 seq. ; to take off or out from (abl.) , separate from (abl.) RV. i , 139 , 2 , &c. ; to take or carry away with one's self , KenaUp. (Pot. P. 1. sg. %{dadIyam@}!) Mn. ix , 92 MBh. ; to seize , grasp , take or catch hold of RV. &c. ; to put on (clothes) RV. ix , 96 , 1 S3vetUp. ; to take as food or drink (with gen.) RV. viii , 72 , 17 and (perf. Pass. 3. sg. %{-dade}) 19 , 31 ; (with acc.) Ragh. ii , 6 ; to undertake , begin BhP. &c. ; to choose (a path) R. Ragh. iii , 46 ; (with %{vacanam} &c.) to begin to speak MBh. &c. ; to begin to speak or to recite Ta1n2d2yaBr. La1t2y. (cf. %{punarAdAyam}) ; to offer (as oblations) Mun2d2Up. (irreg. pr. p. %{-dadAyat}) ; to perceive , notice , feel MBh. 4. Ra1jat. ; to keep in mindN. ; to accept , approve of MBh. v , 7324 R. Ma1lav.: Caus. (ind. p. %{-dApya}) to cause one to take S3a1n3khS3r.: Desid. A1. (impf. 3. pl. %{A74ditsanta}) to be on the point of taking or carrying away from (gen.) TS. i ; to be on the point of taking (the hand of) Das3. ; to be about to take to one's self Hcar.\\ 4. P. %{A4-dyati} , to bind on , fasten to AV.aadadi * = mfn. procuring RV. viii, 46, 8, obtaining, recovering RV. i, 127, 6; ii, 24, 13.
12

aadara * = respect, regard, notice; care, trouble Pacat. Hit. Ragh. Kir. &c.; {AdaraM-} 1. {kR}, to exert or interest one's self for; {AdareNa} and {AdarAt} adv. respectfully; carefully, zealously. aadaraH = (m) respect aadarshaH = (m) ideal aadatte = accepts aadau = First (see aadi) aadhara- * = of the lower position of something, of its foundation mfn. * = ifc. supportable, tenable (cf. % {dur-}); see also adhara aadhaara- m. support, prop, stay, substratum; the power of sustaining, or the support given, aid, patronage AV. xii, 3, 48 MBh. Sus3r. Veda1ntas. &c.; that which contains (a fluid &c.), a vessel, receptacle Ya1jn5. Sus3r. Pan5cat. &c.; a dike, dam Ragh.; a basin round the foot of a tree L.; a reservoir, pond L.; (in phil. and Gr.) comprehension, location, the sense of the locative case; ifc. belonging or relating to; the subject in a sentence (of which qualities &c. are affirmed); N. of a lake; of an author. aaditya* = (Pn. 4-1, 85) mfn. belonging to or coming
13

from Aditi TS. ii, 2, 6, 1 S'Br. &c. [137,2]; m. `" son of Aditi "'; ({As}) m. plN. of seven deities of the heavenly sphere RV. ix, 114, 3, &c. S'Br. iii, 1, 3, 3 (the chief is Varuna, to whom the N. ditya is especially applicable; the succeeding five are Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Daksha, Ans'a; that of the seventh is probably Srya or Savitrii; as a class of deities they are distinct from the {vizve devAH} ChUp.; sometimes their number is supposed to be eight TS. Sy.; and in the period of the Brhmanas twelve, as representing the sun in the twelve months of the year S'Br. iv, 5, 7, 2, &c.); N. of a god in general, especially of Srya (the sun) RV. AV. AitBr. S'Br. S'is'. &c.; N. of Vishnu in his Vmana or dwarf {avatAra} (as son of Kas'yapa and Aditi) ChUp.; the plant Calotropis Gigantea L.; ({au}) m. du.N. of a constellation, the seventh lunar mansion L.; ({A}) f. (?) the sun VS. iv, 21; ({am}) n. = {au} (cf. {punar-vasu}); N. of a Sman ChUp. aaDhyaH = wealthy aadhi * =1 m. (for 2. see p. 139, col. 2) a receptacle BhP. xi, 13, 33; place, situation L.; foundation Nyyam.; a pledge, deposit, pawn, mortgage RV. Mn. Yj. [138, 3]; hire, rent p.; an attribute, title, epithet (cf. {upA7dhi}) L. aadhi * =2 m. thought, care, anxious reflection, mental agony, anxiety, pain TS. MBh. Yj. &c.; reflection on
14

religion or duty L.; hope, expectation L.; misfortune L.; a man solicitous for his family's livelihood L. aadhii * =1 (cf. {A-dhyai}; according to Dhtup. xxiv, 68 Pn. 6-1, 6, &c., {-dIdhI}), P. (Subj. 3. pl. {A4dIdhayan}) to mind, care for RV. vii, 7, 6: . (Subj. 2. sg. {A4-dIdhIthAs}) to meditate on, think about, care for, wish for AV. viii, 1, 8, &c.; (p. aor. {dhI4SamANa} mfn. RV. x, 26, 6) to wish for, long for. aadhii * =2 f. (for 1. {A-dhI} see under {A-dhA}), eagerness, longing, care RV. AV. &c. aadhii4 *= 2 f. (for 1. {A-dhI} see under {A-dhA}), eagerness, longing, care RV. AV. &c. aaDi* = f. (= {Ati4} q.v.) N. of an aquatic bird MrkP. aadi*= 1 m. beginning, commencement; a firstling, firstfruits; ifc. beginning with, et caetera, and so on (e.g. % {indrA7dayaH@surAH}, the gods beginning with Indra i.e. Indra &c.; %{gRhA7diyukta}, possessed of houses &c.; %{evamAdIni@vastUni}, such things and others of the same kind: %{zayyA@khaTvA7dih} [Comm. on Pa1n2. 3-3, 99], S3ayya1 means a bed &c.; often with % {-ka} at the end e.g. %{dAnadharmA7dikam} [Hit.], liberality, justice, &c.); %{Adau} ind. in the beginning, at first.\\= 2 mfn. beginning with %{A} Ra1matUp.

15

aadii*= 2. (3. sg. impf. %{A74dIdet} RV. i, 149, 3; 3. sg. aor. %{A4-dIdayat} RV. ii, 4, 3) to shine upon, enlighten. aadii* = 2. (3. sg. impf. {A74dIdet} RV. i, 149, 3; 3. sg. aor. {A4-dIdayat} RV. ii, 4, 3) to shine upon, enlighten. aadiM = the origin aadiH = the origin aadi-s'arIra * = n. the primitive body MBh.; (in phil. = {sUkSma-} L.) aadi-s'Abdika * = [NBD.] m. an old grammarian. aadI7s'vara * = m. N. of a prince. aa-dis'ya * = ind. p. aiming at MBh.; announcing, teaching Ragh. xii, 68; having said L. aa-dis' * = 1 P. {-dide4STi} [Subj. 3. sg. {-didezati} AV. vi, 6, 2, &c.], {-diza4ti} [3. pl. {-dizanti} Impv. 2. sg. {-diza} impf. 1. sg. {A7dizam}, &c.], rarely {dizate} [BhP. viii, 24, 51] inf. {-di4ze} [RV. ix, 21, 5] and {-deSTum} (aor. 3. sg. {A7dikSat} [Bhathth. iii, 3 see Pn. 3-1, 45] fut. 1. pl. {-dekSyAmaH}, perf. {dideza}) to aim at, have in view; to threaten RV. ix, 21, 5, &c. AV. [137, 3]; to hit RV. ix, 56, 1; to assign RV.
16

ii, 41, 17, &c. AV. BhP. R. Ragh. &c.; to point out, indicate; to report, announce, teach ChUp. iii, 18, 1 BhP. MBh. R. Ragh. &c.; to determine, specify, denominate S'Br. iii, 5, 8 S'nkhS'r. Lthy. BhP. AitBr. &c.; to declare, foretell, Ratnv. Mlav. &c.; to order, direct, command Gobh. s'vGri. Mn. MBh. BhP. Kaths. &c.; to refer any one to (loc.); to banish MBh. S'ak. Kaths. &c.; to undertake, try MBh.; to profess as one's aim or duty RV. Yj.: Caus. {-dezayati}, to show, indicate, announce, Ratnv. MBh. S'ak. Mriicch.: Intens. (p. {-de4dizAna}) to have in view, aim at (acc.) RV. ix, 70, 5. aa-di4s'* = 2 {k} f. aiming at, design, intention RV. x, 61, 3, &c.; N. of a particular direction or point of the compass (enumerated with {diz}, {pra-}, {vi-}, and {ud-}) VS. vi, 19 (cf. inf. {A-di4ze} = dat.) aadibhiH = by those aadidevaM = the original Lord aadidevaH = the original Supreme God aadiishvara = the primeval lord, a name of Shiva aadikartre = to the supreme creator aadikeshhu = etc etc
17

aadis'akti * = f. the primeval powerN. of My L. aadishhTa = ordered aadishhTavaan.h = (he was)commanded aaditya = a name of Sun, Vishnu is among twelve Aditya-s aadityaH = the Adityas aadityagataM = in the sunshine aadityavat.h = like the rising sun aadityavarNaM = luminous like the sun aadityaan.h = the twelve sons of Aditi aadityaanaaM = of the Adityas aado* = P. {-dA4ti}, {-dya4ti} (Subj. 1. pl. {A4dyAmasi}, &c.) to reduce to small pieces, to crush AV. aadritaH = having begun aadrita* = mf({A})n. attentive, careful, zealous, diligent R. Pacat. BhP. Ragh. &c.; respected, honoured, worshipped Mn. Kaths. &c.
18

aadritya* =1 mf({A})n. venerable, respectable R. Bhathth. \\ =2 ind. p. having respected, having honoured aadhaaraH = support or baseadharaat.h = from below aadhaaya = resigning aadhatsva = fix

aadhipatyaM = (n) supremacy, ownership, overlordship aadhipatya *= n. [Pa1n2. 5-1 , 124] (fr. %{adhi-pati}) , supremacy , sovereignty , power RV. x , 124 , 5 AV. xviii , 4 , 54 VS. TS. AitBr. S3Br. Mn. Ya1jn5. Pan5cat. &c.

aadhiiparNa *= mf(%{A})n. `" winged with longing "' AV. iii , 25 , 2. aadhunika = (adj) modern aadhyaatmikaM = super-natural, spiritual aadhrita *= mf(%{A})n. contained (with loc.) aadrita *= mf(%{A})n. attentive , careful , zealous ,
19

diligent R. Pan5cat. BhP. Ragh. &c. ; respected , honoured , worshipped Mn. Katha1s. &c. aadya = earliest aadyaM = original aaGYaa = commandaagachchhet.h = one should come aagaadha * = `" a little deep "' aagama = arrival: * = mf({A})n. coming near, approaching AV. vi, 81, 2; xix, 35, 3; m. (ifc. f. {A}) arrival, coming, approach R. &c.; origin Mn. viii, 401 R. &c.; appearance or reappearance MBh. ii, 547; course (of a fluid), issue (e.g. of blood) Mn. viii, 252 Sus'r.; income, lawful acquisition (of property, {artha}, {dhana}, {vitta}, {draviNa}) Mn. MBh. &c.; reading, studying Pat.; acquisition of knowledge, science MBh. Yj. &c.; a traditional doctrine or precept, collection of such doctrines, sacred work, Brhmana Mn. xii, 105 MBh. &c.; anything handed down and fixed by tradition (as the reading of a text or a record, title-deed, &c.); addition Nir. i, 4; a grammatical augment, a meaningless syllable or letter inserted in any part of the radical word Prt. Pn. Comm.; N. of a rhetorical figure; ({am}) n. a Tantra or work inculcating the mystical worship of S'iva and S'akti. aagamana = coming
20

aagame = on the arrivalaajaanubaahuM = the one whose arms extend upto his knees aagamya * = ind. p. having arrived or comeN. aagata * = mfn. come, arrived RV. AV. &c.; come to or into (acc. [Mn. iii, 113, &c.] or loc. [Pan5cat. Das3. &c.] or in comp. [Mn. vi, 7 Ragh. iii, 11, &c.]); come from (in comp.) Ya1jn5. ii, 154; come into existence, born R. ii, 85, 19; coming from (abl.) Pa1n2. 4-3, 74; returned S3Br.; (with %{punar}) Mn. xi, 195 and Hit.; meeting with an obstacle, pushed against (in comp.) Mn. viii, 291; occurred, happened, risen Mn. ii, 152 MBh. &c.; entered (into any state or condition of mind) MBh. R. Katha1s.; resulting (from calculation) Su1ryas.; walked through (as a path) S3Br. vi; m. a new comer, guest S3Br. iii; (%{am}) n. anything that has taken place or has fallen to one's share (opposed to %{AzA4}, `" anything still expected or hoped for "') S3Br. ii (cf. % {a4n-Agata} and %{sv-Agata}.) aagataH = having attained aagataaH = attained aagraha * = m. insisting on, strong or obstinate inclination for, obstinacy, whim Kaths. S'rng.; (= {grahaNa}) seizing, taking L.; favour, affection L., ({At}, {eNa}) abl. instr. ind. obstinately Kaths.
21

aagrahAyaNaka* = mfn. to be paid (as a debt) on the day of full moon of the month Agrahyana Pn. 4-3, 50. aagrahAyaNika* = mfn. id. Pn. 4-3, 50; containing a full moon of Agrahyana (as a month or half a month or a year) Pn. 4-2, 22. aagrahArika* = mfn. one who appropriates to himself an Agra-hra or an endowment of lands or villages conferred upon Brhmans L. aagrahAyaNa* = {as}, m.= {agra-hAyaNa} (q.v.) Pn. 5-4, 36 Comm.; ({I}) f. (g. {gaurA7di} q.v.; scil. {paurNamAsI}) the day of full moon in the month Agrahyana S'nkhS'r. &c.; (ifc. ind. {-Ni} or {-Nam} Pn. 5-4, 110); a kind of Pka-yaja Gaut. BhavP. i, &c.; N. of the constellation Mriiga-s'iras L. aagrahAyaNa* = &c. see above. aaha = said aaha* =1 ind. an interjection; a particle implying reproof; severity; command; casting; sending L. * =2 perf. 3. sg. of the defect. 1. {ah} q.v. aahaaramf(%{I})n. ifc. bringing near, procuring; being about to fetch, going to fetch MBh.; (%{as}) m. taking [163,1]; fetching, bringing near Ka1tyS3r. R.;
22

employing, use Ka1tyS3r.; taking food; food [e.g. %{AhAraM} 1. %{kR}, to take food, eat MBh. &c.]; livelihood Hit. Pan5cat. R. Mn. Sus3r. &c. aahaarasaMbhava* m. the juice produced by food, chyle, lymph, serum L aahara *= 1 mfn. ifc. bringing, fetching Ragh.; m. taking, seizing; accomplishing, offering (a sacrifice) MBh. Ka1d.; drawing in breath, inhaling; inhaled air; breath inspired, inspiration L.//2 (2. sg. Impv. forming irregular Tatpurusha compounds with the following words): aahartri = (m adj.) a performer aahati = striking, hitting; * mfn. struck, beaten, hit, hurt R. Ragh. Kum. Kaths. VarBri. &c.; fastened, fixed RV. AV.; beaten, caused to sound (as a drum &c.) MBh. Hariv. Ragh. &c.; crushed, rubbed S'is'.; rendered null, destroyed, frustrated BhP. VarBriS.; multiplied VarBriS. [162, 2]; hit, blunted (said of a Visarga, when changed to {o}) Sh.; uttered falsely L.; known, understood L.; repeated, mentioned L.; m. a drum L.; ({am}) n. old cloth or raiment L.; new cloth or clothes L.; assertion of an impossibility L. aahave = in the fight

23

aaha4nana * = n. the act of striking at, beating KtyS'r.; killing (an animal) AV.; a stick for beating a drum AV. xx, 133, 1. aaha4nana-prakAra * = mfn. fit for beating pS'r. aahananyA7 * = mfn. (fr. {A-hanana}), being in the act of beating (a drum &c.) VS. xvi, 35. aahana4s * = mfn. to be beaten or pressed out (as Soma); to be skimmed (as milk) RV.; to be beaten (as an unchaste woman); unchaste, wanton; obscene, lascivious, profligate RV. v, 42, 13; x, 10, 6. 8. aahanasya * = n. unchasteness, lasciviousness AitBr.; lascivious words, obscenity S'Br.; ({As}) f. pl. (scil. {Rcas}) verses of a lascivious character; a chapter of the Kuntpa hymns in the Atharva-veda AitBr. s'vS'r. &c.; (with {an-} mfn. chaste, decent S'nkhGri. HirGri.) aahan * = P. {-hanti} (Impv. {A4-jahi} AV. &c.; pf. {A4-jaghAna} RV. &c.) . {-hate} (only if no object follows Pn. 1-3, 28, or if the object is a part of one's own body Kty.; Pot. 1. sg. {-ghnIya} Pat. on Pn. 1-1, 62 Das'.) to strike at, hit, beat; to attack, assault RV. TS. s'vGri. MBh. Kaths. &c.: (.) to strike one's self (or any part of one's body) BhP. Pn. and Comm. Bhathth.; to make away with one's self Das'. 91, 15; to fasten AV. S'Br.; to beat or cause to sound (a drum &c.) TS. S'Br.
24

Kaths. Bhathth. &c.: Intens. {A4-jaGghanti} RV. vi, 75, 13, to strike at or beat violently. aahna4 * = n. (fr. {ahan}), a series of days, many days S'Br. Pn. aahaara = Diet aahaaraH = eating aahaaraaH = eating aahrita * m= mfn. brought near, fetched, procured Mn. Ragh. Ya1jn5. Ma1rkP. &c.; taken, seized, captivated Katha1s. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c.; taken (as food), eaten R. &c.; uttered, spoken R. BhP. &c. aahuH = are said ahu* = mfn. only in {paro4-'hu} q.v. aahu* = P. . {-juhoti}, {-juhute} (p. {-ju4hvAna}) to sacrifice, offer an oblation; to sprinkle (with butter) RV. AV. TS. Hariv. aahuu* = &c. see {A-hve}. aahuu4* = f. calling, invoking (BRD.) ib.

25

aahuta* = mfn. offered as an oblation, sacrificed RV. AV. S'nkhS'r.; laid in the fire (as a corpse) RV. x, 16, 5; offering made to men, hospitality (= {manuSyayajJa} q.v.) L.; nourishment of all created beings (considered as one of the five principal sacrifices of the Hinds; cf. {bhUta-yajJa}) L. aahuuta* = mfn. called, summoned, invoked, invited. aahri = to eat aaho = or else aaja* = mfn. (fr. 1. {aja4}), coming from or belonging to goats, produced by goats s'vGri. R. Sus'r.; m. a vulture L.; a descendant of Aja; ({A4}) f. (only used for the etym. of {ajA4}) = {ajA4}, a shegoat S'Br. iii; ({am}) n. the lunar mansion PrvaBhdrapad (presided over by Aja Ekapd) VarBriS.; clarified butter L. aajagara * = belonging to a python, a boa aajaa4na* = n. birth, descent VS. S'Br. iii; birth-place Comm. on VS. xxxiii, 72; ({A}) f. place of conception (as a mother) Aitr. aajaa4na* = {AjA4ni} see {A-jan}. aajyaM = melted butter
26

aajIvya * affording a livelihood Yj. i, 320 MBh. xiv, 1330; ({am}) n. means of living MBh. iii, 8452 BhP. (cf. {sv-Aj-}.) aakarNa = towards the ear aakarNa\-dhanuraasana = the shooting bow posture aakarshha = attracted aakarshhaNa = attraction aakaa.nkshaa = wish, ambition aakaara = (masc) form, shape * = 1 m. (ifc. f. %{A} R. i, 28, 24 Ragh. xii, 41) form, figure, shape, stature, appearance, external gesture or aspect of the body, expression of the face (as furnishing a clue to the disposition of mind) Mn. MBh. &c. aakaarikaa = (f) doorbell aakaarita * = mfn. ifc. having the shape of Vedntas. aakaasha = ether aakasha* = m. ( {kaS}, `" to rub "'), a touchstone L.; (v.l. for {AkarSa} Pn. 4-4, 9 Siddh. and v, 2, 64 Siddh.)
27

aakaas'a * = m. (Ved.) or (later) n. (ifc. f. {A}) a free or open space, vacuity AitBr. S'Br. MBh. &c. [127,1]; the ether, sky or atmosphere Naigh. S'Br. Mn. &c.; ({am}) n. (in philos.) the subtle and ethereal fluid (supposed to fill and pervade the universe and to be the peculiar vehicle of life and of sound) Vedntas. &c.; Brahma (as identical with ether) L.; = {AkAza-bhASita} below Comm. on S'ak.; ({e}) loc. ind. in the air (a stage direction implying something said by or to a person out of sight) Mriicch. S'ak. &c. aakaashaM = the sky aakaashavaaNii = (f) radio aakaashasthitaH = situated in the sky aakaashaat.h = (abl.S)from space or sky aakara * = m. one who scatters i.e. distributes abundantly RV. iii, 51, 3; v, 34, 4; viii, 33, 5; accumulation, plenty, multitude R. Sus3r. &c.; (ifc. f. % {A} MBh. iii, 1657, 16215) a mine Mn. Ya1jn5. &c.; a rich source of anything Sa1h.; place of origin, origin; N. of a country (the modern Khandesh) VarBr2S.; N. of wk. (quoted in Kamala1kara's S3u1dradharmatattva); (mfn.) best, excellent L. aakhu = mouse
28

aakhyaa (f) name* = 1 P. (impf. {-akhyat}) to behold RV. iv, 2, 18; (fut. p. {-khyAsya4t}; perf. 3. pl. {cakhyuH}) to tell, communicate, inform, declare, announce S'Br. xiii, xiv Mn. MBh. &c.; to call (with two acc.) Ragh. x, 22: Pass. {-khyAyate}, to be named or enumerated S'Br.; to be called S'Br. x, xiv: Caus. P. (2. sg. {-khyApayasi}) to make known, declare MBh. i, 7485: . (Pot. {-khyApayeta}) to cause to tell AitBr. S'nkhS'r. \\ 2 f. (ifc. f. {A} Kaths. Snkhyak.) appellation, name Prt. Pn. Mn. vii, 157, &c.; (= {saMkhyA}) total amount Mn. ii, 134 MBh. iii, 12831 (cf. Hariv. 515) and xv, 671; appearance, aspect R. vii, 60, 12 [129,2]; ({ayA}) instr. ind. `" with the name "', named Kaths. aakhya = named aakhyaataM = described aakhyaahi = please explain aakraanta mfn. approached, frequented, visited Mn. R.; on which anything lies heavily, pressed by (instr. or in comp.) Mr2icch. Pan5cat. &c.; overcome, overrun, attacked, in the possession of (instr. or in comp.) Pan5cat. Katha1s. &c.; overcome or agitated (as by feelings or passions) R. Katha1s. &c.; overspread with (instr.) Hit. &c. [128,2]

29

aakram.h = to attack aakrama *= m. approaching, attaining, obtaining, overcoming VS. xv, 9 S3Br. xiv (cf. %{dur-Akr-}.) aakramaNam.h = (n) attack, invansion aakritiini = forms aakrita * = mfn. arranged, built (as a house) RV. viii, 10, 1; done (as evil or good) to any one VarBriS. aakrishhTa = (past part. of aa + kR\^ishh) attractedaaksha* = mfn. (fr. 1. {a4kSa}) belonging or referring to terrestrial latitude Comm. on Sryas.; ({am}) n. (fr. 2. {akSa4}) = {AkSakI} L. aakShepaH = (m) objection aakshi * = cl. 2. %{-kSeti} (3. pl. %{-kSiya4nti} and impf. %{A74kSiyan}; Pot. 1. pl. %{-kSiyema}) to abide, dwell in (acc.), inhabit RV. AV.; %{-kSeti}, to possess, take possession of (acc.) RV.: cl. 6. %{kSiya4ti}, to exist AV. x, 5, 45. aakSipta* =mfn. cast, thrown down; thrown on the beach (by the sea) Pacat.; caught, seized, overcome (as the mind, {citta}, {cetas} or {-hridaya}) by beauty, curiosity, &c., charmed, transported BhP. Kd. Kaths. &c.; hung out or exposed to view (as flags &c.); put into
30

(loc.) MBh. iii, 3094; pointed or referred to, indicated Sh. &c.; refused, left (as the right path) Km.; insulted, reviled, abused, challenged, called to a dispute (dat.) Kaths.; caused, effected, produced Kaths. Comm. on Bd.; ({am}) n. `" absence of mind "' see {sA7kSiptam} aakula = full of aakulitam.h = sad, worried aakuuta * = intention, purpose, wish VS. S'Br. &c. (see {cittA7kUta4} and {sA7kUta}); incitement to activity, Snkhyak. aakIrnam * = dense, filled with, covered, brimming, crowded aakuuta * = n. intention, purpose, wish VS. S'Br. &c. (see {cittA7kUta4} and {sA7kUta}); incitement to activity, Snkhyak. aakula =* confounded, confused, agitated, flurried MBh. &c.; confused (in order), disordered ib.; filled, full, overburdened with (instr. or generally in comp.), eagerly occupied ib.; ({am}) n. a place crowded with people R. iii, 43, 34; `" confusion aalaapa * = m. speaking to, addressing; speech; conversation, communication Pan5cat. Hit. Katha1s.
31

S3ak. &c.; the singing or twittering of birds Katha1s.; statement of the question in an arithmetical or algebraic sum; question; a lesson Jain.; (%{A}) f. (in music) a particular Mu1rcchana1 or melody. aalabdha A: embarrassed *= mfn. touched MBh.; killed, sacrificed; gained, conciliated BhP. aalamba = support aalambate = to recline aalaya = house* = see %{A-lI}.\\m. and n. a house, dwelling; a receptacle, asylum R. Ya1jn5. Katha1s. &c.; (often ifc. e.g. %{himA7laya}, `" the abode of snow. "') aanuupa* = mfn. (fr. {anUpa} g. {kacchA7di} [Pn. 42, 133]), belonging to a watery place; wet, watery, marshy Sus'r.; m. any animal frequenting watery or marshy places, as fishes, buffaloes, &c. (cf. {anUpa}) ib.; a descendant of Anpa; ({am}) n. N. of a Sman Lthy. iv, 6, 1. aalasya = idleness aali = maid aaliina* = mfn. having come close to Katha1s. Hariv. Ragh.; dwelling or abiding in Katha1s.; crouched,
32

stooped MBh. R. aalingati = to embrace aalIna * = having come close to Kaths. Hariv. Ragh.; dwelling or abiding in Kaths.; crouched, stooped MBh. R. aalochate = to think, to contemplate aalochaya = (verbal stem) consider aam= yes * =; ind. an interjection of assent or recollection Mriicch. S'ak. Vikr. &c.; (a vocative following this particle is anudtta Pn. 8-1, 55.) aamarsha* = m. (for {a-marSa} q.v. T., with reference to Pn. 6-3, 137), impatience, anger, wrath L. aamars'a * = m see %{A-mRz}.\\ m. touching L.; contact; nearness, similarity A1s3vS3r. ii, 2, 13, 32. aamaatya * = m. (= {amAtya} q.v.), a minister, counsellor L. aamanaska = the mind free from desire aama *= 1 mf({A})n. raw, uncooked (opposed to {pakva} q.v.) RV. AV. Mn. Yj. &c.; N. of the cow
33

(considered as the raw material which produces the prepared milk). RV. iii, 30, 14, &c.; unbaked, unannealed AV. MBh. VarBriS. &c.; undressed; unripe, immature Sus'r. &c.; undigested Sus'r.; fine, soft, tender (as a skin) BhP. iii, 31, 27; m. N. of a son of Kriishna VP.; of a son of Ghriita-priishthha BhP. v, 20, 21 [146, 2]; m. or ({am}) n. constipation, passing hard and unhealthy excretions Sus'r.; ({am}) n. state or condition of being raw Sus'r.; grain not yet freed from chaff; [cf. Gk. $; Lat. {amrus}; Hib. {amh}, `" raw, unsodden, &45756[146, 2] crude, unripe "'; Old Germ. {ampher}; Mod. Germ. ({Sauer-ampfer}.] \\*=2 m. (probably identical with 1. {Ama}), sickness, disease L. aamaa*= 2. P. (Pot. {-mimIyAt} Kthh. xix, 13) to bleat at aamaavaasya *= mfn. (fr. %{amA-vAsyA} g. % {saMdhivelA7di} Pa1n2. 4-3 , 16) , belonging to the new moon or its festival S3Br. AitBr. ; born at the time of new moon Pa1n2. 4-3 , 30 ; (%{am}) n. the new moon oblation. aamana * 1 n. sickness, disease; (for 2. {Amana} see {A-man}. aamana * 2 n. friendly disposition, inclination, affection TS. ii, 3, 9, 1 and 2 MaitrS.; (for 1. {Amana} see under 2. {Ama}.)
34

aamarsha * = m. (for {a-marSa} q.v. T., with reference to Pn. 6-3, 137), impatience, anger, wrath L. aamaya = disease *= m. sickness, disease S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Ya1jn5. R. &c.; indigestion L.; (%{am}) n. the medicinal plant Costus Speciosus Bhpr. aamii * = P. %{-minAti} (RV. vi, 30, 2, &c.) to destroy, neutralize, curtail RV.; to put aside or away, cause to disappear or vanish, displace; to exchange RV. i, 92, 10, &c.; to put or push out of place TBr.: A1. (impf. %{A74minanta}) to vanish, disappear RV. i, 79, 2: Intens. (p. %{-me4myAna}) to change, alter RV. i, 96, 5. aamisha * = food, meat, prey, an object of enjoyment, a pleasing or beautiful object, coveting, longing for, lust, desire; a gift, boon aamisham SB: meat-eating, meat, fish, eggs and so on aamraphalam.h = (n) mango (the king of fruits) aamla = souraanrta* = untruthful, lying, false. aamnaa* = P. {-manati}, to utter, mention, allege; to cite, quote; to commit to memory, hand down in sacred texts; to celebrate KtyS'r. Lthy. BhP. Mlav. Kum. &c.
35

aamnaaya* = m. sacred tradition, sacred texts handed down by repetition; that which is to be remembered or studied or learnt by heart; a Veda or the Vedas in the aggregate; received doctrine VPrt. Mn. MBh. &c.; traditional usage, family or national customs; advice, instruction in past and present usage; a Tantra; a family, series of families L. aamush * = P. (impf. %{A74muSNAt} RV. x, 67, 6) to draw or pull towards one's self; to take away RV. aamushmika * = mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{amuSmin} loc. of %{adas}), of that state; being there, belonging to the other world Sus3r. Sa1h. Das3. &c.aamushmikatva * = n. the state of being there or belonging to the other world Nya1yam. aamushyakulikaa * = f. (fr. %{amuSya-kula}), the being of that family Pa1n2. 6-3, 21 Ka1s3.aamushyaputrikaa * = f. (fr. %{amuSya-putra}), the being the son of that one ib.aamushyaayaNa * = mf(%{I})n. (g. %{naDA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1, 99), a descendant of such a one AV. S3Br. S3a1n3khGr2. &c.; m. a son or descendant of an illustrious person L. aana* = m. (fr. {an}), face [NBD.]; mouth; nose [Sy.] RV. i, 52, 15; exhaling the breath through the nose T.; inhalation, breath inspired, breathing, blowing L. aanaksh * =to approach, obtain, reach, present L.
36

aanana = Face, mouth; the face; entrance, door aananaM = face aananda = happiness aanandana = happiness aanandamayaH = full of great happiness aanata* = mfn. bending, stooping, bowed Ragh. Katha1s.; humbled, submissive, obedient MBh. &c.; bent or curved inwards (as a bow) S3Br.; flat, sunk (not elevated) MBh. R.; pacified, conciliated; saluted reverently. [140,2] aanaya * = m. leading to T.; leading to a teacher = {upanayana} q.v.) L. aanaaya * = {as}. m. a fishermas net Pn. aanati* = f. bending, bowing, stooping VS. Katha1s.; submission, obedience, inferiority Comm. on Ka1tyS3r. &c.; contentedness T.; saluting L. aangirasapavitra = n. N. of the verse RV. iv, 40, 5 p. aangirasezvaratIrtha = n. N. of a Tirtha S'ivaP. Rev.

37

aangiraa4 = mf({I4})n. descended from or belonging or referring to the Angirases or to Angiras AV. VS. &c.; ({a4s}) m. a descendant of Angiras (as Briihatsman [AV.], Cyavana [S'Br. iv], Aysya [S'Br. xiv], &c.) RV. AV. &c.; especially N. of Briihaspati RV. AV. &c. [131,2]; the planet Briihaspati i.e. Jupiter; ({I}) f. a female descendant of Angiras MBh. i, 6908; iii, 14128. aangIrasa4* = mf({I4})n. descended from the Angirases or from an Angiras TBr. aangla = English aanglabhaashhaa = English language aaNiH = nail aanila * = mf({I})n. (fr. {anila}), proceeding from or produced by wind, windy L.; belonging to Vyu or Anila T.; m. N. of Hanumat; of Bhma L.; ({I}) f. and ({am}) n. N. of the constellation Svti. aaniila * = mf({A})n. darkish Ragh. Vikr.; slightly dark or blue; m. a black horse L.; ({I}) f. a black mare T.; tin L. aanrita* = mf({I})n. (fr. {an-Rta} g. {chattrA7di} Pn. 4-4, 62), untruthful, lying, false.

38

aantaradeshiiya = within the country mainly for transaction?? aanu 1 1. A1. (aor. 3. pl. %{A74nUSata} RV. i, 151, 6 and ix, 65, 14) to sound, roar towards or near; (p. %{nuvAna} Bhat2t2.) to cry; to twitter (as birds): Intens. (%{A4-navinot} RV. vii, 87, 2) to roar towards.\\ 2 mfn. (fr. 2. %{an}), living, human T. aanumaanika* = mf({I})n. (fr. {anumAna}), relating to a conclusion, derived from inference, subject to inference, inferable, inferred p. S'nkhS'r.; making conclusions BhP. aanumata* = mf({I})n. belonging to the goddess Anumati (q.v.) TBr. aanupuurva* = n. and {I} f. (fr. {anu-pUrva}), order, series, succession MBh. R. &c.; (in law) direct order of the castes Mn. Yj. &c.; (generally only instr. {-eNa} and {-yA}, one after the other, in due order.) aanupuurvya* = n. order, succession KtyS'r. Mn. Yj. &c.; (generally abl. {-At}, in due order.) aanusUya * = mfn. given by Anu-sy (Atri's wife) Ragh. xiv, 14. aanuSUka4 * = mfn. (probably fr. {anu-SUka}, `" after39

shoot of rice "' [according to native interpretation from {anu-sU}]), `" in the manner of the after-shoot of rice "' i.e. shot after TS. ii, 3, 4, 2. aanusuka * = mfn. studying or knowing the work Anus (q.v.) L. aanusUka * = = {AnuSUka} (?) q.v. aa pa* = 1 m. obtaining; (mfn.) ifc. to be obtained (cf. % {dur-}). aa pa* = 2 m. N. of one of the eight demigods called Vasus VP. Hariv. MBh.; (%{I}) f. N. of a constellation L. aa pa* = 3 n. (fr. 2. %{ap} Pa1n2. 4-2, 37), a quantity of water, Mallina1tha on S3is3. iii, 72. aapaa* = 1. P. %{-pibati}, (Impv. 2. du. %{A4pibatam} RV. ii, 36, 6; pf. %{-papau}: Pass. %{-pIyate}, &c.) to drink in, suck in or up; to sip RV. MBh. Ragh.; to drink in with ears or eyes i.e. to hear or see with attention, hang on BhP. Ragh.; to absorb, take away: Caus. %{pAyayati}, to cause to drink or suck in BhP. aap.h = to obtain aapad * = 1 A1. %{-padyate} (pf. %{-pede} aor. %
40

{A7pAdi} , &c.) to come , walk near , approach BhP. ; to enter , get in , arrive at , go into S3Br. La1t2y. R. &c. ; to fall in or into ; to be changed into , be reduced to any state ; to get into trouble , fall into misfortune AV. viii , 8 , 18 ; xi , 1 , 30 S3Br. AitBr. MBh. Mn. &c. ; to get , attain , take possession ; to happen , occur S3Br. Ma1lav. &c.: Caus. %{-pAdayati} (aor. 1. pl. % {A74-pIpadAma} AV. x , 5 , 42) to cause to enter , bring on S3Br. ; to bring to any state Ragh. ; to bring into trouble or misfortune R. &c. ; to bring near or towards , fetch , procure , produce , cause , effect MBh. Sus3r. Ragh. &c. ; to procure for one's self , obtain , take possession BhP. ; to change , transform. aapaada* = 1 m. reward, remuneration ChUp.; arriving at L.; (for 2. {A-pAda} see below.) aapaada* = &c. see under 1. {A-pad} aapadaa* = f. misfortune, calamity L. aapaH = water aapaNaH = (m) shop aapana * = n. obtaining, reaching, coming to BhP.; pepper L. aapaana * = 1 mfn. one who has reached; (for 2. see %
41

{A-} 1. %{pA}.) aapaNa * = m. a market, a shop MBh. R. Katha1s.; waves MBh.; commerce, trade L. aapana * = &c. see under 1. %{Ap}. aapaNikaH = (m) shop-keeper aapad.h = calamity aapadaaM = dangers aapannaM = achieved aapannaaH = gaining aapah = water aapanna * = mfn. entered, got in S'Br. KtyS'r. &c.; afflicted, unfortunate S'ak. Kaths. &c.; gained, obtained, acquired; having gained or obtained or acquired. aapaaDa* = m. (ifc. mf({A})n. L.) compressing, squeezing Sus'r.; giving pain, hurting L.; a chaplet tied on the crown of the head MBh. R. Ragh.; N. of a metre. aapi * = m. an ally , a friend , an acquaintance RV. VS.
42

(according to Sa1y. on RV. ii , 29 , 4 , from the Caus.) causing to obtain [wealth &c.] ; (mfn.) ifc. reaching to , entering. aapi * = &c. see under 1. %{Ap}. aapI * = &c. see under %{A-pyai}.\\mfn. fat , enlarged , increased T. aapta * = mfn. reached, overtaken, met S'Br.; received, got, gained, obtained S'Br. Mn. Hit. Kaths.; filled up, taken S'Br.; come to Naish.; reaching to, extending; abundant, full, complete; apt, fit, true, exact, clever, trusted, trustworthy, confidential Mn. R. Ragh. &c.; respected; intimate, related, acquainted MBh. R. Ragh. &c.; appointed; divided Sryas.; connected L.; accused, prosecuted L.; m. a fit person, a credible or authoritative person, warranter, guarantee; a friend; an Arhat Jain.; N. of a Nga MBh.; ({A}) f. = {jaTA} q.v. L.; ({am}) n. a quotient; equation of a degree L. aapuurya = covering aapuryamaaNaM = always being filled aapUryamANa * = mfn. becoming full, increasing aaprichchha = take leave of

43

aapoklima = The 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th Houses ApratI * = (%{A-prati-i}) P. (Impv. 2. pl. %{-e4tana} RV. vi, 42, 2) to go towards any one to meet him. iishaM = Lord S'iva aaptuM = afflicts one with aapnuyaaM = may have aapnuvanti = attain aapnoti = achieves aaplutaa = immersed aapsara: = mfn. (fr. {apsaras}), belonging to the Apsaras. aapuuryamaaNa* = mfn. becoming full, increasing. aapya* = 2 mfn. (fr. 2. {ap}), belonging or relating to water, watery, liquid Sus'r.; consisting of water; living in water; m. N. of several asterisms VarBri.; N. of a Vasu; ({As}) m. pl.N. of a class of deities BhP. Hariv.; ({am}) n. N. of a constellation; (for 1. {Apya} see under {Ap}.) aapya* = 3 n. N. of a plant, a kind of Costus L. (cf.
44

{vApya}.) aa-pyaayana * =mfn. causing fulness or stoutness Sus'r.; increasing welfare, gladdening L.; ({I}) f. an umbilical vein MrkP.; ({am}) n. the act of making full or fat Sus'r.; satiating; satisfying, refreshing, pleasing Mn.; increasing, causing to thrive MBh.; causing to swell (the Soma) S'Br. &c.; satiety, satisfaction; advancing; anything which causes corpulency or good condition; strengthening medicine Sus'r.; corpulency, growing or being fat or stout; gladness L. aaraadhita * =mfn. propitiated, pleased, solicited for a boon; worshipped, honoured, revered; accomplished, effected. aaraadhya = pleasable aaraama = (m) garden *= m. delight , pleasure S3Br. TUp. Bhag. Bhartr2. ; place of pleasure , a garden , grove Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. R. Mr2icch. Katha1s. &c. ; N. of a particular Dan2d2aka metre ; [cf. $ and $.] aarath * P. (p. {-raTat}) to shriek, screech Kaths. Bhathth. aaraa4t * = ind. (abl. of an ideal base {Ara} fr. {A-R}; cf. {Are4}) from a distant place; distant; to a distant place; far from (with abl.) RV. AV. p. MBh. Kaths.;
45

near Gaut. Ragh.; directly, immediately Prab. Kaths. S'ak. 131 a; ({t}) m. N. of a village L. aarabdhat.h = started aarabdha * = mfn. begun, commenced, undertaken AitBr. MBh. R. BhP. Katha1s. &c.; one who has begun or commenced, beginning, commencing R. BhP.; m. N. of a king. aarabdham.h = started aarabhamaaNa* = mfn. beginning, commencing resolutely (with a determination to finish). aarabhaTa* = m. an enterprising man, courageous man L.; (%{I}) f. boldness, confidence, heroism Ra1jat.; (in dram.) the representation of supernatural and horrible events on the stage. aarabhate = begins aarabhatha * = m. an enterprising man, courageous man L.; (%{I}) f. boldness, confidence, heroism Ra1jat.; (in dram.) the representation of supernatural and horrible events on the stage. aarabhyate = is begun aarakta* = mfn. reddish Sus'r. Vikr.; ({am}) n. red
46

sandal-wood L aarambha = beginning *= m. undertaking, beginning Mn. Pan5cat. Megh. &c.; a thing begun; beginning, origin, commencement S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Megh. &c.; (in dram.) the commencement of the action which awakens an interest in the progress of the principal plot Sa1h. 324 and 325; haste, speed; effort, exertion; pride; killing, slaughter (erroneous for %{Alambha} see Zachariae, Beitrge, p. 20, l. 9) aarambhaH = endeavor aarambhashuura = one who shows active participation in the beginning aarambhikaaH = beginners aaraNya*= mf({A})n. (fr. {araNya}), being in or relating to a forest, forest-born, wild RV. AV. KtyS'r. MBh. &c.; m. a wild animal ChUp. aaraNyaka*= mfn. forest, wild, forest-born, produced in a forest, relating to a forest or a forest animal, (the {AraNyakam parva} of the Mah-bhrata is either the whole third book or only the first section of it); m. a forester, an inhabitant of the woods MBh. Ragh. &c.; ({am}) n. N. of a class of religious and philosophical writings closely connected with the Brhmanas and
47

called ranyakas because either composed in forests or studied there, (the Upanishads are considered to be attached to them.) aarakshakaH = (m) policeman aarakshikaa = (f) policewoman aaratii = crying out of desperation for help, ritual aaraadhanaM = for the worship aarda * = mf({I} [gana {gaurA7di} Pn. 4-1, 41])n. ({Rd}), pressing hard, tormenting exceedingly T aardha* = in comp. optionally for {ardha-} (q.v.) Pn. 73, 2 aardita = parched, dry aardra = wet * mf({A})n. ({ard} Un. ii, 18) wet, moist, damp RV. TS. S'Br. MBh. Mn. Sus'r. Megh. &c.; fresh, not dry, succulent, green (as a plant), living AV. S'Br. R. Sus'r. MBh. &c.; fresh, new Kaths.; soft, tender, full of feeling, warm; loose, flaccid Kaths. Megh. Pacat. &c.; m. N. of a grandson of Priithu Hariv. VP.; ({A}) f. the fourth or sixth Nakshatra or lunar mansion AV. MBh. VarBriS.; ({am}) n. fresh ginger Vishnus.; dampness, moisture Hariv.

48

aardrachittaa = having emotional mind aardraa = Sixth nakshatra aarghya * = mfn. relating to or coming from the above bee Sus'r.; ({am}) n. its honey L. aarhaaH = deserving aarii * = P. ({A4-riNanti} RV. ix, 71, 6) to pour, let drop: . {A4-rIyate}, to trickle or flow upon; to flow over RV. aarita * = mfn. praised RV. i, 101, 4, & aarjavaM = simplicity aarjava* = mfn. (fr. {Rju} g. {pRthvAdi} Pn. 5-1, 122), straight; honest, sincere Kaths.; m. N. of a teacher VP.; ({am}) n. straightness, straight direction Sh.; rectitude, propriety of act or observance; honesty, frankness, sincerity ChUp. p. Gaut. MBh. R. Mn. &c. arjavaka* = mfn. straight, direct; m. N. of the ninth Sarga or creation MBh. xii, 11566. aarjuna * = m. N. of Indra (= {arjuna} q.v.) Kthh. 34, 3.

49

aarka * = mfn. (fr. {arka}), belonging or relating to the sun BhP.; coming from the plant Calotropis Gigantea VarBriS. aarogya = health aaroha * = m. one who mounts or ascends, a rider (on a horse &c.), one who is seated in a carriage R.; ascent, rising, creeping up, mounting S3ak. Katha1s. R.; haughtiness, pride Katha1s.; elevation, elevated place, altitude R.; a heap, mountain R.; increase Sa1h.; a woman's waist, the swell of the body R. BrahmaP. S3is3.; length L.; a particular measure L.; descending (= %{ava-roha} ?) L. aarohaNa = climbing aarohati = to climb, to ascend aaropayati = to plant aaropita*= mfn. raised, elevated Kum.; fixed, placed Kd.; made; charged with; strung (as a bow); deposited, intrusted; interposed, supplied; accidental, adventitious L. aarpita* = mfn. fastened to, annexed; dependent on RV. AV. aarta = intensely troubled \\ * = mfn. (optionally also
50

written {Artta}, whence erroneously derived fr. {Rt} or even regarded as irreg. formation fr. {ard}; see also Weber in S'Br. p. 339, l. 20 ff.) fallen into (misfortune), struck by calamity, afflicted, pained, disturbed; injured; oppressed, suffering, sick, unhappy S'Br. TS. Mn. R. S'ak. Ragh. &c. aartha * = mf({I})n. (fr. {artha}), relating to a thing or object; material, significant (opposed to {zAbda} q.v.) Sh.; resulting from or based on the possession of a thing Pat. aartaH = the distressed aarthika = (adj) economic, fiscal aarthikaniiti = (f) economic policy aaru* = 1 1. P. {-rauti} or {-ravIti} (Impv. {A4-ruva} RV. i, 10, 4) to shout or cry towards; to cry out VarBriS. R. Bhathth.; to praise L.: Intens. {-roravIti}, to roar towards or against RV. \\* = 2 m. a hog; a crab; the tree Lagerstroemia Regina L.; ({us}) f. a pitcher L. aaruDha = The sign which is as distant from the lord as the lord is from the house concerned aaruuDha * = mounted, ascended, bestridden (as a horse &c.) MBh. Hariv. BhP.; risen; raised up, elevated on
51

high VarBriS. Pacat. Hit. Kaths. &c.; undertaken; reached, brought to (often used in compounds e.g. {indriyA7rUDha}, brought under the cognizance of the senses, perceived) BhP.; having reached or attained, come into (a state) BhP. Prab. S'ak. Kaths. &c.; ({am}) n. the mounting, arising. aarurukshoH = who has just begun yoga aaruhya = having climbed aaruu* = mfn. ({R} [Un. i, 87]), tawny; ({Us}) m. tawny (the colour) L aaruuDhasya = of one who has attained aaruuDhaani = being placed aaruudha = house aaruNi * = m. (fr. {aruNa})N. of Uddlaka (a renowned Brhmana teacher, son of Aruna Aupaves'i and father of S'veta-ketu) S'Br. AitBr. MBh.; N. of Auddlaki (= S'veta-ketu) KathhUp.; N. of Suparneya, a son of Prajpati Tr.; of Vainateya MBh.; of Tathyu Blar. aarya = wise man* = m. (fr. {arya4}, {R}), a respectable or honourable or faithful man, an inhabitant of ryvarta; one who is faithful to the religion of his
52

country; N. of the race which immigrated from Central Asia into ryvarta (opposed to {an-Arya}, {dasyu}, {dAsa}); in later times N. of the first three castes (opposed to {zUdra}) RV. AV. VS. MBh. Yj. Pacat. &c.; a man highly esteemed, a respectable, honourable man Pacat. S'ak. &c.; a master, an owner L.; a friend L.; a Vais'ya L.; Buddha; (with Buddhists [Pli {ayyo}, or {ariyo}]) a man who has thought on the four chief truths of Buddhism (see next col.) and lives accordingly, a Buddhist priest; a son of Manu Svarna Hariv.; (mf({A} and {A4rI})n.) ryan, favourable to the ryan people RV. &c.; behaving like an ryan, worthy of one, honourable, respectable, noble R. Mn. S'ak. &c.; of a good family; excellent; wise; suitable; ({A}) f. a name of Prvat Hariv.; a kind of metre of two lines (each line consisting of seven and a half feet; each foot containing four instants, except the sixth of the second line, which contains only one, and is therefore a single short syllable; hence there are thirty instants in the first line and twenty-seven in the second); [cf. Old Germ. {e7ra}; Mod. Germ. {Ehre}; Irish {Erin}.] aaryasamaaja = Aryan group aaryaa = (f) a respected woman aasa*= seat, the lower part of the body behind, posteriors

53

aasaat * = ind. (fr. an ideal base {Asa}), from or in the proximity, near RV. aa4sa*=ashes, dust, a bow aasaJj *= P. %{-sajati}, to fasten on, attach, fix; to fasten on one's self, put on (as dress, armour, &c.) RV. AV. Ka1tyS3r. R. Kum. &c.; to fix one's self to, adhere to Kir. xiii, 44; to take up MBh. &c.; to take hold of, cling to AV. MBh. S3Br. BhP. &c.: Caus. %{saJjayati}, to cause to attach or put or fix on S3a1n3khS3r. Ragh.; to employ MBh.: Pass. %{sajyate}, to adhere, cohere, be attached: Desid. %{sisaGkSati}, to wish to attach S3Br. i, 6, 1, 12; 15. aasaM = exist aasakta = attached\\* = mfn. fixed or fastened to; attached to, lying on or upon S'Br. Kum. R. Kaths. &c.; attached strongly to, intent on; zealously following or pursuing MBh. VarBri. Kaths. Pacat. &c.; wound round, encircled; accompanied or furnished with; following directly, immediately proceeding from (acc.) MBh. aasaktamanaaH = mind attached aasana = seat

54

aasanaM = seat aasanastham.h = (lotus like-)posture-stood aasane = on the seat aasaadaya = (causative of aa+sad) resort to aasaadya = attaining aasevita * = mfn. frequented; practised assiduously. aasha.ns.h = to wish, to hope, to desire aashaya = (masc) resting place aas'aya * = m. resting-place, bed; seat, place; an asylum, abode or retreat S'Br. MBh. Pacat. Bhag. &c.; a receptacle; any recipient; any vessel of the body (e.g. {raktA7zaya}, `" the receptacle of blood "' i.e. the heart; {AmA7zaya}, the stomach &c.) Sus'r.; the stomach; the abdomen Sus'r.; the seat of feelings and thoughts, the mind, heart, soul Yj. R. Kaths. &c.; thought, meaning, intention Prab. Kaths. Pacat.; disposition of mind, mode of thinking; (in Yoga phil.) `" stock "' or `" the balance of the fruits of previous works, which lie stored up in the mind in the form of mental deposits of merit or demerit, until they ripen in the individual soul's own experience into rank, years, and enjoyment
55

(Cowell's translation of Sarvad. 168, 16 ff.); the will; pleasure; virtue; vice; fate; fortune; property; a miser, niggard L.; N. of the plant Artocarpus Integrifolia L. aashayasthitaaH = situated within the heart aashaa = desire aasha*= (1. {az}), reaching, obtaining (cf. {dur-} Aza m. food; eating S'Br. KtyS'r. &c. (cf. {prAtar-Aza}, {sAyam-Aza}, &c.; {hutA7za}, {AzrayA7za}, &c.) aashaa4 *=, desire, hope, expectation, prospect AV. S'Br. ChUp. R. S'ak. Kaths. Pacat. &c.; Hope personified as the wife of a Vasu Hariv.; as the daughter-in-law of Manas Prab.; (for 2. {A4zA} see s.v.) aa4shaa*. (1. {az}; for 1. {AzA4} see {A-zaMs}), space, region, quarter of the heavens RV. AV. TS. R. MBh. Ragh. &c. aas'aasana *= n. asking, praying or craving for Comm. on Nya1yam.aas'aasanIya *= mfn. to be wished or craved for Comm. on Nya1yas. aashaapaasha = entanglements in a network of hope aashaapiNDaM = AshA+pindaM, desire+lump(piNDaM
56

also means rice-ball given aas'aya *= m. resting-place, bed; seat, place; an asylum, abode or retreat S3Br. MBh. Pan5cat. Bhag. &c.; a receptacle; any recipient; any vessel of the body (e.g. %{raktA7zaya}, `" the receptacle of blood "' i.e. the heart; %{AmA7zaya}, the stomach &c.) Sus3r.; the stomach; the abdomen Sus3r.; the seat of feelings and thoughts, the mind, heart, soul Ya1jn5. R. Katha1s. &c.; thought, meaning, intention Prab. Katha1s. Pan5cat.; disposition of mind, mode of thinking; (in Yoga phil.) `" stock "' or `" the balance of the fruits of previous works, which lie stored up in the mind in the form of mental deposits of merit or demerit, until they ripen in the individual soul's own experience into rank, years, and enjoyment (Cowell's translation of Sarvad. 168, 16 ff.); the will; pleasure; virtue; vice; fate; fortune; property; a miser, niggard L.; N. of the plant Artocarpus Integrifolia L. aas'i * = 1 f. eating Kaus'. aas'ii * =1 f. = 1. {Azi4s} L.; (for 2. {AzI} see 2. {Azis}.) aa-s'i * =2 P. (Impv. {A4-zizIhi}) to sharpen [Sy.] i.e. to make zealous RV. vii, 16, 6; viii, 21, 8 [to bestow, let partake BRD.]; (for 1. {Azi} see 2. {Aza}.)

57

aas'ii * =2 f. = 2. {Azis} L. aa-s'ii * =3 . (irr. {-za4ye} [3. sg.] RV. AV.: Impv. 3. sg. {A-zayAm} AV. v, 25, 9; 3. pl. {-zerate} Vikr.) to lie or rest on or round: P. (impf. 3. pl. {A7zayan}) to wish BhP. ix, 1, 37 [perhaps this form is rather a Nom. from 1. {AzA}?]: Caus. (impf. {A74zIzayat}) to lay or put upon R. aashina = old (also heard as aashiina) aashishhati = to give aashirvaad aashu = fast aashcharyaM = surprise aashcharyamayaM = wonderful aashcharyavat.h = with wonder, surprise aashcharyaaNi = all the wonders aashrama = a yoga centre or school aashrayatva = dependence, leaning aashrayaa = sheltor
58

aashrayet.h = must come upon aashri = to take shelter aas'rita * = mfn. attaching one's self to , joining ; having recourse to , resorting to as a retreat or asylum , seeking refuge or shelter from ; subject to , depending on MBh. Katha1s. Ra1jat. Kum. &c. ; relating or belonging to , concerning R. Hariv. BhP. Ma1rkP. &c. ; inhabiting , dwelling in , resting on , being anywhere , taking one's station at MBh. R. Ya1jn5. VarBr2S. &c. ; following , practising , observing ; using , employing ; receiving anything as an inherent or integral part Mn. MBh. BhP. Kum. Pan5cat. &c. ; regarding , respecting Bhag. R. ; taken or sought as a refuge or shelter Katha1s. BhP. Ra1jat. ; inhabited , occupied Katha1s. Pan5cat. Ragh. BhP. ; chosen , preferred , taken as rule Katha1s. Ra1jat. ; m. a dependant , subject , servant , follower Kum. Hit. Ya1jn5. &c. ; (%{am}) n. (with Buddhists) an object perceived by the senses and % {manas} or mind. aashritaM = assuming aashritaH = taking refuge aashritaaH = accepting aashritya = taking shelter of
59

aashleshha = embrace aashleshhaa = Ninth nakshatra aashvaasayaamaasa = encouraged aashvinii = First nakshatra aas'u * = mfn. (1. {az} Un. i, 1), fast, quick, going quickly RV. AV. S'Br. &c.; ({us}) m. Ved. the quick one, a horse RV. AV.; ({us}, or {u}) m. n. rice ripening quickly in the rainy season S'Br. KtyS'r. L.; ({u}) n. N. of a Sman; ({u}) ind. quickly, quick, immediately, directly Sus'r. Megh. Pacat. &c. (cf. Gk. $, $; Lat. {acu} in {acupedius}, &49452[157, 3] {o7cissimus}: of the same origin may be the Lat. {aquila} and {accipiter}.) aas'aya* = m. resting-place, bed; seat, place; an asylum, abode or retreat S'Br. MBh. Pacat. Bhag. &c.; a receptacle; any recipient; any vessel of the body (e.g. {raktA7zaya}, `" the receptacle of blood "' i.e. the heart; {AmA7zaya}, the stomach &c.) Sus'r.; the stomach; the abdomen Sus'r.; the seat of feelings and thoughts, the mind, heart, soul Yj. R. Kaths. &c.; thought, meaning, intention Prab. Kaths. Pacat.; disposition of mind, mode of thinking; (in Yoga phil.) `" stock "' or `" the balance of the fruits of previous works, which lie stored up in the mind in the form of mental deposits of
60

merit or demerit, until they ripen in the individual soul's own experience into rank, years, and enjoyment (Cowell's translation of Sarvad. 168, 16 ff.); the will; pleasure; virtue; vice; fate; fortune; property; a miser, niggard L.; N. of the plant Artocarpus Integrifolia L. aas.h = to sit aasi* = P. (pf. %{A4-siSAya} RV. x, 28, 10) to wrap or pack up. aasita* = mfn. seated, being at rest; one who has sat down, one who is seated or dwells Kaths. R. &c.; ({am}) n. sitting, sitting down Sh. MBh.; a seat; a place where one has lived, an abode R.; way or manner of sitting (cf. {dur--}); N. of several Smans. aasit.h = was/existed aasina = by the weapon aasinaM = situated aasinaH = eaters aas'is * = 1 %{Is} f. asking for , prayer , wish RV. AV. VS. TS. S3Br. &c. ; blessing , benediction ; wishing for any other R. Ragh. Kum. S3ak. &c. ; a particular medicament ; (for 2. %{Azis} see s.v.) 2 f. a serpent's
61

fang ; (for 1. %{Azi4s} see %{A-zAs}.) aasiit.h = was aasiita = does remain still aasiinaH = situated aaspada* = n. (ifc. mf[{A}]n. fr. {pada} with {A} prefixed, {s} being inserted), place, seat, abode S'ak. Kaths. Mriicch. Bhartri. Das'. &c.; the tenth lunar mansion VarBri.; business, affair; dignity, authority; power L. aasphuT * = Caus. {-sphoTayati}, to split open, crush, grind Kaths.; to move, agitate quickly; to shake MBh. Mn. BhP. &c. aas'raya* = m. that to which anything is annexed or with which anything is closely connected or on which anything depends or rests Pn. R. Ragh. Sus'r.; a recipient, the person or thing in which any quality or article is inherent or retained or received; seat, restingplace R. Kaths. Sus'r. &c.; dwelling, asylum, place of refuge, shelter R. S'is'. &c.; depending on, having recourse to; help, assistance, protection Pacat. Ragh. &c.; authority, sanction, warrant; a plea, excuse L.; the being inclined or addicted to, following, practising; attaching to, choosing, taking; joining, union,
62

attachment; dependance, contiguity, vicinity RPrt. Yj. Mn. &c.; relation; connection; appropriate act or one consistent with the character of the agent; (in Gr.) the subject, that to which the predicate is annexed; (with Buddhists) the five organs of sense with {manas} or mind (the six together being the recipients of the {Azrita} or objects which enter them by way of their {Alambana} or qualities); source, origin; ifc. depending on, resting on, endowed or furnished with (e.g. {aSTaguNA7zraya} see under {aSTa}). aasrij *V-S evolved. send forth *= = P. (Impv. 2. sg. {A4-sRja}) . (pf. 3. pl. {A4-sasRjire}) to pour out upon, pour in RV.; to admit (a stallion to a mare) RV. ix, 97, 18; to adorn, decorate RV. v, 52, 6; to carry near; to procure KtyS'r. aastikyaM = religiousness aas'ru * = P. {-zRNoti} . {-zRNute}, to listen to; to hear; to perceive (with the ear) RV. AV. TS. S'Br. BhP. &c.; to accept, promise Pn. 1-4, 40 R. Yj. L.: Caus. {-zrAvayati} [but {A4-zravayatam} RV. vii, 62, 5; aor. {-azuzravus} RV. x, 94, 12], to cause to hear; to announce, make known, tell RV. s'vS'r. MBh.; to address, speak to, call to (especially at particular rites) RV. AV. TS. S'Br. ChUp. TUp. KtyS'r. &c.: Desid. {zuzrUSati} [only P. Pn. 1-3, 59], to wish to hear; to listen. aas'ruta * = mfn. listened to, heard; audible TS.;
63

promised, agreed Ya1jn5.; (%{am}) n. a calling (at rites see %{A-zrAvaNa}) Ka1tyS3r. TS. aaste = remains aasthaaya = following aasteya* = mfn. (Pn. 4-3, 56) belonging to something existent. aasthitaH = being situated aasthitaaH = situated aastikya* = n. (fr. {Astika}), belief in God, piety, faithfulness; a believing nature or disposition MBh. Bhag. BhP. aasu * = to press out (Soma juice); to distil aa-su * = 3. P. {-suno4ti}, (Subj. 2. pl. {-suno4tA} AV. xx, 127, 7 and {A4-sotA} RV. ix, 108, 7) to press out (Soma juice); to distil RV. AV. S'Br. ChUp. aa-suu * = P. {A4-suvati} 1. (p. {-suvAna4}) to excite towards [161, 1]; to throw to, send off towards; to assign to, bring quickly, procure; to yield, grant RV. AV. S'Br. aasuraM = demonic *
64

aasura = 1 mf({I})n. (fr. {asura}), spiritual, divine RV. VS. AV.; belonging or devoted to evil spirits; belonging or relating to the Asuras RV. AV. VS. KtyS'r. Prab. Das'. &c.; infernal, demoniacal; m. an Asura or demon AV. AitBr. Pn.; a form of marriage (in which the bridegroom purchases the bride from her father and paternal kinsmen) s'vGri. i, 6, 6 Mn. iii, 31 (cf. {vivAha}); ({As}) m. pl. the stars of the southern hemisphere Sryas. &c.; a prince of the warrior-tribe Asura Pn.; ({I}) f. a female demon; a division of medicine (surgery, curing by cutting with instruments, applying the actual cautery); N. of the plant Sinapis Ramosa L.; the urethra BhP.; ({am}) n. blood; black salt L. aasuraH = demoniac aasuranishchayaan.h = demons aasurii = demoniac qualities aasuriiM = atheistic aasuriishhu = demoniac aas'u* = mfn. (1. %{az} Un2. i, 1), fast, quick, going quickly RV. AV. S3Br. &c.; (%{us}) m. Ved. the quick one, a horse RV. AV.; (%{us}, or %{u}) m. n. rice ripening quickly in the rainy season S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. L.;
65

(%{u}) n. N. of a Sa1man; (%{u}) ind. quickly, quick, immediately, directly Sus3r. Megh. Pan5cat. &c. (cf. Gk. $, $; Lat. {acu} in {acupedius}, &49452[157,3] {o7cissimus}: of the same origin may be the Lat. {aquila} and {accipiter}.) aas'vaasa * = m. breathing again or freely, taking breath; recovery Sus'r.; cheering up, consolation; relying on Kaths.; a chapter or section of a book Sh. aas'vaasita * = mfn. encouraged , animated , comforted , consoled Das3. BhP. Pan5cat. &c.\\mfn. reanimated , revived , refreshed &c. MBh. R. aasvaada = tastingaatanka = horror, terror aazvaasa * = m. breathing again or freely, taking breath; recovery Sus3r.; cheering up, consolation; relying on Katha1s.; a chapter or section of a book Sa1h. aasya = (m) mouth aasyaa * = f. sitting Sus'r.; abiding, abode; state of rest L. aasya4 * = n. [ifc. mf({A})n.] mouth, jaws RV. AV. VS. MBh. &c.; face Yj.; (mfn.) belonging to the mouth or face, belonging to that part of the mouth or face, belonging to that part of the mouth which is the organ of
66

uttering sounds or letters Pn. Siddh. Ks'. &c. [160, 1] aaT* = ind. a croak (imitation of the sound uttered by a frog) Ta1n2d2yaBr. aat * = ind. (abl. of 4. %{a}) afterwards, then (often used in a concluding paragraph antithetically to % {ya4d}, %{yadA}, %{ya4di}. and sometimes strengthened by the particles %{a4ha}, %{i4d}, %{Im}, %{u}) RV. AV.; then, further, also, and RV. AV. It is sometimes used after an interrogative pronoun (like % {u}, %{nu4}, %{aGga4}) to give emphasis to the pronoun RV. aata *=nmfn. (Pa1n2. 7-4, 47) taken, obtained ChUp. Katha1s.; taken away or off, withdrawn from S3Br. AitBr. &c.; seized, grasped ChUp. La1t2y. &c.; perceived, felt Ma1lav.; undertaken, begun MBh. xiii, 3567. aatataayinaH = aggressors aatapa = heat aatapatraM = sunshade* = n. `" heatprotector "' (ifc. f. {A} Megh. Kaths.), a large umbrella (of silk or leaves) MBh. &c.; {AtapatrAyita} mfn. forming an umbrella (as the branches of a tree) BhP.

67

aathavika *= m. a woodman, forester.aathavika *= m. (fr. %{aTavI}), the inhabitant of a forest Mn. ix, 257 MBh. &c.; a forester Sa1h.; (mfn.) consisting of inhabitants of the forest (as an army) Ka1m.aathavin *= %{I} m. N. of a teacher Va1yuP. aatishhTha = be situated aatura = anxious * = mf(%{A})n. suffering, sick (in body or mind) RV. viii AV. xi, 101, 2, &c.; diseased or pained by (in comp.) MBh. R. &c.; desirous of (Inf.) (cf. %{an-Atura4}.) aatta = ready aattha = have spoken aatma = of the self * = (in comp. for {Atma4n}; also rarely ifc. e.g. {adhy-Atma}, {adhy-Atma4m}). aatmaa = soul- see aatman aatmaanaM = the mind aatmaani = in the pure state of the soul aatmaasambhavitaaH = self-complacent aatmaa.atattvamasi = Thou art That Not (self + Self are
68

differnt:Duality) aatmabhaava = within their hearts aatmabhuutaatmaa = compassionate aatmadars'a * = m. `" self-shower "', a mirror Ragh. vii, 65. aatmadaa * = mfn. granting breath or life RV. x, 121, 2. aatmadaana * = n. gift of self, self-sacrifice Kaths. aatmaghosha * = m. `" uttering one's own name "', a crow L.; a cock L.aatmasaat * = ind. with 1. %{kR} (ind. p. %{-kRtvA}) to place upon one's self Ya1jn5. iii, 54; %{-karoti} (ind. p. %{-kRtvA} MBh. iii, 493 and 496; %{-kRtya} BhP.) to make one's own, attract, turn to one's self, acquire or gain for one's self; to cause to become one with the supreme spirit Nr2isUp. aatmaiva = the very mind aatmaja = son aatmaja * = mfn. self-originated MBh. xii, 12449; m. (ifc. f. {A} R.) `" born from or begotten by one's self "', a son Nir. Mn. &c.; N. of the fifth lunar mansion VarYogay.; ({A}) f. a daughter MBh. R. &c.; `" originating from intellect "', the reasoning faculty L. aatmajaa = daughter
69

aatmajaH = son aatmaja * = mfn. knowing one's self MBh. xii, 12440; knowing the supreme spirit Vedntas. aatmajaana = (aatmaGYaana) = knowledge of self* = n. self-knowledge MBh. v, 990 and 1167; knowledge of the soul or supreme spirit Mn. xii, 85 and 92 MBh. Vedntas. aatmaka *= mf({ikA})n. belonging to or forming the nature of (gen.) MBh. xv, 926; having or consisting of the nature or character of (in comp.) ChUp. [cf. {saMkalpA7tmaka}]; consisting or composed of Mn. MBh. &c. (cf. {paJcA7tmaka} &c.) aatmaka * = mf(%{ikA})n. belonging to or forming the nature of (gen.) MBh. xv , 926 ; having or consisting of the nature or character of (in comp.) ChUp. [cf. % {saMkalpA7tmaka}] ; consisting or composed of Mn. MBh. &c. (cf. %{paJcA7tmaka} &c.) aatmakaaraNaat.h = for sense enjoyment aatmakaama * = (%{Atma4-}) mf(%{A})n. loving one's self , possessed of self-conceit R. ii , 70 , 10 ; loving the supreme spirit S3Br. xiv (Br2A1rUp.) aatmakaH = possessing or controlling aatmakaM = consisting of

70

aatma-krita * = ({Atma4-}) mfn. done or committed against one's self VS. viii, 13; done of one's self, selfexecuted R. ii, 46, 23. aatmamaayayaa = by My internal energy aatman * = {A} m. (variously derived fr. {an}, to breathe; {at}, to move; {vA}, to blow; cf. {tma4n}) the breath RV.; the soul, principle of life and sensation RV. AV. &c.; the individual soul, self, abstract individual [e.g. {Atma4n}] (Ved. loc.) {dhatte}, or {karoti}, `" he places in himself "', makes his own TS. v S'Br.; {AtmanA akarot}, `" he did it himself "' Kd.; {AtmanA vi-yuj}, `" to lose one's life "' Mn. vii, 46; {Atman} in the sg. is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons and all three genders e.g. {AtmAnaM sA hanti}, `" she strikes herself "'; {putram AtmanaH spRSTvA nipetatuH}, `" they two having touched their son fell down "' R. ii, 64, 28; the prayers of transcendental activity [with for each of the four a type of priest or below s.v. {AtmanA}]; essence, nature, character, peculiarity (often ifc. e.g. {karmA7tman}, &c.) RV. x, 97, 11, &c.; the person or whole body considered as one and opposed to the separate members of the body VS. S'Br.; the body Ragh. i, 14 RmatUp.; (ifc.) `" the understanding, intellect, mind "' see {naSTA7tman}, {mandA7-}; the highest personal principle of life, Brahma (cf. {paramA7tman}) AV. x, 8, 44 VS. xxxii, 11 S'Br. xiv, &c.; effort L.; (= {dhRti}) firmness L.; the sun L.; fire L.; a son L.; [Old Germ. {tum}; Angl. Sax.
71

{oedhm}; Mod. Germ. {Athem}, {Odem}; Gk. $, $ (?).] &42279[135, 1] aatmanaa* = instr. of {Atman}, in comp. [but not in a Bahuvrhi] with ordinals Pn. 6-3, 6 (cf. the Bahuvrhi compounds {Atma-caturtha}, and {-paJcama}.) aatmasad * = mfn. dwelling in (my-) self AV. v, 9, 8. aatmasama * = m. equal to one's self; (% {Atmasama}) %{-tAMnI}, to render any one (acc.) equal to one's self, Ratna1v. aatma-tattva * = n. the true nature of the soul or of the supreme spirit S'vetUp.; ({Atmatattva}) {-jJa} mfn. knowing or versed in the Vednta doctrines L. aatmata * = f. essence, nature BhP. aatmatva * = n. essence, nature Sh. aatmatriptaH = self-illuminated aatman.h = Soul *= %{A} m. (variously derived fr. % {an} , to breathe ; %{at} , to move ; %{vA} , to blow ; cf. %{tma4n}) the breath RV. ; the soul , principle of life and sensation RV. AV. &c. ; the individual soul , self , abstract individual [e.g. %{Atma4n}] (Ved. loc.) %{dhatte} , or %{karoti} , `" he places in himself "' , makes his own TS. v S3Br. ; %{AtmanA@akarot} , `"
72

he did it himself "' Ka1d. ; %{AtmanA@vi-yuj} , `" to lose one's life "' Mn. vii , 46 ; %{Atman} in the sg. is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons and all three genders e.g. %{AtmAnaM@sA@hanti} , `" she strikes herself "' ; % {putram@AtmanaH@spRSTvA@nipetatuH} , `" they two having touched their son fell down "' R. ii , 64 , 28 ; [see also below s.v. %{AtmanA}] ; essence , nature , character , peculiarity (often ifc. e.g. %{karmA7tman} , &c.) RV. x , 97 , 11 , &c. ; the person or whole body considered as one and opposed to the separate members of the body VS. S3Br. ; the body Ragh. i , 14 Ra1matUp. ; (ifc.) `" the understanding , intellect , mind "' see %{naSTA7tman} , %{mandA7-} ; the highest personal principle of life , Brahma (cf. % {paramA7tman}) AV. x , 8 , 44 VS. xxxii , 11 S3Br. xiv , &c. ; effort L. ; (= %{dhRti}) firmness L. ; the sun L. ; fire L. ; a son L. ; [Old Germ. {a1tum} ; Angl. Sax. {oedhm} ; Mod. Germ. {Athem} , {Odem} ; Gk. $ , $ (?).] &42279[135 ,1] aatmana = (Masc.instr.sing.) thro' the self aatmanaH = of the person aatmanaa = by the purified mind * = instr. of {Atman}, in comp. [but not in a Bahuvrhi] with ordinals Pn. 6-3, 6 (cf. the Bahuvrhi compounds {Atma-caturtha}, and {paJcama}.)
73

aatmani = in himself aatmaratiH = taking pleasure in the self aatmasa.nyama = of controlling the mind aatmasa.nstutiH = and praise of himself aatmasa.nsthaM = placed in transcendence aatmasaat.h = to imbibe, to make one's own, to train oneself aatmavantaM = situated in the self aatmavashyaiH = under one's control aatmavat *= mfn. having a soul Nr2isUp. ; selfpossessed , composed , prudent Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. ; ind. like one's self Hit. ; (%{Atmavat}) %{-tA} f. selfpossession , self-regard , prudence Mn. xi , 86 Ragh. viii , 83 ; self-resemblance , proportion , analogy L. aatmavaan.h = established in the self aatmavinigrahaH = self-control aatmavibhuutayaH = personal opulences aatmavishvaasaH = (m) confidence
74

aatmayogaat.h = by My internal potency aatmatattva * = n. the true nature of the soul or of the supreme spirit S'vetUp.; ({Atmatattva}) {-jJa} mfn. knowing or versed in the Vednta doctrines L. aatma-tantra * =n. the basis of self MBh. xiii, 4399; (mfn.) depending only on one's self, independent BhP. (cf. {sva-tantra}.) aatma-ta * = f. essence, nature BhP. aatmiyataa = the feeling of oneness aathopa * = m. puffing, swelling MBh. iii, 11587 Pan5cat. &c.; a multitude, redundancy BhP.; flatulence, borborygmi Sus3r.; pride, self-conceit Mr2icch. &c. (cf. %{sA7topam}.) aatura * = mf({A})n. suffering, sick (in body or mind) RV. viii AV. xi, 101, 2, &c.; diseased or pained by (in comp.) MBh. R. &c.; desirous of (Inf.) (cf. {anAtura4}.) aatyantikaM = supreme aatyantika *= mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{aty-anta}), continual, uninterrupted, infinite, endless Mn. ii, 242 seq. Bhag. &c.; entire, universal (as the world's destruction &c.)
75

BhP. Sarvad. aavaasaH = (m) residence, living quarters aavaha * =mf({A})n. bringing, bringing to pass, producing; what bears or conveys Mn. Bhag. R. Pacat. &c.; m. N. of one of the seven winds or bands of air (that which is usually assigned to the {bhuvar-loka} or atmospheric region between the {bhUr-loka} and {svarloka}) Hariv.; one of the seven tongues of fire. [155, 2] aavaaha * = m. inviting, invitation MBh.; marrying L.; N. of a son of S'vaphalka Hariv aavali * = %{is} and %{I} f. (%{val} T.), a row, range; a continuous line; a series; dynasty, lineage Vikr. BhP. Prab. Hit. &c. aavaasya* = mfn. ifc. to be inhabited by, full of BhP. viii, 1, 10. aavaraNa = a veil aavartaH = (m) whirlpool aavartate = comes back aavartinaH = returning

76

aavartita* = mfn. turned round, stirred round Hariv. BhP. &c. aavasatha4 * = m. (Un. iii, 114) dwelling-place, abode, habitation, night's lodging AV. ix, 6, 7 S'Br. ChUp. Mn. R. Hit. Ragh. &c.; a dwelling for pupils and ascetics; a village; a particular religious observance L.; a treatise on ry metres T. aavali = (f) line, row aavasatha * = m. (Un2. iii, 114) dwelling-place, abode, habitation, night's lodging AV. ix, 6, 7 S3Br. ChUp. Mn. R. Hit. Ragh. &c.; a dwelling for pupils and ascetics; a village; a particular religious observance L.; a treatise on A1rya1 metres T. aavayoH = of ours aaveza *= m. joining one's self Ka1tyS3r.; entering, entrance, taking possession of MBh. S3ak. Prab. &c.; absorption of the faculties in one wish or idea, intentness, devotedness to an object BhP.; demoniacal frenzy, possession, anger, wrath Ba1lar. Ka1d.; pride, arrogance L.; indistinctness of idea, apoplectic or epileptic giddiness L. aavi* = {is} and {I4} f. (perhaps {vI}), pain, suffering Sus'r. TS.; ({yas}) f. pl. pangs of childbirth Sus'r.
77

aavii* = P. {-ve4ti} (but also {-va4yati} Nigh. ii, 8; pf. {-vivAya}, &c.) to undertake; to hasten near, approach RV.; to grasp, seize AitUp.; to drive on or near RV.: Intens. (Pot. 3. pl. {A4-vavIran} TS. iii, 2, 9, 5) to tremble, be agitated; (for the noun {AvI} see {Avi}, and for {AvI} f. see {Avya}.) aavidhya *= ind. p. having pierced &c. aavirbhuutaM = having taken a physical form or incarnation aavishya = entering aavis'* =* = P. . {-vizati}, {-te} (inf. {A-vi4zam} RV. ii, 24, 6) to go or drive in or towards; to approach, enter; to take possession of RV. AV. VS. S'Br. MBh. BhP. R. Mn. &c.; to sit down, settle MBh.; to get or fall into; to reach, obtain; to become RV. MBh. R. BhP. &c.: Caus. {-vezayati}, to cause to enter or approach; to cause to reach or obtain; to deliver, offer, present; to make known RV. AV. AitBr. MBh. BhP. Ragh. Bhag. &c. aavishh.h = to be possesed by aavishhTaM = overwhelmed aavishhTaH = overwhelmed

78

aavikshita = descendent of avikshit (i.e, marutta) aavraj P. %{-vrajati}, to come near, proceed to S3Br. La1t2y. Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c.; to come back or home, return R. BhP. Sus3r. MBh. &c.aavriti * = f. covering, closing, hiding. aavrij * =. {-vRGkte} (Subj. {-va4rjate} RV. i, 33, 1; aor. {A74vRkta} RV. viii, 90, 16; also P. aor. 1. sg. {A74vRkSam} RV. x, 159, 5) to turn or bring into the possession of, procure for, bestow, give RV.; to turn or bring into one's own possession; to appropriate RV. S'Br. BhP.; to be propitiated, favour BhP.: Caus. P. {varjayati}, to turn over, incline, bend Hariv. S'ak. Vikr. Ragh. Megh. &c.; to pour out Ragh. Kum.; to deliver BhP. Ragh. &c.; to cause to yield, overcome; to gain one's favour, propitiate, attract Kaths. Das'. &c. aavri * =1 1. P. {-vRNoti}, to cover, hide, conceal; to surround, enclose, shut, comprehend, hem in; to keep off MBh. R. BhP. S'ak. Kaths. &c.: Caus. {-vArayati}, to cover, enclose; to ward off, keep off MBh. R. BhP. VarBriS. aavritya * =1 ind. p. 3. having covered &c. S'ak. MBh. &c. aavrita = encircled/avrithA * = ind. not in vain, profitably L.
79

aavritaM = is covered aavritaH = is covered aavritaa = covered aavritaaH = covered aavrittiM = return aavritya = covering aavrishhthi = (fem) rain aaveshita = fixed aaves'ika *= mfn. own , peculiar ; inherent ; m. a guest , a visitor ; (%{am}) n. entering into ; hospitable reception , hospitality L. aaveshya = establishing aavriyate = is covered aavhayati = to call aavya * =mf({AvI})n. (fr. {avi}), belonging to sheep TS.; woollen s'vGri.
80

aayaama *: extending, restraining, restrained, stopping aayaata * = mfn. come, arrived, attained MBh. S'ak. Kaths. &c.; ({am}) n. abundance, superabundance, Kir aayaH = (m) income, earnings aavyakta* = mfn. quite clear or intelligible R. vii, 88, 20. aayatana = place, position aayatam.h = (n) rectangle aayana *= 1 n. coming, approaching RV. AV. VS.; (for 2. {Ayana} see s.v aayaana * =n. coming, arrival RV. viii, 22, 18 MBh. &c.; the natural temperament or disposition L. (cf. {ayAna}.) aayanaa.nsha = Precession of Equinoxes. Used to convert Tropical positions to Sidereal aayaataH = have come aayaatana = abode, resting place

81

aayata * = mfn. stretched, lengthened, put on (as an arrow); stretching, extending, extended, spread over; directed towards, aiming at; extended, long, future MBh. R. Sus'r. Ragh. S'is'. Kir. &c.; m. an oblong figure (in geometry); ({A}) f. a particular interval (in music); ({am}), and ({ayA}) ind. without delay, on the spot, quickly S'Br. aayatana n. resting-place, support, seat, place, home, house, abode TS. S3Br. ChUp. AitBr. Mn. Ya1jn5. Kum. &c.; the place of the sacred fire (= %{agnyAyatana}) Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vS3r. and Gr2.; an altar; a shed for sacrifices; a sanctuary ChUp. R. Mn. Pan5cat. &c.; a plot of ground, the site of a house; a barn Ya1jn5. ii, 154; the cause of a disease Sus3r.; (with Buddhists) the five senses and Manas (considered as the inner seats or A1yatanas) and the qualities perceived by the above (the outer A1yatanas). aayu* = 1 2. A1. (%{A4-yuvate} RV. ix, 77, 2; pf. %{yuyuve4} RV. i, 138, 1; p. %{-yuva4mAna} RV. i, 582, and %{-yuvAna} S3Br. ix, 4, 1, 8) to draw or pull towards one's self; to seize, take possession of RV. TBr. S3Br.; to procure, provide, produce TS.; to stir up, agitate, mingle Ma1nS3r. and Gr2.: Intens. (p. %{yo4yuvAna} RV. iv, 1, 11) to meddle with.// 2 mfn. (fr. %{i} Un2. i, 2), living, movable RV. VS.; (%{us}) m. a living being, man; living beings collectively, mankind RV.; son, descendant, offspring; family, lineage RV.; a
82

divine personification presiding over life RV. x, 17, 4; N. of fire (as the son of Puru1ravas and Urvas3i1) VS. MBh. Hariv. (cf. %{Ayus}); N. of a man persecuted by Indra RV.; N. of several other men MBh. Hariv. &c.; N. of a king of frogs MBh.; (%{u}) n. [and (%{us}) m. L.] life, duration of life RV. iii, 3, 7; ix, 100, 1. aayuH = [long] life aayus * = n. life, vital power, vigour, health, duration of life, long life RV. AV. TS. S3Br. Mn. MBh. Pan5cat. &c.; active power, efficacy RV. VS.; the totality of living beings [food Sa1y.] RV. ii, 38, 5 and vii, 90, 6; N. of a particular ceremony (= %{AyuH-SToma} q.v.); N. of a Sa1man; of the eighth lunar mansion; food L.; (% {us}) m. the son of Puru1ravas and Urvas3i1 (cf. % {Ayu}) MBh. Vikr. VP.; [cf. Dor. $; perhaps also $.] aayudhaM = weapons aayudhadharmiNI* = f. the plant Sesbania AEgyptiaca (commonly called Jayant) L. aayudhapAla* = m. the governor of an arsenal Hariv. aayudhabhRt* = mfn. bearing arms; ({t}) m. a warrior VarBriS. aayudhAgAra* = n. an armoury, arsenal Mn. MBh.
83

Venis.; {-nara} m. governor of an arsenal Hariv. {AyudhA7gArika} m. governor of an arsenal Hariv. [149, 2] aayudha* = n. a weapon RV. AV. VS. R. Mn. MBh. Ragh. &c.; implement AV. x, 10, 18 AitBr. Kaus'.; gold used for ornaments L.; ({Ani}) n. pl. water L. aayudhaanaaM = of all weapons aayur* = (in comp. for {Ayus} below). aayush* = (in comp. for {Ayus} below). aayusha* = n. ifc. = {Ayus}, duration of life S'Br. Pacat. &c. aayus* = n. life, vital power, vigour, health, duration of life, long life RV. AV. TS. S'Br. Mn. MBh. Pacat. &c.; active power, efficacy RV. VS.; the totality of living beings [food Sy.] RV. ii, 38, 5 and vii, 90, 6; N. of a particular ceremony (= {AyuH-SToma} q.v.); N. of a Sman; of the eighth lunar mansion; food L.; ({us}) m. the son of Purravas and Urvas' (cf. {Ayu}) MBh. Vikr. VP.; [cf. Dor. $; perhaps also $.] aayushhkaaraka = Significator of Longevity which is Saturn

84

aayuta * = mfn. melted, mixed, mingled; ifc. combined with MBh. R. BhP.; ({A4-yutam}) n. halfmelted butter MaitrS. AitBr. aayojakaH = (m) organiser, sponsoraasava abandhu = one who does not have any brothers / kinmen abala = helpless (woman) abalaa = (helpless) Woman abuddhayaH = less intelligent persons abodha = Ignorance abda = Season of plenty abdhi = sea abdhii = (m) ocean, sea abhaavaH = changing quality abhaavayataH = of one who is not fixed abhaashhata = began to speak

85

abhadra * = mfn. inauspicious, mischievous; (%{am}) n. mischief. abrahmaNya = Not kosher abhajyamaana * = mfn. (Pass.) not being detached; not being vanquished, &c. abhaashate - see aabhaasha abhaktaaya = to one who is not a devotee abhara: see abhr abhavat.h = became abraviit.h = spoke abhavishhyat.h = will become abhaya = freedom from fear *mf({A})n. unfearful, not dangerous, secure; ({a-bha4ya}) mfn. fearless, undaunted S'Br. xiv; m. N. of S'iva; of a natural son of Bimbisra; of a son of Idhmajihva BhP.; of a river in Kraucadvpa BhP.; ({A}) f. the plant Terminalia Chebula; ({a4-bhayam}) n. (ifc. f. {A}) absence or removal of fear, peace, safety, security RV. &c. (cf. {a4bhaya-tama} below); `" safety "', (applied as proper name to) a child of Dharma and his reign in
86

Plakshadvpa BhP.; a kind of symbol procuring security Hcat.; a sacrificial hymn recited to obtain personal security Kaus'.; the root of a fragrant grass, Andropogon Muricatum. abhayaM = fearlessness abhaye = and fearlessness abhi * = ind. (a prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) to, towards, into, over, upon. (As a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the notion or going towards, approaching, &c. (As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it expresses superiority, intensity, &c.; e.g. % {abhi-tAmra}, %{abhi-nava} q.v. (As a separate adverb or preposition) it expresses (with acc.) to, towards, in the direction of, against; into S3Br. and Ka1tyS3r.; for, for the sake of; on account of; on, upon, with regard to, by, before, in front of; over. It may even express one after the other, severally Pa1n2. 1-4, 91 e.g. % {vRkSaM@vRkSam@abhi}, tree after tree [cf. Gk. $; Lat. {ob}; Zend &18820[61,1] {aibi}, {aiwi}; Goth. {bi}; Old High Germ. {bi1}]. abhibhavati = transforms abhibhavaat.h = having become predominant abhibhava * = mfn. overpowering, powerful AV. i, 29, 4 [67,1]; m. prevailing, overpowering, predominance
87

Bhag. &c.; defeat, subjugation under (instr. or abl., or in comp.); disregard, disrespect; humiliation, mortification. abhibhuuya = surpassing abhicara = m. a servant L. abhichaara = black magic abhicaara * = m. exorcising, incantation, employment of spells for a malevolent purpose AV. &c.; magic (one of the Upapa1takas or minor crimes).\\ m. exorcising, incantation A1p.\\ see %{abhi-car}. abhidhaana* = n. telling, naming, speaking, speech, manifesting; a name, title, appellation, expression, word; a vocabulary, dictionary, lexicon; putting together, bringing in close connection VPrt.; (compar. {-tara}) KaushBr.; ({I}) f. see s.v. abhidhaasyati = explains abhidhiiyate = is called abhidhitsA * = f. desire of expressing or naming Kpr. abhidhi * = 3. (impf. 3. pl. {abhy-adhinvan}) to satisfy Kthh. PBr.

88

abhidhii * = (perf. 1. sg. {-dIdhaya-}; p. . {dI4dhyAna} RV. iv, 33, 9) to reflect upon, consider RV. iii, 38, 1 and x, 32, 4. abhijaana* = n. remembrance, recollection; knowledge L.; ascertainment; a sign or token of remembrance [62,3]; any sign or token serving as a proof for (loc. or {prati}) R.; = {abhijJAna-zakuntala} q.v. Sh. abhigraha * = m. seizing taking hold of; attack, onset L.; defiance, challenge L.; robbing, plundering L.; authority L.; a vow Jain abhihitaa = described* = mfn. ( %{dhA}), harnessed or put to (as a horse) RV. AV. S3Br.; named, called Mn. iii, 141, &c.; held forth, said, declared, spoken MBh. Mn. &c.; spoken to Kum. &c.; m. N. of a chief L.; (% {am}) n. a name, expression, word. abhii * = 1 mfn. fearless R. Ragh.\\ 2 ( %{i}), %{abhye4ti} (Imper. 2. sg. %{abhI74hi}; impf. 3. pl. %{Ayan}, 3. sg. A1. %{-Ayata}; ind. p. %{abhI74tya}) to come near, approach, go up to or towards (acc.) RV. &c.; (with %{sakAzam} or %{samIpam} or % {pArzve}) id. Pan5cat.; to go along or after (acc.) RV. &c.; to enter, join, go over to Mn. Bhat2t2.; (with a pr. p.) to begin to, (perf. 3. pl. %{abhI7yu4H}) S3Br.; to reach, obtain RV. &c.; to get or fall into (acc.) MBh. &c.; to come to, fall to one's share (with acc.) Bhat2t2.;
89

(said of the sun) to rise (as if he came nearer; also with %{abhitarAm} [q. v.] instead of %{abhi}) AitBr., (with %{astam}) to set MBh. i, 1797 (cf. %{abhy-aya}): Pass. %{abhI7yate}, to be perceived, known BhP.: Intens. (1. pl. %{-Imahe}) to ask, request RV. i, 24, 3. abhiikshNa * = mfn. (contr. of %{abhikSaNa} cf. Nir. ii, 25), constant, perpetual L.; in comp. for % {abhIkSNam} q.v.; (%{am}) ind. repeatedly, again and again, perpetually, constantly; presently, at once; very, exceedingly (in comp. %{abhIkSNa-}) Ra1jat. abhiipsita = desired abhijanavaan.h = surrounded by aristocratic relatives abhijaataH = born of abhijaatasya = of one who is born of abhijaananti = they know abhijaanaati = does know abhijaayate = becomes manifest abhijita = A nakshatra between uttaraashhDhaa and shravaNa mainly centred on the star Vega. For some reason it is not usually included in the 27 nakshatras although it would make 28 if it was. adhipatii - Lord
90

abhijit * = mfn. victorious VS. xv, 7; born under the constellation Abhijit Pn. 4-3, 36, (cf. {Abhijita}); ({t}) m. N. of a Soma sacrifice (part of the great sacrifice Gavm-ayana) AV. S'Br. &c.; N. of a son [Hariv.] or of the father [VP.] of Punarvasu; of Vishnu L.; N. of a star (a Lyrae) L.; of the 20th (or 22nd) Nakshatra AV. &c.; the eighth Muhrta of the day (about midday) Kaus'. &c. abhijin.hmuhuurta = the most auspicious moment abhikrama = in endeavoring abhimanaH = conceit abhimaana = self-importance * = m. intention to injure, insidiousness KtyS'r.; high opinion of one's self, selfconceit, pride, haughtiness; (in Snkhya phil.) = {abhimati}, above; conception (especially an erroneous one regarding one's self) Sh. &c.; affection, desire; N. of a Riishi in the sixth Manvantara VP. \\ see %{nirabhImAna}.\\ see %{abhi-man}. \\ see %{nirabhImAna}. abhimaanatA * = f. pride , arrogance. abhimaanavat * = mfn. conceiving or having ideas about self ; proud , arrogant.

91

abhimaanazAlin * = mfn. proud , arrogant Kir. ii , 48. [67,2] abhimaanazUnya * = mfn. void of conceit , humble. abhimanas * = mfn. `" having the mind directed towards "' , desirous of , longing for (acc.) R. &c. abhimanaaya * = Nom. A1. (Opt. %{-manAyeta}) to long for , desire Bhat2t2. (cf. g. %{bhRzA7di}): Desid. %{-mimAnayiSate} Pat. abhimata * mfn. longed for, wished, desired; loved, dear; allowed s'vGri.; supposed, imagined; ({am}) n. desire, wish. abhimriSTa* = touched, struck abhimukhaaH = towards abhinandatii = praises abhinaya = acting abhinanda *= m. the delight, pleasure (of sensuality) S3Br. xiv ChUp.; wish, desire for (ifc.) Sus3r.; N. of the first month; N. of a commentator on the Amara-kosha; N. of the author of the Yoga-va1sisht2hasa1ra; (%{A}) f. delight L.; wish L.

92

abhinandana *= n. delighting L.; praising, applauding L.; wish, desire L.; (%{as}) m. N. of the fourth Jaina Arhat of the present Avasarpin2i1. abhinivesha = possessiveness abhipravrittaH = being fully engaged abhipraayaH = (m) opinion abhiprayaa *= (Imper. 2. pl. %{-yAtha4na}) to come towards , approach RV. viii , 27 , 6 ; to set out , march off , go to battle MBh. &c.abhipraaya *= m. aim Pa1n2. 1-3 , 72 ; purpose , intention , wish R. &c. ; opinion Mn. vii , 57 , &c. ; meaning , sense (as of a word or of a passage). abhiraama * = mf({A}) n. pleasing, delightful, agreeable, beautiful; m. N. of Siva; 1. ({am}) ind. so as to be agreeable to (in comp.) S'k.; (for 2. {abhirAmam} see s.v. below.) abhiraamastrilokaanaaM = the laudable rAma for all the three worlds abhirataH = following abhirakshantu = should give support

93

abhirakshitaM = perfectly protected abhirakshitam.h = who has been well protected abhirata * = mfn. reposing Ya1jn5. i , 251 ; pleased or contented with (loc.) , satisfied ; engaged in , attentive to (loc.) , performing , practising. abhirati * = f. pleasure , delighting in (loc. or in comp.) Ragh. ix , 7 , &c. ; N. of a world Buddh. abhishhi.nchati = performs' puuja', by pouring water etc. on the idol abhishhekaM = ablution abhisandhaaya = desiring abhitaH = everywhere abhitaD.h = to strike abhivand * = . (rarely P.) to salute respectfully abhivandaka* = mfn. having the intention to salute Jain. abhi-vandana * n. saluting respectfully abhiijya* = mfn. id. L.; m. a god L
94

abhinaya * = m. (indication of a passion or purpose by look, gesture, &c.) acting, dramatic action (expressive of sentiment) abhivyaJjana * = n. making manifest L. abhiyaachanaa = (f) demand abhiyuktaanaaM = fixed in devotion abhivijvalanti = and are blazing abhiyaata * = mfn. approached; attacked. abhukta * = mfn. uneaten; unenjoyed, unused, unexpended; one who has not eaten, enjoyed or expended. abhuuta* = mfn. whatever has not been or happened. abhicaksh * =%{-caSTe} (2. sg. %{-cakSase} RV. v, 3, 9; Ved. Inf. %{-cakSase} RV.) to look at, view, perceive RV. BhP.; to cast a kind or gracious look upon any one RV.; to address BhP.; to assail with harsh language RV. vii, 104, 8; to call BhP. abhicakshaNa* =n. conjuring, incantation AV. vi, 127, 2; (%{A}) f. (in augury or astron.) observation (of the sky) AV. ix, 2, 21.
95

abhicakshya * =mfn. manifest RV. viii, 4, 7. abhihita * = mfn. ( %{dhA}) , harnessed or put to (as a horse) RV. AV. S3Br. ; named , called Mn. iii , 141 , &c. ; held forth , said , declared , spoken MBh. Mn. &c. ; spoken to Kum. &c. ; m. N. of a chief L. ; (% {am}) n. a name , expression , word. abhijaa* = %{-jAnAti}, %{-nIte}, to recognize, perceive, know, be or become aware of; to acknowledge, agree to, own; to remember (either with the fut, p. or with %{yad} and impf.) Pa1n2. 2-2, 112 seqq. Bhat2t2. abhija* = mf(%{A})n. knowing, skilful, clever; understanding, conversant with (gen. or ifc.); (%{A}) f. remembrance, recollection Pa1n2. 3-2, 112; supernatural science or faculty of a Buddha (of which five are enumerated, viz. 1. taking any form at will; 2. hearing to any distance; 3. seeing to any distance; 4. penetrating men's thoughts; 5. knowing their state and antecedents). abhimata * = mfn. longed for , wished , desired ; loved , dear ; allowed A1s3vGr2. ; supposed , imagined ; (% {am}) n. desire , wish. abhimatataa * = f. agreeableness , desirableness ; desire , love.

96

abhimati * = f. self reference , referring all objects to self (as the act of Aham2ka1ra or personality) BhP. abhimaati * = mfn. insidious RV. v , 23 , 4 and x , 18 , 9 ; (%{is}) f. striving to injure RV. ; an enemy , foe RV. AV. S3Br. abhinanda * = m. the delight, pleasure (of sensuality) S3Br. xiv ChUp.; wish, desire for (ifc.) Sus3r.; N. of the first month; N. of a commentator on the Amara-kosha; N. of the author of the Yoga-va1sisht2hasa1ra; (%{A}) f. delight L.; wish L. abhinandya * = 1 mfn. = %{abhi-nandanIya} S3a1k. Ragh. v, 31.\\ 2 ind. p. having rejoiced at; having gladdened. abhipracakS * =(Ved. Inf. %{-ca4kSe}) to see RV. i, 113, 6. abhivicaksh * =%{-caSTe}, to look towards RV. iii, 55, 9 AV. ii, 10, 4. abhivikhyaa * = to look at , view VS. Gobh. abhivikhyaata* = mfn. universally known , renowned , known as , called MBh. &c. abhyaacaksh * = (impf. %{-A7caSTa}) to look at (acc.)
97

BhP.; to speak BhP. abhyaakarsha 8 = m. ( {kRS}), a striking of the flat of the hand upon the breast in defiance (a practice common to wrestlers and pugilists) MBh. i, 7109. abhyaanana * = mfn. having the face turned towards BhP. abhyaasa* = reaching to, pervading Yj. iii, 114; (with {yad} and Pot.) prospect, any expected result or consequence ChUp.; proximity (with gen. or abl.) R. &c.; (mfn.) near Kum. vi, 2; ({am}) ind. near, at hand AitBr. PBr.; ({e}) loc. ind. near (with gen. or abl.) R. &c.; ({At}) abl. in comp. with (a perf. Pass. p., as) {Agata}, &c., arrived from near at hand, &c. Pn. 2-1, 39 Sch. & vi, 3, 2 Sch. abhyaasa* = 2 m. the act of adding anything, S'ulb.; (in Gr.) `" what is prefixed "', the first syllable of a reduplicated radical Pn.; reduplication Nir.; repetition Mn. xii, 74, &c.; (in poetry) repetition of the last verse of a stanza [Nir.] or of the last word of a chapter [Comm. on AitBr.]; (in arithm.) multiplication; repeated or permanent exercise, discipline, use, habit, custom [77, 1]; repeated reading, study; military practice L.; (in later Vednta phil.) inculcation of a truth conveyed in sacred writings by means of repeating the same word or the same passage; (in Yoga phil.) the effort of the mind
98

to remain in its unmodified condition of purity (sattva). abhyaasa * = see ({abhy-} 1. {az} and) 2. {abhy-} 2. {as}. abhyadhikaH = greater abhyanunaadayan.h = resounding abhyarchya = by worshiping abhyard * = to oppress , afflict , pain R.: Caus. id. BhP. abhyardha * = m. only (%{e4}) loc. ind. opposite to , in the face of (abl.) S3Br. abhyardhas * = ind. apart , separate from (abl.) MaitrS. TS. [76,2] abhyardhayajvan * = (6) mfn. (said of Pu1shan) receiving sacrifices apart or separate ones RV. vi , 50 , 5. abhyardita * = mfn. (fr. Caus.) distressed , oppressed MBh. i , 4116 Pa1n2. 7-2 , 25 Sch. abhyarhaNa * = n. reverencing , honouring BhP. abhyasanaM = practice

99

abhyasuuyakaaH = envious abhyasuuyati = is envious abhyasuuyantaH = out of envy abhyahanyanta = were simultaneously sounded abhyaasha = outskirts abhyaasa = study abhyaasayoga = by practice abhyaasayogena = by the practice of devotional service abhyaasaat.h = than practice abhyaase = in practice abhyaasena = by practice abhyavarsha: A* heaped with, showerd by, covered with, poured over abhyutthaanaM = predominance abhyudaya = rise, prosperity * = m. sunrise or rise of
100

luminaries (during or with reference to some other occurrence) Ka1tyS3r. Jaim.; beginning, commencing (as of darkness, &c.) R.; elevation, increase, prosperity, happiness, good result Mn. iii, 254 R. &c.; a religious celebration, festival Mn. ix, 84. abhyupAyana * = n. a complimentary gift, an inducement BhP. abhyupeta* = mfn. approached, arrived at (acc.) MBh. i, 3592 Ragh. v, 14; (with %{gRham}) staying in a house VarBr2S.; furnished with (in comp. [VarBr2S.] or instr.); agreed upon, assented to Das3.; promised Megh. abhraM = cloud abhr * = cl. 1. P. {abhrati} (perf. {Anabhra}) to error wander about Bhathth. acara* = or {a4-carat} [RV.] mfn. immovable. acaraM = and not moving acarasya = and nonmoving acala = (adj) still, stationary acalaM = unmoving

101

acalaH = immovable acalapratishhThaM = steadily situated acalaa = unflinching acalena = without its being deviated acakshus.h = one without an eye acaapalaM = determination acetana* = mfn. without consciousness, inanimate; unconscious, insensible, senseless, fainting, &c. acetAna* =mfn. thoughtless, infatuated RV. vii, 4, 7. acetas* =mfn. imprudent RV.; unconscious, insensible. acintya = inconceivable acintyaM = beyond contemplation acintyaH = inconceivable aciraad.h = without delay/in no time aciraadbhava = in no time from the cycle of
102

birth\&death acireNa = very soon acetasaH = without KRishhNa consciousness acchedyaH = unbreakable achyuta = O infallible one achyutam.h = the who does not slip acit* = mfn. without understanding RV.; irreligious, bad RV.; (the NBD. suggests to take {a-ci4t} as a f. `" notknowledge "' Sy. sometimes explains by {ci}, `" neglecting the Agnicayana, irreligious); {a-cit} f. notspirit, matter Sarvad. aH = (v) to be aD * = 1 cl. 1. P. %{aDati}, to endeavour L. ad * = 1 cl.2. P. %{a4tts}, %{Ada}, %{atsyati}, % {attum}, to eat, consume, devour, Ved. Inf. %{a4ttave} RV.: Caus. %{Ada4yati} and %{-te} (once %{adayate} [A1pS3r.]) to feed [cf. Lith. {edmi}; Slav. {jamj} for {jadmj}; Gk. $; Lat. {edo}; Goth. root {AT} pres. {ita}; Germ. &5166[17,3] {essen}; Eng. {to} {eat}, Arm. {utem}].\\ad mfn. ifc. `" eating "', as %{matsyA7d},
103

eating fish. addhA * = ind. (fr. %{ad}, or %{a}, this), Ved. in this way; manifestly; certainly, truly. ad.h = to eat a-daara * = having no wife adara * = not little, much. adatta * = mfn. not given; given unjustly; not given in marriage; one who has given nothing AV.; (%{A}) f. an unmarried girl; (%{am}) n. a donation which is null and void Comm. on Ya1jn5. acala * = mf(%{A})n. not moving, immovable; m. a mountain, rock; a bolt or pin; the number seven; N. of S3iva and of the first of the nine deified persons, called `" white Balas "' among the Jainas; of a Devarshi VP.; (%{A}) f. the earth; one of the ten degrees which are to be ascended by a Bodhisattva before becoming a Buddha. acara * = or {a4-carat} [RV.] mfn. immovable. acarama * = mfn. not last , not least ; said of the Maruts RV. v , 58 , 5.

104

acikara* V: let made, let be done adadat.h = gave adambha* = mfn. free from deceit, straightforward m. N. of S'iva; absence of deceit; straightforwardness. aadaahyaH = unable to be burneddambhitvaM = pridelessness adarshaH = mirror adas * = nom. mf. %{asau4} (voc. %{a4sau} MaitrS.) n. %{ada4s}, (opposed to %{ida4m} q.v.), that, a certain, (%{adas}) ind. thus, so, there. adatta V* assume, * n= mfn. not given; given unjustly; not given in marriage; one who has given nothing AV.; ({A}) f. an unmarried girl; ({am}) n. a donation which is null and void Comm. on Yj. adakshiNaM = with no remunerations to the priests adhika * = mfn. additional, subsequent, later; surpassing (in number or quantity or quality), superior, more numerous; abundant; excellent; supernumerary, redundant; secondary, inferior; intercalated; (%{am}) n. surplus, abundance, redundancy, hyperbole ind. exceedingly, too much; more.
105

adbhuta = the sentiment of marvel* =mfn. extraordinary; see s.v. \\ [once {adbhuta4} RV. i, 120, 4] mfn. (see 1. {at}), supernatural, wonderful, marvellous m. the marvellous (in style), surprise; N. of the Indra of the ninth Manvantara, ({am}) n. a marvel, a wonder, a prodigy. adbhutaM = wonderful adbhuutaM = wonderfull addhaa * = V: directly, * in this way; manifestly; certainly, truly. adesha = at an unpurified place adhaH = (indeclinable) below adhana = one without money adhama = inferior* = mfn. (see {a4dhara}), lowest, vilest, worst, very low or vile or bad (often ifc., as in {narA7dhama}, the vilest or worst of men); m. an unblushing paramour, ({A}) f. a low or bad mistress [cf. Lat. {infimus}]. adhamaaM = condemned adhamaadhama = the worst among the inferior
106

adhara = Lip adharaM = lips adharaH = (m) lips adhara- * = o the lower position of something *= mfn. (connected with %{adha4s}), lower, inferior, tending downwards; low, vile; worsted, silenced; m. the lower lip, the lip, (%{A4t}) abl. ind. see s.v. below; (% {asmAt}) abl. ind. below L.; (%{A}) f. the lower region, nadir; (%{am}) n. the lower part, a reply, pudendum muliebre L. [Lat. {inferus}] adharaya Nom. P. %{adharayati} , to make inferior , put under ; eclipse , excel. adharma = breach of duty* m. unrighteousness, injustice, irreligion, wickedness; demerit, guilt; N. of a Prajpati (son of Brahm, husband of Hins or Mriish); N. of an attendant of the sun; ({A}) f. unrighteousness (personified and represented as the bride of death). adharmaM = irreligion adharmaH = irreligion adharmachaarii = adj. impious adharmasya = of irreligion
107

adhas * = ind. (see %{a4dhara}) , below , down ; in the lower region ; beneath , under ; from under (with acc. gen. , and abl.) ; also applied to the lower region and to the pudendum muliebre [cf. Lat. {infra}]. adhastaat * = ind.= %{adha4s} q.v.

adhasgama * = m. or descent , downward movement , degradation. adhasthita * = mfn. standing below ; situated below. adhaupaasana* = n. sexual intercourse Comm. on BrirUp. adhi * = 1 m. (better {Adhi} q.v.), anxiety, ({is}) f. a woman in her courses (= {avi} q.v.) L. a4dhi *=, as a prefix to verbs and nouns, expresses above, over and above, besides. As a separable adverb or preposition; (with abl.) Ved. over; from above, from; from the presence of; after AitUp.; for; instead of RV. i, 140, 11, (with loc.) Ved. over; on; at; in comparision with; (with acc.) over, upon, concerning. adhii * =, or {a4dhy-eti} (exceptionally {adhI7yati} RV. x, 32, 3), to turn the mind towards, observe, understand RV. and AV.; chiefly Ved. (with gen. [cf. Pn. 2-3, 72] or acc.) to mind, remember, care for, long for RV. &c.;
108

to know, know by heart TS. S'Br. Up. &c.; to go over, study MBh. iii, 13689; to learn from (a teacher's mouth abl.) MBh. iii, 10713; to declare, teach S'Br. x Up.: . {adhI7te4} or (more rarely) {adhI7yate} (Mn. iv, 125; Pot. 3. pl. {adhI7yIran} Kaus'. Mn. x, 1) to study, learn by heart, read, recite: Caus. {adhy-Apayati} (aor. {Apipat} Pn. 2-4, 51) to cause to read or study, teach, instruct: Caus. Desid. {adhy-Apipa-yiSati}, to be desirous of teaching Pn. 2-4, 51: Desid. {adhI7SiSati}, to be desirous of studying Pn. 8-3, 61 Sch. adhIra * = mfn. imprudent RV. i, 179, 4 AV.; not fixed, movable; confused; deficient in calm self-command; excitable; capricious; querulous; weak-minded, foolish; (%{A}) f. lightning; a capricious or bellicose mistress. adhiraat V= acquired kingdom; {sastri} imperial adhibhih *- etcetetera, and such, the combination or collection of things adhibhuta = the principle of objective existence adhibhuutaM = the material manifestation adhidaiva = the principle of subjective existence adhidaivaM = governing all the demigods

109

adhidaivataM = called adhidaiva adhigaa * = 1. P. to obtain; P. (aor. Subj. 2. pl. %{gAta}, or %{-gAtana}) to remember, notice RV. and AV.; P. or generally A1. (%{-jage}, %{-agISTa}, %{agISyata} Pa1n2.) to go over, learn, read, study; to attempt, resolve: Caus. P. %{-gApayati}, to cause to go over or teach: Desid. Caus. %{-jigApayiSati}, to be desirous of teaching Pa1n2. 2-4, 51. adhigachchhati = attains adhigaN* to enumerate, to value highly BhP. adhigam* = to go up to, approach, overtake, to approach for sexual intercourse, to fall in with, to meet, find, discover, obtain; to accomplish; to study, read: Desid. P. {adhi-jigamiSati}, to seek; . {adhi-jigAMsate}, to be desirous of studying or reading. adhigamana * = n. acquisition; finding; acquirement, reading, study; marriage, copulation. adhigamanIya * = or mfn. attainable adhigamya = having gone toadhigamanIyagamya * = mfn. attainable; practicable to be learnt. adhigantri* = {tA} m. one who attains or acquires. acquirement, mastery, study, knowledge [21, 1];
110

mercantile return, profit, &c. adhigartya* = (5) mfn. being on the driver's seat RV. v, 62, 7. adhigata* = mfn. found, obtained, acquired; gone over, studied, learnt. adhikaara * = m. authority; government, rule, administration, jurisdiction; royalty, prerogative; title; rank; office; claim, right, especially to perform sacrifices with benefit; privilege, ownership; property; reference, relation; a topic, subject; a paragraph or minor section; (in Gr.) government, a governing-rule (the influence of which over any number of succeeding rules is called anu-vriitti q.v.) adhiikaara* = (= {adhi-kAra}) m. superintendence over (loc.) Mn. xi, 63; authorization, capability MBh. adhika = additional* =mfn. additional, subsequent, later; surpassing (in number or quantity or quality), superior, more numerous; abundant; excellent; supernumerary, redundant; secondary, inferior; intercalated; ({am}) n. surplus, abundance, redundancy, hyperbole ind. exceedingly, too much; more. adhikaM = more adhikaH = greater
111

adhikataraH = very much adhikaaraH = right adhikaariin.h = (m) officer adhimaatra = superior adhimaatraatama = the highest, the supreme one adhipa = protector * m. a ruler, commander, regent, king. adhipaa* = {As} m. Ved. a ruler, king, sovereign. adhipati = lord adhipa *= m. a ruler , commander , regent , king. adhipA *= %{As} m. Ved. a ruler , king , sovereign.

adhipAMzula *= or %{-pAMsula} mfn. being dusty above ; dusty. adhipatham *= ind. over or across a road S3Br. adhipati *= m. = %{adhi-pa} ; (in med.) a particular part of the head (where a wound proves instantly fatal). adhipativatI *= (%{a4dhipati-}) f. containing the lord
112

in herself MaitrUp. adhipatnI *= f. a female sovereign or ruler. adhishthhita* mfn. settled; inhabited; superintended; regulated; appointed; superintending. adhiyaGYa = the principle of sacrifice, incarnation adhiyaGYaH = the Supersoul adhivaasa = dwelling adhiishtha* = mfn. (3. {iS}), solicited, asked for instruction (as a teacher) Pn.; ({as}? or {am}) m. n. instruction given by a teacher solicited for it Pn. Sch. adhishhThaana = seat, abode adhishhThaanaM = sitting place adhishThaana * = n. standing by, being at hand, approach; standing or resting upon; a basis, base; the standing-place of the warrior upon the car Sa1mavBr.; a position, site, residence, abode, seat; a settlement, town, standing over; government, authority, power; a precedent, rule; a benediction Buddh. adhishhThaaya = being so situated

113

adhiis'vara * = m. a supreme lord or king, an emperor; an Arhat J adhisari = competent candidate adhishthhita* = mfn. settled; inhabited; superintended; regulated; appointed; superintending. adhiita = studied adhiitaa = studied adhiiyaanaH = studied Adhokshaja * = m. N. of Vishn2u or Kr2ishn2a; the sign S3ravan2a1. Adhokshajam * =[Ka1tyS3r.] or ind. under the axle. adhoksheNa * = [As3vS3r.] ind. under the axle. adhomukha = face downwards adhomukhashvaanaasana = the dog stretch posture adhRta*= mfn. not held, unrestrained, uncontrolled; unquiet, restless TS.; m. N. of Vishn2u (see also aadhRta) adhunaa = recently *= ind. at this time , now. [23,1]
114

adhruva * = mf({A}) n. not fixed, not permanent; uncertain, doubtful; separable. adhvan * = %{A} m. a road, way, orbit; a journey, course; distance; time Buddh. and Jain.; means, method, resource; the zodiac (?), sky, air L.; a place; a recension of the Vedas and the school upholding it; assault (?); ifc. %{adhva}, %{as}. [24,1] adhvara * = mfn. ( %{dhvR}), not injuring AV. TS.; (%{a4s}) m. a sacrifice (especially the Soma sacrifice); N. of a Vasu; of the chief of a family; (%{am}) n. sky or air L. adhyayana = study adhyayanaiH = or Vedic study adhyaksheNa = by superintendence adhyaksha* = mf({A})n. perceptible to the senses, observable; exercising supervision; m. an eye-witness; an inspector, superintendent; the plant Mimusops Kauki ({kSIrikA}). adhibhUta* = n. the spiritual or fine substratum of material or gross objects; the all penetrating influence of the Supreme Spirit [21,3]; the Supreme Spirit itself; nature; (a4m) ind. on material objects (treated of in the
115

Upanishads) S3Br. xiv TUp. adhidaiva* = or %{-daivata} n. a presiding or tutelary deity, the supreme deity, the divine agent operating in material objects; (%{am}) ind. on the subject of the deity or the divine agent. adhyaapayituM = to teach (infinitive of causative of adhi+i, to study) adhyaapikaa = (f) lady teacher adhyaasa = a case of mistaken identity * = m. (2. {as}), imposing (as of a foot) Yj.; (in phil.) = {adhy-Aropa}; an appendage RPrt adhyaatma = the principle of self * = n. the Supreme Spirit; (mfn.), own, belonging to self; ({a4m}) ind. concerning self or individual personali adhyaatma* = n. the Supreme Spirit; (mfn.), own, belonging to self; (%{a4m}) ind. concerning self or individual personality. adhyaatmaM = transcendental adhyaatmavidyaa = spiritual knowledge adhyopatya = Lordshipadhyeshhyate = will study adhruvaM = temporary adhyuuh * = 1. to lay on , overlay ; to place upon , to
116

raise above. adhyuuDha * = mfn. ( %{vah}) , raised , exalted ; affluent ; abundant ; m. the son of a woman pregnant before marriage [cf. 1. %{saho7Dha}] ; S3iva ; (%{A}) f. a wife whose husband has married an additional wife. adhvan.h = road adhvaan.h = (m) road, path, way advayam * V: without a second advitiiya * = mfn. without a second, sole, unique; matchless. aditii = the mother of the gods aditya = (m) sun adrishhTa = Unseen, fortune, luck * = or mfn. unseen, unforeseen, invisible, not experienced, unobserved, unknown, unsanctioned\\2[S3Br.] mfn. unseen, unforeseen, invisible, not experienced, unobserved, unknown, unsanctioned; m. N. of a particular venomous substance or of a species of vermin AV., (%{am}) n. unforeseen danger or calamity, that which is beyond the reach of observation or consciousness, (especially the merit or demerit attaching to a man's conduct in one state of existence and the corresponding reward or
117

punishment with which he is visited in another); destiny, fate: luck, bad luck. adrishhTapuurvaM = never seen before adya = today adri *= a stone, a rock, a mountain; a stone for pounding Soma with or grinding it on adrohaH = freedom from envy advaasana = the prone posture advitiiyaH = the inseparable or the non-dual adveshhTaa = nonenvious advaita = non-duality of the universal spirit agaccha* = mfn. not going L.; m. a tree L. agaadha *: not shallow, deep, unfathomable m. a hole, chasm L.; N. of one of the five fires at the Svadhkra Hariv. agata = not past agatasuuMscha = agata + asuun.h + cha:undeparted life
118

+ and (living people) agatvaa = without going (from gam.h) agama = proof of the trustworthiness of a source of knowledge agama * = not going, unable to go m. a mountain L.: a tree [ef. {a-ga}]. agamya * = mfn. unfit to be walked in , or to be approached ; not to be approached (sexually) ; inaccessible ; unattainable [4,3] ; unintelligible ; unsuitable. agamyaa * = f. a woman with whom cohabitation is forbidden. agastamaasa = month of August agochara = (adj) unknown agni = fire agniH = fire agniparvataH = (m) volcano, volcanic cone agnipetikaa = (f) matchbox
119

agnishalaakaa = (f) matchstick agnishhu = in the fires agnitraya: n. or the three sacred fires, called respectively Grhapatya, havanya, and Dakshina agnau = in the fire of consummation agra = (neut in this sense) tip agra* = mfn. (fr. {aGg} Un.), foremost, anterior, first, prominent, projecting, chief, best L.; supernumerary L.; ({A}) f. [scil. {rekhA}] measure of amplitude (i.e. the distance from the extremity of the gnomon-shadow to the line of the equinoctial shadow) Sryas.; ({am}) n. foremost point or part; tip; front; uppermost part, top, summit, surface; point; and hence, figuratively, sharpness; the nearest end, the beginning; the climax or best part; goal, aim; multitude L.; a weight, equal to a pala L.; a measure of food given as alms L.; (in astron.) the sus amplitude; ({am}) ind. in front, before, ahead of; ({a4greNa}) ind. in front, before (without or with acc.) S'Br.; (a4gre) ind. in front, ahead of, in the beginning, first; further on, subsequently, below (in a book); from - up to ({A}) S'Br., before (in time) AitUp. &c. [cf. Gk. $]. agraahya* = mfn. not to be conceived or perceived or
120

obtained or admitted or trusted, to be rejected. agrabIja* = mfn. (said of plants) propagated by cuttings m. a viviparous plant. agrabhU* = mfn. being at the top, at the head of. agraga* = m. a leader. agrahasta* = m. = {-pANi}; the tip of an elephant's trunk Vikr.; finger R. agrahAra* = m. royal donation of land to Brhmans; land or village thus given MBh. agraha* = mfn. = {mukhya} (Comm.) MBh. iii, 14189 BR. propose to read {agra-ha}, destroying the best part m. non acceptance, a houseless man i.e. a Vnaprastha a Brhman of the third class L. agrahAyaNa* = m. `" commencement of the year "'N. of a Hind month ({mArgazIrSa}, beginning about the 12th of November). [6,3] agrajAti* = m. a Brahman L. agrajyA* = f. sine of the amplitude Sryas. agrakara* = m. the fore &1592[6, 2] part of the hand,
121

finger; first ray S'is'. agrapA* = mfn. drinking first MBh. agrapeya* = n. precedence in drinking AitBr. agraM = at the tip agretvan* = mf({arI})n. going in front AV. agraha* =mfn. = {mukhya} (Comm.) MBh. iii, 14189 BR. propose to read {agra-ha}, destroying the best part m. non acceptance, a houseless man i.e. a Vnaprastha a Brhman of the third class L. agrii* m. a word invented for the explanation of {agni4} agrajaH = elder agrataH = (let the two go) before (me) agre = in front of/ahead/beforehand agrya * = mf({A}) n. foremost, topmost, principal, best; proficient, well versed in (with loc.); intent closely attentive m. an elder or eldest brother L.; ({A}) f. = {triphalA} q.v.; ({am}) n. roof L. agha * = mfn. bad , dangerous RV. ; sinful , impure
122

BhP. m. N. of an Asura BhP. ; (%{a4m}) n. evil , mishap RV. AV. ; sin , impurity Mn. &c. ; pain , suffering L. ; (%{A4s}) f. pl. the constellation usually called Magha1 RV. x , 85 , 13. agha.MmanaH = (adj) evil-minded agha.MmanaH = adj. evil-minded aghaM = grievous sins aghaayuH = whose life is full of sins agrataHkR * = to place in front or at the head , to consider most important. agrataHsara * = mf(%{I})n. going in front , taking the lead. agratas * = ind. ; see col. 3. agratas * = ind. in front , before ; in the beginning , first RV. x , 90 , 7 VS. ; (with gen.) before , in presence of aGYa = the ignorant person aGYaH = a fool who has no knowledge in standard scriptures
123

aGYataa = ignorance aGYaana = ignorance aGYaanaM = nescience aGYaanajaM = due to ignorance aGYaanasambhuutaM = born of ignorance aGYaanaaM = of the foolish aGYaanena = by ignorance aha = said aha* = 1 ind. (as a particle implying ascertainment, affirmation, certainty, &c.) surely, certainly RV. AV. S'Br.; (as explaining, defining) namely S'Br.; (as admitting, limiting, &c.) it is true, I grant, granted, indeed, at least S'Br. [For the rules of accentuation necessitated in a phrase by the particle {a4ha} cf. Pn. 8-1, 24 seqq.] \\ =2 n. (only Ved.; nom. pl. {a4hA} RV. AV.; gen. pl. {a4hAnAm} RV. viii, 22, 13) = {a4Har} q.v., a day; often ifc. {aha4} m. (e.g. {dvAdazA7ha4}, {try-aha4}, {SaD-aha4}, &c.) or n. (e.g. {puNyA7ha4}, {bhadrA7ha4}, and {sudinA7ha}); see also {ahna} s.v. ahaM = (pron) I * = nom. sg., `" I "' RV. &c.; =
124

{ahaMkaraNa} q.v., (hence declinable gen. {ahamas}, &c.) BhP. [Zd. {azem}; Gk. $; Goth. {ik}; Mod. Germ. {ich}; Lith. &38735[124,2] {asz}; Slav. {az}]. ahaH = of daytime ahankara = tendency to identify oneself with external phenomena, 'the I-maker' ahankaara = Egoism, selfishness, ignorance ahankaaraM = false ego ahankaaraH = false ego ahankaaravimuuDha = bewildered by false ego ahankaaraat.h = by false ego ahankritaH = of false ego ahanma = * selfhood, falsehood ahata * = mfn. unhurt, uninjured AV. xii, 1, 11 VS.; not beaten (as a drum) AdbhBr.; unbeaten (as clothes in washing), unwashed, new S'Br. &c.; unblemished, unsoiled BhP.; ({am}) n. unwashed or new clothes "' ahatvaa = not killing
125

ahamahamikaa = (f) competition, debate ahaMkaara = false ego, identification with the body * = m. conception of one's individuality, self-consciousness ChUp. &c.; the making of self, thinking of self, egotism MBh. &c.; pride, haughtiness R. &c.; (in Snkhya phil.) the third of the eight producers or sources of creation, viz. the conceit or conception of individuality, individualization; ({ahaMkAra}) {-val} mfn. selfish, proud L. aharaagame = at the beginning of the day aharnishaM = ahaH and nishaa:day and night Ahavaniya: the fire prepared for receiving oblations; especially the eastern of the three fires burning at a sacrifice ahi = on earth ahimsaa = non-violence* = f. not injuring anything, harmlessness (one of the cardinal virtues of most Hind sects, but particularly of the Buddhists and Jains; also personified as the wife of Dharma VmP.) ChUp. Nir. Mn. &c.; security, safeness S'Br. AitBr. ah(a)na* = only (like {aha4}) ifc. for {a4han} (or {a4har}), q.v. e.g. {aty-ahna}, {aparA7hNa4},
126

{pUrvA7hNa4} &c., qq. vv.; ({Aya}) dat. ind. formerly Naigh.; instantly, speedily MBh. Kum. Ragh. ahanti * = f. id. VS. xvi, 18 [vv.ll. {a4-hantva} mfn. `" indestructible "' TS. iv, and {a4-hantva} mfn. id. MaitrS. Kthh.] ahanyamAna * = mfn. (Pass. p.) not being struck p. BhP. ahanA4 * = instr. with an earlier form of accentuation for {a4hnA}. see before. ahanyA7 * = (4) mfn. daily RV. i, 168, 5; 190, 3; v, 48, 3. a4han * = the base of the weak and some other cases of {a4har}, q.v. e.g. instr. {a4hnA} [once {ahanA4} RV. i, 123, 4]; dat. {a4hne}; loc. {a4han} (Ved.) or {a4hani}, or {ahni}, &c.; nom. du. {a4hanI} (see also s.v. {a4har}) and pl. {a4hAni}; only Ved. are the middle cases of the pl. {a4habhyas} [RV.], {a4habhis} [RV., nine times], and {a4hasu} [RV. i, 124, 9], while the later language forms them fr. the base {a4has} q.v. ahita = sorrow (antonym of hita) ahitaaH = enemies

127

ahituNDikaH = (m) a snake charmer ahaitukaM = without cause aho = Oh !, V*: alas, how, ah, or else *= (instead of % {ahA} [= %{a4har}] in comp. before the letter %{r}). \\ 2 ind. a particle (implying joyful or painful surprise) Ah! (of enjoyment or satisfaction) Oh! (of fatigue , discontent , compassion , sorrow , regret) Alas! Ah! (of praise cf. Pa1n2. 8-1 , 40 seq.) Bravo! (of reproach) Fie! (of calling Kum. iii , 20) Ho! Halo! (of contempt) Pshaw! Often combined with other particles of similar signification , as %{aho@dhik} or %{dhig@aho} , % {aho@bata} , &c. ahoraatra = day and night ahuta* = mfn. unoffered, not yet offered (as a sacrificial oblation) AV. xii, 4, 53 S'Br. Mn. xii, 68; one who has not received any sacrifice AV. vii, 97, 7; (the fire) through or in which no sacrificial oblation has been offered p.; not obtained by sacrifice AV. vi, 71, 2; m. religious meditation, prayer (considered as one of the five great sacraments, otherwise called Brahma-yaja) Mn. iii, 73 seq. ahRta * = mfn. not captivated or carried away by (instr.) Ragh. viii, 68.

128

ahUta* = mfn. uncalled, unsummoned RV. x, 107, 9. aihika *= mfn. (fr. %{iha}) , of this place , of this world , worldly , local , temporal BhP. Veda1ntas. &c. aikaantikasya = ultimate aikya = unity aila * =a descendant of IlN. of Purravas (cf. 1. {aiDa4}) Hariv. MBh.; N. of the planet Mars T.; ({As}) m. pl. the descendants or family of Purravas MBh. xiii; ({A}) f. N. of a river (v.l. {elA}) Hariv.; ({am}) n. plenty or abundance of food or refreshment; a particular number (Buddh.) aichchhat.h = desired airaavata* = m. (fr. {irA-vat}), a descendant of Ir-vat; N. of a Nga or mythical serpent AV. viii, 10, 29 TndyaBr. MBh. Hariv. &c.; `" produced from the ocean "'N. of Indra's elephant (considered as the prototype of the elephant race and the supporter of the east quarter; cf. {nAga}, which means also elephant and serpent) MBh. Ragh. Megh. &c. [234, 3]; a species of elephant R. ii, 70, 23; the tree Artocarpus Lacucha; the orange tree L.; N. of a particular portion of the moos path; of a form of the sun VP. MBh.; ({as}, {am}) m. n. a kind of rainbow MBh. Ragh. &c.; ({I}) f. the female
129

of Indra's elephant; N. of a river MBh.; lightning L.; a species of fern Sus'r.; ({I}, {A}) f. a particular portion of the moos path (including the lunar mansions Punarvasu, Pushya, and s'lesha) VarBriS.; ({am}) n. the fruit of Artocarpus Lacucha Sus'r.; N. of a Varsha MBh. aishvaraM = divine ais'varya = desire for power; opulence {Sad-ais'varyapuurnam. The Lord is full in six opulences] * = n. the state of being a mighty lord, sovereignty, supremacy, power, sway S'Br. xiii MBh. Mn. &c.; dominion Kaths.; superhuman power (either perpetual or transient, consisting, according to some, of the following eight: {aNiman}, {laghiman}, {mahiman}, {prApti}, {prAkAmya}, {vazitva}, {Izitva}, and {kAmA7vasAyitva}, qq.v.; or, according to others, of such powers as vision, audition, cogitation, discrimination, and omniscience; and of active powers such as swiftness of thought, power of assuming forms at will, and faculty of expatiation Sarvad. &c.) aitihya* = n. (fr. {iti-ha}), traditional instruction, tradition Tr. i, 2, 1 MBh. R aj, Aj * to propel, drive forward ajaa = (f) goat
130

ajaanaM = do not understand ajaanat.h = knew ajaanataa = without knowing ajaanantaH = without knowing aja = goat* = f. a she-goat aja * = 1 m. a drove, troop (of Maruts) AV.; a driver, mover, instigator, leader; N. of Indra, of Rudra, of one of the Maruts [{aja4 e4ka-pA4} RV., and {aja4 e4kapAda} AV.], of Agni, of the sun, of Brahm, of Vishnu, of S'iva, of Kma (cf. 2. {a-ja}); the leader of a flock; a he-goat, ram [cf. Gk. &2547[9, 2] $, $; Lith. $]; the sign Aries; the vehicle of Agni; beam of the sun (Pshan); N. of a descendant of Visvmitra, and of Das'aratha's or Drghabhu's father; N. of a mineral substance; of a kind of rice; of the moon; ({A4s}) m. pl.N. of a people RV. vii, 18, 19; of a class of Riishis MBh.; ({A}) f. N. of Prakriiti, of My or Illusion see {a-jA} (s.v. 2. {a-jA}); a she-goat; N. of a plant whose bulbs resemble the udder of a goat Sus'r. aja4 * = 2 mfn. not born, existing from all eternity; ({a4s}) m. N. of the, first uncreated being RV. AV.; Brahm, Vishnu, S'iva, Kma; ({A}) f. N. of Prakriiti, My or Illusion (see also 1. {aja4} and 1. {ajana}).
131

ajaM = unborn ajaH = unborn ajagaraH = (m) python ajaagara * = not awake, not wakeful ajana* =1 m. ( {aj}), `" the instigator "', Brahm; ({am}) n. act of instigating or moving, [10,1] a-jana4* =2 mfn. destitute of men; desert; m. an insignificant person. ajapa* = 1 m. ( {jap}), one who does not repeat prayers; a reciter of heterodox works L.; ({A}) f. the mantra or formula called hansa (which consists only of a number of inhalations and exhalations). ajapaa = involuntary repetition (as with a mantra) ajasraM = the unborn one ajaviithii * = f. `" goat's road "'N. of one of the three divisions of the southern path , or one of the three paths in which the sun , moon , and planets move , comprehending the asterisms %{mUla} , % {pUrvA7SADha} , and %{uttarA7SADha}.

132

ajaya * = m. non-victory, defeat; (mfn.), unconquered, unsurpassed, invincible; m. N. of Vishnu; of a lexicographer; of a river; ({A}) f. hemp; N. of a friend of Durg; My or Illusion. ajita * = mfn. not conquered, unsubdued, unsurpassed, invincible, irresistible; m. a particular antidote; a kind of venomous rat; N. of Vishnu; S'iva; one of the Saptarshis of the fourteenth Manvantara; Maitreya or a future Buddha; the second of the Arhats or saints of the present (Jaina) Avasarpini, a descendant of Ikshvku; the attendant of Suvidhi (who is the ninth of those Arhats); ({As}) m. pl. a class of deified beings in the first Manvantara. a4-jIta * = mfn. ( {jyA}, usually {jina}), not faded, not faint AV. TS., &c. ajina* = n. (probably at first the skin of a goat, {aja}); the hairy skin of an antelope, especially a black antelope (which serves the religious student for a couch seat, covering &c.); the hairy skin of a tiger, &c. m. N. of a descendant of Priithu VP. ajra = (m) field ajman* = {a} n. career, passage, battle RV. AV. [Lat. {agmen}].

133

ajma* = m. ( {aj}), career, march RV. [cf. Gk. $]. &2960[10,3] ajaanin* = mfn. ignorant, unwise. ajaataka* = mfn. unknown, (g. ajaati* = m. not a kinsman, not related Mn. ajaanakRta* = mfn. done inadvertently. ajaanatA* = f. or ignorance. aJNchalaH = (m) aanchal in Hindi aJNjana = the name of the mother of Hanuman aJNjaneyaasana = the splits aJNjali = (m) folded hands, palms cupped in the form of a vessel akutas'cit *V= from nowhere akaanda * = without a trunk T.; causeless, unexpected; ({e}) ind. causelessly, unexpectedly. akara * = mfn. handless, maimed; exempt from tax or duty, privileged; not acting; (%{A}) f. Emblic
134

Myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica. Bh Pur: accepted, has performed, made, did exhibit, maintained, executed, created, carried out akartaaraM = as the nondoer akarma = inaction akarman * = mfn. not working; not performing good works, wicked RV. x, 2 2, 8; inefficient; (in Gr.) intransitive; ({a}) n. absence of work; observances; improper work, crime. akarmabhoga * = m. enjoyment of freedom from action. akarmAnvita * = mfn. unoccupied; disqualified. akarmaka * = mfn. (in Gr.) intransitive. akarmaNya * = mfn. improper to be done; unfit for work; inefficient. akarmakrit.h = without doing something akarmaNaH = than no work akarmaNi = in not doing prescribed duties akalmashhaM = freed from all past sinful reactions
135

akasmaat.h = by chance akaaraH = the first letter aakaarita * = mfn. ifc. having the shape of Vedntas. akaaro = the letter `a' akaarya = and forbidden activities* = mfn. not to be done, improper; ({am}) n. a criminal action akaaryaM = what ought not to be done akaarye = and what ought not to be done akhaNDa * = mfn. not fragmentary, entire, whole, (% {am}), n. time L.; (%{a-khaNDA@dvA@dazI}), the twelfth day of the first half of the month Ma1rgas3i1rsha. [4,2] akhila = entire akhilaM = whole akhilaguru = preceptor for all, also all types of long syllable letters akiNchanaH = (m) a have-not
136

akicana *= mfn. without anything , utterly destitute ; disinterested ; (am) n. that which is worth nothing. akicanataa *= f. or voluntary poverty (as practised by Jaina ascetics). akicanatva *= n. voluntary poverty (as practised by Jaina ascetics). akicaniman *= %{A} m. utter destitution , (g. % {pRthu-Adi} q.v.) akicana *= mfn. without anything, utterly destitute; disinterested; (am) n. that which is worth nothing. akiirti = infamy akiirtiM = infamy akiirtiH = ill fame akka = mother akrama * = mfn. not happening successively, happening at once Yogas.; m. want of order, confusion. akraanta * = mfn. unpassed, unsurpassed, unconquered, not doubled RV. Pra1t.; (%{A}) f. the Egg plant. [3,1]
137

akriyaaH = without duty akrodha = freedom from anger akrodhaH = freedom from anger akledyaH = insoluble akrita * = mf({A}) n. undone, not committed; not made, uncreated; unprepared, incomplete; one who has done no works, ({am}) n. an act never before committed AitBr.; ({A}) f. a daughter who has not been made {putrikA}, or a sharer in the privileges of a son Pn. akritabuddhitvaat.h = due to unintelligence akritaatmaanaH = those without self-realization akritena = without discharge of duty akritvaa = without doing (from kRi) akritsnavidaaH = persons with a poor fund of knowledge aksh* = (perhaps a kind of old Desid. of 1. {az}) cl. 1. 5. {akSati}, {akSNoti} (Pn. 3-1, 75; fut. {akSiSyati} or {akSyati} L.; aor. {AkSIt}, 3. du. {AkSiSTAm} or {ASTAm} L.; perf. {AnakSa} [Pn. 7-4, 60 Comm.],
138

but . p. [with the Vedic weak stem {AkS} cf. perf. {Az-uH} 3. pl. &c. fr. 1. {az}] {AkSANa4}),; to reach RV. x, 22, 11; to pass through, penetrate, pervade, embrace L.; to accumulate (to from the cube?) L.: Caus. {akSayati}, {AcikSat}, to cause to pervade L.: Desid. {acikSi}, {Sati} or {acikSati} L. aksha* = 1 m. an axle, axis (in this sense also n. L.); a wheel, car, cart; the beam of a balance or string which holds the pivot of the beam; a snake L.; terrestrial latitude (cf. {-karNa}, {-bhA}, {-bhAga}); the collarbone S'Br.; the temporal bone Yj.; N. of a measure (= 104 angula); [cf. Lat. {axis}; Gk. $; Old Germ. {ahsa}; &634[3, 1] Mod. Germ. {Achse}; Lith. {assis}.] aksha* = 2 m. ( 1. {az} Un.) a die for gambling; a cube; a seed of which rosaries are made (cf. {indrA7kSa}, {rudrA7kSa}); the Eleocarpus Ganitrus, producing that seed; a weight called {karSa}, equal to 16 mshas; Beleric Myrobalan (Terminalia Belerica), the seed of which is used as a die; a N. of the number 5; ({am}) n. sochal salt; blue vitriol (from its cube-like crystals) L. aksha* = 3 n. an organ of sense; sensual perception L.; m. the soul L.; knowledge, religious knowledge L.; a lawsuit L.; a person born blind L.; N. of Garuda L.; of a son of Rvana; of a son of Nara, &c. aksha* = 4 n. [only ifc. (f. {I}) for {akSi}], the eye.
139

akshaanti* = f. impatience, jealousy, intolerance. akshama = (adj) incapable* = mf({A})n. unable to endure, impatient; incompetent (with Loc., Inf. or ifc.), envious; ({A}) f. or {-tA} f. impatience, envy; incompetence, inability (with Inf.) akSauhiNI* = f. an army consisting of ten anikinis, or 21, 870 elephants, 21, 870 chariots, 65, 610 horse, and 109, 350 foot. (Since an anikini consists of 27 vhinis, and 27 is the cube of 3, {akSauhiNI} may be a compound of 2. {akSa} and {vAhini}; or it may possibly be connected with 1. {akSa}, axle, car.) akshaara * = mfn. free from alkali or factitious salt. akshara = Letter * = mfn. imperishable; unalterable; m. a sword L.; S3iva L.; Vishn2u L.; (%{A}) f. see % {a4kSarA} below; (%{am}) n. a syllable; the syllable % {om} Mn.; a letter [m. Ra1matUp.]; a vowel; a sound; a word; N. of Brahma; final beatitude religious austerity, sacrifice L.; water RV. i, 34, 4 and i, 164, 42 [3,3]; Achyranthes Aspera. aksharaa * = speech RV. f. (cf. %{a-kSa4ra} n. above), word,

aksharaaNaaM = of letters

140

aksharaat.h = beyond the infallible aksharaM = indestructible aksharaH = infallible akshayaM = unlimited akshayaH = eternal akshepa * =m. drawing together, convulsion, palpitation Sus'r. Kum. vii, 95 Kd.; applying, laying (as a colour) Kum. vii, 17; throwing away, giving up, removing Kum. i, 14, &c.; `" shaking about the hands "' or `" turning the hand "' (in pronouncing the Svarita) RPrt.; charming, transporting Kd. &c.; (in rhetoric) pointing to (in comp.), hinting Sh. Das'ar. &c.; (see also {AkSepo7pamA} below); reviling, abuse, harsh speech BhP. &c. (cf. {sA7kSepam}); objection (especially to rectify a statement of one's own) Sus'r. Kvya7d. Sh. &c.; challenge Kaths.; N. of a man VP akshi = (n) eye * = n. (1. %{az} Un2.) [instr. % {akSNA} dat. %{akSNe}, &c., fr. %{akSan}, substituted for %{akSi} in the weakest cases. Vedic forms are: abl. gen. %{akSNa4s}; loc. %{akSa4n} (once %{akSiNi}!); du. nom acc. %{akSI4} RV., % {a4kSiNI}, %{a4kSyau}, and %{akSya4u} AV. S3Br. and AitBr.; instr. %{akSI4bhyAm}; gen. %{akSyo4s} VS., %{akSyo4s} and %{akSo4s} (!) AV.; pl. nom. acc. %{a4kSINi} AV., %{akSANi} RV.; ifc. %{akSa} is
141

substituted see 4. %{ahSa}], the eye; the number two; % {I4}) n. du. the sun and moon RV. i, 72, 10; [cf. Gk. $, $; Lat. &842[3,3] {oculos}; A.S. {aegh}; Goth. {augo}; Germ. {Auge}; Russ. {oko}; Lith. {aki-s}.] akula * =not of good family, low akuNTha * mfn. not blunted, not worn out; vigorous, fixed; ever fresh, eternal akurvat.h = did akurvata = did they do akuutha* = mf({A})n. having no prominence on the forehead TS.: not deceitful, unerring (said of arms) Yj.; not false (said of coins) Yj. n. akushalaM = inauspicious akuupaara * = mfn. unbounded RV. v, 39, 2 and x. 109, 1; m. the sea VS. &c.; tortoise BhP. &c. the mythical tortoise that upholds the world; N. of a man PBr.; N. of an A1ditya L.; (%{A}) f. N. of an An3girasi1 PBr. akupya * = n. not base metal, gold or silver Kir.; any base metal (= %{kupya} see 3. %{a}).

142

akupyaka * = n. gold or silver L. alam *= ind. (later form of %{a4ram} q.v.), enough, sufficient, adequate, equal to, competent, able. (% {alam} may govern a dat. [%{jI4vitavai4} (Ved. Inf. dat.) %{a4lam} AV. vi, 109, 1, or %{alaM@jIvanAya} Mn. xi, 76, &c., sufficient for living] or Inf. [Pa1n2. 2-4, 66; %{alaM@vijJAtum} `" able to conceive "' Nir. ii, 3] or instr. [Pa1n2. 2-3, 27 Siddh.; %{alaM@zaGkayA}, enough i.e. away with fear!] or gen. [% {alaM@prajAyAH}, capable of obtaining progeny PBr.] or may be used with the fut. [%{alaM@haniSyati}, he will be able to kill Pa1n2. 3-3, 154 Sch.] or with an ind. [Pa1n2. 3-4, 18; %{alaM@bhuktvA}, enough of eating i.e. do not eat more, %{alaM@vlcArya}, enough of consideration].)2 alaM (in comp. for %{a4lam}). alaM = especially ala.nkaaradiiptaM = shining with adornments, decorations alankrita = decorated / ornamented alabdhabhuumikatva = the feeling that it is impossible to see reality alabdha * = mfn. unobtained.

143

alabhya = Difficult alasaH = lazy alasya = indolence alaka *= %{as}, %{am} m. n. (ifc. f. %{A}) a curl, lock Ragh. &c.; (%{as}) m. (= %{alarka} q.v.) a mad dog L.; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of a people VarBr2S.; of the Inhabitants of Kubera's residence Alaka1 MBh. iii, 11813; (%{A}) f. (g. %{kSipakA7di} q.v.) a girl from eight to ten years of age L.; N. of the capital of Kubera (situated on a peak of the Hima1laya inhabited also by S3iva) Kum. vi, 37, &c.; N. of a town in Nishadha Katha1s. alakshamaana = one who disregards alakshmiH = poverty (alaxmiH is opp. of laxmiH) alaya* = m. ( {lI}), non-dissolution, permanence R. iii, 71, 10 (v.l. {an-aya}); (mfn.) restless S'is'. iv, 57. ali = a black bug aliika = (adj) false, untrue aloluptvaM = freedom from greed

144

alpa = small, little2 *= mf(%{A})n. (m. pl. %{e} or % {As} Pa1n2. 1-1, 33) small, minute, trifling, little AV. &c.; (%{am}) ind. (opposed to %{bahu}) little Mn. ii, 149 and x, 60; (%{ena}) instr. ind. (with a perf. Pass. p. Pa1n2. 2-3, 33) `" for little "', cheap Dal. [95,3]; easily R. iv, 32, 7; (%{At}) abl. ind. (with a perf. Pass. p.) without much trouble, easily Pa1n2. 2-3, 33; (in comp. with a past Pass. p.) ii, 1, 39 and vi, 3, 2. alpaka * mf({ikA})n. small, minute, trifling Mn. &c.; ({a4m}) ind. little Naigh. S'Br.; ({A4t}) abl. ind. shortly after S'Br.; m. the plants Hedysarum Alhagi and Premna Herbacea L. alpaM = a few, little, inadequate alpabuddhayaH = the less intelligent alpaka* = mf({ikA})n. small, minute, trifling Mn. &c.; ({a4m}) ind. little Naigh. S'Br.; ({A4t}) abl. ind. shortly after S'Br.; m. the plants Hedysarum Alhagi and Premna Herbacea L. alpamedhasaaM = of those of small intelligence alpavayaskaM = young (small) age alpaayu = Short life between 8 and 32 years

145

alaukikatva * = n. rare occurrence (of a word) Sh. a-laukika * = mf({I})n. not current in the world, uncommon, unusual (especially said of words); not relating to this world, supernatural. alaukika * see {a-loka} a-laukika antika :* = (with gen. or abl.) near, proximate L. (compar. {nedIyas}, superl. {nediSTha}); ({am}) n. vicinity, proximity, near e.g. {antikastha}, remaining near; ({a4m}) ind. (with gen. or ifc.) until, near to, into the presence of; ({A4t}) ind. from the proximity; near, close by; within the presence of; ({e4}) ind. (with gen. or ifc.) near, close by, in the proximity or presence of; ({ena}) ind. (with gen.) near. antika * = (fr. {anta}), only ifc. reaching to the end of, reaching to (e.g. {nAsA7ntika}, reaching to the nose), lasting till, until. anudhyaana* = n. meditation, religious contemplation, solicitude. a(a)ntikA * = f. an elder sister am* = 1 ind. quickly, a little, (g. {cA7di} q.v.) \\2 the termination {am} in the comparative and other forms used as ind. e.g. {pratara4m}, &c., (g. {svar-Adi}
146

q.v.) \\3 {amati}, to go L.; to go to or towards L.; to serve or honour L.; to sound L.; (Imper. . 2. sg. {amISva}; aor. {AmIt}; cf. {abhy-am}) to fix, render firm TS.; (perf. p. acc. sg. {emuSa4m} for {emivA4Msam}) to be pernicious or dangerous RV. viii, 77, 10: Caus. {Ama4yati} (impf. {A4mayat}; aor. Subj. {Amamat}) to be afflicted or sick RV. AV. VS. (cf. {a4n-Amayat}). am* = n. the root of a fragrant grass (used for tatties or screens, &c., commonly called Kaskas, Andropogon Muricatus). ama*=1 m. impetuosity, violence, strength, power RV. VS. AV.; depriving of sensation, fright, terror RV.; disease L.\\=2 mfn. (pron.; cf. {amu}) this AV. xiv, 2, 71 (quoted in S'Br. xiv and s'vGri.) [The word is also explained by {prA7Na}, `" soul "' cf. Comm. on ChUp. v, 2, 6.] amaa*=1 ind. (Ved. instr. fr. 2. {a4ma} q.v.) (chiefly Ved.) at home, in the house, in the house of (gen.), with RV. &c.; together Pn. 3-1, 122; ({A}) f. = {amAvAsyA4} q.v. Comm. on Ragh. xiv, 80 (in a verse quoted from Vysa) Comm. on Sryas; also {amA7nta} m. the end, of the {amA} ({-vAsyA4}) night ib.\\2 (3. {mA}) f. (= {a-pramANa}) not an authority, not a standard of action Nyyam.

147

amaanin* = mfn. ( {man}), not proud, modest MBh. amaanitA* = f. or modesty, humility. amaanitva* = [Bhag. &c.] n. modesty, humility. a-maatA putra * = mfn. (g. {kASThA7di} q.v.) `" having neither mother nor son "', only in comp. e.g. {amAtAputrA7dhyApaka} m. a teacher who cares for neither mother nor son (on account of being entirely absorbed in his work) Pn. 8-1, 67, Kls'. amaatya * = (4) m. (fr. 1. {amA4} cf. Pn. 4-2, 104 Sch.) inmate of the same house, belonging to the same house or family RV. vii, 15, 3 VS. As'vGri. KtyS'r.; `" a companion (of a king) "', minister MBh. Mn. &c. amaara *: non-destruction amaanitvaM = humility amaanana* = n. disrespect Hit. amaanushha = (adj) inhuman, cruel amaavaasya * = n. [NBD.] neighbourhood AV. iv , 36 , 3 [perhaps for %{-vAztya} , `" lowing (of cows) at home "' , as the word is used together with %{A-gara4} and %{prati-kroza}] ; mfn. born in an %{amAvAsyA4} night Pa1n2. 4-3 , 30 (cf. %{AmAvAsya4}) ;
148

N. of a Vedic teacher VBr. ; (%{-vAsyA4}) f. (scil. % {rAtri} ; fr. 5. %{vas} , `" to dwell "' , with %{amA4} , `" together "') the night of new moon (when the sun and moon `" dwell together "') , the first day of the first quarter on which the moon is invisible AV. S3Br. &c. ; a sacrifice offered at that time ; N. of the Acchoda1river MatsyaP. amaayaya* straight, straigh forward, unduplicious, well mannered sincere * =. not cunning, not sagacious S'Br. AitBr.; free from deceit, guileless Bhathth.; ({A}) f. absence of delusion or deceit or guile, ({ayA}), instr. ind. guilelessly, sincerely Mn. ii, 51 BhP. Hit. amaaya mfn. not cunning, not sagacious S3Br. AitBr.; free from deceit, guileless Bhat2t2.; (%{A}) f. absence of delusion or deceit or guile, (%{ayA}), instr. ind. guilelessly, sincerely Mn. ii, 51 BhP. Hit. amala = without rubbish * = mf({A})n. spotless, stainless, clean, pure, shining; ({as}) m. crystal (cf. {amara-ratna}) BhP.; N. of a poet; of Nryana L.; ({A}) f. N. of the goddess Lakshm L.; ( {amarA} q.v.) the umbilical cord L.; the tree Emblica Officinalis Gaertn. L.; the plant Saptal L.; ({am}) n. talc L. amalaM = clean amalaan.h = pure
149

aman'gala * = mfn. inauspicious , unlukey , evil Ragh. xii , 43 , &c. ; m. the castor oil tree , Ricinus Communis L. ; (%{am}) n. inauspiciousness , ill-luck Kum. Ven2is. aman'galya * = mfn. inauspicious , unlucky L. ; (% {am}) n. inauspiciousness , ill-luck BhP. amani* = f. road, way Un. amanI* = (for {a-mana4s} in comp. with {bhU} and its derivatives). amani see {am}. amaNiva* = mfn. [NBD.] having no jewels SnkhS'r. amaniibhAva* = m. the state of not having perception or intellect MaitrUp. amanyata = believed amara *: undying, immortal, imperishable amaratva * = [MBh. &c.] n. the condition of the gods (i.e. immortality). amarsha * = m. ( {mRS}), non-endurance Pn. 3-3, 145; impatience, indignation, anger, passion MBh. R. &c.; m. N. of a prince VP.

150

amarshahaasa * = m. an angry laugh , a sarcastic sneer MBh.amarshaja * = mfn. springing from impatience or indignation MB amarshaNa * = mfn. = %{amarSa@vat} MBh. &c. , impatient (cf. %{raNA7marSaNa}) ; m. (= % {amarSa})N. of a prince BhP. ; (%{am}) n. impatience of (gen.) MBh. xiii , 2159. amarshavat * = mfn. not bearing , intolerant passionate , wrathful , angry L. amata * = 1 m. sickness, disease Un.; death L.; time L.; dust Comm. on Un. a4-mata * = 2 mfn. ( {man}), not felt, not perceptible by the mind S'Br. xiv; not approved of, unacceptable. aama4-taa * = f. rawness; unpreparedness Sus'r. ambaka * = n. S'iva's eye Blar. (cf. {try-ambaka}); an eye L.; copper L. ambandha = relation / connection ambara = aakaasha * = ambara n. circumference, compass, neighbourhood RV. viii, 8,14; (ifc. f. %{A}) clothes, apparel, garment MBh. &c.; cotton L.; sky, atmosphere, ether Naigh. MBh. &c.; (hence) a cipher Su1ryas.; N. of the tenth astrological mansion VarBr2.; the lip; saffron L.; a perfume (Ambra) L.; N. of a country MatsyaP.; (a1s) m. pl.N. of a people VarBr2S.
151

ambaraM = sky, garment ambaa = mother ambaa * f. (Ved. voc. {a4mbe} [VS.]or {amba} [RV.], in later Sanskrit {amba} only, sometimes a mere interjection s'vS'r.), a mother, good woman (as a title of respect); N. of a plant; N. of Durg (the wife of S'iva); N. of an Apsaras L.; N. of a daughter of a king of Ksi MBh.; N. of one of the seven Krittiks TS. Kthh. TBr.; a term in astrol. (to denote the fourth condition which results from the conjunction of planets?). In the South Indian languages, {ambA} is corrupted into {ammA}, and is often affixed to the names of goddesses, and females in general [Germ. {Amme}, a nurse; Old Germ. {amma}, Them. {ammo7n}, {ammU7n} aMbaa = mother ambu = water ambudhi = sea ambuvegaaH = waves of the waters ambhas.h = (n) water ambhasaa = by the water ambhasi = on the water
152

ambhuruhaM = lotus amedhyaM = untouchable *: mfn. not able or not allowed to sacrifice, not fit for sacrifice, impure, unholy, nefarious, foul S'Br. Mn. &c.; ({am}), n. faeces, excrement KtyS'r. Mn. ix, 282 Yj. &c. aMhas* =n. anxiety, trouble RV. &c.; sin L.; [cf. % {agha4}, %{A4gas}; Gk. $, $, $, $.] aMhasaspati* =[VS.] m. lord of perplexity i.e. an intercalary month; cf. %{AMhaspatya}. aMhasaspatya* =n. power over calamity TS. A1pS3r. AMhaspatya* =mfn. belonging to the dominion of An6haspati (as the intercalary month) Gobh. aMhati* = f. anxiety, distress, trouble RV.; illness L.; [cf. Lat. {ango}]; a gift (also %{aMhatI} f.) L amiishaam SB: of those; among those; of these,of them; amita * = unmeasured, boundless, infinite RV. &c.; without a certain measure S'Br. Sus'r. &c.; ({a4-mitam}) ind. immensely RV. iv, 16, 5. amitavikramaH = and unlimited force

153

amla = (m) sour amogha * = mf({A}) n. unerring, unfailing, not vain, efficacious, succeeding, hitting the mark, productive, fruitful; ({a4-mogha}, ) {as} m. the not erring, the not failing S'Br.; N. of S'iva; of Vishnu MBh. xiii; of Skanda MBh. iii, 14632; of a minister of an Asura king at war with Karttikeya SkandaP.; of a river L.; ({A}) f. trumpet flower, Bignonia Suaveolens, Roxb.; a plant of which the seed is used as a vermifuge, Erycibe Paniculata Roxb.; Terminalia Citrina Roxb.; N. of a spear MBh. iii, 16990 and R. i, 29, 12; (with or without {rAtri}) `" the unfalling one "' a poetical N. of the night MBh.; a mystical N. of the letter {kS} (being the last one of the alphabet); N. of Durg L.; of the wife of Sntanu; of one of the mothers in Kanda's suite MBh. ix, 2639. amrita = of ambrosia, potion to cause immortality amritaM = veritable nectar amritattvaaya = for liberation amritabinduu = a drop of nectar amritabhujaH = those who have tasted such nectar amritasya = of the immortal
154

amritodbhavaM = produced from the churning of the ocean amritopamaM = just like nectar\ a4Msa*= *V: expansion, part of, m. the shoulder, shoulder-blade; corner of a quadrangle; N. of a king; ({au}) m. du. the two shoulders or angles of an altar; a share (for {aMza}); [cf. Goth. {amsa}; Gk. $, $; Lat. {humerus}, &124[1, 2] {ansa}.] aMs'a m. (probably fr. 1. %{az} , perf. %{An-a4Mza} , and not from the above %{aMz} fictitiously formed to serve as root) , a share , portion , part , party ; partition , inheritance ; a share of booty ; earnest money ; stake (in betting) RV. v , 86 , 5 Ta1n2d2yaBr. ; a lot (cf. 2. % {prA7s}) ; the denominator of a fraction ; a degree of latitude or longitude ; a day L. ; N. of an A1ditya. aMs'aka* = 1 mf({ikA})n. (ifc.) forming part. \\2 m. a share; degree of latitude or longitude; a co-heir L.; ({am}) n. a day L. amu * = a pronom. base, used in the declension of the pronom. %{ada4s}, that (e.g. acc. %{amu4m}, % {amU4m}; instr. %{amunA}, %{amuyA}; dat. % {amu4Smai}, %{amuSyai}, &c.) amushmin * = (loc. sg. of %{ada4s}) ind. in the other
155

world L.; (forms the base of %{AmuSmika} q.v. amushya * = (gen.sg. of %{ada4c}), of such a one.amushyakula* = mfn. belonging to the family of such a one, (ganas %{pratijanA7di} and % {manojJA7di} q.v.) amushyaputra * = m. the son of such a one (i.e. of a good family, of known origin), (g. %{manojJA7di} q.v.) amutra = in the next life1 * = ind. there AV. S3Br. &c.; there above i.e. in the other world, in the life to come VS. S3Br. &c.; there i.e. in what precedes or has been said S3Br.; here Katha1s. amuurta * = mfn. formless, shapeless, unembodied S3Br. xiv Up. &c.; not forming one body, consisting of different parts Su1ryas.; m. N. of Siva. amuuDhaaH = unbewildered aanga* = mfn. (in Gr.) relating to the base. ({aGga}) of a word Pn. 1-1, 63 Comm.; m. a prince of the country Anga, (g. {pailA7di} q.v.); ({I}) f. a princess of that country MBh. i, 3772; ({am}) n. a soft delicate form or body L. anana * =breathing, living ananubhUta* mfn. not perceived, not experienced
156

unknown. (see also the affirmative anubhUta) antaraya* = 1 m. impediment, hindrance pS'r. (cf. {a4n-antaraya}.) //2 Nom. P. {-ayati} see {antar-i}. antaraaya* = m. intervention, obstacle. anubhUta * = mfn. perceived, understood, apprehended; resulted, followed as a consequeuce; that has experienced, tasted, tried or enjoyed. anuvritta * = mfn. following, obeying, complying; rounded off; (%{am}) n. obedience, conformity, compliance. an.gamejayatva = unsteadiness of the body ana* = m. breath, respiration S'Br. ChUp. anaa* = ind. (fr. pronom. base {a}), hereby, thus, indeed RV. anaadara = lack of respect anaadi = without beginning anaadiM = without beginning anaaditva = non-beginning
157

anaaditvaat.h = due to eternity anaakshArita * =mfn. unreproached. anaakshit * =mfn. not residing or resting S'Br. anaanasaphalam.h = (n) pineapple anaanata* mfn. unbent, not humbled RV. m. N. of a Riishi of the SV. anaamayaM = without miseries anaapad* = {t} f. absence of misfortune or calamity Mn. anaarambhaat.h = by nonperformance anaarya = persons who do not know the value of life anaatha * =having no master or protector; widowed; fatherless; helpless, poor; ({a4m}) n. want of a protector, helplessness RV. x, 10, 11. anaatman * = not self, another; something different from spirit or soul; ({an-Atma4n}) mfn. not spiritual, corporeal, destitute of spirit or mind S'Br. anaatmanaH = of one who has failed to control the mind
158

anaavrittiM = no return anaashinaH = never to be destroyed anaashritaH = without taking shelter anaahata = unbeaten anaahuta = (adj) un-invited anaadritya * = ind. p. without respecting, regardless. an-aadrita * = mfn. not respected, disrespected. an-aadrita * = see {an-Adara}. anaavrita* = mfn. uncovered S'Br. xiv, undressed; uninclosed, open. anabhishvangaH = being without association anabhiSaGga* = or %{an-abhiSvaGga} m. absence of connection or attachment anabhisneha * = mfn. without affection, cold, unimpassioned anabhisandhaaya = without desiring
159

anabhisnehaH = without affection anadhishthhita * = mfn. not placed over, not appointed; not present. anaha.nvaadi = without false ego anahankaaraH = being without false egoism anagha = O sinless one anakshi * = n. a bad eye L. [24, 2] anakshika * =mfn. eyeless TS. anakshara * =mfn. unfit to be uttered; unable to articulate a syllable. anakshasaGgam * =[MaitrS.] or {a4n-akSa-stambham} [S'Br.] ind. so as not to interfere with the axle-tree. anaksh* =(nom. {an-a4k}) mfn. blind RV. ii, 15, 7. anAkula *= mf(%{A})n. not beset; not confused, unperplexed, calm, consistent, regular. anala = fire analaH = fire
160

analena = by the fire anamiiva * = mf({A4})n., Ved. free from disease, well, comfortable; salubrious, salutary; ({a4m}) n. good health, happy stat anaga * mf({A}) n. bodiless, incorporeal; m. N. of Kma (god of love, so called because he was made bodiless by a flash from the eye of S'iva, for having attempted to disturb his life of austerity by filling him with love for Prvat); ({am}) n. the ether, air, sky L.; the mind L.; that which is not the anga. ananta = infinite, a name of Vishnu* = mf({A})n. endless, boundless, eternal, infinite; m. N. of Vishnu; of S'esha (the snake-god); of S'esha's brother Vsuki; of Kriishna; of his brother Baladeva; of S'iva; of Rudra; of one of the Vis'va-devas; of the 14th Arhat, &c.; the plant Sinduvra, Vitex Trifolia; Talc; the 23rd lunar asterism, S'ravana; a silken cord (tied round the right arm at a particular festival); the letter {A}; a periodic decimal fraction? ({A}) f. the earth; the number one; N. of Prvat and of various females, the plant S'riv; Periploca Indica or Asclepias Pseudosarsa or Asthmatica (the root of which supplies a valuable medicine); ({am}) n. the sky, atmosphere; Talc. anantaM = unlimited

161

anantaH = Ananta anantaraM = after anantaruupa = O unlimited form anantaruupaM = unlimited form anantavijayaM = the conch named Ananta-vijaya anantaviiryaa = unlimited potency anantaaH = unlimited anantaasana = Ananta's posture ananya * = mf({A})n. no other, not another, not different, identical; self; not having a second, unique; not more than one, sole; having no other (object), undistracted; not attached or devoted to any one else ananyachetaaH = without deviation of the mind ananyabhaak.h = without deviation ananyamanasaH = without deviation of the mind ananyayaa = unalloyed, undeviating
162

ananyayogena = by unalloyed devotional service ananyasvaamyam.h = (n) patent rights ananyaaH = having no other object ananyena = without division anapades'a* = m. an invalid argument. anapadhrishya* = ind, p. not having overpowered AitBr. anaapad * = %{t} f. absence of misfortune or calamity Mn *VB when there is no emergency;in the absence of danger;not in a calamit anapaayin* = mfn. not going or passing away, constant in the same state; invariable. anapeksha * = mfn. regardless, careless; indifferent; impartial; irrespective of; irrelevant; (%{A}) f. disregard, carelessness; (%{a4n-ape7kSam}) ind. irrespectively, carelessly S3Br. anapeksha H = neutral anapekshya = without considering the consequences anartha* = m. non-value, a worthless or useless object;
163

disappointing occurrence, reverse, evil; nonsense; (mfn.), worthless, useless, bad; unfortunate; having no meaning; having not that (but another) meaning; nonsensical. anarthaM = purposeless/in vain/danger-productive anas'nataH = abstaining from eating anas'nan.h = without eating (having fasted) anas'nat * = mfn. not eating RV. i, 164, 20, &c. anas'nantsAGgamana* = m. the sacrificial fire in the Sabh (which is approached before breakfast) S'Br. anas'nAna * = mf({A})n. not eating. anasuyave = to the nonenvious anasuuyaH = not envious anasUya. * = not spiteful, not envious; ({A}) f. freedom from spite; absence of ill-will or envy; N. of a daughter of Daksha; of one of S'akuntal's friends. anasuuyantaH = without envy anavabudhyamAna * = mfn. deranged L.
164

anata * = mfn. not bent, not bowed down; not changed into a lingual consonant RPra1t.; erect; stiff; haughty. anati *= not very -, not too -, not past -. (Words commencing with %{an-ati} are so easily analysed by referring to %{ati}, &c., that few need be enumerated.)= anatmasa* A= inessential anavadya* = mf({A4})n. irreproachable, faultless; unobjectionable; ({A}) f. N. of an Apsaras. anavalokayaan.h = not looking anavaaptaM = wanted a-naya * =1 m. bad management; bad conduct (gambling, &c.) an-aya * = 2 m. evil course, ill luck; misfortune, adversity (cf. {ayA7naya} s.v. {aya}.) anayoH = of them andha = blind andhakaara = darkness aneka = Many
165

anekadhaa = into many anekavachanaM = plural anekaani = many anena = by thisa.ngaNa = field anena* = V* by this, with Him by these; 1 mfn. without stags RV. vi, 66, 7 (cf. {enI4}) angaM = body a.ngasa.nginau = with a.ngaiH = limbs, body parts a.ngaistushhthuvaa.nsastanuubhiH = having satisfied with strong limbs? anga = a limb, or body part anga* = 1 ind. a particle implying attention, assent or desire, and sometimes impatience, it may be rendered, by well; indeed, true, please, rather quick; {kim aGga}, how much rather! a4nga* = 2 n. ( {am} Un.), a limb of the body; a limb, member; the body; a subordinate division or department, especially of a science, as the six Vedngas; hence the
166

number six; N. of the chief sacred texts of the Jainas; a limb or subdivision of Mantra or counsel (said to be five, viz. 1. {karmaNAm Arambho7pAyaH}, means of commencing operations; 2. {puruSa-dravya-sampad}, providing men and materials; 3. {deza-kAla-vibhAga}, distribution of place and time; 4. {vipatti-pratIkAra}, counter-action of disaster; 5. {kArya-siddhi}, successful accomplishment; whence {mantra} is said to be {paJcA7Gga}); any subdivision, a supplement; (in Gr.) the base of a word, but in the strong cases only Pn. 1-4, 13 seqq.; anything inferior or secondary, anything immaterial or unessential, see {aGga-tA}; (in rhetoric) an illustration; (in the drama) the whole of the subordinate characters; an expedient; a mental organ, the mind L.; m. sg. or ({As}) m. pl.N. of Bengal proper or its inhabitants; (sg.)N. of a king of Anga; (mfn.), having members or divisions L.; contiguous L. angaM = limb(s) angaani = limbs anghri (aGghri) * = m. a foot; foot of a seat; the root of a tree [cf. %{aMhri}]. an'ghrinAmaka* =m. or a synonym of %{aGghri}, means always foot as well as root. an'ghrinAman* =n. a synonym of %{aGghri}, means
167

always foot as well as root. an'ghripa* =m. (drinking with the foot or root), a tree. an'ghripAna* =mfn. sucking the foot or toes (as an infant) L. an'ghriparNI* =or f. the plant Hedysarum Lagopodioides. an'ghriskandha* =m. the ancle. an'ghrivalli* =or f. the plant Hedysarum Lagopodioides. aghrivallikaa * =f. the plant Hedysarum Lagopodioides. ajaas * = mfn. having no kindred RV. x , 39 , 6. ajas * = %{as} n. ointment , a mixture RV. i , 132 , 2 ; N. of a Sa1man A1rshBr. ; (%{as}) ind. quickly , instantly RV. BhP. ; see %{a4JjasA}. ajasa * = mfn. straight , straightforward , honest L. ; (%{I4}) f. N. of a heavenly river RV. i , 104 , 4. ajasA * = ind. straight on , right , truly , justly ; quickly , soon , instantly.

168

amrishaa * = ind. not falsely, certainly, surely S3Br. xiv BhP. anaatha * = mf(%{A})n. having no master or protector ; widowed ; fatherless ; helpless , poor ; (% {a4m}) n. want of a protector , helplessness RV. x , 10 , 11. a4ngira* = m. = {a4Ggiras} RV. i, 83, 4 and iv, 51, 4 MBh. Yj. (cf. Gk. $ and $.) &2164[8,1] [8,2] a4ngiras =, {As} m. N. of a Riishi, author of the hymns of RV. ix, of a code of laws, and of a treatise on astronomy (he is said by some to have been born from Brahm's mouth, and to have been the husband of Smriiti, of S'raddh, of two daughters of Maitreya, of several daughters of Daksha, &c.; he is considered as one of the seven Riishis of the first Manvantara, as a Prajpati, as a teacher of the Brahmavidy, which he had learnt from Satyavha, a descendant of Bharadvja, &c. Among his sons, the chief is Agni, others are Sanvarta, Utathya, and Briihaspati; among his daughters are mentioned Sinivl, Kuh, Rk, Anumati, and Akpr; but the Riicas or Vedic hymns, the manes of Havishmat, and mankind itself are styled his offspring. In astronomy he is the planet Jupiter, and a star in Ursa Major); N. of Agni MBh.; ({asas}) m. pl. descendants of Angiras or of Agni (mostly personifications of luminous objects); the hymns of the Atharva-veda TS.; priests
169

who by using the magical formulas of those hymns protect the sacrifice against the effects of inauspicious accidents. angirastama = ({a4Ggiras-}) mfn. having the luminous quality of the Angirasas in the highest degree, said of Agni and of Ushas RV. angirasvat = ind. like Angiras RV. VS.? ({a4Ggirasvat}) mfn. connected with or accompanied by the Angirasas RV. VS. angirasAmayana = n. a Sattra sacrifice. angirasa4 = m. an enemy of Vishnu in his incarnation of Paras'urma. angula = a finger angushhTha = the big toe angushhThaH = (m) thumb anichchhan.h = without desiring aniika *= %{as} , %{am} , m.n. ( %{an}) , face ; appearance , splendour , edge , point ; front , row , array , march ; army , forces ; war , combat.

170

aniis'a *= mfn. one who has not a lord or superior, paramount; powerless, unable; m. Vishn2u; (%{A}) f. powerlessness, helplessness Up. aniishvaraM = with no controller aniketaH = having no residenc* = or {a-niketana} mfn. houseless. animisha * = mfn. not winking, looking steadily, vigilant RV. &c.; open (as eyes or flowers); m. not winking, a god BhP.; a fish L., ({a4m}) ind. vigilantly RV. i, 24, 6. animishaaksha * =mf({I}) n. one whose eyes are fixed. animishaacaarya * =m. N. of Briihaspati. animishat * =n. not winking, vigil mfn. not winking, looking steadily, vigilant RV. &c.; open (as eyes or flowers); m. not winking, a god BhP.; a fish L., ({a4m}) ind. vigilantly RV. i, 24, 6. animishaaksha * =mf({I}) n. one whose eyes are fixed. animisha * = mfn. not winking, looking steadily, vigilant RV. &c.; open (as eyes or flowers); m. not winking, a god BhP.; a fish L., ({a4m}) ind. vigilantly RV. i, 24, 6.
171

animishat * =mfn. not winking, vigil animiaacaarya * = m. N. of Br2ihaspati. animishaaksha * = mf(%{I}) n. one whose eyes are fixed. animishat * = mfn. not winking , vigilant RV. animitta * = mf(%{A})n. having no adequate occasion , causeless , groundless ; (%{am}) n. absence of an adequate cause or occasion , groundlessness. animittaliGganAsa * = m. `" unaccountable loss of distinct vision "'N. of an ophthalmic disease ending in total blindness (perhaps amaurosis). animittanirAkRta * = mfn. groundlessly rejected S3a1k. animittatas * = ind. groundlessly Mn. iv , 144. anilaH = (m) wind or air aniiha* = mfn. listless, indifferent; m. N. of a king of Ayodhy; ({A}) f. indifference, apathy, disinclination. anila* = m. ( {an} cf. Trish {anal}), air or wind; the god of wind; one of the fortynine Anilas or winds; one of the
172

eight demi-gods, called Vasus; wind as one of the humors or {rasas} of the body; rheumatism, paralysis, or any affection referred to disorder of the wind; N. of a Riishi and other persons; the letter {y}; the number forty-nine. aniiLa* = [RV. x, 55, 6] = {a4-nIDa} q.v. anilachulli = (f) gas (LPG) anirdes'ya* = mfn. undefinable, inexplicable, incomparable anis'a *= mfn. `" nightless "', sleepless; uninterrupted, incessant (only in comp.); (%{am}) ind. incessantly, continually. anitya = uncertain/temporary/ephemeral/transient anityaM = temporary anityaH = nonpermanent anirdeshyaM = indefinite anirviNNachetasa = without deviation aniruddha * = mfn. unobstructed, ungovernable, selfwilled; m. a spy, a secret emissary (?); the son of Pradyumna (a form of Kma, and husband of Ush);
173

S'iva; N. of an Arhat (contemporary of S'kyamuni); of a descendant of Vriishni; ({am}) n. the rope for fastening cattle L. anishchayat.h = due to non-determination (having not decided) anishhTa = and undesirable anishhTaM = leading to hell anivrita * = mfn. (1. %{vR}) , unchecked , not impeded RV. iii , 29 , 6. a.njana = anointment anjana* = ointment for the eyes ajah *V easily, properly, as-it-is, directly ajana * = m. a kind of domestic lizard L. ; N. of a fabulous , serpent ; of a tree Pan5cat. ; of a mountain , of a king of Mithila1 , of the elephant of the west or southwest quarter ; (%{A}) f. N. of Hanumat's mother ; of Pravarasena's mother ; (%{am}) n. act of applying an ointment or pigment , embellishing , &c. , black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyelashes or the inner coat of the eyelids ; a special kind of this pigment , as lamp-black , Antimony , extract of Ammonium ,
174

Xanthorrhiza , &c. ; paint , especially as a cosmetic ; magic ointment ; ink L. ; night L. ; fire L. (In rhetoric) making clear the meaning of an equivocal expression , double entendre or pun , &c. ajanii* = f. a woman (fit for the application of ointments, pigments, sandal, &c.) L.; N. of two medicinaI plants. ajasiina* = mfn. going straight on, straightforward RV. x, 32, 7. ajali* = m. ( {aJj}), the open hands placed side by side and slightly hollowed (as if by a beggar to receive food; hence when raised to the forehead, a mark of supplication), reverence, salutation, benediction; a libation to the Manes (two hands full of water, {udakA7Jjali}) VP. &c.; a measure of corn, sufficient to fill both hands when placed side by side, equal to a kudava. ajanavat* = ind. like collyrium. ajanaka* = m. portion of a text containing the word {aJjana}, (g. {goSad-Adi} q.v.); ({I}) f. N. of a medicinal plant. ajanI* = f. a woman (fit for the application of ointments, pigments, sandal, &c.) L.; N. of two
175

medicinaI plants. ajaspA* = mfn. drinking instantly RV. x, 92, 2 and 94, 13. ajasayana* = mf({I})n. having a straight course, going straight on TS. AitBr. ajasIna* = mfn. going straight on, straightforward RV. x, 32, 7. ajali* = m. ( {aJj}), the open hands placed side by side and slightly hollowed (as if by a beggar to receive food; hence when raised to the forehead, a mark of supplication), reverence, salutation, benediction; a libation to the Manes (two hands full of water, {udakA7Jjali}) VP. &c.; a measure of corn, sufficient to fill both hands when placed side by side, equal to a kudava. ajalika* = as, {am} m. n. N. of one of Arjuna's arrows MBh.; ({A}) f. a young mouse L. a.nkusha = a goad (metal stick used to control elephants) a.nkushadhaariNam.h = bearing the weapon `ankusha' with which the elephant a.nsha = part, angle
176

a.nsha-bhuutaM = has been a part of her a.nshaH = fragmental particle a.nshumaan.h = radiant a.nshena = part anrita = false anrita*=not true, false; falsehood, lying, cheating; agriculture anta = end antaM = or end antaH = (adv) inside antaHkaraNa = Mind antaHpeTikaa = (f) drawer antaHsthaani = within antaka* = 1 m. border, boundary S3Br.\\2 mfn. making an end, causing death; m. death; Yama, king or lord of death AV. &c.; N. of a man favoured by the As3vins RV. i, 112, 6N. of a king.
177

antakaale = at the end of life antagataM = completely eradicated antara = Sub-period in a Dasha antara * = mf({A}) n. being in the interior, interior; near, proximate, related, intimate; lying adjacent to; distant; different from; exterior; ({am}) n. the interior; a hole, opening; the interior part of a thing, the contents; soul, heart, supreme soul; interval, intermediate space or time; period; term; opportunity, occasion; place; distance, absence; difference, remainder; property, peculiarity; weakness, weak side; representation; surety, guaranty; respect, regard; (ifc.), different, other, another e.g. {dezA7ntaram}, another country; ({am}), or {-ta4s} ind. in the interior, within [cf. Goth. {anthar}, Theme {anthara}; Lith. {antra-s}, `" the second "'; Lat. {alter}]. antaraa * = ind. in the middle , inside , within , among , between ; on the way , by the way ; near , nearly , almost ; in the meantime , now and then ; for some time ; (with acc. and loc.) between , during , without. antaraatmanaa = within himself antaraatmaa = the inner self, residing in the heart antaraaya = (m) obstacle* = m. intervention, obstacle.
178

antaraaraamaH = actively enjoying within antaradeshiiya = among different countries mainly for transaction?? antaraM = between antaranga = the practices of pranayama and hara antaraya * = 1 m. impediment, hindrance pS'r. (cf. {a4n-antaraya}.) antariksha = (n) space antarikshaM = space, sky antardhaa * = 1 A1. %{-dhatte} , to place within , deposit ; to receive within ; to hide , conceal , obscure ; to hide one's self: Pass. %{-dhIyate} to be received within , to be absorbed ; to be rendered invisible ; to disappear , vanish ; to cease: Caus. %{-dhApayati} ; to render invisible , to cause to disappear. antare = between antareNa = without antarjyotiH = aiming within

179

antaryutakam.h = (n) vest antarsukhaH = happy from within antavat.h = perishable antavantaH = perishable antike = near ante = after annaM = (n) food annaat.h = from grains aniiha* = mfn. listless, indifferent; m. N. of a king of Ayodhy; ({A}) f. indifference, apathy, disinclination. aNiiyaa.nsaM = smaller aNIyas = {an}, {as},, as (fr. {aNu} q.v.), or mfn. more minute than usual. anaNIyas * = mfn. not at all minute; vast, mighty S3is3. iii, 4. anirukta * = mfn. unuttered , not articulated ; not explained (because of being clear by itself) [30,1] ;
180

unspeakable TUp. aniruktagAna * = n. indistinct singing ; humming (of hymns) , a particular mode of chanting the Sa1ma-veda. aniyata * mfn. not regulated, uncontrolled, not fixed, uncertain, unrestricted, irreguIar, casual; not unaccentuated RPra1t. aNoH = than the atom anutaapa *= m. repentance, heat. anu = following aNu * = mf(%{vI})n. fine, minute, atomic; (%{us}) m. an atom of matter; `" an atom of time "', the 54, 675, 000th part of a muhu1rta (of 48 minutes); Panicum Miliaceum VS. S3Br. xiv Mun2d2UP.; N. of Siva; (% {a4NvI}) f. `" the subtle one "'N. of the fingers preparing the Soma juice RV.; (%{u}) n. (in prosody) the fourth part of a ma1tra1; (%{aNu4}) ind. minutely S3Br.2 aNU (with %{bhU}, &c.) see s.v.3 aNU (for %{aNu} in comp. with %{bhU} and its derivatives).4 anu 1 mfn. = %{aNu} q.v. L.5 anu 2 m. a non-A1ryan man RV.; N. of a king (one of Yaya1ti's sons); of a non-A1ryan tribe MBh. &c.6 anu 3 ind. (as a prefix to verbs and nouns, expresses) after, along, alongside, lengthwise, near to, under,
181

subordinate to, with. (When prefixed to nouns, especially in adverbial compounds), according to, severally, each by each, orderly, methodically, one after another, repeatedly. (As a separable preposition, with accusative) after, along, over, near to, through, to, towards, at, according to, in order, agreeably to, in regard to, inferior to Pa1n2. 1-4, 86. As a separable adverb) after, afterwards, thereupon, again, further, then, next. anubandha = (m) result, effect * = m. binding, connection, attachment; encumbrance; clog; uninterrupted succession; sequence, consequence, result; intention, design; motive, cause; obstacle; inseparable adjunct or sign of anything, secondary or symptomatic affection (supervening on the principal disease); an indicatory letter or syllable attached to roots, &c. (marking some peculiarity in their inflection; e.g. an {i} attached to roots, denotes the insertion of a nasal before their final consonant); a child or pupil who imitates an example set by a parent or preceptor; commencement, beginning; anything small or little, a part, a small part; (in arithm.) the junction of fractions; (in phil.) an indispensable element of the Vednta; ({I}) f. hickup L.; thirst L. anubandhaM = of future bondage anubandhiini = bound
182

anubandhe = at the end aNuubhva * = m. the becoming an atom Nir. anubhava* = m. perception, apprehension, fruition; understanding; impression on the mind not derived from memory; experience, knowledge derived from personal observation or experiment; result, consequence. anubhaava * = m. sign or indication of a feeling ({bhAva}) by look or gesture Kpr. &c.; dignity, authority, consequence; firm opinion, ascertainment, good resolution, belief. anubudh* = to awake; to recollect; to learn (by infurmation): Caus. {-bodhayati}, to communicate, to remind, Sk. aNuubhuu * = to become minute or atomic. anubhuu * = to enclose, embrace ChUp.; to be after, attain, equal RV. &c.; to be useful, to help S'Br. S'nkhS'r.; to turn or incline to RV. x, 147, 1 [36,3]; to notice, perceive, understand; to experience, to attempt. anubhuu * = mfn. perceiving, understanding (ifc.) anubhuuta *= perceived, understood, apprehended; resulted, followed as a consequeuce; that has
183

experienced, tasted, tried or enjoyed anubhUti *= f. perception; knowledge from any source but memory; (in phil.) knowledge gained by means of the four Pramnas (perception by the senses, inference, comparison, and verbal authority); dignity, consequence. anubhUta* = mfn. perceived, understood, apprehended; resulted, followed as a consequeuce; that has experienced, tasted, tried or enjoyed. anubhUtiprakAza *= m. N. of a metrical paraphrase of the twelve principal Upanishads by Vidyranya-muni. anubhUtisvarUpAcArya *= m. N. of the author of the grammar Srasvat-prakriy. anubhUya *= ind. having experienced. anuchaaraya = (causative of anu+car) follow anuchintayan.h = constantly thinking of anudarshanaM = observing * = n. consideration, regard. anudinaM = daily anuddishya = having targetted or aimed at
184

anudvignamanaaH = without being agitated in mind anudvegakaraM = not agitating anugata * = mfn. followed by, having anything (as a skin) hanging behind; following; a follower; acquired; extinguished; tallying with; (%{am}) n. moderate time (in music). anugiitaa* = f. `" an after-song "'N. of part of the fourteenth book of the Mahbhrata (chaps. 16-92). anugraha * = m. favour, kindness, showing favour, conferring benefits, promoting or furthering a good object; assistance; facilitating by incantations; rearguard; N. of the eighth or fifth creation VP. anugrihiita * = mfn. favoured, obliged. anuja * mfn. born after, later, younger; m. a younger brother, a cadet; the plant Tryamna; ({am}) n. the plant Prapaundarika; ({A}) f. a younger sister TS. anujaa* = 1 to permit, grant, allow, consent; to excuse, forgive; to authorize; to allow one to depart, dismiss, bid farewell to; to entreat; to behave kindly: Caus. %{jJApayati}, to request, ask permission, ask for leave to depart, to take leave: Desid. %{-jijJAsati} or %{-te}, to wish to allow or permit Pa1n2. 1-3, 58.//2 f. assent,
185

assenting, permission; leave to depart; allowance made for faults; an order or command. anujan * = cl. 4. . {-jAyate}, to follow in being born or produced or arising; to take after (one's parents) Ragh. anu-janman * = {A} m. a younger brother, younger. anu-janam * = ind. according to people, popularly. anujiivin* = mfn. living by or upon; dependent; (% {I}) m. a dependent, follower; N. of a crow Pan5cat. anujiivisaatkrita * = mfn. made wholly subservient Kir. anukalpa * = m. permission to adopt an alternative or substitute (e.g. instead of Kus3a grass you may use Du1rba1) Mn. &c. anukamp * = to sympathize with, compassionate anukampaka * = m. `" sympathizer "'N. of a king; (mfn.) ifc. sympathizing with, compassionating. anukampana * n. sympathy, compassion. anu-kampanIya * = mfn. pitiable. anukampita * mfn. compassionated
186

anukampin * = mfn. sympathizing with. anukampya * = mfn. pitiable, worthy of sympathy m. an ascetic L., expeditious (explained by {tarasvin}, perhaps for {tapasvin}) L. anukampaarthaM = to show special mercy anukaroti = (1 pp) to follow, to mimic, to ape, to emulate anukaari = like anukrama *= m. succession , arrangement , order , method ; an index showing the successive contents of a book ; (%{am}) or (%{eNa}) or (%{At}) ind. in due order. anukramaNa *= n. proceeding methodically or in order ; following. anukramaNI *= f. a table or chapter of contents , index to a collection of Vedic hymns (giving the first word of each hymn , the number of verses , name and family of poets , names of deities and metres). anukramaNikA *= or f. a table or chapter of contents , index to a collection of Vedic hymns (giving the first word of each hymn , the number of verses , name and
187

family of poets , names of deities and metres). anukuula * = mf(%{A})n. following the bank (% {kUla}) or slope or declivity; according to the current AV.; favourable, agreeable; conformable to; friendly, kind, well-disposed; m. a faithful or kind and obliging husband; (%{A}) f. Croton Polyandrum; N. of a metre; (%{am}) n. (in poetry) narrative of calamity leading finally to happiness. anulipta = smeared anulepanaM = smeared with anuloma = with the grain, naturally* = mf({A})n. `" with the hair or grain "' (opposed to {prati-loma} q.v.), in a natural direction, in order, regular, successive; conformable; ({A}) f. a woman of a lower caste than that of the mas with whom she is connected Yj.; ({As}) m. `" descendants of an anulom "', mixed castes, (g. {upakA7di} q.v.); ({a4m}) ind. in regular order S'Br. &c. anumaana *= 1 m. permission, consent TBr. Ka1t2h. / 2 n. the act of inferring or drawing a conclusion from given premises; inference, consideration, reflection; guess, anumaatuM = to guess
188

anumaanaat.h = (ablat.)from guessing or induction anuman *= to approve, assent to, permit, grant: Caus. P. %{-mAnayati}, to ask for permission or leave, ask for (acc.) Ya1jn5.; to honour. conjecture; one of the means of obtaining true knowledge (see %{pramANa}). anumantR *= mfn. consenting to, permitting TBr. &c. anumantr *= to accompany with or consecrate by magic formulas; to dismiss with a blessing. anumantraNa *= n. consecration by hymns and prayers. anumantraNamantra *= m. a hymn used in consecrating. anumantrita *= mfn. so consecrated. anumantaa = permitter anumati = (f) permission * = f. assent, permission, approbation; personified as a goddess RV. AV. &c.; the fifteenth day of the moon's age (on which it rises one digit less than full, when the gods or manes receive oblations with favour); also personified as a goddess VP., oblation made to this goddess. anumata* = mfn. approved, assented to, permitted,
189

allowed, agreeable, pleasant; loved, beloved; concurred with, being of one opinion; ({am}) n. consent, permission, approbation; ({e}) loc. ind. with consent of. anumati* = f. assent, permission, approbation; personified as a goddess RV. AV. &c.; the fifteenth day of the moon's age (on which it rises one digit less than full, when the gods or manes receive oblations with favour); also personified as a goddess VP., oblation made to this goddess. anumIyamAna* = mfn. Pass. p. being inferred anumeya mfn. to be measured AV. vi, 137, 2; inferable, to be inferred, proved or conjectured. anumita * = mfn. inferred, conjectured. anumimaana * = mfn. p. A1. concluding , inferring. anumodita* = mfn. pleased, delighted, applauded; agreeable, acceptable. anumR * to follow in death anumRgyadAzu * = mfn. granting all that is sought. anumRgya * mfn. ( {mRg}), to be sought after anumRtA * f. the woman who burns with a part of her husband's dress.
190

anumRj * = to rub lengthways for polishing or cleaning AV. S'Br. &c. Intens. part. {-ma4rmRjAna}, stretching (the arms) repeatedly towards RV. x, 142, 5. anumRz * =to grasp, seize RV. &c.; to consider, think of, reflect: Caus. {-marzayati}, to touch or take hold of for the sake of examining Kthh. anuniita * = mfn. disciplined , taught ; obtained ; respected ; pleased , pacified ; humbly entreated. anuniniishu * = mfn. desirous of conciliating. anupaa* = 1 1. to drink after or there upon, follow in drinking, drink at; Caus. (Pot. {-pAya4yet}) to cause to drink afterwards S'Br. [35, 2] \\* = 2 2. Caus. P. . {pAlayati}, {-te}, to preserve, keep, cherish; to wait for, expect. anuupa* = mfn. (fr. 2. {a4p} q.v., with {anu}), situated near the water, watery L.; ({a4s}) m. a watery country Mn. &c.; pond RV.; bank of a river; a buffalo (cf. {AnUpa}) L.; N. of a Riishi, teacher of the Sma-veda. anupakaariNe = irrespective of return anupalabdha * = mfn. unobtained, unperceived, unascertained. anupashyati = one tries to see through authority
191

anupashyanti = can see anupashyaami = do I foresee anuprapannaaH = following anuprikta: = mfn. mixed with MBh. anupUrva* = mf({A})n. regular, orderly, in successive order from the preceding; ({a4m}) ind. in regular order, from the first RV. &c.; ({eNa}) ind. in regular order or succession, from the first, from the beginning, from above downwards. anupUrvya* = mfn. regular, orderly KtyS'r. anuraadhaa = Seventeenth nakshatra anuraa * = to be brilliant or shine in accordance with (said of corresponding metres) RV. anurajyate = is becoming attached anurata * = a mfn. fond of, attached to. anurakta * mfn. fond of, attached, pleased; beloved. anuraj * = to become red in imitation of ; to be attached or devoted: Caus. P. %{-raJjayati} , to win ,
192

conciliate , gratify. anurajaka * = mf(%{ikA})n. attaching , conciliating. anurajana * = n. the act of attaching or conciliating affection , love ; pleasing. anurodha * = m. obliging or fulfilling the wishes (of any one) ; obligingness , compliance ; consideration , respect ; reference or bearing of a rule. anuruupa * = mfn. following the form, conformable, corresponding, like, fit, suitable; adapted to, according to; m. the Antistrophe which has the same metre as the Stotriya or Strophe; the second of three verses recited together; (%{am}) n. conformity, suitability; (%{am}, %{eNa}) ind. ifc. conformably, according. anus'aasana * = n. instruction, direction, command, precept RV. x, 32, 7, &c. anus'am * = to become calm after or in consequence of BhP. anus'aMs* = to recite or praise after another TS. &c.; (Ved. Inf. (dat.) %{anu-za4se}) to join in praising RV. v, 50, 2. anusavanam * = ind. at every sacrifice TBr. &c.;
193

constantly BhP. anuzaya * = m. close connection as with a consequence, close attachment to any object; (in phil.) the consequence or result of an act (which clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the temporary freedom from transmigration to enter other bodies); repentance, regret; hatred; ancient or intense enmity; (%{I}) f. a4 disease of the feet, a boil or abscess on the upper part; a boil on the head. anusev * = to practise, observe. anusevin* = mfn. practising, observing, habitually addicted to. anushaasitaaraM = the controller anus'ayin * = mfn. having the consequence of an act, connected as with a consequence; devotedly attached to, faithful; repentant, penitent, regretful, sorry for; hating deeply.31 anus'aayin mfn. lying or extending along Nir. anushushruma = I have heard by disciplic succession anushochanti = lament anushochituM = to lament
194

anushhajjate = one necessarily engages anushhTup.h = the format's name anushhThana = (n) performance, execution anusantataani = extended anusaraNa* = n. following, going after; tracking, conformity to, consequence of; custom, habit, usage. anusaara = following, customary(masc) anus'aasana * = n. instruction, direction, command, precept anus'aya m. close connection as with a consequence, close attachment to any object; (in phil.) the consequence or result of an act (which clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the temporary freedom from transmigration to enter other bodies); repentance, regret; hatred; ancient or intense enmity; ({I}) f. a4 disease of the feet, a boil or abscess on the upper part; a boil on the head. anusmara = go on remembering anusmaran.h = remembering

195

anusmaret.h = always thinks of anusuu * = {Us} m. N. of wk., Pn Comm. anu-suucaka * = mf({ikA})n. ( {sUc}), indicative of, pointing out. anu-suucana * = n. pointing out, indication. anu-suupam * = ind. in every condiment. anusvaaraH = the accompanying sound or letter ( the letter form `.n' `M'?) anutishhThanti = regularly perform anuttamaM = the finest anuttamaaM = the highest anusvaara* = m. ( {svR}), aftersound, the nasal sound which is marked by a dot above the line, and which always belongs to a preceding vowel. anuvarN* = to mention, describe, recount; to praise. anuvaada* = m. saying after or again, repeating by way of explanation, explanatory repetition or reiteration with corroboration or illustration, explanatory reference to
196

anything already said; translation; a passage of the Brhmanas which explains or illustrates a rule ({vidhi}) previously propounded (such a passage is sometimes called {anuvAda-vacana}); confirmation Nir.; slander, reviling L. anuvaaram* = ind. time after time. anuvartanIya* = mfn. to be followed; to be supplied from a previous rule. anuvartin* = mfn. following, compliant, obedient, resembling. anuvartitva* = n. the state of being so. anuvartman* =mfn. following attending AV. &c.; ({a}) n. a path previously walked by another BhP. anuvartitR* = {tA} m. a wooer RV. x, 109, 2. anuvartana* = &c. see {anu-vRt}. anuvartana* = n. obliging, serving or gratifying another; compliance, obedience; following, attending; concurring; consequence, result; continuance; supplying from a previous rule. anuvartate = follows in the footsteps
197

anuvartante = would follow anuvartayati = adopt anuvaadaM = translation anuvaadya = having translated anuvelam * = ind. now and then. anuvidhiiyate = becomes constantly engaged anuvR * = to cover, KaushBr. &c.; to surround: Caus. . {-vArayate}, to hinder, prevent. anuvRtta * = mfn. following, obeying, complying; rounded off; ({am}) n. obedience, conformity, compliance. anuvRtti * = f. following, acting suitably to, having regard or respect to, complying with, the act of continuance; (in Pnini's Gr.) continued course or influence of a preceding rule on what follows; reverting to; imitating, doing or acting in like manner. anuvRt * = . to go after; to follow, pursue; to follow from a previous rule, be supplied from a previous sentence; to attend; to obey, respect, imitate; to resemble; to assent; to expect; Caus. P. {-vartayati}, to
198

roll after or forward; to follow up, carry out; to supply. anuvRt * = mfn. walking after, following MaitrS. PBr. anuyaayinaH = followers anuyaajaanumantraNa *= reciting those formulas Ka1tyS3r. anuuchaanaM = (teacher?) aNva * = n. fine interstice or hole in the strainer used for the Soma juice RV anvA * (for 2. {anu-vA} q.v.), blowing after TndyaBr. GopBr. anaavrishthi* = f. want of rain, drought. anvaya = Family anvayavat * mfn. having a connection (as a consequence), following, agreeing with; belonging to race or family; ({vat}) ind. in connection with, in the sight of Mn. viii, 332. anvayavyatireka * n. agreement and contrariety; a positive and negative proposition; species and difference; rule and exception; logical connection and
199

disconnection. anvayavyaapti * = f. an affirmative argument. anvayin * mfn. connected (as a consequence); belonging to the same family anvayitva * = n. the state of being a necessary consequence. anvashochaH = you are lamenting anvetave * = &c. see %{anv-i}.

anvi * = to go after or alongside, to follow; to seek; to be guided by; to fall to one's share RV. iv, 4, 11; Ved. Inf. %{a4nv-etave} to reach or join [BR.], to imitate [Gmn.] RV. vii, 33, 8; %{a4nv-etavai4}, to go along (with acc.) RV. i, 24, 8; vii, 44, 5. anvish* = 3. cl. 1. P. %{-icchati}, to desire, seek, seek after, search, aim, at AV. &c.: cl. 4. P. %{-iSyati} id. R. &c., Caus. %{-eSayati} id. Mr2icch. &c. anvishtha * = or mfn. sought, required. anvita * = mfn. gone along with; joined, attended, accompanied by, connected with, linked to; having as an essential or inherent part, endowed with, possessed of, possessing; acquired; reached by the mind, understood;
200

following; connected as in grammar or construction. anviiksh* = to follow with one's looks, to keep looking or gazing AV. &c.; to keep in view S'Br. anvichchha = try for anvIkshaa* = f. examining, inquiry Comm. on Nyyad. [47, 3]; meditation BhP. anviikshaNa* = n. or exa mining, inquiry Comm. on Nyyad. [47, 3] anviikshaa* = f. exa mining, inquiry Comm. on Nyyad. [47, 3]; meditation BhP. anviikshitavya* = mfn. to be kept in view or in mind S'Br. aanviikshikI* = f. (fr. {anv-IkSA}), logic, logical philosophy, metaphysics MBh. Mn. Gaut. &c anvaham * = ind. day after day , every day. anvita * = mfn. gone along with; joined, attended, accompanied by, connected with, linked to; having as an essential or inherent part, endowed with, possessed of, possessing; acquired; reached by the mind, understood; following; connected as in grammar or construction.\\ %
201

{anv-ita} q.v. Ba1lar. Kir. anvitaaH = absorbed, * gone along with, joined, attended, accompanied anveshhaNam.h = (n) search, exploration anya = other person * = 1 (3) n. inexhaustibleness (as of the milk of cows) AV. xii, 1, 4 (cf. %{a4nyA}.).// 2 % {as}, %{A}, %{at}, other, different; other than, different from, opposed to (abl. or in comp.); another; another person; one of a number; %{anya@anya} or % {eka@anya}, the one, the other; %{anyac@ca}, and another, besides, moreover [cf. Zd. {anya}; Armen. {ail}; Lat. {alius}; Goth. {aljis}, Theme {alja}; Gk. $ &13802[45,2] for $; cf. also $]. anyaM = other anyaH = another anyatama * = mfn. any one of many, either, any. anyat.h = other anyatra = somewhere else anyathaa = other *= ind. otherwise, in a different manner (with %{atas}, %{itas}, or %{tatas} = in a
202

manner different from this; %{anyathA@anyathA}, in one way, in another way); inaccurately, untruly, falsely, erroneously; from another motive; in the contrary case, otherwise [cf. Lat. {aliuta}]. anyayaa = by the other anyaaM = another anyaan.h = others anyaani = different anyaayena = illegally anye = others anyena = by another anyebhyaH = from others anyaiH = by others anyonya = mutual apa* = ind. (as a prefix to nouns and verbs, expresses) away, off, back (opposed to %{u4pa}, %{a4nu}, % {sam}, %{pra}); down (opposed to %{ud}).
203

apaada* = mfn. not divided into Pdas not metrical. apaadaa* = 1. . to take off or away S'Br. Kaus'. apaana = one of the vital airs, controls the elimination of bodily wastes* = m. (opposed to %{prA7Na4}), that of the five vital airs which goes downwards and out at the anus; the anus MBh. (in this sense also (%{am}) n. L.); N. of a Sa1man PBr.; ventris crepitus L. apaanaM = the air going downward apaane = in the air which acts downward apaapo = without sins apaaraa = one who has no limits apaara* = mfn. not having an opposite shore TS.; not having a shore, unbounded, boundless (applied to the earth, or to heaven and earth, [{ro4dasI}], &c.) RV. &c.; m. `" not the opposite bank "', the bank on this side (of a river) MBh. viii, 2381; ({am}) n. (in Snkhya phil.) `" a bad shore "', `" the reverse of {pAra} "', a kind of mental indifference or acquiescence; the reverse of mental acquiescence L.; the boundless sea. apaatrebhyaH = to unworthy persons

204

apaartha* = mfn. without any object, useless; unmeaning BhP. &c.; ({am}) n. incoherent argument apaarthaka * =mfn. useless apaavrita* = mfn. open, laid open RV. i, 57, 1, &c.; covered L.; unrestrained, self willed apaavritaM = wide open apaaya* = see %{ape7}. apaaya* = m. going away, departure; destruction, death, annihilation; injury, loss; misfortune, evil, calamity. apaayaya *V = to (breast)-feed apaayinaH = disappearing apachii = to decrease apaciti 1 f. honouring, reverence S3is3.\\ 2 f. loss L.; expense L.; N. of a daughter of Mari1ci VP.; (for 3. % {a4pa-citi} see below.) \\ 3 3 f. (= $, 3. %{ci}), compensation, either recompense [TS. &c.] or retaliation, revenge, punishing RV. iv, 28, 4, &c. apada* = n. no place, no abode AV.; the wrong place or time Kaths. &c.; (mfn.), footless Pacat.
205

apades'a *= m. assigning, pointing out Ka1tyS3r.; pretence, feint, pretext, disguise, contrivance; the second step in a syllogism (i.e. statement of the reason); a butt or mark L.; place, quarter L. apaharaNa = stealing apahartaaraM = the remover]destroyer apahrita = stolen apahritachetasaaM = bewildered in mind apaishunaM = aversion to fault-finding apakaara * = m. wrong, offence, injury, hurt; despise, disdain. apakarsha * = m. drawing or dragging off or down, detraction, diminution, decay; lowering, depression; decline, inferiority, infamy; anticipation Nyyam.; (in poetry) anticipation of a word occurring later. apa-karsha-sama * = {as}, {A} mf. a sophism in the Nyya (e.g. `" sound has not the quality of shape as a jar has, therefore sound and a jar have no qualities in common "'). apa-karshaka * = mf({ikA})n. drawing down, detracting (with gen.) Sh.
206

apakri = to harm apalaayanaM = not fleeing apamaa = comparison apamaanayoH = and dishonor apanaya* = m. leading away, taking away; bad policy, bad or wicked conduct. apanayana* = n. taking away, withdrawing; destroying, healing; acquittance of a debt. apanudyaat.h = can drive away apaNDita = someone who is not a scholar apara = other* = 1 mfn. having nothing beyond or after, having no rival or superior.* =2 mf({A})n. (fr. {a4pa}), posterior, later, latter (opposed to {pU4rva}; often in comp.); following; western; inferior, lower (opposed to {pa4ra}); other, another (opposed to {sva4}); different (with abl.); being in the west of; distant, opposite. Sometimes {apara} is used as a conjunction to connect words or sentences e.g. {aparaM-ca}, moreover; m. the hind foot of an elephant S'is'.; ({A}) f. the west L.; the hind quarter of an elephant L.; the womb L.; ({I4}) f. (used in the pl.) or ({a4m}) [RV. vi, 33, 5] n. the future
207

RV. S'Br.; ({a4param} [AV.] or {apara4m} [RV.]) ind. in future, for the future; ({aparam}) ind. again, moreover PrGri. Pacat.; in the west of (abl.) KtyS'r.; ({eNa}) ind. (with acc.) behind, west, to the west of KtyS'r. [cf. Goth. and Old Germ. {afar}, and the Mod. Germ. {aber}, in such words as {Aber-mal}, {Aberwitz}]. aparaM = junior apararaatra = (m) dawn aparaspara = without cause aparaa = lower aparaadha* = m. offence, transgression, fault; mistake; %{aparAdhaM} 1: %{kR}, to offend any one (gen.) aparaardhya* = mfn. without a maximum, unlimited in number s'vS'r. [50,3] aparaja* = mfn. born later VS. aparajana* = sg. or pl. m. inhabitants of the west GopBr. KtyS'r. aparatra* = ind. in another place; ({eka-tra}, {aparatra}, in one place, in the other place Pn. 6-1, 194 Sch.)
208

aparatva* = n. = {-tA} q.v. aparasad* = mfn. being seated behind PBr. -2. aparaajitaH = who had never been vanquished aparaajiita = Unconquered aparaajita:* = mf({A})n. unconquered, unsurpassed RV. &c.; m. a poisonous insect Sus'r.; Vishnu; S'iva; one of the eleven Rudras Hariv.; a class of divinities (constituting one portion of the so-called Anuttara divinities of the Jainas); N. of a serpent-demon MBh.; of a son of Kriishna BhP.; of a mythical sword Kaths.; ({A}) f. (with {diz}) the northeast quarter AitBr. &c.; Durg; several plants, Clitoria Ternatea, Marsilea Quadrifolia, Sesbania AEgyptiaca; a species of the S'arkari metre (of four lines, each containing fourteen syllables). aparaaNi = others aparaan.h = others apare = others aparigraha = abstention from greed, non-possessiveness aparigrahaH = free from the feeling of possessiveness
209

aparimeyaM = immeasurable aparihaarye = of that which is unavoidable aparyaaptaM = immeasurable apasada * = m. the children of six degrading marriages (of a Brhman with the women of the three lower classes, of a Kshatriya with women of the two lower, and of a Vais'ya with one of the S'dra Mn. x, 10 seqq., but cf. MBh. xiii, 2620 seqq. and {apadhvaMsa-ja}), an outcast (often ifc.; see {brAhmaNA7pasada}). apashyat.h = he could see aps'raya * = 2 m. the upper portion of a bed or couch on which the head rests Das3.; refuge, recourse, the person or thing to which recourse is had for refuge; an awning spread over a court or yard R. v, 11, 19. apatya = Progeny apathham.h = read apathu * = mfn. not clever, awkward, uncouth; ineloqueut; sick, diseased L. a-pattra * = mfn. leafless; ({A}) f. N. of a plant.

210

a-patnika * = mfn. not having a wife AitBr. KtyS'r.; where the wife is not present KtyS'r. apa-trap * = to be ashamed or bashful, turn away the face. apa-tras * = (impf. 3. pl. {-atrasan}) to flee from in terror RV. x, 95, 8 MBh. apa-trasta * = mfn. (ifc. or with abl.) afraid of, fleeing or retiring from in terror Pn. 2-1, 38. a-pathin * = {-nthAs} m. absence of road Pn. 5-4, 72. apaurusha* n. unmanliness; superhuman power; (mfn.), unmanly; superhuman. [57, 1] apavarga = heaven, liberation: m. completion, end (e.g. {paJcA7pavarga}, coming to an end in five days) KtyS'r. &c.; the emancipation of the soul from bodily existence, exemption from further transmigration; final beatitude BhP. &c.; gift, donation s'vS'r.; restriction (of a rule) Sus'r. S'ulb. apavaada = exceptional apaviddha* = mfn. pierced; thrown away, rejected, dismissed, removed.

211

apavighnaH = without obstacles apayaa* = to go away, depart, retire from (abl.).; to fall off: Caus. %{-yApayati}, to carry away by violence BhP. apeksh * = ( %{IkS}) , to look away , to look round AV. S3Br. ; to have some design ; to have regard to , to respect ; to look for , wait for ; to expect , hope ; to require , have an eye to Sa1h. ; with %{na} , not to like Katha1s. apekshaa = (f) expectation, hope * = f. looking round or about, consideration of, reference, regard to (in comp.; rarely loc.); dependence on, connection of cause with effect or of individual with species; looking for, expectation, hope, need, requirement; ({ayA}) ind. with regard to (in comp.) apeta* = *V bereft of *= mfn. escaped, departed, gone, having retired from, free from (abl. or in comp.) aphala = one without fruit aphalaprepsunaa = by one without desire for fruitive result aphalaakaankshibhiH = by those devoid of desire for result

212

apavad* = P. to revile, abuse TBr. &c.; to distract, divert, console by tales Pa1rGr2. Ya1jn5.; (in Gr.) to except RPra1t.; (A1. only) to disown, deny, contradict Pa1n2. 1-3, 77 Sch.: Caus. %{-vAdayati}, to oppose as unadvisable; to revile; (in Gr.) to except RPra1t. apavAda* = m. evil speaking, reviling, blaming, speaking ill of (gen.); denial, refutation, contradiction; a special rule setting aside a general one, exception (opposed to %{utsarga} Pa1n2. 3-1, 94 Sch.) RPra1t. Pa1n2. Sch.; order, command Kir.; a peculiar noise made by hunters to entice deer S3is3. vi, 9. api = also, * = Meaning is often used to express emphasis, in the sense of even, also, very; e.g. {anyad api}, also another, something more; {adyA7pi}, this very day, even now; {tathA7pi}, even thus, notwithstanding; {yady api}, even if, although; {yadyapi tathA7pi}, although, nevertheless; {na kadAcid api}, never at any time: sometimes in the sense of but, only, at least e.g. {muhUrtam api}, only a moment.\\* = Meaning may be affixed to an interrogative to make it indefinite, e.g. {ko 'pi}, any one; {kutrA7pi}, anywhere.\\Meaning imparts to numerals the notion of totality e.g. {caturNam api varNAnAm}, of all the four castes.\\Meaning may be interrogative at the beginning of a sentence.\\Meaning may strengthen the original force of the Potential, or may soften the Imperative, like the English `" be pleased to "';
213

sometimes it is a mere expletive.\\Meaning `" even then "', nevertheless, notwithstanding S'ak. (v.l.) Bhartri. Prab. Sinha7s. apihita * = mfn. put to , placed into RV. ; shut , covered , concealed RV. &c. (cf. %{pi-hita}) a4pI * = Meaning 2 ( {i}), (Ved.) {a4py-eti}, to go in or near; to enter into or upon; to come near, approach (also in copulation RV. ii, 43, 2 ind. p. {apI74tyA}); to partake, have a share in; to join to pour out (as a river). apiiDA* = f. id.; ({ayA}) ind. not unwillingly. apohanaM = forgetfulness apoha* = m. pushing away, removing; (in disputation) reasoning, arguing, denying. apo7hana* = f. id.; \\ apohanIya* = mfn. to be taken away, or removed, or expiated. aprakaashaH = darkness apramatta* = mfn. not careless, careful, attentive, vigilant S'Br. &c. aprameya * = mfn. immeasurable, unlimited, unfathomable Mn. i, 3 and xii, 94, &c.; not to be proved.
214

aprameyAnubhAva * = mfn. of unlimited might. aprameyAtman* = m. `" of inscrutable spirit "'N. of S3iva. apratigha * = mfn. ( %{han}), not to be kept off, not to be vanquished Mn. xii, 28, &c apratimaprabhaava = O immeasurable power apratishhThaM = without foundation apratishhThaH = without any position apratiikaaraM = without being resistant apradaaya = without offering apramaaNa * =n. a rule which is no standard of action MBh. S'k. &c.; (in discussion) a statement of no importance or authority. apramatta* =m mfn. not careless, careful, attentive, vigilant S'Br. &c. aprameya = the ununderstandable, inscrutable * =immeasurable, unlimited, unfathomable Mn. i, 3 and xii, 94, &c.; not to be proved.

215

aprameyaM = immeasurable aprameyasya = immeasurable apraapya 1 mfn. unobtainable MBh. &c.; superl.// 2 ind. p. not having obtained; not reaching. apratarkya * = mfn. not to be discussed L.; incomprehensible by reason, undefinable Mn. i, 5 & xii, 29 BhP. &c. [57,3] aprati* = mfn. without opponents, irresistible RV. BhP.; (%{I}) n. irresistibly RV. vii, 83, 4 and 99, 5 AV.; (% {A4}) ind. see s.v. above. -1. apravrittiH = inactivity apraaptat.h = uttained, obtained apraapya = failing to attain apraamaamaaNya = Unjustified aprithivyoH = to the earth apriyaM = the unpleasant apriyaH = and the undesirable
216

apsaras* =m {As} [RV. AV.&c.], or {ap-sarA4} [AV. &c.], f. (fr. 2. {a4p} + {sR}), `" going in the waters or between the waters of the clouds "', a class of female divinities (sometimes called `" nymphs "'; they inhabit the sky, but often visit the earth; they are the wives of the Gandharvas (q.v.) and have the faculty of changing their shapes at will; they are fond of the water; one of their number, Rambh, is said to have been produced at the churning of the ocean). apsu = in water apuNya = vice apunaraavrittiM = to liberation apUryamANam* - mfn. not getting full Ka1tyS3r. apushhpa = one without flowers apya* = (2, 3) mf({a4pyA}; once {a4pI} RV. vi, 67, 9)n. being in water, coming from water, connected with water RV. (cf. 3. {A4pya}). apya* = 1 mfn. to be reached, obtainable S'Br.; ({am}) n. confederation, alliance, relationship, friendship RV. ii, 29, 3, &c.; a friend RV. vii, 15, 1; (for 2. {Apya} see p. 144, col. 1.)apyaya* = m. joint , juncture Kaus3. S3ulb. ; pouring out (of a river) PBr. , entering into ,
217

vanishing (the contrary of %{prabhava} or %{utpatti}) Up. &c. (cf. %{svA7pyaya4}.) [56,1] apyayau = disappearance apyayana * = n. union, copulating L. araNyam.h = (n) jungle, forest araNya* = n. (fr. 1. {a4raNa}; fr. {R} Un.), a foreign or distant land RV. i, 163, 11 and vi, 24, 10; a wilderness, desert, forest AV. VS. &c.; m. the tree also called Kathphala L.; N. of a son of the Manu Raivata Hariv. 434; of a Sdhya ib. 11536; of a teacher (disciple of Priithvidhara). araNyaka*= n. a forest Yj. iii, 192, the plant Melia Sempervirens L. aratiH = being without attachment araagadveshhataH = without love or hatred arbha*: little, small, unimportant; child, boy // ruins, rubbish, often ifc. in names of old villages half or entirely gone to ruin arbhaka = small

218

arbuda *= m. Ved. a serpent-like demon (conquered by Indra, a descendant of Kadru1 therefore called Ka1draveya S3Br. AitBr.; said to be the author of RV. x, 94 RAnukr.) RV. &c.; (%{a4s}) m.id. RV.i, 51, 6 and x, 67, 12; (%{am}) n. N. of the above-named hymn RV. x, 94 A1s3vS3r.; (%{as}, %{am}) m. n. a long round mass (said especially of the shape of the foetus in the second half of the first month [Nir. xiv, 6] or in the second month [Ya1jn5. iii, 75 and 89]); a swelling, tumour, polypus Sus3r. &c.; (%{a4rbuda}), ri. (also m. L.) ten millions VS. xvii, 2, &c.; (%{as}),m.N. of a mountain in the west of India (commonly called Abu1, a place of pilgrimage of the Jainas, and celebrated for its Jaina temples); m. pl.N. of a people VarBr2S. BhP. &c. arbudarogaH = (m) cancer archati = (1 pp) to worship archituM = to worship arcita * = mfn. honoured, worshipped, respected, saluted MBh. Mn. &c.; offered with reverence, Mn iv, 213 ({an-} neg.) & 235 Yj. i, 167 ardana * = mfn. moving restlessly Nir. vi, 3; ifc. ({janA7rdana}) disturbing, distressing, tormenting R. BhP. &c.; annihilating, destroying BhP. (cf. {mahISA7rdana}); ({as}) m. a N. of S'iva MBh. xiii,
219

1147; ({A}) f. request L.; ({am}) n. pain, trouble, excitement Sus'r. ardani * = m. sickness, disease L.; asking, request L.; fire L. ardha = half* = 1 m. Ved. side, part; place, region, country (cf. {a4py-ardham}, {abhy-ardha4}, {parA7rdha4}); [Lat. {ordo}; Germ. {ort}.] \\2 mfn. (m. pl. {ardhe} or {ardhas} Pn. 1-1, 33) half. halved, forming a half [cf. Osset. {ardag}]; {ardha4}.. {ardha4} (or {ni4ma}.. {ardha4} RV. x, 27 "' 18), one part, the other part; ({a4s}, {a4m}) m. n. (ifc. f. {A}) the half. RV. vi, 30, 1, &c.; ({a4m}) n. `" one part of two "', with 1. {kR}, to give or leave to anybody (acc.) an equal share of (gen.) RV. ii, 30, 5 and vi, 44, 18; a part, party RV. iv, 32, 1 and vii, 18, 16; ({e}) loc. ind. in the middle, Sk. ({ardha}) in comp. with a subst. means `" the half part of anything "' [cf. Pn. 2-2, 2], with an adj. or past Pass. p. [cf. Pn. 5-4, 5] `" half "'; also with an adj. indicating measure [cf. Pn. vii, 3, 26 and 27]; a peculiar kind of compound is formed with ordinals [cf. Pn. 1-1, 23 Comm.] e.g. {ardha-tRtIya}, containing a half for its third, i.e. two and a half; {ardha-caturtha}, having a half for its fourth, three and a half.) ardhachandraasana = the half-moon posture ardhanavaasana = the half-boat posture
220

ardhanaariinatheshvara = S'iva and his S'akti united as one ardhanaariishvara = S'iva and his S'akti united as one ardhanicholaH = (m) frock ardhapadmaasana = the half-lotus posture ardhamatsyendraasana = the half spinal-twist posture ardana *= mfn. moving restlessly Nir. vi, 3; ifc. (% {janA7rdana}) disturbing, distressing, tormenting R. BhP. &c.; annihilating, destroying BhP. (cf. % {mahISA7rdana}); (%{as}) m. a N. of S3iva MBh. xiii, 1147; (%{A}) f. request L.; (%{am}) n. pain, trouble, excitement Sus3r. ardhashirshhaasana = the half headstand posture ardhasarvaangaasana = the half-shoulderstand posture ardhasalabhaasana = the half-locust posture ardhoruka = (n) half-pant ardhorukam.h = (n) half-pant, shortsarjana = obtaining ardita * = asked, requested, begged L.; injured, pained,
221

afflicted, tormented, wounded; killed, destroyed ib.; ({am}) n. N. of a disease argasiM = (f) pleasure argha = value arghya * = mfn. `" valuable "' see {an-arghya}, (g. {daNDA7di} q.v., `" {argham-arhati} "') deserving a respectful reception (as a guest) PrGri. Yj. &c.; belonging to or used at the respectful reception of a guest Gobh. Yj. &c.; ({am}) n. (Pn. 5-4, 25) water offered at the respectful reception of a guest s'vGri. &c., (probably for {Arghya} q.v.) a kind of honey L. arha = deserving * = mf(%{A})n. meriting, deserving (praise or blame cf. %{pUjA7rha}, %{nindA7rha}), worthy of. having a claim or being entitled to (acc. or Inf. or in comp.); being required, obliged, allowed (with Inf.); becoming, proper, fit (with gen. or ifc.) Pan5cat.; worth (in money), costing R., (cf. %{satA7rha}, % {sahasrA7rha}), m. a N. of Indra L., (%{a}) f. or (% {ANi}) n. pl. worship ChUp.. arhati = (1 pp) to deserve arhaNa* = mfn. having a claim to, being entitled to (in comp.) BhP.; ({am}) n. deserving, meriting Pn. 3-3, 111, worship, honour, treating any one (gen.) with
222

respect Mn. iii, 54 BhP.; a present of honour MBh. i, 130 BhP.; ({A}) f. worship, honourN. Ragh. &c., ({arha4Na}), Ved. instr. ind. according to what is due RV. i, 127, 6, x, 63, 4 and 92, 7. arhasi = deserve ari = enemies * = m. v.l. for {arin} below. ari * =1 mfn. ( {R}), attached to faithful RV.; ({is}) m. a faithful or devoted or pious man RV.\\=2 mfn. ( {rA}; = 1. {ari4}, assiduous, &c., Gnm.), not liberal, envious, hostile RV. ({i4s}) m. an enemy RV. MBh. &c.; ({a4ris}), m.id. AV. vii, 88, 1 and xiii, 1, 29, (in astron.) a hostile planet VarBriS.; N. of the sixth astrological mansion ib. (in arithm.)the number six (cf. {arAti}); a species of Khadira or Mimosa L. aritaa * = f. or enmity ari-bhaava = the sixth house in a Rashi or bhaava chart arishhu = on enemies arishtha* = mf({A}) n. unhurt RV. &c.; proof against injury or damage RV.; secure, safe RV.; boding misfortune (as birds of ill omen, &c.), Adbh Br. Hariv.; fatal, disastrous (as a house) R. ii, 42, 22; m. a heron L.; a crow L.; the soapberry tree, Sapindus Detergens Roxb.
223

(the fruits of which are used in washing Yj. i 186); cf. {arI STaka}; Azadirachta Indica R. ii, 94, 9; garlic L.; a distilled mixture, a kind of liquor Sus'r.; N. of an Asura (with the shape of an ox, son of Bali, slain by Kriishna or Vishnu) Hariv. BhP.; of a son of Manu Vaivasvata VP. (v.l. for {deSTa}); ill-luck, misfortune (see {ariSTa} n.) MBh. xii, 6573, ({A}), f. a bandage Sus'r.; a medical plant L.; N. of Durg SkandaP.; N. of a daughter of Daksha and one of the wives of Kas'yapa Hariv.; ({am}) n. bad or ill-luck. misfortune; a natural phenomenon boding approaching death; good fortune, happiness MBh. iv, 2126, buttermilk L.; vinous spirit L.; a womas apartment, the lying-in chamber (cf. {ariSTagriha} and {-zayyA} below) L. arishhthanemiH = the appelation to Garuda? arisuudana = O killer of the enemies arjanaM = the earning or acquiring or acqusition arjuna * = mfn. (cf. {Rjra4} and {raj}) white, clear (the colour of the day RV. vi, 9, 1; of the dawn RV. i, 49, 3; of the lightning; of the milk; of silver, &c.); made of silver AV. iv, 37, 4; m. the white colour "' L.; a peacock L.; cutaneous disease Sy. on RV. i, 122, 5; the tree Terminalia Arjuna W. and A.; N. of a man RV. i, 122, 5; of Indra VS. S'Br., of the third of the Pindava princes (who was a son of Kriitavrya who was slain by
224

Paras'urma) ib.; of a S'skya (known as a mathematician); of different other persons; the only son of his mother L.; ({I}) f. a cow MBh. xiii, 3596; a kind of serpent, (voc. {a4ijuni}) "' AV. ii, 24, 7; a procuress, bawd L.; N. of Ush (wife of Aniruddha) L.; of the river Bhud or Karatoys L.; ({-nyau}, or {-nyas}) f. du. or Pl.N. of the constellation Phalgun RV. x, 85, 13 S'Br.; ({am}) n. silver AV. v, 28, 5 and 9; gold L.; slight inflammation of the conjunctiva or white of the eye Sus'r.; a particular grass (used as a substitute for the Soma plant) PBr. &c.; (= {rUpa}) shape Naigh.; ({As}) m. pl. the descendants of Arjuna Pn. 2-4, 66 Sch. arjuna-anujam A*: emblem [as in 10.77: 11] arjuna = a disciple of Krishna, hero of the Mahabharata arjunaM = unto Arjuna arjunaH = Arjuna arjunayoH = and Arjuna arka = essence, a name of Sun * = m. ( {arc}), Ved. a ray, flash of lightning RV. &c.; the sun RV. &c.; (hence) the number, twelve "' Sryas.; Sunday; fire RV. ix, 50, 4 S'Br. BrirUp.; crystal R. ii, 94, 6; membrum viriIe AV. vi, 72, 1; copper L.; the plant Calotropis Gigantea (the larger leaves are used for sacrificial
225

ceremonies; cf. {arka-kozI}, {-parNa4}, {palaza4}, &c. below) S'Br. &c., a religious ceremony S'Br. BrirUp. (cf. {arkA7zvamedha} below); praise hymn, song (also said of the roaring of the Maruts and of Indra's thunder) RV. and AV.; one who praises, a singer RV.; N. of Indra L.; a learned man (cf. RV. viii, 63, 6) L. [89, 2]; an elder brother L.; N. of a physician BrahmaP. (cf. {arkacikitsA} below); ({as}, {am}) m. n. (with {agneH}, {indrasya}, {gautamasaH}, &c.) N. of different Smans; food Naigh. and Nir. (cf. RV. vii, 9, 2). arkadina *= n. a solar day. arogita = diseaselessness arpaNa = Offer arpaNaM = contribution arpita = surrendering * = [eight times in RV.; cf. Pn. 61, 209 seq.] or\\* = [RV. i, 164, 48, &c.] mfn. inserted, fixed RV. VS. &c.; fixed upon (as the eyes or the mind); thrown, cast into (loc.; said of an arrow) Ragh. viii, 87; placed in or upon Ragh. ix, 78, &c.; (said of a document or of a sketch) transferred to (a plate or portrait i.e., `" engraved "' or, painted "') Ragh. xvii, 79 S'k. Kum. iii, 42; offered, delivered, entrusted Yj. ii, 164, &c.; given back Ragh. xix, 10, &c.

226

artha = money *= {as}, {am} m. n. [in RV. i-ix only n. [90, 3]; in RV. x six times n. and thrice m.; in later Sanskriit only m.] aim, purpose (very often {artham}, {arthena}, {arthAya}, and {arthe} ifc. or with gen., for the sake of. on account of. in behalf of. for "'); cause, motive, reason Mn. ii, 213, &c.; advantage, use, utility (generally named with kma and dharma see {trivarga}; used in wishing well to another dat. or gen. Pn. 2-3, 73); thing, object (said of the membrum virile S'Br. xiv); object of the senses VarBriS.; (hence) the number, five "', Seiryas.; substance, wealth, property, opulence, money; (hence in astron.) N. of the second mansion, the mansion of wealth (cf, {dhana}) VarBriS.; personified as the son of Dharma arid Buddhi BhP.; affair, concern (Ved. often acc. a4rtham with {i}, or gam, to go to one's business, take up one's work RV. &c.); (in law) lawsuit, action; having to do with (instr.), wanting, needing anything (instr.), SBr, &c.; {sense}, meaning, notion (cf. {artha-zabdau} and {arthAt} s.v. below and {vedatattvA7rtha-vid}); manner, kind L., prohibition, prevention L.; price (for {argha} q.v.) L.; ({At}) abl. ind. see s.v. below; ({e}) loc. ind. with 1. {kR} (g. {sakSAd-Adi} q.v.) // n. m. aim, purpose, meaning, sense, object, profit, advantage of (instr.), wealth, property, money, thing, matter, business, cause, suit, action; o. --- adj. having a thing for object, for the sake of, on account of, for; acc., instr., dat. & loc. the same adv.

227

arthaM = wealth arthaH = is meant arthan.h = and economic development arthanaipuNa = (n) efficient in polity arthapraaptirbhavati = wealth-attainment becomes arthayate = (10 pp) to request arthavaan.h = one with money arthasya = (masc.poss.sing.) wealth or meaning arthaarthii = one who desires material gain arthin * = mfn. active, industrious RV.; (cf %{arthe74t} above); one who wants or desires anything (instr. or in comp.; cf. %{putrA7rthin}, %{balA7rthin}); supplicating or entreating any one (gen.); longing for, libidinous R. i, 48, 18; (%{I}) m. one who asks for a girl in marriage, a wooer Ya1jn5. i, 60 Katha1s.; a beggar, petitioner, suitor Mn. xi, 1, &c.; one who supplicates with prayers VarBr2S.; a plaintiff, prosecutor Mn. viii, 62 and 79 Ya1jn5. ii, 6; a servant L.; a follower, companion L.

228

arthinah*A = person in need, person asking for something arthiyaM = meant arthe = in meaning arthopaarjanaaya = for earning maney aruNi * = see also aaruni; m. N. of a Muni BhP. (cf. {AruNi}). aru* = m. the sun L.; the redblossomed Khadira tree L.; for {arus} n. only in comp. with {-M-tuda} mf({A})n. (Pn. 3-2, 35 and vi, 3, 67) `" beating or hurting a wound "', causing torments, painful Mn. ii, 161, &c. aruupaka * = mfn. shapeless, immaterial MBh. iii, 12984; (in rhetoric) without figure or metaphor, literal. arvaaciina * = or mf(%{A4})n. turned towards , favouring RV. \\mf(%{A4})n. turned towards , favouring RV. ; turned towards (in a hostile manner) RV. , vi , 25 , 3 ; (with abl.) being on this side or below S3Br. ; belonging to a proximate time , posterior , recent ; (for %{avAsIna}) reverse , contrary L. ; (% {ar@vA4cenam}) ind. (with abl.) `" on this side of "' , thence forward , thence onward S3Br. ; less than (abl.) ib.
229

arvaaktana * = mf(%{A}) n. being on this side of, not reaching up to BhP. aryamaa = Aryama arya* = 1 (2, once 3 RV. iv, 1, 7) mfn. ( %{R}) kind, favourable RV.; attached to, true, devoted, dear RV.; excellent L.; (%{a4s}) m. a master, lord Naigh. Pa1n2. 3-1, 103 (cf. 3. %{a4rya}.)\\mf(%{A})n. ( = 1. % {arya4}) kind, favourable RV. i, 123, 1.\\ 3 m. (= 1. % {aiya4}) `" master, lord "', a Vais3ya VS. &c. Pa1n2. 31, 103 (a1) f. a woman of the third caste, the wife of a Vais3ya VS. &c. Pa1n2. 4-1, 49 Comm., (%{I}) f. the wife of any particular Vais3ya Pa1n2. 4-1, 49 Siddh. (cf. %{aryANI}.) asaadhu * = mfn. (Pa1n2. 6-2, 160) not good, wicked, bad S3Br. MBh. &c.; wrong Comm. on TPra1t.; (% {u4s}) m. not an honest man, a wicked man S3Br. Mn. &c.; (%{u4}) n. anything bad, evil S3Br. (% {sAdhvasAdhu4nI}, `" good and evil "') MBh. &c.; disfavour, disgrace, only %{-u4nA} instr. ind. disfavourably S3Br. ii ChUp. (cf. 3. %{a-sAman}); (% {u}) ind. (used as an interjection of disapproval) bad! shame! Ra1jat. &c. asaaraM = worthless/without essence asaavaadityaH = asau and AdityaH: this(person) and
230

Sun asa*= not he asadrishhii = unfit asahya* = mf({A})n. unbearable, insufferable, insuperable SV. MBh.; impracticable, impossible MBh. iii, 12255 seq.; with {draSTum}, `" impossible to be seen "' i.e. invisible Up. asaadhu * = mfn. (Pn. 6-2, 160) not good, wicked, bad S'Br. MBh. &c.; wrong Comm. on TPrt.; ({u4s}) m. not an honest man, a wicked man S'Br. Mn. &c.; ({u4}) n. anything bad, evil S'Br. ({sAdhvasAdhu4nI}, `" good and evil "') MBh. &c.; disfavour, disgrace, only {u4nA} instr. ind. disfavourably S'Br. ii ChUp. (cf. 3. {asAman}); ({u}) ind. (used as an interjection of disapproval) bad! shame! Rjat. &c. asadbhAva * = m. non-existence, absence Veda1ntas. &c.; an evil temperament or disposition L. asakta = unattached\\* = mfn. not stopped or intercepted by os at (loc.; said of arrows and of a sword) MBh. iii, 1602; xiv, 2189; (in the same sense {a-saGga} Ragh. iii, 63); free from ties, independent, Snkhyak.; detached from worldly feelings or passions, unattached or indifferent to (loc.) Mn. ii, 13 Ragh. &c.; ({am}) ind.
231

without obstacle or resistance Hariv. 9741 R. iii, 75, 6; uninterruptedly Kir. iv, 31 Km.; immediately, at once Das'. asaktaM = without attraction asaktaH = without attachment asaktabuddhiH = having unattached intelligence asaktaatmaa = one who is not attached asaktiH = being without attachment asamarthaH = unable asameta * = mfn. `" not arrived, absent "', missing Ragh. ix, 70. asaMbhava * = m. `" non-existence "', destruction VS. xl, 10; non-happening, cessation, interruption Mn. xi, 27; absence of. want Mn. MBh. &c.; impropriety, inconsistence, impossibility KtyS'r. Mn. &c.; (mfn.) `" non-happening "', inconsistent, impossible. asampraGYaata = unconscious samadhi asammuuDhaH = undeluded

232

asammuuDhaaH = unbewildered asammohaH = freedom from doubt asaMskRta* = mfn. not prepared S'nkhGri.; not consecrated Mn. Yj.; unadorned Pacat.; unpolished, rude (as speech). asaMskRtAlakin* = mfn. having unadorned curls Kd. asa.nnyasta = without giving up asa.nyataa = unbridled asa.nshayaM = undoubtedly asa.nshayaH = beyond a doubt asankhyaH = (m) countless asangashastreNa = by the weapon of detachment asapatnaM = without rival asat * = mf({a4-satI})n. [in RV. seven times {a4sat} and five times {A4sat} with lengthening of the accentuated vowel] not being, not existing, unreal RV. vii, 134, 8 AV. Up. Kum. iv, 12; untrue, wrong RV.; bad S'Br. Mn. &c.; ({n}) m. Indra L.; ({tI}) f. see s.v. below; ({t}) n.
233

non-existence, nonentity RV. AV. &c.; untruth, falsehood RV. vii, 104, 8; evil Ragh. i, 10; ({ntas}) m. pl. bad or contemptible men MBh. &c. asat.h = matter asatkaara* = m. doing injury, offence MBh. i, 6355. asatkaarya* = n. bad or illicit occupation Mn. xii, 32; ({asatkArya}) {-vAdin} m. one who (like a Naiyyika) holds that an effect is nonexistent in its cause before production. asatkrita* = mfn. badly treated MBh. iii, 2755 and 2918; ({am}) n. offence ib. 2981. - 1. asatpatha* = m. a bad road L.; (mfn.) not being on the right path BhP. asat* = mf({a4-satI})n. [in RV. seven times {a4sat} and five times {A4sat} with lengthening of the accentuated vowel] not being, not existing, unreal RV. vii, 134, 8 AV. Up. Kum. iv, 12; untrue, wrong RV.; bad S'Br. Mn. &c.; ({n}) m. Indra L.; ({tI}) f. see s.v. below; ({t}) n. non-existence, nonentity RV. AV. &c.; untruth, falsehood RV. vii, 104, 8; evil Ragh. i, 10; ({ntas}) m. pl. bad or contemptible men MBh. &c. asatkritya* = ind. p. not taking notice of (acc.) MBh.
234

xiii, 2766. - 2. asatkritya* = mfn. one who does evil actions L. asatyasannibha * = mfn. improbable, unlikely L. asau = him (from adas.h) asaumya = (adj) unpleasant asataH = of the nonexistent asatkrita* = mfn. badly treated MBh. iii, 2755 and 2918; ({am}) n. offence ib. 2981. - 1. asattaa* = f. non-existence L. - 1. asatii* = f. an unfaithful or unchaste wife MBh. R. &c. asatya* = mfn. untrue, false, lying. RV. iv, 5, 5 MBh. &c.; ({am}) n. untruth, falsehood Mn. &c. asatkritaM = without respect asatkritaH = dishonored asattva * = n. id. NriisUp.; non-presence, absence Nyyam \\2 mfn. strengthless, without energy
235

asatyaM = unreal asevita mfn. neglected, unattended to; abstained from.

as'esha* = mf(%{A})n. without remainder, entire, perfect, all; m. non-remainder Ka1tyS3r.; (%{am}) ind. entirely, wholly Kum. v, 82; (%{eNa}) ind. id. MBh. &c. ash.h = to obtain, accomplish as'aaya: * to reach ashaantasya = of the unpeaceful ashaashvataM = temporary ashaastra = not in the scriptures ashishhya = unteachable (adj) asha.nka = undaunted ashakta = weak ashaktaH = unable ashanam.h = (n) food ashamaH = uncontrollable
236

ashayaat.h = from their source ashastraM = without being fully equipped ashatara* n= mfn. (compar. fr., `" {aSa} "' fr. 1. {az}?) more acceptable RV. i, 173, 4. as'ishya * = mfn. not to be taught (as a person), not deserving to, or not capable of being instructed MBh. v, 1009 Pacat.; (a thing) that need not be taught or which it is unnecessary to teach Pn. 1-2, 53. as'izu * = mf({a4-zizvi}, but according to Pn. 4-1, 62, also Ved. {a-zizu})n. childless, without young ones RV. i, 120, 8 and iii, 55, 6. as'ishthataa * = f. or rudeness as'ishthatva * = n. rudeness ashishhyaaya = non-disciple i.e.non-believer as'eshha = total, mf({A})n. without remainder, entire, perfect, all; m. non-remainder KtyS'r.; ({am}) ind. entirely, wholly Kum. v, 82; ({eNa}) ind. id. MBh. &c. asheshhataH = completely asheshhaaNi = all

237

asheshheNa = in detail ashochyaan.h = not worthy of lamentation ashoshhyaH = not able to be dried as'ubha = and inauspicious * =azubha = mfn. not beautiful or agreeable, disagreeable; inauspicious Vet.; bad, vicious (as thought or speech) MBh. i, 3077 seq. &c.; m. N. of a lexicographer; ({a4-zubha}) n. a shameful deed, sin S'Br. ii Bhag. &c.; misfortune, harm, mischief. Sus'r. VarBriS. &c. ashubhaat.h = from ill fortune ashubhaan.h = inauspicious ashuchi = to the unclean ashuchiH = unclean ashuchau = unclean ashubhaM = evil ashushruushhave = to one who is not engaged in devotional service ashaaDha * (or in RV. {a4-SAlha}) mfn. not to be
238

overcome, invincible RV. VS.; born under the Nakshatra Ashdh Pn. 4-3, 34; m. the month (generally called) shdha L.; a staff made of Pals'a wood (carried by the student during the performance of certain vows) L.; N. of a teacher Kthh. S'Br. i (cf. {ASADhi}); ({A}) f. N. of a brick (used for the sacrificial altar) S'Br.; ({A4 or A4s}) f. sg. or pl.N. of two lunar mansions (distinguished as {pinvA and uttara}, `" the former "' and the latter "', and reckoned either as the eighteenth and nineteenth [TBr.] or as the twentieth and twenty-first [VP.&c.]) AV. xix, 7, 4, &c. [116, 2] aashaaDha * m. (fr. {a-SADhA})N. of a month (corresponding to part of June and July) in which the full moon is near the constellation Ashdh Sus'r. VarBriS. Megh. Kaths. &c.; a staff of the wood of the Pals'a (carried by an ascetic during certain religious observances in the month shdha) Pn. 5-1, 110 Kum. &c.; N. of a prince MBh.; the Malaya mountain L.; a festival (of Indra) p. i, 11, 20; ({A}) f. (for {aSADhA} q.v.) the twenty-first and twenty-second lunar mansions (commonly compounded with {pUrva} and {uttara}) L.; ({I}) f. the day of full moon in the month shdha KtyS'r. Vait.; (mfn.) belonging to the month shdha VarBriS. ashnataH = of one who eats

239

ashnan.h = eating ashnanti = enjoy ashnaami = accept ashnaasi = you eat ashnute = achieves ashma = stone ashman.h = (masc) stone ashraddadhaanaH = without faith in revealed scriptures ashraddadhaanaaH = those who are faithless ashraddhayaa = without faith ashraushhaM = have heard ashruupuurNaakula = full of tears as'ru * = n. ({us} m. only once S'Br. vi and once R.) a tear RV. x, 95, 12 and 13 AV. &c. with {muc}, or {kR} [MBh. xii, 12491] or {vRt}, Caus. [R.] to shed tears [supposed to stand for {dazru} fr. {daMz}: cf. Gk. $; Lat. {lacryma} for {dacryma}; &35742[114, 3] Goth.
240

{tagrs}; Eng. {tear}; Mod. Germ. {Zhre}]. as'ru = (n) tears ashlaaghya = adj. virtueless ashva = a horse ashvatthaM = a banyan tree ashvatthaH = the banyan tree ashvatthaamaa = Asvatthama ashvamedha = a form of sacrifice where a horse is sent around to estiblish supremacy ashvaanaaM = among horses aas'vaasita * mfn. encouraged, animated, comforted, consoled Das'. BhP. Pacat. &c. //reanimated, revived, refreshed &c. MBh. R aas'vaasa * m. breathing again or freely, taking breath; recovery Sus'r.; cheering up, consolation; relying on Kaths.; a chapter or section of a book Sh. ashvini = a mudraa, contraction of the anal sphincter muscles
241

ashvinau = the two Asvinis as'obhanam *V = lack of brilliance, against the etquette (see s'obha) ashtha* = 1 mfn. ( {akS}; cf. {nir-akS}) `" marked, branded "', only in comp. with 1.\\2 fr. 1. {az}. see {a4samaSTa-k-}. \\=3 (in comp. for {aSTan}).\\^ (in comp for {aSTan}) mfn.\\ =4 or with the final {A8} blended in comp. ashthau = (adj) eight ashthadalakamalabandha = eight-petalled lotus pattern, a form of bandha poetry ashthadhaa = eightfold ashthaadasha = eighteen ashthaavakra = name of a deformed(at eight places) sage ashthottarii-dashaa = A lunar based Dasha system uses 108 yr cycle and one chooses it according to certain criteria ashhtakavarga = A predictive method of Astrology that uses a system of points based upon planetary positions

242

asi = you are * = m. (2. %{as}), a sword, scimitar, knife (used for killing animals) RV. AV. &c.; (%{is}) f. N. of a river (near Benar2es) Va1mP. (cf. %{asI}); [Lat. {ensi-s}.] asii * = f. (= %{asi} f. q.v.) N. of a river (near Benares) MBh. vi, 338. as'ubha* = mfn. not beautiful or agreeable, disagreeable; inauspicious Vet.; bad, vicious (as thought or speech) MBh. i, 3077 seq. &c.; m. N. of a lexicographer; ({a4zubha}) n. a shameful deed, sin S'Br. ii Bhag. &c.; misfortune, harm, mischief. Sus'r. VarBriS. &c. as'itra *= {am}, u. food Kthh. (cf. {prA7zitra4}.) as'ika *=v.l. for {asika} q.v. a-s'iras *=mfn. headless Mn. ix, 237. a4-s'iva *=mf({A}) n. unkind, envious, pernicious, dangerous RV. AV. MBh. &c.; m. N. of a demon causing disease Hariv. 9560; ({am}) n. ill-luck RV. i, 116, 24; x, 23, 5 MBh. &c. a4-s'is'u *=mf({a4-zizvi}, but according to Pn. 4-1, 62, also Ved. {a-zizu})n. childless, without young ones RV. i, 120, 8 and iii, 55, 6.

243

a-s'iSya *=mfn. not to be taught (as a person), not deserving to, or not capable of being instructed MBh. v, 1009 Pacat.; (a thing) that need not be taught or which it is unnecessary to teach Pn. 1-2, 53. as'iiti *=f. eighty RV. ii, 18, 6 AV. &c. a-s'iirNa *=mfn. unimpaired L. as'sha V: desires, wishes, blessings, hopes, benedictions asitaH = Asita asita * = mfn. unbound TS. vii S'Br. xiv. \\ 2 mf({A}; Ved. {a4siknI})n. ({sita}, `" white "', appears to have been formed from this word, which is probably original, and not a compound of {a} and {sita}; cf. {asura} and {sura}), dark-coloured, black RV. &c.; m. the planet Saturn VarBriS.; a poisonous animal (said to be a kind of mouse) L.; N. of the lord of darkness and magic AV. S'Br. s'vS'r.; of a descendant of Kas'yapa (composer of RV. ix, 5-24), named also Devala [RAnukr.] or Asita Devala [MBh. Hariv.]; N. of a man (with the patron. Vrshagana) S'Br. xiv; of a son of Bharata R.; of a Riishi Buddh.; of a mountain MBh. iii, 8364 Kaths.; ({a4s}) m. a black snake AV.; a Mantra (saving from snakes) MBh. i, 2188; ({A}) f. a girl attending in the womes apartments (whose hair is not whitened by age) L.; the indigo plant L.; N. of an Apsaras MBh. i, 4819
244

Hariv. 12472; ({a4siknI}) f. `" the dark one "', the night RV. iv, 17, 15; x, 3, 1; a girl attending in the womes apartments L.; N. of a wife of Daksha Hariv.; N. of the river Akesines (afterwards called Candra-bhg) in the Pajb RV. viii, 20, 25 and ({asiknI4}) x, 75, 5. asid.hdhyoH = and failure asiddhau = failure asma *= (fr. %{a-sma}), a pronom. base from which some forms (dat. %{a4smai}, or %{asmai4} abl. % {asimA4t} loc. %{asmin}) of %{ida4m} (q.v.) are formed; also the base of the first person pl. acc. % {asmA4n} [= $], instr. %{asmA4bhis} dat. % {asma4bhyam} abl. %{asma4t}, in later, language also %{asmat-tas} [MBh. &c.] gen. %{asmA4kam} [exceptionlly %{asmA4ka} RV. i, 173, 10 AV.] loc. % {asmA4su}; dat. loc. %{asme4} (only RV. AV. VS.) asmad.h = I, me asmadiiyaiH = our asmaakaM = us asmaat.h = these asmaan.h = us
245

asmaabhiH = by us asmi = (v) I am* = `" I am "', 1. {as} q.v. asmitaa* = f. egoism Yogas. Comm. on S'is'. iv, 55, &c. asmimaana* = m. self-conceit L. asmitaa = egotism, self righteousness asmin.h = in this asmindvaye = in this pair asparshana = not touching asphutha * = mf({A})n. indistinct BhP. Kaths. &c.; not quite correct, approximate (as a number) Sryas.; ({am}) n. (in rhetoric) indistinct speech. a-sphutha-phala * = n. approximate result (as the gross area of a triangle &c.) asphuthaa7laMkaara * = m. an indistinct embellishment of speech Sh. asrij = (neut) blood asrij * = {k}, (once {d} TS. vii) n. (m. or f. only Hariv.
246

9296) blood RV. i, 164, 4 AV. &c. [for the weak cases see {asa4n}; besides, in later language, forms like instr. {asRjA} (R. iii, 8, 4) and gen. {asRjas} (Sus'r.) are found]; saffron L.; ({k}) m. the planet Mars; a kind of religious abstraction L. asrikkara* = m. `" forming blood "', lymph, chyle L. asrishhTaannaM = without distribution of prasaadam as'ruta * = mfn. unheard S3Br. xiv, &c.; not heard from the teacher, not taught Jaim.; (hence) contrary to the Vedas L.; untaught, not learned MBh. v, 1000 and 1369; m. N. of a son of Kr2ishn2a, Kr2ishn2s Hariv. 6190; of a son of Dyutimat VP.; (%{A}) f. N. of the wife of An3giras Katha1s. asta = fall (set)1 mfn. (perf. Pass. p. 2. {as}), thrown, cast Ragh. xii, 91; ({a4n-} neg.) S'Br. iii; (only in comp.) thrown off, left off, set aside, given up (as grief. anger, a vow, &c.) VP. Kaths. &c.; ({A4}) f. a missile, an arrow AV. \\ = 2 n. home RV. AV. S'Br.; m. setting (as of the sun or of luminaries) VarBriS. Sryas.; `" end, death "' see {asta-samaya} below; the western mountain (behind which the sun is supposed to set) MBh. R. &c.; (in astron.) the seventh lunar mansion VarBri.; ({a4stam}) ind. at home, home RV. &c., especially used with verbs e.g. {a4stam-i} [{a4stam e4ti}; pr. p. {astaM-ya4t} AV. S'Br.; fut. p. {astam-eSya4t} AV.;
247

perf. p. {a4stamita} see below s.v.] or {a4staM-gam} [{a4stam ga4cchati} AV. &c.; perf. p. {astaM-gata} MBh. &c., once in reversed order {gata astaM} R. i, 33, 21] or {astaM-yA} [pr. p. {-yAt} Mn. iv, 37] to go down, set RV. AV. &c.; {astam-i}, {astaM-gam} (also Caus. see {astaM-gamita} below), or {prA7p} [Kaths.], to go to one's eternal home, cease, vanish, perish, die S'Br. xiv MBh. &c.; {astaM-nI} [{-nayati}], to lead to setting, cause to set MBh. iii, i 7330; ({a4stA}) ind. v.l. for {a4stam} SV. [122, 2] a4sta* =2 n. home RV. AV. S'Br.; m. setting (as of the sun or of luminaries) VarBriS. Sryas.; `" end, death "' see {asta-samaya} below; the western mountain (behind which the sun is supposed to set) MBh. R. &c.; (in astron.) the seventh lunar mansion VarBri.; ({a4stam}) ind. at home, home RV. &c., especially used with verbs e.g. {a4stam-i} [{a4stam e4ti}; pr. p. {astaM-ya4t} AV. S'Br.; fut. p. {astam-eSya4t} AV.; perf. p. {a4stamita} see below s.v.] or {a4staM-gam} [{a4stam ga4cchati} AV. &c.; perf. p. {astaM-gata} MBh. &c., once in reversed order {gata astaM} R. i, 33, 21] or {astaM-yA} [pr. p. {-yAt} Mn. iv, 37] to go down, set RV. AV. &c.; {astam-i}, {astaM-gam} (also Caus. see {astaMgamita} below), or {prA7p} [Kaths.], to go to one's eternal home, cease, vanish, perish, die S'Br. xiv MBh. &c.; {astaM-nI} [{-nayati}], to lead to setting, cause to set MBh. iii, i 7330; ({a4stA}) ind. v.l. for {a4stam} SV. [122, 2]
248

asthA* =with the final {A8} blended in comp. astaM = destroyed, vanquished astamavelaa = (fem) evening twilight asti = (v) he is astu = there should be* (3. sg. Imper.), let it be, be it so; there must be or should be (implying an order) asteya* = n. not stealing Mn. Yj. &c. astra = Weapon asthi = Bone asthipaJNjaram.h = (n) skeleton asthiraM = unsteady asvatantra * = not self-willed, dependant, subject Mn. ix, 2 Gaut. BhP.; ({asvatantra}) {-tA} f. the not being master of one's feelings or passions Kd. asya = of it asyati = (4 pp) to throw
249

asyaaM = in this asvargyaM = which does not lead to higher planets assi = (v) you (sing) are as'ubha* = mfn. not beautiful or agreeable, disagreeable; inauspicious Vet.; bad, vicious (as thought or speech) MBh. i, 3077 seq. &c.; m. N. of a lexicographer; ({a4zubha}) n. a shameful deed, sin S'Br. ii Bhag. &c.; misfortune, harm, mischief. Sus'r. VarBriS. & asU * = not bringing forth, barren asu * = m. (1. {as}), Ved. breath, life RV. AV. &c.; life of the spiritual world or departed spirits RV. x, 15, 1; (in astron.) `" respiration "', = four seconds of sidereal time or one minute of arc Sryas.; = {prajJA} Naigh.; (in later language only {a4savas}) m. pl. the vital breaths or airs of the body, animal life AV. Mn. iii, 217, &c.; ({asu}) n. grief L.; (= {citta}) the spirit L. a-suu4 * = mfn. (3. {sU}), not bringing forth, barren RV. and AV. (acc. f. {a-sva4m}) VS. (acc. f. {asU4m}). [121, 3] asu: * Ved. breath, life RV. AV. &c.; life of the spiritual world or departed spirits RV. x, 15, 1; (in astron.) `" respiration "', = four seconds of sidereal time or one
250

minute of arc Sryas.; = {prajJA} Naigh.; (in later language only {a4savas}) m. pl. the vital breaths or airs of the body, animal life AV. Mn. iii, 217, &c.; ({asu}) n. grief L.; (= {citta}) the spirit L. asukhaM = full of miseries asura = devil* =mfn. (2. {as} Un.), spiritual, incorporeal, divine RV. AV. VS.; m. a spirit, good spirit, supreme spirit (said of Varuna) RV. VS.; the chief of the evil spirits RV. ii, 30, 4 and vii, 99, 5; an evil spirit, demon, ghost, opponent of the gods RV. viii, 96, 9; x AV. &c. [these Asuras are often regarded as the children of Diti by Kas'yapa see {Daitya}; as such they are demons of the first order in perpetual hostility with the gods, and must not be confounded with the Rkshasas or imps who animate dead bodies and disturb sacrifices]; a N. of Rhu VarBriS. &c.; the sun L.; a cloud Naigh. (cf. RV. v, 83, 6); ({As}) m. pl.N. of a warrior-tribe, (g. {parzv-Adi}, q.v.); of a Vedic school; ({A}) f. night L.; a zodiacal sign L.; ({I}) f. a female demon, the wife of an Asura, KaushBr. (cf. {AsurI} and {mahA7surI}); the plant Sinapis Ramosa Roxb. L. [In later Sanskriit {sura} has been formed from {asura}, as {sita} from {asita} q.v.] asUra * =`" absence of sunlight "', only ({e4}) loc. ind. in the night RV. viii, 10, 4.

251

asuraaNaaM = of demons asuraan.h = demons asuu = to hate, be jealous asuun.h = life asuuya = jelousy * 1 Nom. P. {-yati}, rarely . {-yate} (pr. p. {-ya4t} RV. x, 135, 2 S'Br.; aor. {AsUyIt} S'Br. iii; 3. pl. {asUyiSuH} Rjat.) to murmur at, be displeased or discontented with (dat. [S'Br. Pn. 1-4, 37, &c.] or acc. [MBh. R. &c.]): Caus. (ind. p. {asUyayitvA}) to cause to be displeased, irritate MBh. iii, 2624 (N.) asuuya * 2 grumbling at, displeased with (loc.) MBh. xiii, 513; ({A}) f. displeasure, indignation (especially at the merits or the happiness of another), envy, jealousy Nir. p. Mn. &c. asuuyaka * = mfn. (Pn. 3-2, 146) discontented, displeased, envious, calumnious Nir. Mn. &c. asuuyitR * = mfn. displeased, envious MBh. ii, 2545; ({an-} neg.) i, 5611. asuuyu * = mfn. id.; (see {an-asuyu}.)

252

asvasa= see aasvaasa asvastha* = mf(%{A})n. not in good health, sick, feeling uneasy Mn. vii, 226 MBh. &c.; not being firm in itself. MBh. xii, 276 (Hit.); (%{asvastha})%{-tA} f. illness, Ratna1v. (Pra1kr2it {assatthadA}); %{-zarIra} mfn. ill Ka1d.//see %{a-sva} asvaasthya * = indisposition, sickness, discomfort BhP. Kaths. ath (aT) cl. 1. P. A1. %{aTati}, %{-te}, %{ATa}, % {aTiSyati}, %{ATIt}, %{aTitum}, to roam, wander about (sometimes with acc.; frequently used of religious mendicants): Intens. %{aTATyate}, to roam or wander about zealously or habitually, especially as a religious mendicant: Desid. %{aTiTiSati}, to be desirous of roaming. at 1 ind. a prefix said to imply `" surprise "', probably a contraction of %{ati}, meaning `" extraordinary "', (g. %{Ury-Adi}, q.v.)\\ 2 cl. 1. P. A1. %{a4tati} (Naigh.; p. %{a4tat} or %{a4tamAna}), to go constantly, walk, run RV.; to obtain L. atad* = not that BhP. (cf. {a-sa}). aTati = (1 pp) to roam

253

atat = see 'atad' ataH = hence ataHparam * = ind. henceforth , further on. [12,2] atattvaarthavat.h = without knowledge of reality atandritaH = with great care atarka* = m. an illogical reasoner; bad logic. atapaskaaya = to one who is not austere athavi * = %{is}, or usually athavii * = f. `" place to roam in "', a forest. athavika * = better atha = thereupon * =(or Ved. {a4thA}) ind. (probably fr. pronom. base {a}), an auspicious and inceptive particle (not easily expressed in English), now; then; moreover; rather; certainly; but; else; what? how else? &c. \\" but if. "' MBh. v, 2775 Bhag. ii, 33; xviii, 58 atha-shabda = the word atha (prayers are started with words atha or AUM)
254

atha.rH = object, meaning atharvaNvaakyaM = `atharvaNa" word-piece atharvashiirshha = atharva(?) atharvashiirshhaM = 'atharva' heading or head athavaa = or athaataH = atha and ataH: then and therefore athau = or in other words atho *= ind. ( = %{atha} above), now; likewise; next; therefore. ati = extremely aticara *= mfn. transient, changeable; (%{A}) f. the shrub Hibiscus Mutabilis. aticaara *= m. passing by, overtaking, surpassing; accelerated motion, especially of planets; transgression ati-parichaya = excessive familiarity ati-viiryaM = super power
255

atichaara = Accelerated planetary motion atikram *= to step or go beyond or over or across , (Ved. Inf. %{ati-kra4me} , to be walked on RV. i , 105 , 16) ; to pass , cross ; to pass time ; to surpass , excel , overcome ; to pass by , neglect ; to overstep , transgress , violate ; to pass on or away ; to step out ; to part from , lose: Caus. %{-krAmayati} , or %{kramayati} , to allow to pass (as time) ; to leave unnoticed. atikrama *= m. passing over , overstepping ; lapse (of time) ; overcoming , surpassing , conquering ; excess , imposition , transgression , violation ; neglect ; determined onset. atitaranti = transcend atitaralaM = ati+tarala, very+unstable atithi = (m) guest atithiH = (masc.Nom.sing.)guest (literally undated) atidaaruuNaman.h = adj. very dreadful atidis' *= to make over, transfer, assign: Pass. %{dizyate}, (in Gr.) to be overruled or attracted or assimilated.
256

atidurvritta = of exceedingly bad conduct atirichyate = becomes more ativartate = transcends atishaya = wonderful atishayokti = exaggeration atiitaH = surpassed atiitya = transcending atiindriyaM = transcendental atiiva = very much * = ind. exceedingly, very; excessively, too; quite; surpassing (with acc.): Compar. {atI7va-tarAm} ind. exceedingly, excessively S'is'. iv. 25. atikrama * = m. passing over, overstepping; lapse (of time); overcoming, surpassing, conquering; excess, imposition, transgression, violation; neglect; determined onset atilaGgh* = Caus. %{-laGghayati}, to transgress Katha1s.

257

atilaGghana* = n. excessive fasting Sus3r. ativaa * = 2. cl. 2. P. {-vAti}, to blow beyond AV.: cl. 4. P. {-vayati}, to blow violently; ({ati-vAyati}), pr. p. loc. ind. the wind blowing strongly MBh. ativartana* = n. a pardonable offence or misdemeanour. ativartin* = mfn. passing beyond, crossing, passing by, surpassing; guilty of a pardonable offence. ativartula* = mfn. very round; m. a kind of grain or potherb. atmaanaM = (masc.Acc.S) the self attA *= f. (probably a colloquialism borrowed from the Deccan, said to occur chiefly in dramas), a mother L.; mother's sister L.; elder L.; (in Pra1kr2it) a mother-inlaw L. see %{akkA}. aththa *= ind. high, lofty L.; loud L.; m. a watchtower; a market, a market-place (corruption of % {haTTa}); N. of a Yaksha Ra1jat.; over-measure L.; (% {a}). f. overbearing conduct(?) Pa1n2. 3-1, 17 Comm.; (%{am}) n. boiled rice, food L.; (mfn.), dried, dry L. atra * = 1 (or Ved. %{a4-trA}) ind. (fr. pronominal base %{a}; often used in sense of loc. case %{asmin}), in
258

this matter, in this respect; in this place, here at this time, there, then.\\2 mfn. ( %{tras}), (only for the etym. of %{kSattra}), `" not enjoying or affording protection "' Br2A1rUp.\\3 m. (for %{at@tra}, fr. %{ad}), a devourer, demon RV. AV., a Ra1kshasa.\\ atra 4 n. (for %{at-tra}), food RV. x, 79, 2. atrasat: V* getting frightened A* unsettled, daunted, put off, intimidated, shaken, overcome, dismayed. atulaniiya = uncomparable. atuulyaM = uncomparable. atura * = mfn. not liberal, not rich AV. atyaadri to take great care of, be anxious about. atyajat.h = left, sacrifice atyantaM = the highest atyantika * = mfn. too close; (%{am}) n. too great nearness S3Br. atyarthaM = highly atyaaginaaM = for those who are not renounced

259

atyaani = surpassing atyaya* = m. (fr. {i} with {ati} see {atI7}), passing, lapse, passage; passing away, perishing, death; danger, risk, evil, suffering; transgression, guilt, vice; getting at, attacking Yj. ii, 1 2; overcoming, mastering (mentally); a class ChUp. atyaaya* = m. ( {i}), the act of going beyond, transgression, excess Pn. 3-1, 141, ({am}, 4) ind. going beyond RV. viii, 101, 14. atyaayaa* = to pass by RV. atyushhNa = very hot atyeti = surpasses atra = (m) eater audara: *audara + mfn. (fr. {udara}), being in the stomach or belly Suparn.; gastric (as a disease) Hcat. aum (AUM) *= ind. the sacred syllable of the S3u1dras (see 3. %{au}) (see also under pranava, omkaara and om) aupamyena = by comparison

260

aushadha = medicine aushhadha = medicine aushhadhaM = medicine aushhadham.h = (n) medicine aushhadhasuuchii = (f) syringe, injection aushhadhivana = medicinal garden aushhadhiiH = vegetables aushaNa* = n. (fr. {uSaNa}), pungency L. aushadha* = mf({I})n. (fr. {oSadhi}), consisting of herbs S'Br. vii; ({I}) f. N. of Dkshyan MatsyaP.; ({am}) n. herbs collectively, a herb S'Br. AitBr. KtyS'r. &c.; herbs used in medicine, simples, a medicament, drug, medicine in general Mn. MBh. Ragh. &c.; a mineral W.; a vessel for herbs. autpattika * = mf({I})n. (fr. {ut-patti}), relating to origin, inborn, original, natural Lthy. BhP. &c.; {a4 priori}; inherent, eternal Jaim. i, 1, 5. autsukya* = n. (fr. {ut-suka}), anxiety, desire, longing for, regret MBh. R. Ragh. &c.; eagerness, zeal, fervour,
261

officiousness Pacat. Kaths.; impatience Sh. Pratpar. av* = cl. I.P. {a4vati} (Imper. 2. sg. {ava} sg. {tAt} RV. viii, 2, 3, p. {a4vat} impf. a4vat, 2. sg. 1. {A4vaH} [for 2. {A4vaH} see {vR}]; perf. 3. sg. {Ava}, 2. pl. {Ava4} RV. viii, 7, 18, 2.sg. {A4vitha}; aor. {a4vit}, 2. sg. {AvIs}, {avIs} and {aviSas}, Imper. {aviSTu}, 2. sg. {aviDDhi4} [once RV. ii, 17, 8] or {aviDDh} [six times in RV.], 2. du. {aviSTam}, 3. du., 2. pl. {aviSTa4nA} RV. vii, 18, 25 Prec. 3. sg. {avyAs}, Inf. {a4vitave} RV. vii, 33, 1; Ved. ind. p. {AvyA} RV. i, 166, 13) to drive, impel, animate (as a car or horse) RV.; Ved.to promote, favour, (chiefly Ved.) to satisfy, refresh; to offer (as a hymn to the gods) "' RV. iv, 44, 6; to lead or bring to (dat.: {Uta4ye}, {vA4ja-sAtaye}, {kSatrA4ya}, {svasta4ye}) RV.; (said of the gods) to be pleased with, like, accept favourably (as sacrifices, prayers or hymns) RV., (chiefly said of kings or princes) to guard, defend, protect, govern BhP. Ragh. ix, 1 VarBriS. &c.: Caus. (only impf. {avayat}, 2. sg. {Avayas}) to consume, devour RV. AV. VS. S'Br. [cf. Gk. $ Lat. {aveo}?]. &29765[96,1] ava = protect avaachii = (f) south avaachya = unkind

262

avaaptavyaM = to be gained avaapta* = mfn. one who has attained or reached KathhUp.; obtained, got, ({am}) n. `" got by division, a quotient Comm. on VarBri. avaaptavat* = mfn. reaching, obtaining; entertaining (as a belief) L. avaaptavya* = mfn. to be obtained Bhag. Ragh. avaapita* = mfn. ( {vap}), not sown (as grain, {dhAnya}) but planted L. avaap* = ( {Ap}), {-Apnoti} (Imper. 2. sg. {Apnuhi}) to reach, attain, obtain, gain, get Up. Mn. MBh. &c.; to get by division (as a quotient) Sryas.; to suffer (e.g. blame or unpleasantness or pain) Mn. Ragh. xviii, 34 Pacat.: Caus. to cause to obtain anything (acc.) Naish. viii, 89. avaapa * = mfn. see %{dur-avA7pa}. avaapti* = f. obtaining, getting R. Kum. v, 64, &c.; (in arithm.) a quotient. avaaptuM = to achieve avaapnoti = gets
263

avaapya = achieving avaapyate = is achieved avaapsyatha = you will achieve avaapsyasi = will gain avaarch *= ( %{Rch}) , %{avA7rchati} (sic ; Pot. % {avA7rche4t}) to fall down , become damaged TS. S3Br. avaastu* = mfn. having no home AV. xii, 5, 45. avabhaasa * = m. splendour, lustre, light; appearance (especially ifc. with words expressing a colour) Jain. Sus'r.; (in Vednta phil.) manifestation; reach, compass, see, {zravaNA7vabh-}. ava-bhaasa-kara * =m. N. of a Devaputra Lalit. ava-bhaasa-prabha * ={As} m. pl.N. of a class of deities Buddh. ava-bhaasa-prA7pta * =m. N. of a world Buddh. ava-bhaasaka * =mfn. (in Vednta phil.) illuminating, making manifest. [101, 3]

264

ava-bhaasana-zikhin * =m. N. of a Nga demon Buddh. ava-bhASaNa * =n. speaking against, speaking Sh. ava-bhaasana * =n. shining Bhpr.; becoming manifest Sh.; (in Ved. phil.) illuminating. avabhritha* = (once %{-bhRtha} AV. ix, 6, 63) m. `" carrying off, removing "', purification or ablution of the sacrificer and sacrificial vessels after a sacrifice RV. viis, 73, 23, &c.; a supplementary sacrifice (see below) cf. %{jIvitA7vabh-}. avabodha * = m. waking, being awake Bhag. vi, 17 Kum. ii, 8; perception, knowledge Ragh. vii, 38, &c., faculty of being resolute in judgment or action [Comm.] BhP., teaching L.(vedabase:) consciousness; avabodharasa of Your internal potency, by the mellow of knowledge; knowledge; total consciousness. avachaya = (m) gathering, collection avachinoti = to pluck avachyaH = unblamable avadhaana * = n. attention, attentiveness, intentness Kum.iv, 2 S3is3. ix, 11, &c., (cf. %{sA7vadhana}.) avadhiiraNaa = (f) a repulse, repulsion
265

avadhuuta* = mfn. shaken off (as evil spirits) VS. i, i4; removed, shaken away BhP. &c.; discarded, expelled, excluded MBh. &c.; disregarded, neglected, rejected Das'. &c.; touched R. vi, 82, 62; shaken, agitated (especially as plants or the dust by the wind), fanned MBh. &c.; that upon which anything unclean has been shaken out or off (cf. {avakSuta}) Mn. v, 125 MBh. xiii, 1577; unclean BhP.; one who has shaken, off from himself worldly feeling and obligation, a philosopher ({brahma-vid}) BhP. Rjat.; m. N. of a S'aiva philosopher; ({am}) n. rejecting, repudiating MBh. iv, 352 (= Hariv. 4717). avadhuutapraNipAta* = mf({A})n. rejecting an act of homage Vikr. avadhuutavesha* = mfn. `" wearing unclean clothes "' or `" wearing the clothes of one who is rejected "', or `" having discarded clothes "' BhP. avadhyaH = cannot be killed avadya * = mfn. (Pn. 3-1, 101) `" not to be praised "', blamable, low, inferior RV. iv, 18, 5 and vi, 15, 12 BhP.; disagreeable L.; (a4m) n. anything blamable, want, imperfection, vice RV. &c.; blame, censure ib.; shame, disgrace RV. AV. ava-dhUta * = mfn. shaken off (as evil spirits) VS. i, i4;
266

removed, shaken away BhP. &c.; discarded, expelled, excluded MBh. &c.; disregarded, neglected, rejected Das'. &c.; touched R. vi, 82, 62; shaken, agitated (especially as plants or the dust by the wind), fanned MBh. &c.; that upon which anything unclean has been shaken out or off (cf. {avakSuta}) Mn. v, 125 MBh. xiii, 1577; unclean BhP.; one who has shaken, off from himself worldly feeling and obligation, a philosopher ({brahma-vid}) BhP. Rjat.; m. N. of a S'aiva philosopher; ({am}) n. rejecting, repudiating MBh. iv, 352 (= Hariv. 4717). ava-dhUta-praNipAta* =mf({A})n. rejecting an act of homage Vikr. ava-dhUta-veSa * =mfn. `" wearing unclean clothes "' or `" wearing the clothes of one who is rejected "', or `" having discarded clothes "' BhP. avadhuuta * = mfn. shaken off (as evil spirits) VS. i, i4; removed, shaken away BhP. &c.; discarded, expelled, excluded MBh. &c.; disregarded, neglected, rejected Das'. &c.; touched R. vi, 82, 62; shaken, agitated (especially as plants or the dust by the wind), fanned MBh. &c.; that upon which anything unclean has been shaken out or off (cf. {avakSuta}) Mn. v, 125 MBh. xiii, 1577; unclean BhP.; one who has shaken, off from himself worldly feeling and obligation, a philosopher ({brahma-vid}) BhP. Rjat.; m. N. of a S'aiva
267

philosopher; ({am}) n. rejecting, repudiating MBh. iv, 352 (= Hariv. 4717). avaGYaa = contempt avaGYaataM = without proper attention avagachchha = must know avagam.h = to comprehend, understand avagamaM = understood avagantavya * = mfn. to be known or understood, intended to be understood, meant. avagraha = (m) famine avahaasaarthaM = for joking avahaa* = to be left remaining, remain behind, to be excelled, to be abandoned avajaananti = deride avajaya* = m. overcoming, winning by conquest Ragh. vi, 62, &c. avajaghnat* = mfn. (irreg. p. in Pass. sense; {268

hanyamAna} Comm.) being beaten or struck by (instr.) MBh. i, 1424. avajaya *V= indifferent, neglectful, disrespecting, disregarding, disobeying avaji* = (impf. {avA7jayat}; ind. p. -jitya) to spoil (i.e. deprive of by conquest), win MBh. Mn. xi 80 &c.; to ward off MBh. xiii, 124, to conquer MBh..: Desid. (p. {jigISat}) to wish to win or recover S'nkhS'r. avajita* = mfn. won by conquest R. iii, 54, 6, contemned L. avajiti* = is f. conquest, victory Kir. vi, 43. avajaata* = mfn. despised, disrespected; given (as alms) with contempt. Bhag. xvii, 22. avajaana* = n. (Pn. 3-3, 55) = 2. {ava-jJA} Ragh. i, 79 Hit. avajyut* = Caus. {-jyotayati}, to light up or cause a light to shine upon, illumine S'Br. avajval* = Caus. {-jvalayati} [S'V-S'r.] or {-jvAl}, [Kaus'.], to set on fire. avaaj* = ({aj}) {a4vA7jati}, to drive down RV. i, 161,
269

10. avajA* =1 {-jAnAti} (ind. p. {-jJaya}; perf. Pass. {jajJle} Bhathth.) to disesteem, have a low opinion of, despise, treat with contempt MBh. &c.; to excel Kvya7d. avajA* =2 f. contempt, disesteem, disrespect (with loc. or gen.); ({ayA}) instr. ind. with disregard, indifferently Kaths. (cf. {sA7vAjJam}.) avakaranikara = dust, garbage avakarikaa = (f) dustbin, garbage bin avakalana = differentiation avakalpate (avaklRp) *= %{-kalpate} , to correspond to , answer , be right TS. &c. ; to be fit for , serve to (dat.) BhP. Sarvad.: Caus. , %{-kalpayati} , to put in order , prepare "' , make ready S3Br. &c. ; to employ becomingly S3Br. ; to consider as possible Pa1n2. 3- "' , 3 , 147 Sch.: Desid. of Caus. (impf. 3. pl. % {avA7cikalpayiSan}) to wish to prepare or to make ready AitBr. avakiraNa * = n. sweepings Car. avakirNa * = mfn. who has spilt his semen virile , i. e.
270

violated his vow of chastity TA1r. , poured upon , covered with , filled MBh. i , 7840 , &c. , (cf. % {sapta@dvArA7vakIrNa}) avakirNajaTAbhAra * = mfn. whose tresses of hair are scattered or have become loose Das3. avalepa * = m. glutinousness (as of the mouth) Sus'r. [103, 3]; ointment L.; ornament L.; pride, haughtiness BhP. Ragh. &c. (cf. {an-} neg.) avalehaH = (m) pickle avalipta = proud, haughty avaman * = 1. (Pot. {-manyeta} aor. Subj. 2. sg. {maMsthAH}, 2.pl. {-madhvam} Bhathth.; ep. also P. {-manyati} fut. {-maMsyati} MBh. iv, 444) to despise, treat, contemptuously MBh. &c.; to repudiate refuse ib.: Pass. {-manyate} to be treated contemptuously: Caus. (Pot. {-mAnayet}) to despise, treat contemptuous) y Mn. ii, 50. avamaana * m. (ifc. f. Kaths.) disrespect contempt Mn. ii, 162, &c.; dishonour, ignominy MBh. iii, 226, &c. avana = protection* = n. favour, preservation, protection Nir. BhP. &c. (cf. {an.avana}); (= {tarpaNa})
271

satisfaction L.; joy, pleasure L.; (for the explan. of 2. {e4va}) desire, wish Nir.; speed L.; 1. ({I}) f. the plant Ficus Heterophylla L.; N. of a river Hariv.; (for 2. {avanI} see {ava4ni}.) avani* = f. course, bed of a river RV.; stream, river RV., the earth Naigh. R. Pacat. &c.; the soil, ground Megh.; any place on the ground Sryas.; ({ayas}) f. pl. the fingers Naigh. avanii* = 1 f. the earth R. Pacat. avanii* = 2 (fut. 2. sg. {-neSyasi}) to lead or bring down into (water) S'Br.; to put into (loc.) Gobh.; {-nayati}, Ved. to pour down or over AV. VS. &c. avana* = n. favour, preservation, protection Nir. BhP. &c. (cf. {an.avana}); (= {tarpaNa}) satisfaction L.; joy, pleasure L.; (for the explan. of 2. {e4va}) desire, wish Nir.; speed L.; 1. ({I}) f. the plant Ficus Heterophylla L.; N. of a river Hariv.; (for 2. {avanI} see {ava4ni}.) avanejana * = mf({I})n. washing, serving for washing (the feet) BhP.; ({am}) n. ablution (of hands [SBr.] or feet [Mn. ii, 209 BhP.]); water for washing (hands [AV. xi, 3, 13] or feet cf. {pAdA7van-}). avaniM = earth

272

avanipaala = of warrior kings avaniitanya = the daughter of the Earth (siita) avapaata* = m. falling down Mriicch.; ({an-} neg.) AitBr. (cf. {zastrA7vap-}); descent, descending upon; flying down Hit.; a hole or pit for catching game in Ragh. xvi, 78 [101,1]; ({am}) ind. with {ava-patya} (ind. p.), falling or flying down like (in comp.) avapad* = {-padyate} (Subj. P. {-padAti} RV. ix, 73, 9; Prec. . 3. sg. {-padISTa} RV. vii, 104, 17; aor. Subj. . 3. sg. {-pAdi} RV. i, 105, 3; Ved. Inf. (abl.) {pa4das} RV. ii, 29, 6) Ved. to fall down, glide down into (acc.) RV. &c.; (Imper. . 3. pl. {-padyantAm}; Subj. P. 2. sg. {-patsi}; Pot. P. 1. sg. {-padyeyam}) to drop from (abl.), be deprived of (abl.) AV. AitBr. PBr.; (Subj. . 1. sg. {-padyai}) to fall, meet with an accident AitBr.; (fut. 3. pl. {-patsyanti}) to throw down Kthh.: Caus. (Imper. 2. sg. {-pAdaya}; ind. p. {-pAdya}) to cause to glide or go down AV. Sus'r. avapas'* = P. {-pazyati} (2. pl. {-pazyata}; p. {pa4zyat}) to look down upon (acc.) RV. AV. xviii, 4, 37: . {-pazyate}, to look upon AV. ix 4,19. avapaT* = (ind. p. {-pATya}) to split, tear into pieces Sus'r. Kd. Pass. {-pAtyate}, to crack, flaw, split Sus'r.

273

avapat* = (p. {-patat} RV. x, 97, 17 ind. p. {-patya} see {ava-pAta}; impf. {avA7patat} MBh. &c.) to fly down, jump down, fall down: Caus. (p. {-pAtayat}) to throw down Kaths. avaraM = abominable avarcas * = mfn. having no vigour or energy AV. iv , 22 , 3 S3Br. v. avaruuNaddhi = to obstruct avarohati = to descend avaruddha * = hindered, checked, stopped, kept back S'ak. Sh.; shut in, enclosed Mn. viii, 236 &c.; imprisoned secluded (as in the inner apartments) Yj. ii, 290, &c.; expelled MBh. iv, 2011, &c.; wrapped up, covered VarBriS.; disguised Das'.; Ved. obtained, gained S'Br. &c. avarudh* = P. (aor. {-rudhat}) to obstruct, enclose, contain RV. x, 105, 1, (Inf. {-roddhum}) to check, keep back, restrain R. iii, 1, 33, to expel Kaus'. S'nkhS'r. R. ii, 30, 9; {-ruNaddhi}, to seclude, put aside, remove S'Br. KaushBr. ShadvBr.; to shut in, (aor. . {avA7ruddha} and Pass. {avA7rodh}) Pn. 3-1, 64 Sch.; to keep anything (acc., as one's grief) locked up (in one's bosom acc.) Bhathth.; (ind. p. {-rudhya}) to keep
274

one's self ({AtmAnam}) wrapped up in one's self ({Atmani}) BhP.; (impf. {avA7ruNat}) to confine within, besiege Das'.: . {-rundhe} (for {-nddhe} AV.; impf. {avA7rundha} TS.; ind. p. {-ru4dhya} ib.; Ved. Inf. {-ru4dham} ib. and {-rudham} MaitrS.) chiefly Ved. to reach, obtain, gain: P. (p.f. {-rundhatI}; cf. {anurudh}) to be attached to, like BhP.: Desid.A. {rurutsate}, Ved.to wish to obtain or gain TS. &c.: Intens.P. (Subj. 2. sg. {-rorudhas}) to expel from "' (the domimon) R. si, 58, 20. avaruuDha* = mfn. come near, approached AV. vi, 140, 1; descended, dismounted, alighted. avarudham * = Ved.Inf. see %{avarudh}. avarudhyamaana * = surrounded BhP. mfn. being enclosed or

avasaadita * = mfn. made to sink , exhausted , dispirited ; frustrated R. v , 51 , 2. avashaH = helplessly avazesha * = n. leavings , remainder Mn. viii , 159 , &c. ; often ifc. e.g. %{ardhA7v-} , %{kathA7v-} , % {pitA7v-} q.v. ; (%{am}) ind. ifc. so as to leave as a remnant Das3. (cf. %{nir-av}.)

275

avas'eshita* = mfn. left as a remnant, remaining MBh. i, 5129, &c. (cf. %{kathA-mAtrA7v-} and % {nAmamAtrA7v-}.) avas'i * = (Imper. 2. sg. %{-zizIhi}) to deliver from , remove RV. x , 105 , 8. avas'I * = A1. (3. pl. %{zIyante} ; Imper. %{zIyatam}) to fall or drop off AV. xviii , 3 , 60 TS. Ka1t2h. S3Br. PBr. avas'IbhUta * = mfn. unrestrained , independent L. ; uninfluenced by magic L. avas'in * = mfn. not having one's own free will ; not exercising on's own will , not independent A1p. avas'ish * = Pass. %{-zi4Syate} , to be left as a remnant , remain TBr. S3Br. MBh. &c.: Caus. (Pot. %{zeSayet}) to leave as a remnant MBh. v , 2638 R. v , 26 , 38. avas'iSTa * = mfn. left , remaining.

avashishhyate = remains avashhTabhya = entering into avasaM = automatically


276

avasan.h = III pl. imperfect of vas, to live avasannaaH = inadequate avasaraH = (m) opportunity, chance avasarpati = to slide (as from a waterslide) avasaadayet.h = put into degradation avasAdita * mfn. made to sink, exhausted, dispirited; frustrated avasara *= m. `" descent (of water) "', rain L.; occasion, moment, favourable opportunity S3ak. &c.; seasonableness, appropriate place for anything (gen.) Katha1s.; any one's (gen.) turn Pan5cat.; leisure, advantageous situation L.; (= %{mantra}) consultation in private(?) L.; a year L.; (%{e}) loc. ind. at the right moment Katha1s. avasatha * = m. (for {A-vasatha} q.v.) habitation Hcat.; a village L.; a college, school L.; ({am}) n. a house, dwelling L. avasthaa = a state of the mind* = P. {-tiSThati} (impf. {-atiSThat}; aor. Subj. {-sthAt}; perf. . 3. sg. {tasthe}; perf. p. P. {-tasthiva4s}) `" to go down into (acc.), reach down to (acc.) RV. S'Br.; (aor. Subj. 2. pl.
277

{-sthAta}), to go away from (abl.) RV. v, 53, 8; (aor. Subj. 1. sg. {-stkam}) to be separated from or deprived of (abl.) RV. ii, 27, 17: . (Pn. 1-3, 22; rarely P. e.g. Bhag. xiv, 23 BhP. &c.) to take one's stand, remain standing s'vGri. &c.; to stay, abide, stop at any place (loc.) MBh. &c.; to abide in a state or condition (instr.) MBh. i, 5080 BhP. &c.; (with ind. p.) to remain or continue (doing anything) MBh. i, 5770; iii, 187 (ed. Bomb.), &c.; to be found, exist, be present MBh. Yj. i, 272, &c.; (perf. 1 sg. {-tasthe}) to fall to, fall into the possession of (dat.) RV. x, 48, 5; to enter, be absorbed in in (loc.) Mn. vi, 81 [106,1]; to penetrate (as sound or as fame) MBh. xiii, 1 845: Pass. {-sthIyate}, to be settled or fixed or chosen S'ak.: Caus. (generally ind. p. {-sthApya}) to cause to stand or stop (as a carriage or an army &c.), let behind MBh. &c.; to place upon (loc.), fix, set, array s'vGri. &c.; to cause to enter or be absorbed in (loc.) MBh. iii, 12502; to render solid or firm R. v, 35, 36; to establish (by arguments) Comm. on Nyyad.: Pass. Caus. {-sthApyate}, to be kept firm [`" to be separated "' BR.] BhP. avasthaatuM = to stay avasthaatrayaH = three states of bodily consciousness (awake, sleep, dream) avasthitaM = situated

278

avasthitaH = situated avasthitaaH = situated avasthitaan.h = arrayed on the battlefield avasthiti %{is} f. residence BhP. Katha1s. abiding, stability see %{an-av-}; following, practising L. avastu*n = n. a worthless thing Kum. v, 66, insubstantiality, the unreality of matter Kap. Vedntas. avasyand* = . (p. {-syandamAna}) to flow or trickle down BhP. avasyandita* = n. (in rhetoric) attributing to one's own words a sense not originally meant Sh. Das'ar. &c. avasya* = Nom P. (p. dat. sg. m. {avasyate}) to seek favour or assistance RV. i, 116, 23. av[at] * = cl. I .P. %{a4vati} (Imper. 2. sg. %{ava} sg. %{tAt} RV. viii , 2 , 3 , p. %{a4vat} impf. a4vat , 2. sg. 1. %{A4vaH} [for 2. %{A4vaH} see %{vR}] ; perf. 3. sg. %{Ava} , 2. pl. %{Ava4} RV. viii , 7 , 18 , 2.sg. % {A4vitha} ; aor. %{a4vit} , 2. sg. %{AvIs} , %{avIs} and %{aviSas} , Imper. %{aviSTu} , 2. sg. % {aviDDhi4} [once RV. ii , 17 , 8] or %{aviDDh} [six times in RV.] , 2. du. %{aviSTam} , 3. du. , 2. pl. %
279

{aviSTa4nA} RV. vii , 18 , 25 Prec. 3. sg. %{avyAs} , Inf. %{a4vitave} RV. vii , 33 , 1 ; Ved. ind. p. % {AvyA} RV. i , 166 , 13) to drive , impel , animate (as a car or horse) RV. ; Ved.to promote , favour , (chiefly Ved.) to satisfy , refresh ; to offer (as a hymn to the gods) "' RV. iv , 44 , 6 ; to lead or bring to (dat.: % {Uta4ye} , %{vA4ja-sAtaye} , %{kSatrA4ya} , % {svasta4ye}) RV. ; (said of the gods) to be pleased with , like , accept favourably (as sacrifices , prayers or hymns) RV. , (chiefly said of kings or princes) to guard , defend , protect , govern BhP. Ragh. ix , 1 VarBr2S. &c.: Caus. (only impf. %{avayat} , 2. sg. %{Avayas}) to consume , devour RV. AV. VS. S3Br. [cf. Gk. $ Lat. {aveo}?]. &29765[96 ,1] avatara * = m. descent, entrance S'is'. i, 43; opportunity Naish. avataara = a divine incarnation particularly of Vishnu, e.g. Buddha* = m. (Pn. 3-3, 120) descent (especially of a deity from heaven), appearance of any deity upon earth (but more particularly the incarnations of Vishnu in ten principal forms, viz. the fish tortoise, boar, man lion, dwarf, the two Rmas, Kriishna, Buddha, and Kalki MBh. xii, 12941 seqq.); any new and unexpected appearance Ragh. iii, 36 & v, 24, &c., (any distinguished person in the language of respect is called an Avatra or incarnation of a deity); opportunity of catching any one Buddh.; a Tirtha or sacred place L.;
280

translation L. avataritavya* = n. impers. to be alighted Mriicch. avataarita* = mfn. caused to descend, fetched down from (abl.); taken down, laid down or aside; removed; set a-going, rendered current, accomplished Rjat. avataarin* = mfn. making one's appeance see {raGgA7vat-}; making a descent in the incarnation of (in comp.) RmatUp.; ifc. appearing Mlatm. avataarayati = to keep down, to get down avati = (1 pp) to protect avatishhThati = remains avatishhThate = becomes established avatu = (may the lord) protect avayavaH = A Limb (of the body), A part, a portion, a component, a constitunt, an ingredient avayava * =m. (ifc. f. {A}) a limb, member, part, portion Pn. &c.; a member or component part of a logical argument or syllogism Nyyid. &c.

281

aaves'a *= m. joining one's self Ka1tyS3r.; entering, entrance, taking possession of MBh. S3ak. Prab. &c.; absorption of the faculties in one wish or idea, intentness, devotedness to an object BhP.; demoniacal frenzy, possession, anger, wrath Ba1lar. Ka1d.; pride, arrogance L.; indistinctness of idea, apoplectic or epileptic giddiness L. avekshaa * f. observation, care, attention to (loc.) Mn. vii, 101 R. BhP. avekshya* = mfn. to be attended to avekshitavya mfn. to be observed attentively Sus3r.

avi* = mfn. ( {av}), favourable, kindly disposed AV. v, 1, 9, ({is}) mf. a sheep RV. (mentioned with reference to its wool being used for the Soma strainer) AV. &c.; the woollen Soma strainer RV.; ({is}) m. a protector, lord L.; the sun L.; air, wind L.; a mountain L.; a wall or enclosure L.; a cover made of the skin of mice L., ({is}) f. an ewe AV. x, 8, 31, (= a-v q.v.; cf. also {adhi}) a woman in her courses L. [cf. Lith. {awi-s}; Slav. {ovjza}, Lat. {ovi-s}; Gk. $-s; Goth. {avistr}]. avibhaktaM = without division avichaarii = adj. thoughtless

282

avidita = without knowledge, unknowingly avidushaH = of one who does not know avidya = lack of education, ignorance * = mfn. unlearned, unwise Mn. ix, 205, &c.; ({avidyA}) f. ignorance, spiritual ignorance AV. xi, 8, 23 VS. xl, 1214 S'Br.xiv; (in Vednta phil.) illusion (personified as My), ignorance together with non-existence Buddh. avidyAmaya* = mfn. consisting of ignorance. avidyamAna* = mfn. (3. {vid}; pr. Pass. p.), not present or existent, absent KtyS'r. Lthy. Mn. &c. {-ta} f. the not being present Comm. on Nyayad. avidyamAnatva* = n. id. Comm. on BrirUp. avidyamAnavat* = ind. as if not being present Pn. 3-1, 3 Comm.; viii, 1, 72. avidyaa = metaphysical ignorance avidyamaana* = mfn. (3. {vid}; pr. Pass. p.), not present or existent, absent KtyS'r. Lthy. Mn. &c. {-ta} f. the not being present Comm. on Nyayad. avidvaa.nsaH = the ignorant

283

avidhipuurvakaM = in a wrong way aviGYeyaM = unknowable avii * = {Is} f. ( {vI}), a woman in her courses L. avikalpena = without division avikaaryaH = unchangeable avikaarin * = mfn. unchangeable, invariable (as truth) MBh. xii, 5979 & (superl. %{-ri-tama}) 5986, &c.; unchangeable (in character), faithful Mn. vii, 190; without change, without being changed Sus3r.; not exhibiting any alteration (in one's features) Katha1s. avilupta*= mfn. undamaged unhurt BhP. Ra1jat. Katha1s avinashyantaM = not destroyed avinaasha = undestructible, name of Vishnu avinaashi = imperishable avinaashinaM = indestructible avinda *= not finding, not getting, not gaining
284

avipakva* =mfn. undigested Bhpr.; immature. avipashchitaH = men with a poor fund of knowledge avirati = sensuality avirodha = no opposition * = m. non-opposition to, living or being in agreement with (in comp. or inst.) MBh. xiii, 1935 Hariv. 8752 R.; non-incompatibility, consistency, harmony, Ya1n5. ii, 186, &c. avis'aGka* = mfn. having no doubts, not hesitating MBh. iii, 2171 and xiii, 2747; ({A}) f. `" no hesitation "', ({ayA}) instr. ind. undoubtingly without hesitation MBh. Hariv. &c. avis'aGkita* = mfn. unapprehensive, not having doubts, not hesitating MBh. v, 490 BhP. &c.; ({am}) ind. without hesitation R. v, 90, 13 Sus'r. avis'astR* = {tA4} m. an unskilful cutter up or killer (of animals) RV. i, 162, 20. avis'esha* = m. non-distinction, non-difference, uniformity Kap.; (mfn.)without difference, uniform BhP. Kap. &c.; ({ANi}) n. pl. (in Sinkhya phil.) N. of the (five) elementary substances (cf. {tan-mAtra}); ({At}) ind. or in comp. {avizSa-} [e.g. {avizeSazruteS}, {aviseSo7padezAt} KtyS'r.] without a special
285

distinction or difference KtyS'r.] Jaim. Gaut. S'ulb.; not differently, equally Comm. on Nyyad.; ({eNa}) ind. without a special distinction or difference p. Comm. on Yj. &c. = avis'eshavat* = mfn. not making a difference between (loc.) Yj. iii, 154. avasita * = mfn. one who has put up at any place, who dwells, rests, resides RV. i, 32, 15 and iv, 25, 8 S3Br. Ka1tyS3r.; brought to his abode (as Agni) TS.; ended, terminated, finished, completed MBh. i, 4678, &c.; one who has given up anything (abl. MBh. xii, 7888; or in comp. Ya1jn5. ii, 183); determined, fixed BhP.; ascertained BhP.; known, understood; one who is determined to (loc.) BhP.; being at end of the line of a verse (see %{ava-sA4na}) RPra1t. VPra1t.; stored (as grain &c.) L.; gone L.; (%{am}) n. `" a dwelling-place "' see %{navA7vasita4}. avis'va* = n. not the universe BhP. avis'vasat* = mfn. not confiding Rjat. Kaths. avis'vasta* = mfn. not trusted, suspected, doubted L.; = {a-vizvasa4t} R. iii, 1, 25, &c. avisha * = 1 mf(%{A})n. not poisonous RV. AV. VS. Sus3r.; (%{A}) f. the plant Curcuma Zedoaria \\ 2 m.
286

( %{av}), the ocean Un2. (cf. %{taviSa}); (%{I}) f. a river Un2.; the earth L. avekshe = let me see avekshya = considering avottaraattaat.h = protect me from the northern direction avrithaa * = ind. not in vain, profitably L. avyaakritaa = not expressed avya * = mfn. (said of the woollen Soma strainer) coming from sheep ({a4vi} q.v.) RV.; ({as}, {am}) m. n. the woollen Soma strainer RV. avyaahataaGYaH = avyAhata+agyaH, not feeling the hit? avyabhichaariNii = without any break avyabhichaariNyaa = without any break avyabhichaareNa = without fail avyaakrita* = mfn. undeveloped, unexpounded S'Br. xiv BhP.; ({am}) n. elementary substance from which all things were created, considered as one with the
287

substance of Brahma L. avyakta = nonmanifested* = mfn. undeveloped, not manifest, unapparent, indistinct, invisible, imperceptible Up. Pn. Mn. &c.; (in alg.) unknown as quantity or number; speaking indistinctly; m. (= {paramA7tman}) the universal Spirit Mn. ix, 50; N. of Vishnu L.; of S'iva L.; of Kma L.; a fool L.; N. of an Upanishad; ({am}) n. (in Snkhya phil.) `" the unevolved (Evolver of all things) "', the primary germ of nature, primordial element or productive principle whence all the phenomena of the material world are developed, KathhaUp. Snkhyak. &c.; ({am}) ind. indistinctly. avyaktaM = nonmanifested avyaktaH = invisible avyaktamuurtinaa = by the unmanifested form avyaktaa = toward the unmanifested avyaktaat.h = to the unmanifest avyaktaadiini = in the beginning unmanifested avyaliika * = mfn. having no uneasiness or unpleasantness; well off MBh. v, 698; not false, true, veracious BhP. Das'ar.; ({am}) ind. truly BhP.
288

avyaya = without deterioration: 1 or rarely {a4vyaya} [only RV. viii, 97, 2 and ix, 86, 34] mfn. ({a4vi}) made of sheep's skin (as the woollen Soma strainer) RV.; belonging to or consisting of sheep RV. viii, 97, 2. \\2 mf({A})n. not liable to change, imperishable, undecaying Up. Mn. &c.; `" not spending "', parsimonious; m. N. of Vishnu or S'iva L.; of a son of Manu Raivata Hariv. 433; of a Nga demon MBh. i, 2157 (ed. Bomb.); the non-spending, parsimony; ({am}) n. [or m. L.] an indeclinable word, particle Pn. APrt. &c.; (in Vednta) a member or corporeal part of an organized body L. avyayaM = immutable; V state of affairs avyayaH = inexhaustible avyayasya = of the imperishable avyavasaayinaaM = of those who are not in KRishhNa consciousness avyutpanna mfn. not ensuing or following, Ven2is.; underived (as a word), having no etymology Pa1n2. 7-2, 8 Pat.; unaccomplished, inexperienced BhP. &c. ayaama * = not a night-watch, any time during daylight. ayaasya * (4) mfn. (= $ Windisch; cf. {ayA4s} and
289

{ai0A4s} before), agile, dexterous, valiant RV.; m. N. of an Angiras (composer of the hymns RV. ix, 44-66 and x, 67 and 68) RV. x, 67, 1 and 108, 8 S'Br. xiv. ayaata * = mfn. not gone ayaM = him (from idaM.h) ayajanta = third person plur. imperfect aatmanepada of yaj, to worship ayatha * = n. a foot RV. x 28, 10 and 11 (mfn.) prosperous, Pa1rGr.\\see col. 2.\\ayatha ind. not as it should be, unfitly BhP. ayatiH = the unsuccessful transcendentalist ayathaavat.h = imperfectly ayana*=mfn. going VS. xxii, 7 Nir.; ({am}) n. walking a road a path RV. iii 33, 7 &c. (often ifc. cf. {naimiSA7yana}, {puruSA7yana}, {prasamA7yana}, {samudrA7yaNa}, {svedA7yana}), (in astron) advancing, precession Sryas.; (with gen [e.g. {a4ngirasAm}, {AdityA4nam}, {gavAm}, &c.] or ifc.) `" course, circulation "'N. of various periodical sacrificial rites AV. S'Br. &c. the sus road north and south of the equator, the half year Mn. &c., the equinoctial and solstitial points VarBriS. &c.; way,
290

progress, manner S'Br.; place of refuge Mn. i, 10; a treatise ({zAstra} cf. {jyotiSAm-ayana}) L. ayaana* =n. not moving "', halting, stopping L.; (= {sva.bhAva}), natural disposition or temperament "' L ayaneshhu = in the strategic points ayama = length, extension, restraint ayashaH = infamy ayasaH = (m) iron ayase = (v) to go ayata * = mfn. unrestrained, uncontrolled ayatha * = n. a foot RV. x 28, 10 and 11 (mfn.) prosperous, Pa1rGr.\\see col. 2.\\ ayatha ind. not as it should be, unfitly BhP. ayaGYasya = for one who performs no sacrifice ayudha* = m. a non-fighter Pn. 5-1, 121. ayuktaH = one who is not in KRishhNa consciousness ayuktasya = of one who is not connected (with
291

KRishhNa consciousness) ayuta * = 1 mfn. (1. {yu}), unimpeded AV. xix, 51, 1; N. of a son of Rdhika BhP. ayu4ta * = 2 n. [{as} m. only MBh. iii, 801], `" unjoined, unbounded "', ten thousand, a myriad RV. AV. &c.; in comp. a term of praise (see {ayutA7dhyApaka}), (g. {kASThA7di} q.v.) ayogataH = without devotional service ayojayishhyat.h = if one does not join or connect ayobhaaNDam.h = (n) a wooden barrel

ba * the third letter of the labial class (often confounded with {va}). baadaraayaNa * = m. (patr. fr. %{badara}; cf. g. % {naDA7di}) N. of sev. teachers and authors (esp. of a sage identified with Vya1sa, said to be the author of the Veda7nta-su1tras; of an astronomer; of the author of a
292

Dharma-s3a1stra &c. ) IW. 106 &c.; mfn. written or composed by Ba1dBa1dara1yan2a Cat. baadhate = (1 ap) to obstruct baadhyate = affected, afflicted baadhaka * = mf({ikA})n. oppressing, harassing, paining (see {zatru-b-}); opposing, hindering, injuring, prejudicing MBh. Pur. ({-tA} f.); setting aside, suspending, annulling S'ank. Sarvad. ({-tva} n.); m. a partic. disease of women L.; a kind of tree Gobh.; mf({I})n. belonging to or derived from the Bdhaka tree ShadvBr. S'rS. baadhana * = mfn. oppressing, harassing (see {zatrub-}); opposing, refuting L.; ({A}) f. uneasiness, trouble, pain Nyyas.; n. opposition, resistance, oppression, molestation, affliction (also pl.) R. S'ak.; removing, suspending, annulment (of a rule &c.) Veda7ntas. Pn. Sch. baadhita4 * = mfn. pressed, oppressed &c. RV. &c. &c.; (in gram.) set aside, annulled; (in logic) contradictory, absurd, false, incompatible (cf. {a-bAdhita}) baadhya * = mfn. to be (or being) pressed hard or harassed or distressed or pained or checked or suppressed , Kav. Katha1s. Pur. &c. ; to be (or being)
293

set aside or suspended or annulled Vop. bhaadra* = m. (fr. {bhadra}, of which it is also the Vriiddhi form in comp.) the month Bhdra (= {-pada} below) Rjat.; ({I}) f. (scil. {tithi}) the day of full moon in the month BhBhdra Col. baahu = arm *= 1 m. and (L.) f. (fr. %{bah}, % {baMh}; for 2. %{bAhu} see col. 3) the arm, (esp.) the fore-arm, the arm between the elbow and the wrist (opp. to %{pra-gaNDa} q.v.; in medic. the whole upper extremity of the body, as opp. to %{sakthi}, the lower extextremity) RV. &c. &c.; the arm as a measure of length (= 12 An3gulas) Sulbas.; the fore-foot of an animal (esp. its upper part) RV. AV. Br. A1s3vGr2.; the limb of a bow S3Br.; the bar of a chariot-pole Gobh.; the post (of a door; see %{dvAra-b-}); the side of an angular figure (esp. the base of a right-angled triangle) Su1ryas.; the shadow of the gnomon on a sun-dial ib.; (also du.) the constellation A1rdra1 L.; m. N. of a Daitya MBh.; of a prince (who brought ruin upon his family by his illegal actions) ib.; of a son of Vr2ika Hariv.; of a son of Vajra VP. [Cf. Gk. $, $; &222225[730,2] Germ. {buog}, {Bug}; Angl. Sax. {bo1g}; Eng. {bough}.]\\ 2 (for 1. see col. 2), Vr2iddhi form of %{bahu} in comp. = ki1t2a mfn. g. %{paladyAdi}. baahuM = arms
294

baahulya = plentitude baahyasparsheshhu = in external sense pleasure baahyaan.h = unnecessary baala = child baalaH = young boy baalakaH = boy baalakavii = young poet baalabuddhii = adj. childish baalaa = Girl baalaaH = the less intelligent baalikaaH = girl baalis'a *= 1 mf(%{A})n. young , childish , puerile , ignorant , simple , foolish MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; m. a fool , simpleton , blockhead ib. baalonmattavadeva = like a child who has gone mad

295

baalyakaalaat.h = from a young age baandhava = brother* = a kinsman, relation (esp. maternal rrelation), friend (ifc. f. ) Mn. MBh. &c.; a brother A.; ({I}) f. a female relative Kaths. baaNa = Arrow baaNaH = (m) arrow baaNa* = or {vANa4} (RV.), {bA4Na} (AV.; later more usually {vANa} q.v.) m. a reed-shaft, shaft made of a reed, an arrow RV. &c. &c.; N. of the number five (from the 5 arrows of Kma-deva; cf. {paJca-b-}) Sryas. Sh.; the versed sine of an arc Ganit.; a mark for arrows, aim BhP.; a partic. part of an arrow L.; Saccharum Sara or a similar species of reed Bhpr.; the udder of a cow ({vANa4} RV. iv, 24, 9) L.; music (for {vANa4}) AV. x, 2, 17 = {kevala},; N. of an Asura (a, son of Bali, an enemy of Vishnu and favourite of S'iva) MBh. Pur.; of one of Skanda's attendants MBh.; of a king Hariv.; (also {-bhaTTa}) of a poet (the author of the Kdambar, of the Harsha-carita, and perhaps of the Ratna7val) Cat.; of a man of low origin Rjat.; m. (S'is') or ({A}) f. (L.) a blue-flowering Barleria; ({A}) f. the hind part or feathered end of an arrow L.; n. the flower of Barleria Kir. S'is'.; the body Pras'nUp. // n. appearance, evidence, perception Veda7ntas. Bha1sha1p. &c.; light, lustre L.// 3 bhANa m. ( %
296

{bhaN}) recitation (esp. of the Buddhist law) MWB. 44; N. of a sort of dramatic entertainment (in which only one of the interlocutors appears on the scene, or a narrative of some intrigue told either by the hero or a third person) Das3ar. Sa1h. Prata1p. (cf. IW. 471). // 4 bhAna %{bhAnu} and e. see p. 751, col. 1. baaNapaaNiM = with hand holding arrow (and Bow) baashhpasthaalii = (f) pressure cooker baashpa * m. (also written {vASpa} cf. Un. iii, 28) a tear, tears MBh. Kv. &c.; steam, vapour R. Ragh. Pacat.; a kind of pot-herb Vgbh.; iron L.; N. of a disciple of Gautama Buda7ha; ({I}) f. a kind of plant (= {hiGgu-pattrI}) L. babhuuva = became (from bhuu, to become), VB: became, appeared, there was, there arose, he chose bahavaH = in great numbers bahiH = outside bahu *= mf(%{vI4} or %{u})n. much, many, frequent, abundant, numerous, great or considerable in quantity (n. also as subst. with gen.) RV. (rarely in Man2d2. i-ix) AV. &c. &c. (%{tadbahu-yad}, `" it is a great matter that "' MBh.; %{tvayA@me@bahu@kRtaM-yad}, `"
297

you have done me a great service by-or that- "' Nal.; % {kim@bahunA}, `" what occasion is there for much talk? "' i.e. `" in short "' S3ak. Hit.); abounding or rich in (instr.) S3Br.; large, great, mighty AV. &c. &c.; (% {u4}) ind. much, very, abundantly, greatly, in a high degree, frequently, often, mostly RV. &c. &c. (often ibc., where also= nearly, almost, rather, somewhat [724,3]; cf. %{bahu-tRNa}, %{bahu-trivarSa} and Pa1n2. 5-3, 68; %{bahu-man} = to think much of esteem highly, prize, value); n. the pl. number AitBr. bahukrita = variously done/made-up bahukritaveshhaH = various make-ups/roles bahujanasukhaaya = (dat.Sing.) for he happiness of many bahujanahitaaya = (dat.Sing.)for the welfare of many bahuDhaa = (indec.)in many ways or differently bahuda.nshhTraa = many teeth bahudustaare = fordable with great difficulty bahudhaa = in many ways bahunaa = many
298

bahumataH = in great estimation bahuraashhTriyasaMsthaa = (f) a multinational corporation bahulaaM = various bahulaayaasaM = with great labor bahuvachanaM = plural bahuvidhaaH = various kinds of bahushaakhaaH = having various branches bahusyaaM = may exist as many bahuudaraM = many bellies bahuun.h = many bahuunaaM = many bahuuni = many bangabhaashhaa = Bengali language baDisham.h = (n) fishing rod
299

badarikaa = the jujube fruit (``bora'' in marathi) badara * = m. the jujube tree, Zizyphus Jujuba L.; another tree (= {deva-sarSapa}) L.; the kernel of the fruit of the cotton plant L.; dried ginger L.; N. of a man g. {naDA7di}; ({A}) f. the cotton shrub L.; a species of Dioscorea L.; Mimosa Octandra L.; Clitoria Ternatea L.; ({I}) f. see below; ({ba4d-}) n. the edible fruit of the jujube (also used as a weight) VS. &c. &c.; the berry or fruit of the cotton shrub L. baddha = caught * =mfn. bound, tied, fixed, fastened, chained, fettered RV. &c. &c.; captured, imprisoned, caught, confined ib. ({zatAt}, `" for a debt of a hundred "' Pn. 2-3, 24 Sch.); bound by the fetters of existence or evil Kap.; hanged, hung R.; tied up (as a braid of hair) Megh.; (ifc.) stopped, checked, obstructed, impeded, restrained, suppressed MBh. Kv. &c.; girt with S'nkhS'r.; (with instr. or ifc.) inlaid or studded with, set in MBh. Kv. &c.; attached to, riveted or fixed on (loc.) ib.; joined, united, combined, formed, produced ib.; composed (as verses) R.; (esp. ibc.; cf. below) conceived, formed, entertained, manifested, shown, betrayed, visible, apparent (cf. {jAta} ibc.) MBh. Kv. &c.; clenched (as the fist) Hariv. R.; folded (as the hands) Mriicch.; contracted (as friendship or enmity) R. S'ak.; taken up (as an abode) Rjat.; built, constructed (as a bridge) R. Ragh.; embanked (as a river) Rjat.; congealed, clotted (as blood; opp. to {drava}) Sus'r.;
300

alloyed (as quicksilver) L.; m. or n. ? (with Jainas) that which binds or fetters the embodied spirit (viz. the connection of the soul with deeds) MW. baddhapadma = having bound himself in lotusbaddhahasta\-shirshhaasana = the bound hands headstand posture baddhaaH = being bound badh = to tie up badh.h = to trap, to tie down badhnaati = to tie, to pack badhyatas* = ind. (freedom) from the crowd AV. xii, 1, 2 (v.l. {madhya-ta4s}). badhU* = f. wrongly for {vadhU4} AV. viii, 6, 14. baddhakadambaka* = mfn. forming groups S'ak. badhyate = becomes entangled badhU * = f. wrongly for {vadhU4} AV. viii, 6, 14. badhiraya * = Nom. P. {-yati}, to niake deaf, deafen.
301

Das'. Mcar. badhirita * = mfn. made deaf, deafened Das'. Kd. Prab. badhin * = mfn. (ifc.) injuring, impeding Jtakam. badva * n. (once m.) a large number, multitude (Sy., `" 100 Kothis "'; others `" 10, 000 millions "' BhP. Sch. `" the number 13, 084 "') Br. MBh. BhP. bahudhaa* = ind. in many ways or parts or forms or directions, variously, manifoldly, much, repeatedly RV. &c. &c. (with {kR}, to make manifold, multiply MBh.; to make public, divulge ib.) bata = how strange it is bakabaka = stork * = crane, Ardea Nivea (often fig. = a hypocrite, cheat, rogue, the crane being regarded as a bird of great cunning and deceit as well as circumspection) bakaH = (m) crane bakulaM = blossom (bakula tree blossom bakulaH = type of tree/shrub bakulaa = (f)pr.n
302

bala = strength balaM = army balavat.h = strong balavataaM = of the strong balavaan.h = powerful balahiinena = (instr.sing.) by the person bereft of power or strength balaa = force balaat.h = by force balaarishhTa = Infant mortality balishhTha = strong balii*V= powerful, stromng; presentatoons, offerings; of tribute; *= bali *V= saying calling, chanting, calling as such, stating, uttering, taking //*= asm. (perhaps fr. {bhR}) tribute, offering, gift, oblation (in later language always with {hR}) RV. &c. &c.; tax, impost, royal revenue Br. Mn. MBh. &c.; any offering or propitiatory oblation
303

(esp. an offering of portions of food, such as grain, rice &c., to certain gods, semi-divine beings, household divinities, spirits, men, birds, other animals and all creatures including even lifeless objects; it is made before the daily meal by arranging portions of food in a circle or by throwing them into the air outside the house or into the sacred fire; it is also called {bhUta-yajJa} and was one of the 5 {mahA-yajJas}, or great devotional acts; cf. RTL. 411, 421) GriS'rS. Mn. (esp. iii, 69, 71) MBh. &c. (often ifc. with the object, the receiver, the time, or the place of the offering); fragments of food at a meal W.; a victim (often a goat or buffalo) offered to Durg MW.; the handle of a chowrie or fly-flapper Megh.; N. of a Daitya (son of Virocana; priding himself on his empire over the three worlds, he was humiliated by Vishnu, who appeared before him in the form of a Vmana or dwarf. son of Kas'yapa and Aditi and younger brother of Indra, and obtained from him the promise of as much land as he could pace in three steps, whereupon the dwarf expanding himself deprived him of heaven and earth in two steps, but left him the sovereignty of Ptla or the lower regions) MBh. Pur. &c. (cf. IW. 328); N. of Indra in the 8th Manv-antara Pur.; of a Muni MBh.; of a king ib. Pacat.; of a son of Su-tapas Hariv. Pur. (cf. {vali}). bali balii = a demon king
304

bali* = m. (perhaps fr. {bhR}) tribute, offering, gift, oblation (in later language always with {hR}) RV. &c. &c.; tax, impost, royal revenue Br. Mn. MBh. &c.; any offering or propitiatory oblation (esp. an offering of portions of food, such as grain, rice &c., to certain gods, semi-divine beings, household divinities, spirits, men, birds, other animals and all creatures including even lifeless objects; it is made before the daily meal by arranging portions of food in a circle or by throwing them into the air outside the house or into the sacred fire; it is also called {bhUta-yajJa} and was one of the 5 {mahA-yajJas}, or great devotional acts; cf. RTL. 411, 421) GriS'rS. Mn. (esp. iii, 69, 71) MBh. &c. (often ifc. with the object, the receiver, the time, or the place of the offering); fragments of food at a meal W.; a victim (often a goat or buffalo) offered to Durg MW.; the handle of a chowrie or fly-flapper Megh.; N. of a Daitya (son of Virocana; priding himself on his empire over the three worlds, he was humiliated by Vishnu, who appeared before him in the form of a Vmana or dwarf. son of Kas'yapa and Aditi and younger brother of Indra, and obtained from him the promise of as much land as he could pace in three steps, whereupon the dwarf expanding himself deprived him of heaven and earth in two steps, but left him the sovereignty of Ptla or the lower regions) MBh. Pur. &c. (cf. IW. 328); N. of Indra in the 8th Manv-antara Pur.; of a Muni MBh.; of a king ib. Pacat.; of a son of Su-tapas Hariv. Pur. (cf. {vali}).

305

bandii = prisoner, detainee bandha = (a form of poetry)//* binding, tying, a bond, tie, chain, fetter RV. &c. &c.; a ligature, bandage Sus'r.; damming up (a river) MrkP.; capture, arrest, imprisonment, custody Mn. MBh. &c.; connection or intercourse with (comp.) Pacat. BhP. (ifc. = connected with, conducive to MBh.); putting together, uniting, contracting, combining, forming, producing MBh. Kv. &c.; joining (the hollowed hands) Ragh.; anything deposited ({-dhe-sthA} = to remain deposited) Campak.; a deposit, pledge Rjat.; any configuration or position of the body (esp. of the hands and feet) Ragh. Kum.; a partic. mode of sexual union (there are said to be 16, 18, 36, or even 84 L.), Caur.; constructing, building (of a bridge &c.) MBh. Rjat.; bridging over (the sea) Vcar.; knitting (the brows) Rjat.; fixing, directing (mind, eyes, &c.) Cat.; assumption, obtainment (of a body) Ragh.; (ifc.) conceiving, cherishing, feeling, betraying Hariv. Klid.; a border, framework, inclosure, receptacle L.; a sinew, tendon L.; the body L.; (in phil.) mundane bondage, attachment to this world S'vetUp. Bhag. &c. (opp. to {mukti}, {mokSa}, `" final emancipation "', and regarded in the Snkhya as threefold, viz. {prakRti-}, {vaikArika-}, and {dakSiNA-b-}); combination of sounds (in rhet.), construction or arrangement of words Kvya7d. Pratp.; arrangement of a stanza in a partic. shape Kpr.; arrangement of musical sounds, composition S'atr.; a
306

disease which prevents the eyelids from quite closing Sus'r.; (ifc. with numerals) a part (cf. {paJca-} bandhaM = bondage bandha\-padmaasana = the bound lotus posture bandhana = restriction ba.ndhanaat.h = (Nr.abl.S) bondage; tie bandhanaiH = from the bondage bandhaat.h = from bondage bandhu = brother * = m. connection, relation, association RV. &c. &c. (ifc. with f. {U} = belonging to, coming under the head of i.e. `" being only in name "'; cf. {kSatra-}, {dvija-b-} &c.; `" resembling "' Blar. v, 56/57, `" frequented by "' ib. iii, 20, `" favourable for "' ib. iv, 87; cf. Pn. 6-1, 14); respect, reference ({kena bandhunA} `" in what respect? "') S'Br.; kinship, kindred Mn. ii, 136; a kinsman (esp. on the mother's side), relative, kindred RV. &c. &c. (in law, a cognate kinsman in a remote degree, one subsequent in right of inheritance to the Sa-gotra; three kinds are enumerated, personal, paternal and maternal); a friend (opp. to {ripu}) MBh. Kv. BhP.; a husband Ragh.; a brother L.; Pentapetes Phoenicea L. (= {bandhUka}); N. of a metre
307

Col.; (in astrol.) of the fourth mansion Var.; of a Riishi with the patr. Gaupyana or Laupyana (author of RV. v, 24 and x, 5660) RAnukr.; of Manmatha L. bandhuH = friend bandhuvargaH = relatives bandhushhu = and the relatives or well-wishers bandhuun.h = relatives bandhau = in (towards) relatives barham.h = (n) peacock feather barhishmat * = (%{-hi4S-}) mfn. accompanied or provided with sacrificial grass RV. Br. Mn.; having fire or light, blazing, shining W.; m. one who has or spreads ssacrificial grgrass, a worshipper, sacrificer RV.; N. of Pra1ci1na-barhis BhP.; (%{atI}) f. N. of a wife of Priya-vrata and daughter of Vis3vakarman BhP.; N. of a city in Brahma7varta ib. basti = method for cleaning the intestines baT* = ind. in truth, certainly (Sy.= {satyam}) RV. baTaraka* = n. pl. circular lines of light which appear
308

before the closed eye Aitr. baTu* = m. (also written {vaTu}) a boy, lad, stripling, youth (esp. a young Brhman, but also contemptuously applied to adult persons) MBh. Kv. &c.; N. of a class of priests Cat.; a form of S'iva (so called from being represented by boys in the rites of the S'ktas) ib.; Calosanthes Indica L. bata* = 1 ind. (later usually {vata}; g. {svar-Adi}) an interjection expressing astonishment or regret, generally = ah! oh! alas! (originally placed immediately after the leading word at the beginning of a sentence, or only separated from it by {iva}; rarely itself in the first place e.g. Mlav. iii, 21/22; in later language often in the middle of a sentence) RV. &c. &c. bata* = 2 m. a weakllng RV. x, 10, 13. bata * = 1 ind. (later usually {vata}; g. {svar-Adi}) an interjection expressing astonishment or regret, generally = ah! oh! alas! (originally placed immediately after the leading word at the beginning of a sentence, or only separated from it by {iva}; rarely itself in the first place e.g. Mlav. iii, 21/22; in later language often in the middle of a sentence) RV. &c. &c. biDaalaH = (m) cat bindu = dot

309

binduH = (m) point, drop binduu = a drop, a dot bibharti = is maintaining, *: would carry bibhiishhaNashriidaH = the man who gave `shrI' riches etc, to vibhIshhaNa bibheti = fears bibheshhi = afraid bibhyati *V= is afraid; fears bila = hole (neut) biija = seed biijaM = the seed biijagaNita = algebra biijapradaH = the seed-giving biijaankuranyaaya = maxim of seed and shoot biibhatsa = the sentiment of disgust (nauseating,
310

revolting ) biibhatsakarman.h = adj. repulsive worker bhaaH = light baaDha* = or {bALha4} mfn. ( {baMh}; cf. Pn v, 63) strong, mighty (only ibc. and in {bAhe4} ind.), loudly, strongly, mightily RV.; ({bADham} or {vADham}) ind. assuredly, certainly, indeed, really, by all means, so be it, yes (generally used as a particle of consent, affirmation or confirmation) MBh. Kv. &c. baadha4* = 1 m. a harasser, tormentor Hariv.; annoyance, molestation, affliction, obstacle, distress, pain, trouble RV. &c. &c.; (also {A}, f.; cf. Vm. v, 2, 44) injury, detriment, hurt, damage MBh. Kv. &c.; danger, jeopardy (see {prA7Na-}); exclusion from (comp.) Pacat.; suspension, annulment (of a rule &c.) Sh. Pn. Sch. &c.; a contradiction, objection, absurdity, the being excluded by superior proof (in log., one of the 5 forms of fallacious middle term) Kap. Bhshp. &c.\\2 m. (prob.) urging, impulse (Naigh. ii, 9= {bala} Sy. = {bAdhaka}, {bAdhana}) RV. vi, 11, 5; i, 61, 2; 132, 5 (?). bhaadra* = m. (fr. {bhadra}, of which it is also the Vriiddhi form in comp.) the month Bhdra (= {-pada} below) Rjat.; ({I}) f. (scil. {tithi}) the day of full moon
311

in the month BhBhdra Col. bhaadrapada* = m. (fr. {bhadra-padA}) the month Bhdra (a rainy month corresponding to the period from about the middle of August to the middle of September) Var. Rjat. Sus'r.; ({A}) f. du. and pl. = {bhadrapadA}N. common to the 3rd and 4th Nakshatras (q.v.) Sryas. VP.; ({I}) f. the day of full moon in the month BhBhdra KtyS'r. Sch. bhaaga * = 2 Vriiddhi form of {bhaga} in com \\1 m. ( {bhoj}) a part, portion, share, allotment, inheritance (in Ved. also = lot, esp. fortunate lot, good fortune, luck, destiny) RV. &c. &c.; a part (as opp. to any whole; {bhAgam bhAgam} with Caus. of {klRp} or {bhAgAn} with {kR}, to divide in parts); a fraction (often with an ordinal number e.g. {aSTamo bhAgaH}, the eighth part, or in comp. with a cardinal e.g. {zata-bh-}; 1/100; {azIti-bh-} = 1/80) Up. Mn. MBh. &c.; a quarter (see {eka-bh-}, {tri-bh-}); part i.e. place, spot, region, side (ifc. taking the place of, representing) Lthy. MBh. &c. (in this sense also n.; see {bhUmi-bh-}); part of anything given as interest W.; a half rupee L.; the numerator of a fraction Col.; a quotient MW.; a degree or 360th part of the circumference of a great circle Sryas.; a division of time, the 30th part of a Rs'i or zodiacal sign W.; N. of a king (also {bhAgavata}) Pur.; of a river (one of the branches of the Candra-bhg) L.; mfn. relating to Bhaga (as a hymn) Nir.; n. N. of a
312

Sman rshBr. bhaagavata * = mf({I})n. (fr. {bhaga-vat}) relating to or coming from Bhagavat i.e. Vishnu or Kriishna, holy, sacred, divine MBh. Hariv. Pur.; m. a follower or worshipper of BhBhagavati or Vishnu ib. (cf. IW. 321, 1); N. of a king VP.; n. N. of a Purna (cf. {bhAgavatap-}). bhaagavatapuraaNa * = n. N. of the most celebrated and popular of the 18 Pura1n2as (especially dedicated to the glorification of Vishn2u-Kr2ishn2a , whose history is in the 10th book ; and narrated by S3uka , son of Vya1sa , to king Pari1-kshit , grandson of Arjuna) IW. 331 ; 315 &c. ; %{-kroDapattra} n. pl. , %{-tattvasaMgraha} m. %{-prakAza} m. %{prathama-zlokatrayI-TIkA} f. %{-prasaGga-dRSTA7ntA7valI} f. %{prAmANya} n. %{-bandhana} n. %{-bRhat-saMgraha} m. %{-bhAvA7rtha-dIpikA-prakarana-kramasaMgraha} m. %{-bhAvA7rtha-dIpikA-saMgraha} m. %{-bhUSaNa} n. %{-maJjarI} f. %{-mahA-vivaraNa} n. %{-sArA7rtha-darzinI} f. %{-sUcikA} f. %{svarUpa-viSayaka-zaGkA-nirAsa} m. %{-NA7dyazloka-trayI-TIkA} f. %{-NA7rka-prabhA} f. N. of wks. connected with the BhP. bhaajana* = n. (fr. Caus.) sharing, division (in arithm.) Col.; mf({A})n. (ifc.) sharing or participating in, entitled or relating or belonging to Br. &c. &c.; n. `"
313

partaker of "', a recipient, receptacle, (esp.) a vessel, pot, plate, cup, &c. MBh. Kv. &c.; (with gen. or ifc. with f. {A}), a place or person in which anything is collected or in whom any quality is conspicuous, any fit object or clever or deserving person ib. (cf. {pAtra}); the act of representing, representation ({ena} ind. with gen. in the place of; ifc. a representative, deputy, substitute, serving for, equivalent to) Br. GriS.; a partic. measure (= an dhaka= 14 Palas) S'rngS.; m. N. of a man; pl. his descendants g. {bidA7di}. bhaajanatA* = f. (ifc.) the being a vessel for, possession of BhP. bhaaJanaloka* = m. (with Buddhists) the world of inanimate things (opp. to {sattva-l-} q.v.). Dharmas. 89. bhaajanIbhUta* = mfn. (ifc.) one who has become a vessel for or who has obtained Kaths. Lalit. bhaagadheya = fortune bhaagya = Blessing * =1 mfn. (fr. %{bhaga}) relating to Bhaga; n. (with %{yuga}) the 12th or last lustrum in Jupiter's cycle of 60 years VarBr2S.; (scil. %{bha} or % {nakSatra}) the asterism of Bhaga i.e. Uttara-Phalguni1 ib. [752,1]\\2 mfn. ( %{bhaj}) to be shared or divided, divisible (= %{bhajya}) Vop.\\3 mfn. (fr. %{bhAga}) entitled to a share g. %{daNDA7di}; (with %{zata}, % {viMzati} &c.) = %{bhAgika} Pa1n2. 5-1, 42 Sch.; lucky, fortunate (compar. %{-tara}) MBh. R.; n. sg. or
314

pl. (ifc. f. %{A}) fate, destiny (resulting from merit or demerit in former existences), fortune, (esp.) good fortune, luck, happiness, welfare MBh. Ka1v. &c. (% {ena} ind. luckily, fortunately Hit.); reward BhP. bhaagya-bhaava = Ninth house of Luck bhaagyaM = fortune; luck bhaagyodaya = prosperity, rise of wealth and belongings bhaajayu* = mfn. (fr. Caus.) sharing with others, generous, liberal RV. bhaajaka* = m. (fr. Caus.) a divisor (in arithm.) Col. bhaajana* = n. (fr. Caus.) sharing, division (in arithm.) Col.; mf({A})n. (ifc.) sharing or participating in, entitled or relating or belonging to Br. &c. &c.; n. `" partaker of "', a recipient, receptacle, (esp.) a vessel, pot, plate, cup, &c. MBh. Kv. &c.; (with gen. or ifc. with f. {A}), a place or person in which anything is collected or in whom any quality is conspicuous, any fit object or clever or deserving person ib. (cf. {pAtra}); the act of representing, representation ({ena} ind. with gen. in the place of; ifc. a representative, deputy, substitute, serving for, equivalent to) Br. GriS.; a partic. measure (= an dhaka= 14 Palas) S'rngS.; m. N. of a man; pl. his descendants g. {bidA7di}.
315

bhaajanam.h = (n) division bhaajaaM = acquiring peeople bhaajita * = mfn. (fr. Caus.) shared, divided Sryas.; distributed, portioned W.; n. a share, portion ib. bhaakshaalaka* = mfn. relating to or coming from the place Bhakshl g. {dhUmU7di}. bhaaksha* = mf({I})n. ( {bhakS}) habitually eating, gluttonous (= {bhakSA zIlam asya}) g. {chattrA7di}. bhaalaM = forehead bhaanu * = m. appearance, brightness, light or a ray of light, lustre, splendour RV. &c. &c.; the sun MBh. Kv. &c.; a king, prince, master, lord L.; N. of the chapters of the dictionary of an anonymous author Cat.; N. of S'iva L.; of an ditya RmatUp.; of a Deva-gandharva MBh.; of a son of Kriishna ib.; of a Ydava Hariv.; of the father of the 15th Arhat of the present Avasarpin L.; of a prince (son of Prati-vyoma) BhP.; of a son of Vis'vadhara and father of Hari-ntha Cat.; of a pupil of S'ankara7crya Cat.; of various authors (also with {dIkSita}, {paNDita}, {bhaTTa} &c.) ib.; pl. the dityas (children of Bhnu) Hariv. Pur.; the gods of the 3rd Manv-antara Hariv.; f. a handsome wife (= {bhAnumatI}) L.; N. of a daughter of Daksha (wife of Dharma
316

or Manu and mother of Bhnu and ditya) Hariv. VP.; of the mother of Devarshabha BhP.; of a daughter of Kriishna Hariv.; of the mother of the Dnava S'akuni &c. BhP. bhaanuu = a name of Sun bhaara = load bhaara * = weight, war, battle, contest; a burden, load, weight; * = m. ( {bhR}) a burden, load, weight RV. &c. &c.; heavy work, labour, toil, trouble, task imposed on any one (gen. or comp.) MBh. Kv. &c.; a large quantity, mass, bulk (often in comp. with words meaning `" hair "') Hariv. Kv. &c.; a partic. weight (= 20 Tuls = 2000 Palas of gold) Hariv. Pacat. Sus'r.; = {bhAra-yaSTi}, Krand.; a partic. manner of beating a drum Sangt.; N. of Vishnu L.; of a prince VP. bhaaradvaaja* = mf({I})n. coming from or relating to Bharad-vja S'Br. &c. &c.; m. patr. fr. {bharad-vAja} g. {bidA7di}; N. of various men (esp. of supposed authors of hymns, viz. of Riijis'van, Garga, Nara, Pyu, Vasu, S'sa, S'irimbitha, S'unahotra, Sapratha, Su-hotra q.v.; but also of others e.g. of Drona, of Agastya, of S'aunya, of Sukes'an, of Satya-vha, of S'sha Vhneya, of one of the 7 Riishis, of a son of Briihas-pati &c., and of many writers and teachers pl. of a Vedic school) RAnukr. MBh. Cat. IW. 146, 161 &c.; the planet Mars L.; a
317

skylark Pacat.; pl. N. of a people VP.; ({I}) f. a female descendant of Bharad-vja (with {rAtri}N. of the author of RV. x, 127; cf. also {bhA4radvAjI-pu4tra} below); a skylark PrGri.; the wild cotton shrub L.; N. of a river MBh. VP.; n. a bone L.; N. of various Smans rshBr.; of a place Pn. 4-2, 145 (v.l. for {bhar-}). bhaarata = O descendant of Bharata bhaaratii = Utterance bhaarate = (Loc.S)in India or Bharat bhaaravaahakam.h = (n) a truck bhaargava* = mf({I})n. relating to or coming from Bhriigu Up. MBh. &c.; belonging to S'ukra (cf. below) R.; patr. fr. {bhRgu} (pl. {bhRgavaH}) Pn. 2-4, 65; N. of S'ukra (regent of the planet Venus and preceptor of the Daityas) R. Var. &c.; of S'iva MBh.; of Paras'u-rma ib.; of various men (esp. supposed authors of hymns, viz. of Itha, Kali, Kriitnu, Griitsamada, Cyavana, Jamad-agni, Nema, Prayogs, Vena, Soma7huti and Syma-ras'mi q.v.; but also of many other writers or mythological personages e.g. of Ithala, of Riicka, of Dvi-gat, of Dris'na, of Mrkandeya, of Pramati &c.) Br. S'rS. MBh. RAnukr.; a potter MBh. (Nlak.); an astrologer L.; an archer, a good bowman (like Paras'urma) L.; an elephant L.; pl. the descendants of Bhriigu
318

(properly called {bhRgavaH}; cf. above) MBh. Hariv.; N. of a people MBh. Pur.; ({I}) f. a female descendant of Bhriigu Pn. 2-4, 65; Bhargava's i.e. S'ukra's daughter R.; N. of Deva-yni f. MBh. BhP.; of Lakshm L.; of Prvat L.; Panicum Dactylon and another species L.; n. N. of various Smans rshBr. bhaaryaa = wife bhaaryaa-bhaava = Seventh house of spouse (wife) bhaaryaanuraagaH = attachment to wife bhaasa* = m. light, lustre, brightness (often ifc.) MBh. Hariv. Kaths.; impression made on the mind, fancy MW.; a bird of prey, vulture (L. = {zakunta}, {kukkuTa}, {gRdhra} &c.) AdbhBr. past. MBh. Hariv. &c. (w.r. {bhASa}); a cow-shed L.; N. of a man Rjat.; of a dramatic poet (also called Bhsaka) Mlav. Hcar. &c.; of a son of a minister of king Candra-prabha Kaths.; of a Dnava ib.; of a mountain MBh.; ({I}) f. N. of the mother of the vultures (a daughter of Tmr) MBh. Hariv. Pur.; of a daughter of Prdh MBh.; n. (m. TBr.) N. of a Sman Br. S'rS. bhaashate = (1 ap) to speak bhaashin.h = one who talks

319

bhaashh.h = to speak bhaashhaNa = speech bhaashhase = speaking bhaashhaa = language bhaashhaayaaM = in the language bhaashhiNi = speaker bhaashhita = speech bhaasaH = effulgence bhaasayate = illuminates bhaasasya = Bhasa's bhaashaa* = f. speech, language (esp. common or vernacular speech, as opp. to Vedic or in later times to Sanskriit) Nir. Pn. Mn. MBh.; any Prkriit dialect or a partic. group of 5 of them (viz. Mhrshthri, S'auraseni, Mgadhi, Prcy, and Avanti, also called Paca-vidh Bhsh; cf. under {prAkRta}, p. 703) Cat.; description, definition Bhag.; (in law) accusation, charge, complaint, plaint Dhrtas. Yj. Sch.; N. of Sarasvati L.; (in music) of a Rgini.

320

bhaaskra = a name of Sun bhaasvataa = glowing bhaashitapuMska * = mfn. = {ukta-puMska} (q.v.) Pn. 6-3, 34 &c. ({-tva} n. vii, 3, 48 Sch.) bhaashitavya * = mfn. to be spoken to or addressed R. (v.l. for {bhajitavya}). bhaa4shitR * = mfn. speaking, a speaker, talker (with acc, or ifc.) S'Br. MBh. &c. bhaashita * = mfn. spoken, uttered, said; spoken to, addressed Mn. MBh. &c.; n. speech, language, talk i bhaashin* = mfn. saying, speaking, loquacious (mostly ifc.) MBh. Kv. &c. bhaasin * = mfn. shining, brilliant (see {Urdhva-} and {jyotir-bh-}). bhaashinah: V: foretelling, speaking as a sign 3a1rn3gS.; (in arithm.) finding by combination or composition; (with Jainas) right conception or notion; the moral of a fable HParis3.; N. of an Upanishad; a crow L.; water L.; n. furthering, promoting MBh.; the fruit of Dillenia Speciosa L.; (ifc.) nature, essence
321

Ra1matUp. bhaati = light //* = f. light, splendour BhP.; evidence, perception, knowledge ib. [751,1] bhaata * = mfn. shining, appearing &c.; = {prabhAta} L.; n. (impers.) appearance has been made by (instr.) BhP. bhaatha * = m. or n. ( {bhaT}) wages, hire, rent L. bhaava * = becoming, being, existing, occurring, appearance; turning or transition into; continuance, continuity of the thread of existence through successive births Buddh.; state, condition, rank (with {sthAvira}, old age, euphem. = he dies; state of being anything,, the state of being a child, childhood; sometimes added pleonastically to an abstract noun, the state of thinness.; true condition or state, truth, reality; manner of being, nature, temperament, character bhaava * = m. ( {bhU}) becoming, being, existing, occurring, appearance S'vetUp. KtyS'r. &c. [754, 2]; turning or transition into (loc. or comp.) MBh. RPrt.; continuance (opp. to cessation; {eko7ti-bhAva}, continuity of the thread of existence through successive births Buddh., wrongly translated under {eko7ti-bh-}) MBh.; state, condition, rank (with {sthAvira}, old age; {anyam bhAvam Apadyate}, euphem. = he dies; state of being anything, esp. ifc. e.g. {bAlabhAva}, the state of
322

being a child, childhood = {bAlatA}, or {tva}; sometimes added pleonastically to an abstract noun e.g. {tanutA-bhAva}, the state of thinness) Up. S'rS. MBh. &c.; true condition or state, truth, reality (ibc. and {bhAvena} ind. really, truly) MBh. Hariv.; manner of being, nature, temperament, character ({eko bhAvaH} or {eka-bh-}, a simple or artless nature; {bhAvo bhAvaM nigacchati} = birds of a feather flock together) MBh. Kv. &c.; manner of acting, conduct, behaviour Kv. Sh.; any state of mind or body, way of thinking or feeling, sentiment, opinion, disposition, intention ({yAdRzena bhAvena}, with whatever disposition of mind; {bhAvam amaGgalaM-kR}, with loc., to be ill disposed against; {bhAvaM dRDhaM-kR}, to make a firm resolution) Mn. MBh. &c.; (in rhet.) passion, emotion (2 kinds of Bhvas are enumerated, the {sthAyin} or primary, and {vyabhicArin} or subordinate; the former are 8 or 9 according as the Rasas or sentiments are taken to be 8 or 9; the latter 33 or 34) Kv. Sh. Pratp. &c.; conjecture, supposition Mn. Pacat.; purport, meaning, sense ({iti bhAvaH}, `" such is the sense "' = {ity arthaH} or {ity abhiprA7yaH}, constantly used by commentators at the end of their explanations); love, affection, attachment ({bhAvaM-kR}, with loc., to feel an affection for) MBh. Kv. &c.; the seat of the feelings or affections, heart, soul, mind ({parituSTena bhAvena}, with a pleased mind) S'vetUp. Mn. MBh. &c.; that which is or exists, thing or substance, being or living creature ({sarva323

bhAvAH}, all earthly objects; {bhAvAH sthAvarajaGgamAH}, plants and animals) MundUp. MBh. &c.; (in dram.) a discreet or learned man (as a term of address = respected sir) Mriicch. Mlav. Mlatm.; (in astron.) the state or condition of a planet L.; an astrological house or lunar mansion ib.; N. of the 27th Kalpa (s.v.) ib.; of the 8th (42nd) year in Jupiter's cycle of 60 years VarBriS.; (in gram.) the fundamental notion of the verb, the sense conveyed by the abstract noun (esp. as a term for an impersonal passive or neuter verb having neither agent nor object expressed e.g. {pacyate}, `" there is cooking "' or `" cooking is going on "') Pn. 3-1, 66; 107 &c.; N. of the author of the Bhvaprkas'a (= {mizra-bhAva}) Cat.; wanton sport, dalliance L.; birth L.; place of birth, the womb L.; the world, universe L.; an organ of sense L.; superhuman power L.; the Supreme Being L.; advice, instruction L.; contemplation, meditation L. (cf. {-samanvita}). bhaava = House and is also used to indicate the chart that uses Porphyry's Cusps bhaavaH = endurance bhaavaM = nature bhaavanaa = fixed mind (in happiness) // *= f. of prec., in comp.* = n. (for 2. %{bhAvana} see p. 755, col. 1) a forest of rays Ghat2.//2 mf(%{I})n. (fr. Caus.; for 1. see
324

2. %{bhA4} p. 750) causing to be, effecting, producing, displaying, manifesting MBh. Ka1v. BhP.; promoting or effecting any one's (gen. or comp.) welfare MBh. R. &c.; imagining, fancying, Asht2a1vS.; teaching MBh.; m. a creator, producer, efficient MBh. Ka1v.; N. of S3iva (= %{dhyAtR}) MBh.; of Vishn2u A.; of the 22nd Kalpa (q.v.); (%{A}) f. and n. the act of producing or effecting Nir. Sa1h. BhP.; forming in the mind, conception, apprehension, imagination, supposition, fancy, thought, meditation (%{bhAvanayA} ind, in thought, in imagination; %{-nAm-bandh}, with loc., to occupy one's imagination with, direct one's thoughts to) MBh. Ka1v. S3am2k. Veda7ntas. &c.; (in logic) that cause of memory which arises from direct perception Tarkas.; application of perfumes &c. (= % {adhivAsana}) L.; (%{A}) f. demonstration, argument, ascertainment Ya1jn5.; feeling of devotion, faith in (loc.) Pan5cat.; reflection, contemplation (5 kinds with Buddhists MWB. 128); saturating any powder with fluid, steeping, infusion S3a1rn3gS.; (in arithm.) finding by combination or composition; (with Jainas) right conception or notion; the moral of a fable HParis3.; N. of an Upanishad; a crow L.; water L.; n. furthering, promoting MBh.; the fruit of Dillenia Speciosa L.; (ifc.) nature, essence Ra1matUp. bhaavaya = deem/consider/visualise/imagine bhaavayataa = having pleased
325

bhaavayantaH = pleasing one another bhaavayantu = will please bhaavasamanvitaH = with great attention bhaavaaH = natures bhaavitaaH = remembering bhaavaiH = by the states of beingbhaaveshhu = natures cintyah bhaavya4* = mfn. (fr. {bhU} or its Caus.) future, about to be or what ought to be or become RV. &c. &c. (in later language often used as fut. tense of {bhU}; cf. {bhAvin}); to be effected or accomplished or performed Kum. BhP.; to be apprehended or perceived Kaths.; to be (or being) imagined or conceived, AshthvS. (cf. {dur-bh-}); easy to guess or understand Vm.; to be (or being) argued or demonstrated or admitted or approved Yj. Kv.; to be convicted Mn. viii, 60; m. N. of a man (= {bhAvayavya} Nir.) RV. i, 126, 1 (others `" to be worshipped "', others `" future "'); of a king (= {bhAvyaratha} or {bhAnu-ratha}) VP.; n. (impers.) it is to be by (instr, ) Mn. v, 150; it should be understood Mriicch. Sch. bhaDa* = m. N. of a partic. mixed caste Cat. (cf.
326

{bhaTa}) bhadraM = (Nr.nom. + acc.sing.)goodness bhadra* = mf({A4})n. blessed, auspicious, fortunate, prosperous, happy RV. &c. &c.; good, gracious, friendly, kind ib.; excellent, fair, beautiful, lovely, pleasant, dear ib.; good i.e. skilful in (loc.) MBh. iv, 305; great L.; (with {nRpati} m. a good or gracious king Yj.; with {kAnta} m. a beautiful lover or husband Pacat.; with {diz} f. the auspicious quarter i.e. the south MBh.; with {vAc} f. kind or friendly speech BhP.; voc. m. and f. sg. and pl. {bhadra}, {-dre}, {-drAH}, often in familiar address = my good sir or lady, my dear or my dears, good people Mn. MBh. &c.; {a4m} and {a4yA} ind, happily, fortunately, joyfully RV. AV.; {am} with {kR} or {A-car}, to do well Hit.); m. (prob.) a sanctimonious hypocrite Mn. ix, 259 (v.l. {-drapre7kSaNikaiH}); a partic. kind of elephant R. (also N. of a world elephant ib.) a bullock L.; a water wagtail Var. (cf. {-nAman}); Nauclea Cadamba or Tithymalus Antiquorum L.; N. of S'iva L.; of mount Meru L.; of a class of gods (pl.) under the third Manu BhP.; of a people (pl.) AV.Paris'.; of one of the 12 sons of Vishnu and one of the Tushita deities in the Svyambhava Manv-antara BhP.; (with Jainas) of the third of the 9 white Balas L.; of a son of Vasu-deva and Devak (or Paurav) BhP. Kaths.; of a son of Kriishna BhP.; of a son of Upacrumat Buddh.; of an actor Hariv.; of a
327

friend of Bna Vs., Introd.; (with Buddhists) N. of a partic. world; ({A}) f. a cow L.; N. of various plants (= {anantA}, {aparijAtA}, {kRSNA}, {jIvantI}, {nIlI}, {rAsnA} &c.) L. [746,1]; N. of a metre Col.; of the 2nd, 7th and 12th days of the lunar fortnight W.; of the 7th movable Karana (s.v.; cf. also 2. {bhadrA-karaNa}); of a form of Durg VP.; of a goddess Pacar.; of a Buddhist deity L.; of a S'akti Hcat.; of Dkshyan in Bhadre7s'vara Cat.; of a Vidy-dhar R.; of a Sura7ngan Sinha7s.; of a daughter of Surabhi R.; of a wife of Vasu-devi Hariv. Pur.; of the wife of Vais'ravana MBh.; of a daughter of Soma and wife of Utathya ib.; of a daughter of Raudrs'va and the Apsaras Ghriitc Hariv.; of a Kkshvat and wife of Vyushita7s'va MBh.; of a daughter of Meru and wife of Bhadra7s'va BhP.; of a daughter of S'ruta-krti and wife of Kriishna BhP.; of various rivers (esp. of one described as rising on the northern summit of Meru and flowing through Uttarakuru into the northern ocean) Pur.; the celestial Ganges L.; of a lake Hcat.; n. prosperity, happiness, health, welfare, good fortune (also pl.) RV. &c. &c. ({bhadraM tasya} or {tasmai}, prosperity to him! Pn. 2-3, 73; {bhadraM te} or {vaH} often used parenthetically in a sentence = `" if you please "', or to fill up a verse; {bhadram upalAh}, happiness to you, O stones! S'ntis'.; {bhadram} with {kR} and dat., to grant welfare to, bless RV.); gold L.; iron or steel L.; kind of Cyperus (= {-musta}) L.; a partic. posture in sitting Cat.; a partic. Karana L. (cf. f.);
328

a partic. mystic sign AgP.; a partic. part of a house Nalac.; N. of various Smans rshBr. bhadraa* = 1 f. of {bhadra}, in comp. -1. bhadraa* = 2 ind. (g. {sA7kSAd-Adi}), in comp. -2. bhadraa* =1 f. of {bhadra}, in comp. -1.\\2 ind. (g. {sA7kSAd-Adi}), in comp. -2. bhadraaH = goodness bhadraasana = the auspicious posture. bhadrapada* = n. N. of a metre Col. [746,2]; ({A}) f. N. of the 3rd and 4th lunar asterisms Var. &c. (also n.; {dA-yoga} m. N. of ch. of Bhaththo7tpala's Comm. on VarBriS.) bhadrapAda* = mfn. born under the Nakshatra Bhadrapad Pn. 7-3, 18 Sch. bhaga * m. (ifc. f. {A} and {I} g. {bahv-Adi}) `" dispenser "', gracious lord, patron (applied to gods, esp. to Savitrii) RV. AV.; N. of an ditya (bestowing wealth and presiding over love and marriage, brother of the Dawn, regent of the Nakshatra Uttara-Phalgun; Yska enumerates him among the divinities of the highest sphere; according to a later legend his eyes were destroyed by Rudra) ib. &c. &c. [743, 3]; the Nakshatra
329

UUttara-PhPhalgun MBh. vi, 81; the sun ib. iii, 146; the moon L.; N. of a Rudra MBh.; good fortune, happiness, welfare, prosperity RV. AV. Br. Yj. BhP.; (ifc. f. {A}) dignity, majesty, distinction, excellence, beauty, loveliness RV. AV. Br. GriS. BhP.; (also n. L.) love, affection, sexual passion, amorous pleasure, dalliance RV. AV. Br. KtyS'r. BhP.; (n. L.; ifc. f. {A}) the female organs, pudendum muliebre, vulva Mn. MBh. &c.; ({A}) f. in {bhagA-nAmnI} below; n. a partic. Muhrta Cat.; the perinaeum of males L.; m. n. = {yatna}, {prayatna}, {kIrti}, {yazas}, {vairAgya}, {icchA}, {jJAna}, {mukti}, {mokSa}, {dharma}, s'r L. [Cf. Zd. {bagha = Old Pers. {baga}; Gk. $; &226046[743, 3] Slav. {bogu8}, {bogatu8}; Lith. {bago4tas}, {na-ba4gas}.], bhagna * (see also bhanga/bhaGga)=. broken (lit. and fig.), shattered, split, torn, defeated, checked, frustrated, disturbed, disappointed Mn. MBh. &c. (sometimes forming the first instead of the second part of a comp. e.g. {grIvA-bhagna}, {dharma-bh-} for {bhagna-grIva}, {-dharma}; also `" one who has broken a limb "' BhP.); bent, curved R.; lost Mn. viii, 148; n. the fracture of a leg Sus'r. bhashita * = n. barking L. bhasita * = mfn. reduced to ashes BhP.; n. ashes Bhm.

330

bhagavat.h = God bhagavat * = ind. like a vulva Vishn. Sch. -2. bha4ga-vat * = 2 mfn. (for 1. see under {bha4ga}) possessing fortune, fortunate, prosperous, happy RV. AV. GriS. BhP.; glorious, illustrious, divine, adorable, venerable AV. &c. &c.; holy (applied to gods, demigods, and saints ae a term of address, either in voc. {bhagavan}, {bhagavas}, {bhagos} [cf. Pn. 8-3, 1 Vrtt. 2 Pat., and viii, 3, 17] f. {bhagavatI} m. pl. {bhagavantaH}; or in nom. with 3. sg. of the verb; with Buddhists often prefixed to the titles of their sacred writings); m. `" the divine or adorable one "'N. of Vishnu-Kriishna Bhag. BhP.; of S'iva Kaths.; of a Buddha or a Bodhi-sattva or a Jina Buddh. (cf. MWB. 23); ({I}) f. see below. bhagavad.h = god's bhagavad.hgiitaa = the dialogues between Krishna and Arjuna bhagavan.h = O Supreme bhagavaan.h = O Personality of Godhead bhagavaana = holy

331

bhaginii = sister bhagneshakaarmukaH = the man who broke the bow of Isha(shiva) i.e. rAma bhaGga (bhan'ga) *= mfn. breaking, bursting (said of the Soma) RV. ix, 61, 13; m. breaking, splitting, dividing, shattering, breaking down or up VS. &c. &c.; a break or breach (lit. and fig.), disturbance, interruption, frustration, humiliation, abatement, downfall, decay, ruin, destruction Mn. MBh. &c.; fracture (see %{asthi-bh-}); paralysis, palsy L.; bending, bowing, stretching out (see %{karNa-}, %{gAtra-}, %{grIvA-bh-}); knitting, contraction (see %{bhrU-bh-}); separation, analysis (of words) Sa1h.; overthrow, rout, defeat (also in a lawsuit) Hit. Ka1m. Ya1jn5. Sch.; rejection, refusal Ka1lid.; refutation Sarvad.; panic, fear Ra1jat.; pain (see %{pArzva-bh-}); a piece broken off, morsel, fragment Ka1lid. Ka1d.; a bend, fold, Sah. (cf. %{vastra-bh-}); a wave Ragh. Gi1t. [cf. Lith. {banga4}]; a water-course, channel L.; fraud, deceit L.; a tortuous course, roundabout way of speaking (= or w.r. for %{bhaGgi}) Sarvad.; toilet, fashion (for % {bhaGgi}?) Var.; = %{gamana} L.; N. of a serpentdemon MBh.; (with Buddhists) the constant decay taking place in the universe, constant flux or change; (with Jainas) a dialectical formula beginning with % {syAt} q.v.; (%{bhaGga4}) m. hemp AV.; (%{A}) f. see below.
332

bhairava = terrible, one of the forms of Shiva bhaikshyaM = by begging bhaj.h = to practice / incur bhaja = worship bhajaka* = m. a distributer, apportioner (see {civarabh-}); a worshipper MW. bhajana* = m. N. of a prince VP.; n. the act of sharing W.; possession ib.; (ifc.) reverence, worship, adoration Prab. Sch. (also {-tA} f. with loc. Cn.); {-vArika} m. a partic. official in a Buddhist monastery L.; {-nA7nanda} m. N. of an author Cat.; {-nA7mRta} n. N. of wk. bhajaka = worshippers bhajataaM = in rendering devotional service bhajati = (1 pp) to divide, to allocate bhajate = renders transcendental loving service bhajanIya* = mfn. to be loved or revered or waited upon, venerable MBh. BhP. bhajana = a hymn* = m. N. of a prince VP.; n. the act of
333

sharing W.; possession ib.; (ifc.) reverence, worship, adoration Prab. Sch. (also {-tA} f. with loc. Cn.); {vArika} m. a partic. official in a Buddhist monastery L.; {-nA7nanda} m. N. of an author Cat.; {-nA7mRta} n. N. of wk. bhajanti = render service bhajante = render services bhajasva = be engaged in loving service bhajaami = reward bhaje = I worship bhajaina = (f) where to your erection bhakataH = devotee bhakta = devotee bhaktaH = devotee bhaktaaH = devotees bhaktaanukaMpinaaM = compassionate to the devotees bhakti = devotion, worship
334

bhaktiM = devotional service bhaktiH = in devotional service bhaktimaan.h = devotee bhaktiyogena = by devotional service bhaktimat =* mfn. = %{-bhAj} MBh. Ka1v. &c.; accompanied by devotion or loyalty BhP. bhakteshhu = amongst devotees bhaktyaa = in full devotion bhaktyupahritaM = offered in devotion bhaksha = Food bhakshayati = (10 up) to eat, to devour bhakshaNa* = mfn. eating, one who eats (cf. {dADima-}, {pApa-bh-}); n. the act of eating, drinking, feeding S'rS. Nir. MBh. &c.; eating what excites thirst L.; chewing L.; the being eaten by (instr.) Mn. R.; ({bha4-}) a drinking vessel RV. bhakshaNIya* = mfn. to be (or being) eaten Pacat.; {tA} f. eatableness S'rngP.
335

bhakshayitavya* = mfn. to be eaten or devoured, edible MBh. Pacat. bhakshayitR* = m. an eater, enjoyer MBh. bhakshaTaka* = m. a variety of Asteracantha Longifolia L. bhakshaalii* = f. N. of a place g. {dhUmA7di} (not in Ks'.) bhaksha* = m. drinking or eating, drink or (in later language) food RV. &c. &c. (often ifc., with f. {A}, having anything for food or beverage, eating, drinking, living upon); {-kAra} m. `" food-maker "', a cook, baker L.; {-M-kAra4} mfn. furnishing food MaitrS. (cf. Pn. 6-3, 72 Vrtt. 2 Pat.); {-MkRta} ({-kSa4M-}) mfn. drunk or eaten, enjoyed TS. s'vS'r.; {-japa} m. the prayer muttered while drinking Soma s'vS'r.; {-pattrI} f. betel-pepper (the leaf of which serves for food) L.; {bIja} w.r. for {bhakSya-b-}; {-mantra} m. a verse spoken while drinking Soma S'nkhS'r. bhalla * = mfn. auspicious, favourable (= {bhadra} or {ziva}) L.; m. a bear Hit. (cf. {accha-bhalla}, {bhalluka}, {bhallUka}); a term used in addressing the Sun (only dat.; cf. 2. {bhala}) MantraBr. Gobh.; (pl.) N. of a people Pn. 5-3, 114. Sch. (v.l. {malla}); N. of S'iva (cf. above); a kind of arrow or missile with a point of a
336

partic. shape MBh. Kv. &c. (also {I} f. and n.); a partic. part of an arrow MBh.; ({I}) f. Semecarpus Anacardium Bhpr.; n. an arrow-head of a partic. shape S'rngP. bhallatakaH = (m) cashewnut bhallukaH = (m) bear bhaMbhaM = (v) to fuck up the ass bha.nga = (masc) break bhangura V: perishable, breakable, to be lost, transient bhaNT* = cl. 10. P. {bhaNTayati}, to deceive Dhtup. xxxii, 50 Vop. bhaNTuka* = m. Calosanthes Indica L. (v.l. {bhaNDuka}). bhaNDu* = g. {suvAstv-Adi}. bhandhuka* = or {-dhruka} m. N. of a place SkandaP. bhaanava* = mfn. peculiar to the sun L.; ({I}) f. a kind of pace Sangt. bhaanu4* = m. appearance, brightness, light or a ray of
337

light, lustre, splendour RV. &c. &c.; the sun MBh. Kv. &c.; a king, prince, master, lord L.; N. of the chapters of the dictionary of an anonymous author Cat.; N. of S'iva L.; of an ditya RmatUp.; of a Deva-gandharva MBh.; of a son of Kriishna ib.; of a Ydava Hariv.; of the father of the 15th Arhat of the present Avasarpin L.; of a prince (son of Prati-vyoma) BhP.; of a son of Vis'vadhara and father of Hari-ntha Cat.; of a pupil of S'ankara7crya Cat.; of various authors (also with {dIkSita}, {paNDita}, {bhaTTa} &c.) ib.; pl. the dityas (children of Bhnu) Hariv. Pur.; the gods of the 3rd Manv-antara Hariv.; f. a handsome wife (= {bhAnumatI}) L.; N. of a daughter of Daksha (wife of Dharma or Manu and mother of Bhnu and ditya) Hariv. VP.; of the mother of Devarshabha BhP.; of a daughter of Kriishna Hariv.; of the mother of the Dnava S'akuni &c. BhP. bhaaraaya Nom. A1. %{-yate}, to form a load be a load for (gen.) Kuval. BhP. bhaaraya m. = %{bhAradvAja}, a sky-lark ib. [753,3] f. a pole or yoke for carrying loads L.

bhaarayasththi

bhaargava* = mf({I})n. relating to or coming from Bhriigu Up. MBh. &c.; belonging to S'ukra (cf. below) R.; patr. fr. {bhRgu} (pl. {bhRgavaH}) Pn. 2-4, 65; N. of S'ukra (regent of the planet Venus and preceptor of
338

the Daityas) R. Var. &c.; of S'iva MBh.; of Paras'u-rma ib.; of various men (esp. supposed authors of hymns, viz. of Itha, Kali, Kriitnu, Griitsamada, Cyavana, Jamad-agni, Nema, Prayogs, Vena, Soma7huti and Syma-ras'mi q.v.; but also of many other writers or mythological personages e.g. of Ithala, of Riicka, of Dvi-gat, of Dris'na, of Mrkandeya, of Pramati &c.) Br. S'rS. MBh. RAnukr.; a potter MBh. (Nlak.); an astrologer L.; an archer, a good bowman (like Paras'urma) L.; an elephant L.; pl. the descendants of Bhriigu (properly called {bhRgavaH}; cf. above) MBh. Hariv.; N. of a people MBh. Pur.; ({I}) f. a female descendant of Bhriigu Pn. 2-4, 65; Bhargava's i.e. S'ukra's daughter R.; N. of Deva-yni f. MBh. BhP.; of Lakshm L.; of Prvat L.; Panicum Dactylon and another species L.; n. N. of various Smans rshBr. bhaarya(a) V*= wife, bride bhaavana * = n. (for 2. %{bhAvana} see p. 755, col. 1) a forest of rays Ghat2.\\ 2 mf(%{I})n. (fr. Caus.; for 1. see 2. %{bhA4} p. 750) causing to be, effecting, producing, displaying, manifesting MBh. Ka1v. BhP.; promoting or effecting any one's (gen. or comp.) welfare MBh. R. &c.; imagining, fancying, Asht2a1vS.; teaching MBh.; m. a creator, producer, efficient MBh. Ka1v.; N. of S3iva (= %{dhyAtR}) MBh.; of Vishn2u A.; of the 22nd Kalpa (q.v.); (%{A}) f. and n. the act of producing or effecting Nir. Sa1h. BhP.; forming in the
339

mind, conception, apprehension, imagination, supposition, fancy, thought, meditation (% {bhAvanayA} ind, in thought, in imagination; %{-nAmbandh}, with loc., to occupy one's imagination with, direct one's thoughts to) MBh. Ka1v. S3am2k. Veda7ntas. &c.; (in logic) that cause of memory which arises from direct perception Tarkas.; application of perfumes &c. (= %{adhivAsana}) L.; (%{A}) f. demonstration, argument, ascertainment Ya1jn5.; feeling of devotion, faith in (loc.) Pan5cat.; reflection, contemplation (5 kinds with Buddhists MWB. 128); saturating any powder with fluid, steeping, infusion S3a1rn3gS.; (in arithm.) finding by combination or composition; (with Jainas) right conception or notion; the moral of a fable HParis3.; N. of an Upanishad; a crow L.; water L.; n. furthering, promoting MBh.; the fruit of Dillenia Speciosa L.; (ifc.) nature, essence Ra1matUp. bhaavanaa * = f. of prec., in comp. bhar = (v) to bear, carry bhara * = mf({A})n. ( {bhR}) bearing, carrying, bringing; bestowing, granting; maintaining, supporting (mostly ifc.; cf. {Rtam-}, {kulam-}, {deham-}, {vAjambh-} and c.); m. (ifc. f. {A}) the act of bearing or carrying &c.; carrying away or what is carried away, gain, prize, booty RV. AV.; war, battle, contest ib.; a
340

burden, load, weight (also a partic. measure of weight = {bhAra} q.v. L.) Hariv. Kv. &c. (acc. with {kR}, to place one's weight, support one's self Hit.); a large quantity, great number, mass, bulk, multitude, abundance, excess Kv. Kaths. &c. ({bhareNa} and {rAt} ind. in full measure, with all one's might Kd.); raising the voice, shout or song of praise RV.; n. du. (with {indrasya}, or {vasiSThasya}) N. of 2 Smans rshBr. bharadvaaja* = ({bhara4d-}) m. `" bearing "' speed or strength (of flight) "', a skylark R.; N. of a Riishi (with the patr. Brhaspatya, supposed author of RV. vi, 1-30; 37-43; 53-74; ix, 67. 1-3; x, 137, 1, and Purohita of Diva-dsa, with whom he is perhaps identical; BhBharad is also considered as one of the 7 sages and the author of a law-book) RV. &c. &c. ({-jasya a-dArasRt} and {a-dAra-sRtau}, {arkau}, {upahavau}, {gAdham}, {nakAni}, {prizninI}, {prAsAham}, {bRhat}, {maukSe}, {yajJA7yajJIyam}, {lomanI}, {vAja-karmIyam}, {vAja-bhRt}, {viSamANi}, {vratam}, {sundhyuH} and {saindhukSitAni}N. of Smans ArshBr.); of an Arhat Buddh.; of a district Pn. 4-2, 145; of an Agni MBh.; of various authors Cat.; pl. the race or family of Bharad-vja RV.; {-gArgapariNaya-pratiSedha-vAdA7rtha} m. N. of wk.; {dhanvantari} m. N. of a divine being S'nkhGri.; {pravraska} n. N. of AV. ii, 12; {-prAdur-bhAva} m. N. of ch. of Bhpr.; {-zikSA} f. {-saMhitA} f. {-sUtra} n. {341

smRti} f. N. of wks. bharaNi = jewel bharaNii = Second nakshatra bharata = Bharat bharatarshhabha = O chief amongst the descendants of Bharata bharatava.nditaH = the who has been saluted by Bharata bharatashreshhTha = O chief of the Bharatas bharatasattama = O best of the Bharatas bharataagraja = the one going before Bharata (elder of bharata) bharjanaM = nourisher? bharjayati = to fry bharjita * = mfn. (fr. Caus.) roasted, fried Sus'r.; destroyed, annihilated bhartaa = sustainer
342

bhartR * =m. (once in S'Br. {bha4rtR}) a bearer [cf. Lat. {fertor}], one who bears or carries or maintains (with gen. or ifc.) RV. S'Br. MBh.; a preserver, protector, maintainer, chief, lord, master RV. &c. &c. ({trI4} f. a female supporter or nourisher, a mother AV. Kaus'. TBr.); ({bha4rtR}) m. a husband RV. v, 58, 7 Mn. MBh. &c. bhartR4-tva * =n. (MBh. &c.) masterhood, husbandship; {-tAMgata} mfn. subject, married W. bhartRka * =ifc. (f. {A}) = {bhartR}, a husband (cf. {pro7Sita-}, {mRta-}, {svA7dhIna-bh-}). bhartrima * =(?) mfn. maintained, nourished, supported W. bhasha* = mf({I})n. barking, yelping, chiding VS. (cf. g. {pacA7di}); m. a dog L.; ({A}) f. a species of plant L.; ({I}) f. a bitch L. bhashhati = to bark bhastrikaa = the bellows breath bhasma = ash bhasmaM = ashes

343

bhasmasaat.h = to burn to ashes bhasmaavasheshhaM = ashes+remains bhaTTakavaara = Sunday bhatha * = m. (fr. {bhRta}) a mercenary, hired soldier, warrior, combatant MBh. Kv. &c.; a servant, slave Kvya7d. VP.; a humpback Gal.; N. of a serpent-demon Buddh.; = {arya-bhaTa} (cf. below); pl. N. of a degraded tribe L. (cf. {bhaTTa}, {bhaDa}, {bhaNDa}; according to some `" a person whose father is a Brhman and whose mother is a Nath "'); ({A}) f. coloquintida. bhauma* = mf({I})n. relating or dedicated to the earth, produced or coming from the earth, earthly, terrestrial VS. &c. &c. (with {naraka} m. = hell on earth MBh.; with {brahman} n. = the Veda ib.); consisting or made of earth, earthy PacavBr. KtyS'r. MBh. &c.; coming from the land (as revenue &c.) L.; (fr. {bhauma}, the planet Mars) relating to the plplanet Mars or to his day, falling on Tuesday Vet.; m. a red-flowering Punar-nav L.; = {ambara} L.; N. of the 27th Muhrta L.; metron. of a partic. earth-deity GriS.; of Atri RAnukr.; of the Daitya Naraka MBh.; of the planet Mars (whose day is Tuesday) ib. Var. Pur. &c.; m. or n. N. of AV. xii, 1; ({I}) f. `" produced from the earth "'N. of Sit L.; n. dust of the earth (pl.) MBh.; corn, grain past.; (only ifc.)
344

floor, story MBh. R. bhaumacAra* = m. `" the course of the planet Mars "', N. of a ch. of Bhaththo7tpala's Comm. on VarBriS. bhaumavAra* = m. `" Mars-day "', Tuesday KtyS'r. Sch.; {-vratavidhi} m. N. of wk. bhaumaka* = m. any animal living in the earth AdbhBr. bhaumana* = m. N. of Vis'va-karman MBh. (prob. w.r. for {bhauvana}). bhavaami = I become bhavaan.h = you bhava * = m. ( {bhU}) coming info existence, birth, production, origin (= {bhAva} Vop.; ifc., with f. {A} = arising or produced from, being in, relating to) Yj. MBh. Kv. &c.; becoming, turning into (comp.) Kthh.; being, state of being, existence, life (= {sat-tA} L.) S'rngP. (cf. {bhavA7ntara}); worldly existence, the world (= {saMsAra} L.) Kv. Pur. [749, 1]; (with Buddhists) continuity of becoming (a link in the twelvefold chain of causation) Dharmas. 42 (MWB. 102); well-being, prosperity, welfare, excellence (= {zreyas} L.) MBh. Kv. &c.; obtaining, acquisition (= {Apti}, {prA7pti}) L.; a god, deity. W.; N. of Agni
345

S'Br.; of a deity attending on Rudra and frequently connected with S'arva (later N. of S'iva or a form of S'iva; or N. of a Rudra, and as such of the number 11 or of the 11th lunar mansion Gol. Var. Sch.; du. {bhavau} = Bhava i.e. S'iva and his wife Bhavn BhP.; cf. Vm. v, 2, 1) AV. &c. &c.; of the 1st and 4th Kalpa Cat.; of a Sdhya VP.; of a king MBh.; of a son of Pratihartrii VP.; of Viloman ib.; of a rich man Buddh.; of an author Cat.; n. the fruit of Dillenia Speciosa L.; = {bhavya}, {bhaviSya}, {bhAvana} L. bhavaaya = for the sake of the world bhavaarNava = bhava+arNava, birth\&death+ocean bhavaH = birth bhava* = m. ( {bhU}) coming info existence, birth, production, origin (= {bhAva} Vop.; ifc., with f. {A} = arising or produced from, being in, relating to) Yj. MBh. Kv. &c.; becoming, turning into (comp.) Kthh.; being, state of being, existence, life (= {sat-tA} L.) S'rngP. (cf. {bhavA7ntara}); worldly existence, the world (= {saMsAra} L.) Kv. Pur. [749, 1]; (with Buddhists) continuity of becoming (a link in the twelvefold chain of causation) Dharmas. 42 (MWB. 102); well-being, prosperity, welfare, excellence (= {zreyas} L.) MBh. Kv. &c.; obtaining, acquisition (= {Apti}, {prA7pti}) L.; a god, deity. W.; N. of Agni S'Br.; of a deity attending on Rudra and frequently
346

connected with S'arva (later N. of S'iva or a form of S'iva; or N. of a Rudra, and as such of the number 11 or of the 11th lunar mansion Gol. Var. Sch.; du. {bhavau} = Bhava i.e. S'iva and his wife Bhavn BhP.; cf. Vm. v, 2, 1) AV. &c. &c.; of the 1st and 4th Kalpa Cat.; of a Sdhya VP.; of a king MBh.; of a son of Pratihartrii VP.; of Viloman ib.; of a rich man Buddh.; of an author Cat.; n. the fruit of Dillenia Speciosa L.; = {bhavya}, {bhaviSya}, {bhAvana} L. bhavaa in comp. before {d} for {bhavat}. bhavaketu * m. N. of a partic. phenomenon in the sky Var. bhavacandra * m. N. of a man Cat. bhavadiya: A* given by your, bhava4-jala * n. the water (or ocean) of worldly existence Kv. bhava4-bhaGga * m. annihilation of wworldly exexistence, delivery from births or transmigration Hcat. bhava4-maya * mf({I})n. consisting of or produced from S'iva MBh.

347

bhavana = home, residence, place* = n. (m. g. % {ardharcA7di}) a place of abode, mansion, home, house, palace, dwelling (ifc. f. %{A}) Mn. Mbh. &c.; horoscope, natal star (see %{bhavane7za}); m. N. of a R2ishi in the 2nd Manvantara VP.; a dog L.; n. coming into existence, birth, production Kap. Sch. Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 1-4, 31; a site, receptacle (ifc.) Pan5cat.; the place where anything grows (ifc.= field cf. %{zAlibh-}); = %{bhuvana}, water L. bhavaneshhu = in the homes of bhavantaM = You bhavantaH = you bhavanti = grow bhava.ntu = let them be or become bhava4-rasa * m. delight in wworldly exexistence Sinha7s. bhavat * = mf(%{antI})n. being, present RV. &c. &c.; m.f, (nom. %{bha4vAn}, %{-vatI}; voc. %{bhavan} or %{bhos} q.v.; f. %{-vati}; cf. Mn. ii, 49) your honour, your worship, your lordship or ladyship, you (lit. `" the gentleman or lady present "'; cf. %{atra-} and %{tatrabh-}; used respectfully for the 2nd pers. pron., but
348

properly with the 3rd and only exceptionally with the 2nd pers. of the verb e.g. %{bhavAn@dadAtu}, `" let your highness give "'; sometimes in pl. to express greater courtesy e.g. %{bhavantaH@pramANam}, `" your honour is an authority "') S3Br. &c.; (%{antI}) f. the present tense Pat.; (%{atI}) f. a partic.kind of poisoned arrow L. bhavataH = Thy bhavataraNe = for crossing the ocean of births \& deaths bhavati = becomes bhavatii = you bhavatu = let there be bhava4-viti * f. liberation from the world, cessation of worldly acts Kir. bhava4-vyaya * m. du. birth and dissolution Bhag bhavabiijaanaaM = the birth-seeds bhavasaagaraM = the ocean of births and deaths bhav.h = to be

349

bhavi = future bhavitaa = will come to be bhavishya = future, of future bhavishhya = future bhavishhyataaM = of future manifestations bhavishhyati = it will increase in the future bhavishhyanti = will be bhavishhyaaNi = future bhavishhyaamaH = shall exist bhavet.h = would be bhavya* = mfn. being, existing, present RV. &c. &c.; to be about to be or become, future (= {bhAvin}) MrkP. Pacar. (also for the future tense of {bhU} MBh. iv, 928 v.l. {bhAvya}); likely to be, on the point of becoming (see {dhenu-} and {dhenumbhavyA}); what ought to be, suitable, fit, proper, right, good, excellent Kv. Pur. Kaths.; handsome, beautiful, pleasant MBh. Kv. &c.; gracious, favourable (= {prasanna}) R.; auspicious, fortunate Ragh. BhP.; righteous, pious Vcar.; true L.; m.
350

Averrhoa Carambola MBh. &c.; N. of a Riishi in the 9th Manv-antara VP.; of a son of Dhruva (the polar star) Hariv.; of a son of Priyavrata Pur.; of a teacher Buddh.; of a poet Cat.; (pl.) a partic. class of gods under Manu Ckshusha Pur.; ({A}) f. N. of Um (Prvat) L.; Piper Chaba (prob. w.r. for {cavyA}); n. that which is or exists (= {yad bhavati}) RV. &c. &c.; being, existing, the being present AV. &c. &c.; future time (see {bhavad-bhUta-bhavya}); fruit, result, reward, (esp.) good result, prosperity Ragh. Dhrtan.; a bone L.; the fruit of Averrhoa Carambola or of Dillenia Indica L.; m. or n. one division of the poetical Rasas or sentiments W. bhaya = fear* = n. ( {bhI}) fear, alarm dread apprehension; fear of (abl. gen. or comp.) or for (comp.) RV. &c. &c. ({bhayAt} ind. `" from fear "'; {bhayaMkR} with abl. `" to have fear of "'; {bhayaM-dA}, `" to cause fear, terrify "'); sg. and pl. terror, dismay, danger, peril, distress; danger from (abl. or comp.) or to, (comp.) ib.; the blossom of Trapa Bispinosa L.; m. sickness, disease L.; Fear personifled (as a Vasu, a son of Nir-riiti or Ni-kriiti, a prince of the Yavanas and husband of the daughter of Time) Pur. (also n.; and {A} f. as a daughter of Kla or Vaivasvata, and wife of the Rkshasa Heti). bhayaM = fear bhayanaka = that which causes fear

351

bhayaat.h = out of fear bhayaanaka = the sentiment of fear, terror bhayaanakaani = very fearful bhayaavahaH = dangerous bhayena = out of fear bhaujya = enjoyment (of kingship) bhautika = material bhauma = A name for the planet Mars bhavaan: see bhavat bhavat *= mf(%{antI})n. being, present RV. &c. &c.; m.f, (nom. %{bha4vAn}, %{-vatI}; voc. %{bhavan} or %{bhos} q.v.; f. %{-vati}; cf. Mn. ii, 49) your honour, your worship, your lordship or ladyship, you (lit. `" the gentleman or lady present "'; cf. %{atra-} and %{tatrabh-}; used respectfully for the 2nd pers. pron., but properly with the 3rd and only exceptionally with the 2nd pers. of the verb e.g. %{bhavAn@dadAtu}, `" let your highness give "'; sometimes in pl. to express greater courtesy e.g. %{bhavantaH@pramANam}, `" your honour is an authority "') S3Br. &c.; (%{antI}) f.
352

the present tense Pat.; (%{atI}) f. a partic.kind of poisoned arrow L. bheka = a frog bheDa* = m. a ram L. (cf. {eDa}, {bheDra} and {bheNDa}); a raft, float L. (cf. {bhela}); N. of a lexicographer and a physician Cat.; of a Riishi L.; ({I}) f. a ewe L.; N. of one of the Mtriis attending on Skanda MBh. bheda4 = break, pierce, also difference * = m. ( {bhid}) breaking, splitting, cleaving, rending, tearing, piercing (also pass. the being broken &c.) KtyS'r. Yj. MBh. Kv. &c.; breaking open, disclosing, divulging, betrayal (of a secret cf. {rahasya-bh-}); bursting asunder, opening, gaping, parting asunder BhP. Sus'r.; bursting forth or out, expanding, blossoming, shooting out, sprouting Klid. Blar.; a cleft, fissure, chasm (cf. {zilA-bh-}; du. pudendum muliebre) RV.; rupture, breach, hurt, injury, seduction Km. MBh. Kaths.; shooting pain (in the limbs), paralysis (cf. {ardhabh-}) Sus'r.; separation, division, partition, part, portion Kv. Pur.; distinction, difference, kind, sort, species, variety S'rS. Up. MBh. &c.; disturbance, interruption, violation, dissolution RPrt. KtyS'r. Sh.; disuniting, winning over to one's side by sowing dissension (cf. {upA7ya}) Mn. Yj. Km.; disunion, schism, dissension between (instr.) or in (comp.) MBh. Var. Rjat.; change,
353

alteration, modification MBh. S'ak.; contraction (cf. {bhrUbh-}) [766,2]; evacuation (of the bowels) S'rngS.; (in astron.) a partic. crossing or conjunction of the planets; one of the ways in which an eclipse ends (cf. {kukSi-bh-}); (in math.) the hypothenuse of a rightangled triangle; (in dram.) = {saMhati-bhedana}, or = {pro7tsAhana}, Sh; (in phil.) dualism, duality (cf. comp.); N. of a man AV.; pl. N. of a people RV. bhedaM = the differences bhedana = breaking through, piercing bhedaaGYaanaM = difference/otherness/duality bheruNDa = terrible bheruNDaasana = the formidable posture bheryaH = large drums bheshaja = medicine, antidote, cure* = mf({I})n. (fr. 1. {bhiSaj}) curing, healing, sanative RV. AV. AitBr.; n. a remedy, medicine, medicament, drug, remedy against (gen. or comp.) RV. &c. &c.; a spell or charm (for curative purposes (generally from Atharva-veda) S'rS.; water Naigh. i, 12; Nigella Indica W. bhettavai * = %{bhettavya}, %{bhettR} see under %
354

{bhid}, p. 757, col. 2. bhettavya * = mfn. to be broken or split R.; to be betrayed or divulged Hariv. bhettri * = mfn. breaking, splitting, bursting through, piercing; a breaker &c. RV. &c, &c.; a conqueror Cat.; an interrupter, disturber, frustrator Ka1m.; a divulger, betrayer MBh. Ya1jn5.; a factious or seditious man MW.; m. N. of Skanda Mr2icch.; N. of a partic. magical spell recited over weapons R. bibharshi * V: manifest, assume, bear, accept, carry\\ S.G: assume, maintain (and perpetuate) bibhrat* = mfn. (pr.p. of {bhR}) bearing, carrying RV. &c. & bhid.h = to break bhidaa* = f. splitting, bursting, destroying, destruction Ka1v. (cf. %{dur-bhida}); separation (see %{-bhRt}); distinction, difference Ka1v. BhP.; a kind or species. Sa1h.; coriander L. bhii *= 1 cl. 3. P. (Dha1tup. xxv , 2) %{bibhe4ti} (du. %{bibhItas} or %{bibhitas} Pot. %{bibhIyAt} or % {bibhiyAt} Pa1n2. 6-4 , 115 ; Pot. 3. pl. %{bibhyeyuH} MBh. xii , 459 ; impf. 3. pl. %{abibhayuH} Pa1n2. 7-3 ,
355

83 Sch. ; ep. also A1. 1. sg. %{bibhye} and and P. 3. sg. %{bibhyati} pl. %{bibhyanti} ; Ved. also cl. 1. A. % {bha4yate} , and accord , to Dha1tup. xxxiv , 15 , cl , 10. P. %{bhAyayati} ; pf. %{bibhAya} , 3. pl. % {bibhyuH} RV. &c. &c. ; %{bIbhAya} AitBr. ; % {bibhayA4M@cakara} S3Br. cf. Pa1n2. 3-1 , 39 ; aor. %{abhaiSIt} , %{-Sma} , %{-SuH} RV. AV. &c. , 2. sg. %{bhaiSIs} AV. , %{bhais} Br. &c. , esp. in % {mAbhais} "' , do not be afraid ; once for pl. = % {mA@bhaiSTa} R. i , 55 , 25 ; %{bhes} Br. ; % {bhema} RV. , p. A1. %{bhiyAna4} ib. , ; fut. % {bhetA} Gr. ; cond , %{abheSyat} S3Br. ; inf. % {bhiya4se} RV. ; %{bhetum} MBh. &c.) , to fear , be afraid of (abl. or gen. , rarely instr , or acc.) RV. &c. &c. ; to fear for , be anxious about (abl.) R.: Pass. % {bhIyate} , aor , %{abhAyi} Gr.: Caus. %{bhISa4yate} (S3Br. &c. ; cf. Pa1n2. 1-3 , 68) , %{bhISayati} (MBh. ; once m. c. %{bhiS-} BhP. ; p. %{bhISayANa} MBh. ; aor. %{bIbhiSaH} TS. , %{-SathAH} RV.) , % {bhAyayati} , %{-te} (Pa1n2. 1-3 , 68 Sch. ; Pot. % {bhAyayes} Megh. 61 ; v.l. %{bhISayes} ; aor % {bIbhayat} , %{a4bIbhayanta} RV. ; ind. p. %{bhAyya} Br.) , %{bhApayate} (Pa1n2. 6-1 , 56 Sch.) , to terrify , put in a fright , intimidate RV. &c. &c.: Desid. %{bibhISati} Gr.: Intens. %{bebhIyate} , % {bebhayIti} , %{bebheti} ib. [Cf. %{bhyas} ; Lith. {bijo4tis} ; Slav. {bojati} ; Germ. {biben} , {beben}.] bhiita * = mfn. frightened, alarmed, terrified, timid,
356

afraid of or imperilled by (abl. or comp.) RV. &c. &c.; anxious about (comp.) Pan5car.; (%{am}) ind. timidly S3iksh.; n. fear, danger L.; (impers.) fear has been shown, S3rin3ga1r. bhiiru * = mf({U8})n. fearful, timid, cowardly, afraid of (abl. or comp.) RV. &c. &c.; (with {paratra}) dreading the beyond or the hereafter Yj. Sch. (ifc. expressive of blame Ganar. on Pn. 2-1, 53); m. a jackal L. (cf. {pheru}); a tiger L.; various kinds of fish L.; a centipede L.; a kind of sugarcane L.; Asparagus Racemosus L.; f. a timid woman (esp. voc. `" {bhIru} "', `" O timid one! "') Kv.; a shadow L.; a she-goat L.; Solanum Jacquini L.; n. a species of plant L. [758, 3]; silver L bhiitaM = fearful bhiitabhiitaH = fearful bhiitaani = out of fear bhiiti = fear bhiitiM = fear bhiitiH = fear bhiima = terrible* = mf({A})n. fearful, terrific, terrible awful formidable, tremendous RV. &c. &c. (ibc.,
357

fearfully &c.); m. Rumex Vesicarius L.; N. of RudraS'iva s'vGri. Un. Sch.; of one of the 8 forms of S'iva Pur.; of one of the 11 Rudras Pur.; of a Devagandharva MBh.; of one of the Devas called Vajamush ib.; of a Dnava ib. Kaths.; of a Vidydhara Kaths.; of a son of the Rkshasa Kumbhakarna Cat.; of the second son of Pndu (also called) Bhima-sena and Vriiko7dara; he was only the reputed son of PPndu, being really the son of his wife Priith or Kunt by the wind-god Vyu, and was noted for his size, strength and appetite) MBh. Kv. Pur. &c.; of sev. other men AitBr. MBh. Hariv. &c.; pl. the race of Bhima MBh.; ({A}) f. a whip L.; a bullock's gall-stone L.; N. of a form of Durg Hariv.; of an Apsaras R.; of sev. rivers MBh.; of a district Rjat.; of a town Buddh. bhiimakarmaa = one who performs herculean tasks bhiimaarjuna = to Bhima and Arjuna bhiishaya %{-yati} see %{bhI}. *V = terrifying, threatening. bhishaya %{-yati} see %{bhI}.

bhiishhma = by Grandfather Bhishma bhiishhmaM = unto Grandfather Bhishma

358

bhiishhmaH = Grandfather Bhishma bhiNDiH = (f) ladies-finger, okra bhitaaH = out of fear bhittiH = (m) walls bhinnaa = separated bhilla = tribal bhikshaapaatram.h = (n) begging bowl bhikshukaH = (m) beggar bhikshu* = m. a beggar, mendicant, religious mmendicant (esp. a Brhman in the fourth s'rama or period of his life, when he subsists entirely on alms) Mn. MBh. &c. (cf. RTL. 55 n. 1); a Buddhist mendicant or monk Kaths. Lalit. (cf. MWB. 55); a partic. Buddha L.; Asteracantha Longifolia L.; Sphaerantus Mollis L.; N. of an ngirasa (author of RV. x, 117) RAnukr.; of a son of Bhoja Rjat.; of a poet Cat.; n. N. of an Upanishad (cf. {bhikSuko7paniSad}), bhikshucaryA* = f. `" a mendicant's course of life "', begging BhP. bhikshusUtra* = n. a collection of rules or precepts for
359

mendicants Pn. 4-3, 110; {-bhASya-vArttika} n. N. of a Comm. on prec. bhikshuka* = m. a beggar, mendicant, a Brhman of the mmendicant order (cf. {bhikSu}) GriS. Mn. MBh. &c. (RTL. 386); ({I}) f. see below. bhikshukasatI* = f. a virtuous female mendicant L. bhikshukI* = f. (of prec.) a female mendicant MBh. R. &c. bhikshuNI* = f. a Buddhist female mendicant or nun Lalit. DivyA7v. (MWB. 86). bho = exclamatory word for addressing a person bho-bhoh * = see bhos* n (fr. {bhavas} voc. of {bhavat} q.v.; before vowels and soft consonants {bho}; before hard consonants {bhos} and {bhoH}; the latter form also in pause cf. Pn. 8-3, 17 &c.; but there is occasional confusion of these forms, esp. in later literature; often also {bhobhoH}.), an interjection or voc. particle commonly used in addressing another person or several persons = O! Ho! Hallo l, in soliloquies = alas! S'Br. &c. &c. (according to L. a particle of sorrow and of interrogation). bodha * = mfn. knowing, understanding, Asht2a1vS.
360

(cf. g. %{jvalA7di}); m. waking, becoming or being awake, consciousness AV. MBh. &c.; the opening of blossom, bloom Cat.; the taking effect (of spells; acc. with %{pra-yA}, `" to begin to take effect "') ib.; exciting (a perfume) Var.; perception, apprehension, thought, knowledge, understanding, intelligence Ka1v. Ra1jat. Pur.; designation Sa1h. Pa1n2. Sch.; awakening, arousing W.; making known, informing, instructing MW.; Knowledge personified as a son of Buddhi Pur.; N. of a man Ma1rkP. (cf. Pa1n2. 4-1, 107); pl. N. of a people MBh. bodhaka * = mf(%{ikA})n. awakening, arousing R.; causing to know, explaining, teaching, instructing, a teacher, instructor Ka1v. Veda7ntas. Sarvad.; (ifc.) denoting, indicating, signifying (%{-tva} n.) Pa1n2. Sch. Veda7ntas.; m. a spy, informer W.; N. of a man (pl. his descendants) Pravar.; of a poet Cat. bodhana * = mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower), arousing, exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r.; enlightening, teaching, instructing (cf. %{bAlabodhinI}); m. the planet Mercury W.; N. of a mountain VP.; (%{I}) f. intellect, knowledge L.; long pepper L.; = %{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP.; a partic. S3akti Hcat.; n. waking, being awake Ka1tyS3r. Sus3r.; perceiving, understanding Ragh.; causing to wake, awakening, arousing MBh. R. &c.; causing (a spell) to take effect, Cat [734,3]; calling forth a perfume, burning incense L.;
361

causing to perceive or understand Sa1h.; instructing, teaching, informing Hariv. Ka1v.; denoting, indicating, signifying Sa1h. Pa1n2. Sch.; `" the awaking of Durga1 "'N. of a festival on the 9th day of the dark half of the month Bha1dra Col. bodhaana * = mfn. prudent, clever, wise L.; m. a wise man; N. of Br2ihas-pati L. bodhaayana * = m. N. of a teacher and author of the Brahma-su1tra-vr2itti (said to have commented also on the Bhagavad-gi1ta1 and 10 Upanishads) Cat. bodhayitri *= mfn. (fr. Caus.) causing to know , informing MaitrUp. bodhi * = mf. (with Buddhists or Jainas) perfect knowledge or wisdom (by which a man becomes a Buddha or Jina), the illuminated or enlightened intellect (of a BBuddha or JJina) Katha1s. Ra1jat. S3atr. Lalit. (cf. MWB. 97, 188 &c.); m. the tree of wisdom under which perfect wwisdom is attained or under which a man becomes a Buddha, the sacred fig-tree, (Ficus Religiosa) Hcat. (MWB. 35, 181 &c.); `" wakener "', a cock L.; N. of a man (= Buddha in a former birth) Ja1takam.; of a mythical elephant Lalit.; of a place L.; pl. N. of a people R.; mfn. learned, wise Un2. iv, 117.\\ f. (with Buddhists) perfect knowledge or enlightenment MWB. 43 (%{-dhy-aGga} n. an `" integral part of
362

perfect knowledge or enlightenment "' Lalit.) bhadaaka * = m. fortune, prosperity (or mfn. auspicious, fortunate) Un2. iv, 15 Sch. (%{kalyANe}). bhoutikashaastram.h = physics bhoktavya = should be used, enjoyed *=mfn. to be enjoyed or eaten Ya1jn5. Ka1v. &c.; to be used or employed Mn. viii, 144; to be possessed or governed or ruled Ma1rkP.; to be utilized or exploited MBh.; to be fed (n. impers. `" a meal is to be eaten "') MBh. Hariv. bhoktaa = the enjoyer bhoktR* = m. ({trI} f.) one who enjoys or eats, enjoyer, eater, experiencer, feeler, sufferer MaitrUp. MBh. &c. (also as fut. of 3. {bhuj} R.); a possessor, ruler of a land, king, prince Inscr.; a husband, lover L. bhogatva* = n. the state of being curved or winding, curvedness Km. 1. bhogi* = in comp. for 1. {bhogin}. bhogadA* = f. `" granting enjenjoyments "'N. of the goddess of the Pingalas Cat. [767,3 bhoktaaraM = the beneficiary
363

bhoktiaa = one who enjoys bhoktuM = to enjoy life bhoktritve = in enjoyment bhoga = enjoyment bhoga* = 1 m. (1. {bhuj}) any winding or curve, coil (of a serpent) RV. &c. &c.; the expanded hood of a snake Hariv. Km. Pacat.; a partic. kind of military array Km.; a snake Suparn.; the body L.\\2 m. (3. {bhuj}) enjoyment, eating, feeding on RV. &c. &c. (with Jainas `" enjoying once "', as opp. to {upa-bhoga}, q.v.); use, application S'Br. GriS'rS. &c.; fruition, usufruct, use of a deposit &c. Mn. Yj.; sexual enjoyment Mn. MBh. &c.; enjenjoyment of the earth or of a country i.e. rule, sway MrkP.; experiencing, feeling, perception (of pleasure or pain) Mn. MBh. &c.; profit, utility, advantage, pleasure, delight RV. &c. &c.; any object of enjoyment (as food, a festival &c.) MBh. R.; possession, property, wealth, revenue Mn. MBh. &c.; hire, wages (esp. of prostitution) L.; (in astron.) the passing through a constellation VarBriS.; the part of the ecliptic occupied by each of the 27 lunar mansions Sryas.; (in arithm.) the numerator of a fraction (?) W.; N. of a teacher Cat.; ({A}) f. N. of a Sura7ngan Sinha7s.; n. w.r. for {bhogya} or {bhAgya}.

364

bhogarataH = indulging in worldly pleasures bhogaaH = material enjoyment bhogaan.h = enjoyable things bhogaiH = enjoyment bhogi = serpent (that has bhoga, meaning hood) bhogii = the enjoyer bhogin* = 1 mfn. (for 2. see col. 3) furnished with windings or curves or rings, curved, ringed (as a serpent) R. BhP. &c.; m. a serpent or sserpent-demon MBh. Kv. &c.; a kind of shrub L.; ({inI}) f. a serpent nymph R. \\2 mfn. (for 1. see col. 2) enjoying, eating MrkP. Prasang.; having or offering enjoyments, devoted to enjenjoyments, wealthy, opulent MBh. Yj. Var. &c.; suffering, experiencing, undergoing Kap.; using, possessing MW.; m. a voluptuary MW.; a king L.; the head man of a village L.; a barber L.; = {vaiyAvRtti-kara} (?) L.; a person who accumulates money for a partic. expenditure W.; N. of a prince VP.; ({inI}) f. a kind of heroine Bhar.; the concubine of a king or a wife not regularly consecrated with him L. bhojanaM = eating

365

bhojanashaalaa = (f) dining room bhojaneshhu = or while eating together bhojotsavaH = (m) feast bhokshyase = you enjoy bhrama* = m. (ifc. f. {A}) wandering or roaming about, roving over or through (comp.) Kaths.; moving about, rolling (as of the eyes) Rjat.; turning round, revolving, rotation (acc. with {dA} = to swing) MBh. Sryas. Hcat.; a whirling flame RV.; a whirlpool, eddy Prab.; a spring, fountain, watercourse L.; a potter's wheel Snkhyak.; (v.l. {-mi}), a grindstone (see comp.); a gimlet or auger L.; a circle ryabh.; giddiness, dizziness Sus'r.; confusion, perplexity, error, mistake (ifc. mistaking anything for) Hariv. Kv. Rjat. &c.; ({At}) ind. by an error or mistake Gt. bhraama* = m. roaming about, unsteadiness Gt. bhraamaka * = mf({ikA})n. (fr. Caus.) causing error, deceitful, false R. Sch.; m. n. `" causing (scil. iron) to turn round "', a magnet (also {-kA7dri}, m.) L.; m. `" turning round (scil. towards the sun?) "', a sunflower, heliotrope L.; a deceiver, cheat L.; ({akA}) f. a species of plant L.

366

bhraamarin vmfn. (fr. prec.) affected with vertigo or epilepsy Mn. iii, 161; whirling round, revolving W.; made of honey. ib. bhraama * = roaming about, unsteadiness bhraamayan.h = causing to travel bhrashtha* = mfn. fallen, dropped, fallen down or from or off (abl. or comp.) AV. &c. &c.; (with or scil. {divaH}), fallen from the sky i.e. banished to the earth Kaths. S'ukas.; broken down, decayed, ruined, disappeared, lost, gone MBh. Kv. &c.; fled or escaped from, rid of (abl.) Kaths.; strayed or separated from, deprived of (abl. or comp.) MBh. Kv. &c.; depraved, vicious, a backslider W.; ({A}) f. a fallen or unchaste woman MW. bhras'ishtha* = mfn. (superl.) most (very) powerful or strong or vehement Pat. on Pn. 6-4, 161. bhras'iiyas* = mfn. (compar.) more (very) powerful &c. ib. bhras'iman* = m. potency, vehemence, strength g. {dRDhA7di}. bhras'* = see {bhraMz}, p. 769, col. 1.

367

bhras'iman* = {bhraziSTha}, {-zIyas} see p. 766, col. 1. bhras'* = see {bhraMz}, p. 769, col. 1. bhras'iman* = {bhraziSTha}, {-zIyas} see p. 766, col. 1. bhraas'* = (v.l. {bhrAs}; cf. {bhlAz}) cl. 1. 4. . {bhrAzate}, {-zyate} Pn. 3-1, 70 ({-zyati} Naigh.; pf. {babhrAze} and {bhreze} Pn. 6-4, 125; fut. {bhrAziSyate}, {-zitA} aor. {abhrAziSTa}), to shine, glitter Dhtup. xix, 76: Caus. {bhrAzayati} (aor. {ababhrAzat}, or {abibhrazat}) Gr.: Desid. {bibhrAziSate} ib.: Intens. {bAbhrAzyate}, {bAbhrASTi} ib. bhraa4s'ya* = mfn. (fr. Caus.) to be struck down or overthrown RV. bhraas'* = (v.l. {bhrAs}; cf. {bhlAz}) cl. 1. 4. . {bhrAzate}, {-zyate} Pn. 3-1, 70 ({-zyati} Naigh.; pf. {babhrAze} and {bhreze} Pn. 6-4, 125; fut. {bhrAziSyate}, {-zitA} aor. {abhrAziSTa}), to shine, glitter Dhtup. xix, 76: Caus. {bhrAzayati} (aor. {ababhrAzat}, or {abibhrazat}) Gr.: Desid. {bibhrAziSate} ib.: Intens. {bAbhrAzyate}, {bAbhrASTi} ib. bhraatra * = m. a brother (see {mAtur-bh-}); n. brotherhood, fraternity RV.
368

bhraatri * = m. (connection with {bhR} doubtful) a brother (often used to designate a near relative or an intimate friend, esp. as a term of friendly address) RV. &c. &c.; du. brother and sister Pn. 1-2, 68. [Cf. Zd. {brtar}; Gk. $ &c.; Lat. &234074[770, 2] {frater}; Lith. {broter-e7lis}; Slav. {bratru7}; Goth. {brothar}; Germ. {bruoder}, {Bruder}; Eng. {brother}.] bhraatrika * = (ifc., with f. {A}) = {bhrAtR}, a brother Klid. (cf. {a-} and {sa-bh-}); mf({I})n. coming from or belonging to a brother, brotherly, fraternal Pn. 4-3, 78 Sch. bhraa4trivya * = m. a father's brother's son, cousin AV. Rjat.; (mostly with {a4-priya}, {dviSa4t} &c.) a hostile cousin, rival, adversary, enemy AV. VS. Br. R. BhP.; n. (with {indrasya}) N. of a Sman rshBr. bhraatrIya * = m. a (father's) brother's son, nephew Pn. 4-1, 144; mfn. fraternal, belonging or relating to a brother W. bhraatreya * = m. = prec. m. Bh bhraataH = (m) brother bhraatarau = the two brothers bhraataa = brother
369

bhraatri = brother bhraatrikaaraka = Significator of Brother which is Mars bhraatrin.h = brothers bhraanta = lost bhraanti = confusion bhraantidarshana = a delusion bhrama*=m. (ifc. f. {A}) wandering or roaming about, roving over or through (comp.) Kaths.; moving about, rolling (as of the eyes) Rjat.; turning round, revolving, rotation (acc. with {dA} = to swing) MBh. Sryas. Hcat.; a whirling flame RV.; a whirlpool, eddy Prab.; a spring, fountain, watercourse L.; a potter's wheel Snkhyak.; (v.l. {-mi}), a grindstone (see comp.); a gimlet or auger L.; a circle ryabh.; giddiness, dizziness Sus'r.; confusion, perplexity, error, mistake (ifc. mistaking anything for) Hariv. Kv. Rjat. &c.; ({At}) ind. by an error or mistake Gt. bhramati = (1 pp) to roam, to wander bhramatva * = n. (in phil.) the being an error, erroneousness.

370

bhramat * = mfn. wandering about, roaming MBh. bhramara-ja * = mfn. produced by bees (as honey) L. bhramarA7ri * = m. `" bee-enemy "' = {bhramaramArI} (q.v.) L. bhramaraka * = m. n. a curl on the forehead L. (cf. {bhramarA7laka}); m. a bee L.; a ball for playing with L.; a whirlpool L.; ({ikA}) f. wandering in all directions ({-dRSTi} f. a wwandering glance BhP.); n. a humming-top ({-bhrAmam} with Caus. of {bhram}, to cause to spin like a humming-top Blar.); honey of the large black bee L. bhramarAya * = Nom. . {-yate}, to resemble a bee Subh. bhramarita * = mfn. covered with bees Naish. bhramAya * = (accord. to g. {bhrizA7di} fr. p. {bhramat}) Nom. . {-yate}, (prob.) to begin turning round or revolving, to roam about. [770, 1] bhraanta* = mfn. wandering or roaming about MBh. Kv. &c.; having wandered about or through (with acc.) Kaths.; wandered about or through (n. impers. with instr., `" it has been wandering about by "') S'rngP. Kaths.; moving about unsteadily, rolling, reeling,
371

whirling MBh. Kv.; perplexed, confused, being in doubt or error ib.; m. an elephant in rut L.; a species of thorn-apple L.; n. roaming about, moving to and fro Kv. Pacat. Sus'r.; a partic. mode of fighting Hariv.; error, mistake Cn. bhraanta* = bhrikuTi = upper part of the eye-lashes and lower part of the forehead BhriguH = Bhrigu bhrijjati = to bake bhrit.h = one who carries bhrit * = mfn. bearing, carrying, bringing, procuring, possessing, wearing, having, nourishing, supporting, maintaining (only ifc.; cf. {iSu-}, {kSiti-}, {dharma-}, {vaMza-bhRt} &c.) bhrita* =mfn. borne, carried &c. (see prec.); gained, acquired Katha1s.; (ifc.) filled, full of. ib.; hired, paid (as a servant) Mn. MBh. &c. (%{bhaktavenayor@bhRtaH}, `" one who receives board and wages "'; cf. %{kSIra-bh-}); m. a hireling, hired servant or labourer, mercenary Ya1jn5. Sch. bhrittva* = n. see {zastrA7stra-bhRt-tva}.

372

bhritaka* = mfn. brought, fetched (see {drAg-bh-}); mfn. hired, receiving wages; m. a hired labourer, servant Mn. MBh. &c.; ({ikA}) f. hire, wages DivyA7v. bhritin* = see {saMvatsara-bhRtin}. bhritya* = mfn. to be nourished or maintained; m. one who is to be mmaintained, a dependent, servant (also the sservant of a king, a minister) GriS. Mn. MBh. &c. [765,1]; ({A}) f. support, maintenance, wages &c. (= {bhRti}). L.; nursing, care of(cf. {kumAra-bhRtyA}). bhrityAya* = Nom. . {-yate}, to behave like a servant Kaths. bhritra* = m. (?) Siddh. bhritha* = (prob.) m. offering, oblation (of Soma) RV.; a turtle, tortoise L. bhritvan* = mfn. collecting, accumulating AV. bhrita* = mfn. borne, carried &c. (see prec.); gained, acquired Kaths.; (ifc.) filled, full of. ib.; hired, paid (as a servant) Mn. MBh. &c. ({bhakta-venayor bhRtaH}, `" one who receives board and wages "'; cf. {kSIra-bh-}); m. a hireling, hired servant or labourer, mercenary Yj. Sch.

373

bhrita* = {bhRtya} &c. see p. 764 bhritya = servant bhrisha = (adv) ample brahmacarya * = n. study of the Veda, the state of an unmarried religious student, a state of continence and chastity (also {A} f. Hariv.) AV. &c. &c. (acc. with {grah}, {car}, {vas}, {A-gam}, {upa-i}, to practise chchastity; cf. {-cArin}); {-tva} n. the unmarried state, continence, chastity Hariv.; {-vat} mfn. leading the life of an unmarried religious student, practising chchastity past. MBh.; {-vrata} n. a vow of chchastity, BeahmaP.; {-skhalana} n. deviating from chchastity MW.; {-ryA7zrama} m. the period of unmarried religious studentship MBh. bhramara = a large bee bhramarakam.h = (n) a top (spun using a thread) bhramarii = the bee breath bhramiH = a screw bhrita * = mfn. borne, carried &c. (see prec.); gained, acquired Kaths.; (ifc.) filled, full of. ib.; hired, paid (as a servant) Mn. MBh. &c. ({bhakta-venayor bhRtaH}, `"
374

one who receives board and wages "'; cf. {kSIra-bh-}); m. a hireling, hired servant or labourer, mercenary Yj. Sch. bhris'a* = mfn. (perhaps the original meaning may be `" falling heavily "' cf. {bhraz}) strong, vehement, mighty, powerful, frequent, abundant (often ibc. cf. below; rarely as an independent word; cf. {subhRta}) Mn. MBh. &c.; ibc and({am}) ind. strongly, violently, vehemently, excessively, greatly, very much Mn. MBh. &c.; harshly, severely ChUp.; quickly, without hesitation MBh.; often, frequently R.; eminently, in a superior manner L.; m. a partic. tutelary deity VarBri. bhruvoH = the eyebrows bhruuH = brow bhuu *= to turn into an inauspicious omen Naish. iii, 9. bhu* =mfn. (ifc.) = 2. %{bhI}, 2 mfn. becoming, being, existing, springing, arising (ifc.; cf. %{akSi-}, %{giri-}, %{citta-}, %{padmabhU} &c.); m. N. of Vishn2u MBh. xii, 1509 (Ni1lak.); of an Eka7ha S3rS.; f. the act of becoming or arising Pa1n2. 1-4, 31; the place of being, space, world or universe (also pl.) RV. AV. [761,1]; the earth (as constituting one of the 3 worlds, and therefore a symbolical N. for the number `" one "') Mn. MBh. &c.; one of the three Vya1hr2itis (see %{bhu4vas}, %
375

{bhUr}, pp. 760 and 763); earth (as a substance), ground, soil, land, lauded property ib.; floor, pavement Megh.; a place, spot, piece of ground RV. &c. &c.; the base of any geometrical figure A1ryabh.; object, matter (see %{vivAdasaMvAda-bhU}); a term for the letter % {l} Ra1matUp.; a sacrificial fire L. bhuja * = m. (ifc. f. {A}) the arm MBh. Kv. &c. ({bhujayor antaram}, the breast Bhartri.; cf. {bhujA7ntara}); the hand Pn. 7-3, 61; the trunk of an elephant MBh. iii, 15736; a branch, bough BhP.; a bending, curve, coil (of a serpent; see comp. below); the side of any geometrical figure KtyS'r. Sch.; the base of a triangle Sryas.; the base of a shadow ib.; the supplement of 2 or 4 right angles or the complement of 3 right angles MW.; ({A}) f. see col. 2. bhujaa * =f. a winding, curve, coil (of a snake) BhP.; the arm or hand, Pracand. (cf. comp.); the side of any geometrical figure, Aryabh. Hcat. bhujiSya * = mfn. granting food , useful AV. (cf. %{abh-}) ; free , independent L. ; m. a slave , servant (%{tA} f.) Can2d2. DivyA7v. (cf. Un2. iv , 178 Sch.) ; a comrade , companion L. ; a person who has regained his liberty by redeeming his pledge L. ; a cord wound round the wrist of a girl before her marriage (%{-hastasUtraka}) L. ; the hand L. ; a string L. ; (%{A}) f. any woman dependent on or working for others , a slave-girl
376

, maid-servant Ya1jn5. MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; a harlot , courtezan L. bhukta * = mfn. enjoyed, eaten, made use of, possessed &c. MBh. Kv. &c.; one who has eaten a meal (= {bhukta-vat} Siddh.) Kaus'. Sus'r. (cf. {bhukta-pIta}); n. the act of eating L.; the thing eaten or enjoyed, food MBh. (ifc. feeding or living on Pacat.); the place where any person has eaten R. (cf. Pn. 2-2, 13 Sch.) bhuja = arm or shoulder * m. (ifc. f. {A}) the arm MBh. Kv. &c. ({bhujayor antaram}, the breast Bhartri.; cf. {bhujA7ntara}); the hand Pn. 7-3, 61; the trunk of an elephant MBh. iii, 15736; a branch, bough BhP.; a bending, curve, coil (of a serpent; see comp. below); the side of any geometrical figure KtyS'r. Sch.; the base of a triangle Sryas.; the base of a shadow ib.; the supplement of 2 or 4 right angles or the complement of 3 right angles MW.; ({A}) f. see col. 2. bhujaa*= f. a winding, curve, coil (of a snake) BhP.; the arm or hand, Pracand. (cf. comp.); the side of any geometrical figure, Aryabh. Hcat. bhuja.nga = snake bhujanga = snake bhujan.gaasana = the cobra posture
377

bhujaasana = the arm posture bhujau = upper arms bhukta* = mfn. enjoyed, eaten, made use of, possessed &c. MBh. Ka1v. &c.; one who has eaten a meal (= % {bhukta-vat} Siddh.) Kaus3. Sus3r. (cf. %{bhuktapIta}); n. the act of eating L.; the thing eaten or enjoyed, food MBh. (ifc. feeding or living on Pan5cat.); the place where any person has eaten R. (cf. Pa1n2. 2-2, 13 Sch.) bhukti = The Sub-period in a Dasha. Also known as the Antara * = f. enjoyment, eating, consuming, A1s3Gr2. Pan5cat.; fruition, possession, usufruct Mn. Ya1jn5. Ka1v.; food, victuals Ka1v. Ra1jat.; (in astron.) the daily motion of a planet Su1ryas. (cf. %{pakSa-bh-}); a limit MW. bhuktvaa = enjoying bhunkte = enjoys bhunkshva = enjoy bhuj.h = to eat bhuJNjate = enjoy bhuJNjaanaM = enjoying
378

bhuJNjiiya = one has to enjoy bhutaH = (past part.)was there bhudaana = the donation of land bhumiH = the earth bhumikatva = firm ground bhumii = the object of meditation bhumau = on the earth bhunaktu = (may) eat or enjoy bhun'kte (SB) = enjoys, causes to enjoy, suffers, he undegoes, causes to enjoy, causes to be subjected, eats bhur* = (prob. a secondary form of {bhri} not in Dhtup.), P.. {bhura4ti}, {-te}, to move rapidly or convulsively, stir, palpitate, quiver, struggle (in swimming) RV.: Intens. {ja4rbhurIti} (p. {ja4rbhurat}, {-rANa}), to flicker (as fire) ib. (Cf. Gk. $, $; Lat. {furere}.] &230993[760,1] bhur* = (prob. a secondary form of {bhri} not in Dhtup.), P.. {bhura4ti}, {-te}, to move rapidly or convulsively, stir, palpitate, quiver, struggle (in
379

swimming) RV.: Intens. {ja4rbhurIti} (p. {ja4rbhurat}, {-rANa}), to flicker (as fire) ib. (Cf. Gk. $, $; Lat. {furere}.] &230993[760,1] bhushuNDii = (f) rifle, gun bhuvaH = the upper world bhuva* = {-vat}, {-vana} &c. see cols. 2. 3. * = bhuva* = m. N. of Agni VS. (Mahdh.) Kaus'.; of a son of Pratihartrii VP.; a mushroom L.; (prob. n.) = {bhuvas}, the atmosphere.bhuvana = o bhuur* = ind. (orig. = {bhUs} nom. voc. of 2. {bhU}) one of the 3 Vyhriitis (q.v.), `" the earth "' (the first of the 7 upper worlds; cf. {bhu4vas}) VS. &c. &c.; hell L.; = next Hariv..a. home * = n. a being, living creature, man, mankind RV. &c. &c.; (rarely m.) the world, earth ib. (generally 3 worlds are reckoned [see %{tribhuvana} and %{bhuvana-traya}], but also 2 [see % {bhuva@na-dvaya}], or 7 [MBh. xii, 6924] or 14 [Bhartr2.]; cf. RTL. 102 n. 1); place of being, abode, residence AV. S3Br.; a house (v.l. for %{bhavana}) L.; (?) causing to exist (= %{bhAvana}) Nir. vii, 25; water Naigh. i, 15; m. N. of a partic. month TS.; of a Rudra VP.; of an A1ptya (author of RV. x, 157) RAnukr.; of a teacher of Yoga Cat.; of another man MBh. bhuvi = in this world

380

bhuu = (v) to become, appear bhU to turn into an inauspicious omen Naish. iii , 9. bhuu *= 1 cl. 1. P. (Dha1tup. i , 1) %{bha4vati} (rarely A1. %{-te} ; pf. %{babhU4va} , 2. pers. %{-U4tha} or %{-Uvitha} cf. Pa1n2. 7-2 , 64 ; %{babhUyAs} , %{yA4r} , %{babhUtu} RV. ; A1. %{babhUve} or % {bubhUve} Vop. ; cf. below ; aor. %{a4bhUt} , %{Uvan} ; Impv. %{bodhi4} [cf. %{budh}] , %{bhUtu} RV. ; aor. or impf. %{a4bhuvat} , %{bhu4vat} , % {bhuvAni} ib. ; Prec. %{bhUyAsam} , 2. 3. sg. %{yAs} ib. [760,2] ; %{bhUyAt} AV. ; %{bhUyiSThAs} BhP. ; %{bhaviSAt} [?] AitBr. ; %{abhaviSta} , % {bhaviSISta}. Gr. ; fut. %{bhaviSya4ti} , ep. also %{te} and 2. pl. %{-Syadhvam} ; %{bhavitA} Br. &c. ; inf. %{bhuve4} , %{-bhve4} , %{bhUSa4Ni} RV. ; % {bhavitum} , %{-tos} Br. ; ind. p. %{bhUtvA4} ; % {bhUtvI4} RV. ; %{-bhU4ya} RV. &c. ; %{-bhU4yam} , %{-bha4vam} Br.) , to become , be (with nom , or adv. or indecl. words ending in %{I} or %{U} cf. %{kRSNIbhU} &c.) , arise , come into being , exist , be found , live , stay , abide , happen , occur RV. &c. &c. (often used with participles and other verbal nouns to make periphrastical verbal forms ; with a fut. p. = to be going or about to e.g. %{anuvakSyan@bhavati} , he is going to recite S3Br. ; the fut. of %{bhU} with a pf. p. = a fut. pf. e.g. %{kRtavAn@bhaviSyasi} , you will have done MBh. ; the pf. P. %{babhUva} after the syllable % {Am} is put for the pf. of verbs of the 10. cl. &c. [cf. 1.
381

%{as} and 1. %{kR}] ; the A1. appears in this meaning S3is3. ix , 84 Kum. xiv. 46 ; observe also %{bhavati} with a fut. tense , it is possible that , e.g. % {bhavati@bhavAn@yAjayiSyati} , it is possible that you will cause a sacrifice to be performed Pa1n2. 3-3 , 146 Sch. ; %{bhavet} , may be , granted , admitted Ka1s3. on P. iii , 2. 114 ; %{bhavatu} id. , well , good , enough of this Ka1v. Hit. ; %{iticed@bhavet} , if this question should be asked Mn. x , 66 ; % {kva@tad@bhavati} , what is to become of this , it is quite useless TBr. ; with %{na} = to cease to exist , perish , die MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; with %{iha@na} , not to be born on earth MBh. ; with %{zata-dhA} , to fall into a hundred pieces MBh. ; with %{dUrataH} , to keep aloof. S3a1rn3gP. ; with %{manasi} or %{cetasi} and gen. , to occur to the mind of any one Ka1d. ; id. with gen. alone Lalit.) ; to fall to the share or become the property of , belong to (cf. `" esse alicujus ; `" with gen. , rarely dat. or loc. accord. to Vop. also with % {pari} or %{prati} and preceding acc.) RV. &c. &c. ; to be on the side of , assist (with gen. or %{-tas}) MBh. 1301 (cf. Pa1n2. 5-4 , 48 Sch.) ; to serve for , tend or conduce to (with dat. of thing) RV. &c. &c. (with % {phalAya}. to bear fruit Ka1m.) ; to be occupied with or engaged in , devote one's self to (with loc.) MBh. Ka1v. ; to thrive or prosper in (instr.) , turn out well , succeed RV. TS. Br. ; to be of consequence or useful Mn. iii , 181 ; (also A1. Dha1tup. xxxiv , 37) to fall , or get into , attain to , obtain Br. MBh. ; (with %{ida4m})
382

to obtain it i.e. be successful or fortunate TS.: Pass. % {bhUyate} (or %{-ti} Up. ; aor. %{abhAvi}) sometimes used impers. e.g. %{yair@bhaviSyate} , by whom it will be existed i.e. who will be Ra1jat.: Caus. % {bhAvayati} (rarely %{-te} ; aor. %{abIbhavat} Gr. ; inf. %{bhAvitum} R. ; Pass. %{bhAvyate} &c. MBh.) , to cause to be or become , call into existence or life , originate , produce , cause , create Pur. Sa1h. ; to cherish , foster , animate , enliven , refresh , encourage , promote , further AitUp. MBh. &c. ; to addict or devote one's self to , practise (acc.) MBh. HYog. ; to subdue , control R. ; (also A1. Dha1tup. xxxiv , 37) to obtain Jaim. Sch. ; to manifest , exhibit , show , betray MBh. Ka1m. Das3. ; to purify BhP. ; to present to the mind , think about , consider , know , recognize as or take for (two acc.) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; to mingle , mix , saturate , soak , perfume Kaus3. Sus3r. (cf. %{bhAvita} , p. 755 , col. 1): Desid , of Caus. %{bibhAvayiSati} (Pa1n2. 7-4 , 80 Sch.) , to wish to cause to be &c. Br.: Desid. % {bu4bhUSati} (%{-te}) , to wish or strive to become or be RV. &c. &c. ; (with %{kSipram}) , to strive to be quickly possessed MBh. ; to want to get on , strive to prosper or succeed TS. Br. MBh. ; to want to have , care for , strive after , esteem , honour MBh. Hariv. ; to want to take revenge BhP.: Intens , %{bo4bhavIti} , % {bobhavati} , %{bobhoti} , %{bibhUyate} , to be frequently , to be in the habit of BhP. Bhat2t2. ; to be transformed into (acc.) RV. AV. ; (with %{tiraH}) , to keep anything (instr.) secret S3Br. [Cf. Zd. {bu1} ; Gk.
383

$ , $ ; Lat. {fuit} , {fuat} &c. ; Slav. {byti} ; Lith. &231127[760 ,2] {bu4ti} ; Germ. {bim} , {bim} ; Angl. Sax. {beo4} ; Eng. {be}.] \\ 2 mfn. becoming , being , existing , springing , arising (ifc. ; cf. %{akSi-} , % {giri-} , %{citta-} , %{padmabhU} &c.) ; m. N. of Vishn2u MBh. xii , 1509 (Ni1lak.) ; of an Eka7ha S3rS. ; f. the act of becoming or arising Pa1n2. 1-4 , 31 ; the place of being , space , world or universe (also pl.) RV. AV. [761,1] ; the earth (as constituting one of the 3 worlds , and therefore a symbolical N. for the number `" one "') Mn. MBh. &c. ; one of the three Vya1hr2itis (see %{bhu4vas} , %{bhUr} , pp. 760 and 763) ; earth (as a substance) , ground , soil , land , lauded property ib. ; floor , pavement Megh. ; a place , spot , piece of ground RV. &c. &c. ; the base of any geometrical figure A1ryabh. ; object , matter (see %{vivAdasaMvAdabhU}) ; a term for the letter %{l} Ra1matUp. ; a sacrificial fire L. bhuud.h = was bhuuH = become bhuuloka *= m. (ifc. f. %{A}) the terrestrial world , earth Katha1s. Ma1rkP. (cf. %{bhUr-l-}) ; %{-kailAsamAhAtmya} n. N. of a ch. of the Brahmo7ttKh. ; %{sura-nAyaka} m. an Indra of the earth Ra1jat. bhuuri* = mfn. much, many, abundant, frequent,
384

numerous, great, important, strong, mighty RV. &c. &c.; ({I}) ind. much, abundantly, greatly, often, frequently ib. ({bhU4ri kR4tvas}, many times, repeatedly RV. iii, 18, 4); m. N. of Brahm or Vishnu or S'iva L.; of a son of Soma-datta (king of the Blhikas) MBh. Hariv. Pur.; m. n. gold L.; f. (cf. Pli {bhUrI}) reason, intellect Lalit. bhuuta = happened, the spirits, the dead, attendants of S'iva* = mf({A})n. become, been, gone, past (n. the past) RV. &c. &c.; actually happened, true, real (n. an actual occurrence, fact, matter of fact, reality) Yj. R. &c.; existing, present Kan.; (ifc.) being or being like anything, consisting of, mixed or joined with Prt. Up. Mn. &c. (also to form adj. out of adv., e.g. {ittham-}, {evam-}, {tathA-bh-}); purified L.; obtained L.; fit, proper L.; often w.r. for {bhRta}; m. a son, child L.; a great devotee or ascetic L.; (pl.) N. of an heretical sect (with Jainas, a class of the Vyantaras) L.; N. of S'iva L.; of a priest of the gods L.; of a son of Vasu-deva and Paurav BhP.; of a son-in-law of Daksha and father of numerous Rudras ib.; of a Yaksha Cat.; ({A} f.) the 14th day of the dark half of the lunar month SkandaP. (L. also m.); N. of a woman HParis'.; n. (cf. above) that which is or exists, any living being (divine, human, animal, and even vegetable), the world (in these senses also m.) RV. &c. &c.; a spirit (good or evil), the ghost of a deceased person, a demon, imp, goblin (also m.) GriS. Up. Mn. &c. (cf. RTL. 241); an element, one of
385

the 5 elements (esp. a gross elelement = {mahA-bh-} q.v.; but also a subtle elelement = {tan-mAtra} q.v.; with Buddhists there are only 4 elelement) Up. Snkhyak. Veda7ntas. &c.; N. of the number `" five "' (cf. {mahA-bh-} and {pAJcabhautika}); well-being, welfare, prosperity VS. TS. AitBr. bhuutagaNaan.h = ghosts bhuutagraamaM = all the cosmic manifestations bhuutagraamaH = the aggregate of all living entities bhuutabhartri = the maintainer of all living entities bhuutabhaavana = O origin of everything bhuutabhaavanaH = the source of all manifestations bhuutabhaavodbhavakaraH = producing the material bodies of the living entities bhuutabhrit.h = the maintainer of all living entities bhuutala = on the surface of the earth bhuutasargau = created living beings bhuutasthaH = in the cosmic manifestation
386

bhuutasya = of forms bhuutaanaaM = of living entities bhuutaani = living entities (that are born) bhuutaanii = all that are created bhuutiH = exceptional power bhuuti * = f. existence, being L.; well-being, thriving, prosperity, might, power, wealth, fortune RV. &c. &c.; Welfare personified (= {lakSmI}) BhP.; superhuman power (as attainable by the practice of austerity and magical rites) W.; ornament, decoration Megh. 19; ashes Kv. Kaths.; fried meat L. (?); = {bhUmi}, earth, ground AitBr. (Sy.); (with {marutAm}) N. of a Sman rshBr.; of various plants (Andropogon Schoenanthus or = {rohiSa} &c.) L.; (also {-tI}), of the wife of Ruci or Kavi and the mother of Manu Bhautya Hariv. VP.; m. a class of deceased ancestors MrkP.; N. of Vishnu MBh.; of S'iva L.; of the father of Manu Bhautya MrkP.; of a Brhman L. bhuutejyaaH = worshipers of ghosts and spirits bhuutesha = O Lord of everything bhuuteshhu = living entities
387

bhuutvaa = having come into being bhuupa = king bhuupaTaH = (m) map, chart bhuupati = lord of the earth (king) bhuubhrit.h = mountain bhUman * = n. the earth, world RV. AV.; a territory, country, district s'vGri.; a being (pl) the aggregate of all existing things RV.; ({bhUma4n}) m. abundance, plenty, wealth, opulence, multitude, majority RV. &c. &c. (ifc. filled with Mcar.; {bhUmnA} ind. generally, usually Kv. Rjat.; {bhUnA4} ind. plentifully, abundantly RV.); the pl. number ({bhUmni}, in the plural) L.; N. of Kriishna BhP.; f. a collection, assembly S'nkhBr. bhUmaNDala* = n. `" earth-circle "', orbis terrarum, the terrestrial globe Cn. Pur. Kaths. &c.; the circumference or circuit of the earth Sryas. bhuumiH = earth* f. (Ved. also nom. {bhU4mI} gen. abl. {-myAs} loc. {-myAm}) the earth, soil, ground RV. &c. &c.; (pl. divisions of the world; cf. {bhUmi-traya}); a territory. country, district ib.; a place, situation S'Br. &c. &c.; position, posture, attitude MBh. Kv. &c.; the
388

part or personification (played by an actor) Kaths.; the, floor of a house, story Megh. Kaths.; the area S'ulbas.; the base of any geometrical figure Col.; (metaph.) a step, degree, stage Yogas. (with Buddhists there are 10 or 13 stages of existence or perfection Dharmas. 45; 46); extent, limit Kir.; (ifc.) a matter, subject, object, receptacle i.e. fit object or person for (cf. {vizvAsa-}, {sneha-bh-} &c., and {pAtra}, {bhAjana}); the tongue L.; m. N. of a son or grandson of Yuyudhna and father of Yugandhara Hariv. VP. bhuumiti = geometry bhuumiisuta = A name for the planet Mars bhuumnaa= m*V= supreme. unlimited bhuuyaH = repeatedly bhuuyo = again bhuuri = much, great* = mfn. much, many, abundant, frequent, numerous, great, important, strong, mighty RV. &c. &c.; ({I}) ind. much, abundantly, greatly, often, frequently ib. ({bhU4ri kR4tvas}, many times, repeatedly RV. iii, 18, 4); m. N. of Brahm or Vishnu or S'iva L.; of a son of Soma-datta (king of the Blhikas) MBh. Hariv. Pur.; m. n. gold L.; f. (cf. Pli {bhUrI}) reason, intellect Lalit.
389

bhuushanaM = ornament (Nr.nom.sing.) bhuushhaNa = ornament bhuushhita = adorned bhuuya* = n. (ifc.) becoming, being (see {amutra-}, {Atma-} &c bhyas * = cl. 1. A1. (Dha1tup.xvi , 27) %{bhya4sate} (only impf. %{a4bhyasetAm} RV. ; Subj. %{bhya4sAt} SV. ; Gr. also pf. %{babhyase} fut. %{bhyasiSyati} &c.: Caus. %{bhyAsayati}: Desid. %{bibhyasiSate}: Intens. %{bAbhyasyate} , %{bAbhyasti}) , to fear , be afraid , tremble (cf. %{bhI} , of which this is a secondary form , prob. through %{bhiyas}). bhyasa * = see %{sva-bhyasa4}. biibhatasa* = mf({A})n. (fr. Desid. of {bAdh}) loathsome, disgusting, revolting, hideous S'nkhBr. S'rS. MBh. &c.; loathing, detesting L.; envious, cruel, wicked L.; changed or estranged in mind L.; m. disgust, abhorrence; (with rasa) the sentiment of disgust (one of the 8 Rasas q.v.) Das'ar. Sh.; N. of Arjuna L.; ({A4}) f. loathing, abhorrence VS. (cf. {a4-b-}); n. anything loathsome or hideous, a hhideous sight Mlatm.; {karman} mfn. doing loathsome or wicked things (as an abusive word) Mcar.; {-tA} f. loathsomeness,
390

detestableness MBh.; prab. bibhakSayiSA * = f. (fr. Desid. of {bhaj}) a desire of eating or enjoying Nyyam. bibhakSayiSu * =mfn. desirous of eating MBh. MrkP.; -, {-daMSTrin} mfn. having teeth ddesirous of eeating "', hungry. mouthed VarBriS. bibhaNiSu * =mfn. (fr. Desid. of {bhaN}) desirous of speaking S'l. biibhatsa * =mf({A})n. (fr. Desid. of {bAdh}) loathsome, disgusting, revolting, hideous S'nkhBr. S'rS. MBh. &c.; loathing, detesting L.; envious, cruel, wicked L.; changed or estranged in mind L.; m. disgust, abhorrence; (with rasa) the sentiment of disgust (one of the 8 Rasas q.v.) Das'ar. Sh.; N. of Arjuna L.; ({A4}) f. loathing, abhorrence VS. (cf. {a4-b-}); n. anything loathsome or hideous, a hhideous sight Mlatm.; {karman} mfn. doing loathsome or wicked things (as an abusive word) Mcar.; {-tA} f. loathsomeness, detestableness MBh.; prab. bibhitsaa f. (fr. Desid. of %{bhid}) a desire to break through or destroy or pierce or penetrate (with acc. or gen.). MBh. Ka1d. (cf. Siddh. on Pa1n2. 2-3, 66). %{tsu} mfn. desirous of breaking through &c. (with acc.) MBh. BhP.
391

bibhrajjiSu * = m. `" that which wishes to destroy "', fire Bhathth.; {-prakhya} mfn. resembling fire ib. (= {agnitulya} Sch.) bibhrakSu * = mfn. (fr. Desid. of {bhrajj}) wishing to parch or destroy Bhathth.; m. fire W. bibhrat *= mfn. (pr.p. of %{bhR}) bearing, carrying RV. &c. &c. bila * = n. (also written %{vila} ; ifc. f. %{A}) a cave , hole , pit , opening , aperture RV. &c. &c. ; the hollow (of a dish) , bowl (of a spoon or ladle) &c. AV. VS. S3Br. S3rS. ; m. Calamus Rotang L. ; Indra's horse Uccaih2-s3ravas L. ; N. of two kinds of fish L. bindu * = m. (once n. MBh.; in later language mostly written {vindu}) a detached particle, drop, globule, dot, spot AV. &c. &c.; (with {hiraNyaya}) a pearl AV. xix, 30, 5 (cf. {-phala}); a drop of water taken as a measure L.; a spot or mark of coloured paint on the body of an elephant Kum.; (ifc. also {-ka}) the dot over a letter representing the Anusvra (supposed to be connected with Siva and of great mystical importance) MBh. Kaths. BhP.; a zero or cypher R. (in manuscripts put over an erased word to show that it ought not to be erased = `" stet "' Naish.); a partic. mark like a dot made in cauterizing Sus'r.; a mark made by the teeth of a lover on the lips of his mistress L.; a coloured mark made on
392

the forehead between the eyebrows L.; (in dram.) the sudden development of a secondary incident (which, like a drop of oil in water, expands and furnishes an important element in the plot) Sh. (ifc. also {-ka}); m. N. of a man g. {bidA7di}; of an ngirasa (author of RV. viii, 83; ix, 30) Anukr.; of the author of a Rasa-paddhati Cat.; pl. N. of a warrior tribe g. {dAmany-Adi}. boddhavyaM = should be understood bodhayantaH = preaching bodhi = supreme knowledge bodhita = having been taught/enlightened bodhya * = to be known or understood, to be regarded or recognized as (nom.) Veda7ntas. BhP. Sh. &c.; to be made known Veda7ntas.; to be enlightened or instructed Kaths.; m. N. of a Riishi MBh. braahma * = mf({I})n. (fr. {brahman}, for which it is also the Vriiddhi form in comp.) relating to Brahma8 or Brahm, holy, sacred, divine AV. &c. &c.; relating to sacred knowledge, prescribed by the Veda, scriptural Mn. ii, 150 &c.; sacred to the Veda (with or scil. {tIrtha} n. the part of the hand situated at the root of the thumb), ii, 59 &c.; relating or belonging to the Brhmans or the sacerdotal class peculiar or favourable
393

to or consisting of Brhmans Brahmanical Mn. MBh. &c. (with {nidhi} m. money bestowed on the sacerdotal class Mn. vii, 89); belonging to an inhabitant of Brahm's world Jtakam.; m. (with or scil. {vivAha}) N. of a form of marriage (in which the bride is bestowed on the bridegroom without requiring anything from him) Mn. iii, 21 &c.; N. of a man (son of Kriishna and father of Mahe7s'vara) Cat.; patr. of Nrada L.; of Kavi MBh.; of rdhva-nbhan and Raksho-han RAnukr.; ({I}) f. see {brAhmI}; n. sacred study, study of the Veda BhP.; (with or scil. {tIrtha}) see above. braahma* = {brAhmaNa} &c. see p. 741. braahmamuhuurta *= m. n. a partic. period of the day (that included between the 4th Ghat2ika1 and the 2nd before sunrise) , dawn L. (cf. Mn. iv , 92). ( see also: brahmamuhuurta). braahmaNa = Brahmin, priest, knower of Brahma (brahmaM jaanaati iti) * = mfn. relating to or given by a Brhman, befitting or becoming a BrBrhman, Brhmanical AV. TBr. MBh.; ({-Na4}) m. one who has divine knowledge (sometimes applied to Agni), a Brhman, a man belonging to the 1st of the 3 twice-born classes and of the 4 original divisions of the Hind body (generally a priest, but often in the present day a layman engaged in non-priestly occupations although the name is strictly only applicable to one who knows and repeats the Veda) RV. &c. &c.; = {brAhmaNAcchaMsin}
394

KtyS'r.; a Brhman in the second stage (between Mtra and S'rotriya) Hcat.; N. of the 28th lunar mansion L.; ({I}) f. see {brAhmaNI}; n. that which is divine, the divine AV.; sacred or ddivine power ib. s'vGri.; Brhmanical explanation, explanations of sacred knowledge or doctrine (esp. for the use of the Brhmans in their sacrifices) Br.; the Brhmana portion of the Veda (as distinct from its Mantra and Upanishad portion) and consisting of a class of works called Brhmanas (they contain rules for the employment of the Mantras or hymns at various sacrifices, with detailed explanations of their origin and meaning and numerous old legends; they are said by Syana to contain two parts: 1. {vidhi}, rules or directions for rites; 2. {arthavAda}, explanatory remarks; each Veda has its own Brhmana, that of the RV. is preserved in 2 works, viz. the Aitareya, sometimes called s'valyana, and the Kaushtaki or S'nkhyana-BrBrhmana; the white Yajur-veda has the S'ata-patha-BrBrhmana; the black Yajur-veda has the Taittirya-BrBrhmana which differs little from the text of its Sanhit; the SV. has 8 BrBrhmana, the best known of which are the Praudha or Paca-vins'a and the Shadvins'a; the AV. has one BrBrhmana called Go-patha) Nir. GriS'rS. &c.; the Soma vessel of the Brahman priest RV. AV.; a society or assemblage of Brhmans, a conclave W. braahmaNaH = )Masc.Nom.S) the Brahmin

395

braahmaNasya = of the man who knows the Supreme Brahman braahmaNaa = sacrificial formulae1 * = mfn. relating to or given by a Bra1hman, befitting or becoming a BrBra1hman, Bra1hmanical AV. TBr. MBh.; (%{Na4}) m. one who has divine knowledge (sometimes applied to Agni), a Bra1hman, a man belonging to the 1st of the 3 twice-born classes and of the 4 original divisions of the Hindu1 body (generally a priest, but often in the present day a layman engaged in nonpriestly occupations although the name is strictly only applicable to one who knows and repeats the Veda) RV. &c. &c.; = %{brAhmaNAcchaMsin} Ka1tyS3r.; a Bra1hman in the second stage (between Ma1tra and S3rotriya) Hcat.; N. of the 28th lunar mansion L.; (% {I}) f. see %{brAhmaNI}; n. that which is divine, the divine AV.; sacred or ddivine power ib. A1s3vGr2.; Bra1hmanical explanation, explanations of sacred knowledge or doctrine (esp. for the use of the Bra1hmans in their sacrifices) Br.; the Bra1hman2a portion of the Veda (as distinct from its Mantra and Upanishad portion) and consisting of a class of works called Bra1hman2as (they contain rules for the employment of the Mantras or hymns at various sacrifices, with detailed explanations of their origin and meaning and numerous old legends; they are said by Sa1yan2a to contain two parts: 1. %{vidhi}, rules or directions for rites; 2. %{artha-vAda}, explanatory
396

remarks; each Veda has its own Bra1hman2a, that of the RV. is preserved in 2 works, viz. the Aitareya, sometimes called A1s3vala1yana, and the Kaushi1taki or S3a1n3kha1yana-BrBra1hman2a; the white Yajurveda has the S3ata-patha-BrBra1hman2a; the black Yajur-veda has the Taittiri1ya-BrBra1hman2a which differs little from the text of its Sam2hita1; the SV. has 8 BrBra1hman2a, the best known of which are the Praud2ha or Pan5ca-vin6s3a and the Shad2vins3a; the AV. has one BrBra1hman2a called Go-patha) Nir. Gr2S3rS. &c.; the Soma vessel of the Brahman priest RV. AV.; a society or assemblage of Bra1hmans, a conclave W. braahmaNaaH = brhmanas braahmaNaan.h = Brahmins braahmaNe = in the brhmana braahmii = spiritual braM = (root) to wander bra4hma = cosmos * = 1 m. a priest (see {asura-}, {ku-}, {mahAbr-}); n. the one self-existent Spirit, the Absolute R. brahma * = 2 in comp. for {brahman}. - Observe that in
397

the following derivatives the nom. n. (Brahma8) is used for the impersonal Spirit and the nom. m. (Brahm) for the personal god. brahmaaNDa* = n. `" Brahm's egg "', the universe, world (also pl.) Hariv. Sryas. Pur. (also {-kaTAha} m. ryabh. Sch.); N. of a Purna and an Upapurna; {kapAla} m. the skull or hemisphere of the world, the inhabited earth Hcar.; {-kalpa} m. {-jJAna-mahArAjatantra} n. and {-tantra} n. N. of Tntric wks.; {purANa} n. N. of one of the 18 Purnas (so called as revealed by Brahm and containing an account of the egg of Brahm and the future Kalpas; cf. IW. 514; 521); {-bhANDo7dara} n. the interior of the vessel-like egg of Brahm MW. [740,3]; {-yAmale paJcamI-sAdhana} n. N. of wk. brahmaM = (Acc.S)the great self brahmacharya = control of sexual impulses brahmacarya * = n. study of the Veda, the state of an unmarried religious student, a state of continence and chastity (also {A} f. Hariv.) AV. &c. &c. (acc. with {grah}, {car}, {vas}, {A-gam}, {upa-i}, to practise chchastity; cf. {-cArin}); {-tva} n. the unmarried state, continence, chastity Hariv.; {-vat} mfn. leading the life of an unmarried religious student, practising chchastity past. MBh.; {-vrata} n. a vow of chchastity,
398

BeahmaP.; {-skhalana} n. deviating from chchastity MW.; {-ryA7zrama} m. the period of unmarried religious studentship MBh. brahmacharyaM = celibacy brahmacharyaasana = the posterior stretch posture brahmachaariNau = (2)bachelors brahmachaarin.h = celebates, established in (the persuit of) Brahma brahmachaarivrate = in the vow of celibacy brahmajiGYaasaa = desire to know or understand Brahman brahmaNaH = gen. sing. of brahman brahmaNaa = by the spirit soul brahmaNi = Brahman.h;God brahmatejobalaM = the power or might arising out of the effulgence of Brahman brahmadaNDena = (Nr.instr.S) the big egg i.e Universe
399

brahmadvaara = the door where kundalini enters the spine brahman.h = the preceptor brahmanirvaaNaM = the spiritual kingdom of God brahmabhuH = the earth brahmabhuyaaya = elevated to the Brahman platform brahmabhuutaM = liberation by identification with the Absolute brahmabhuutaH = being self-realized brahmabhuuyaaya = for self-realization brahmamayaH = full of Brahma (Ananda) i.e.bliss brahmapadaM = the state/position of Brahma/godrealised state brahmayoga = by concentration in Brahman brahmavaadinaaM = of the transcendentalists brahmavit.h = one who knows the Supreme perfectly
400

brahmavidaH = who know the Absolute brahmasa.nsparshaM = being in constant touch with the Supreme brahmasamaaja = Brahmasamaj, a movement in 19-20th century near Calcutta brahmasuutra = of the Vedanta brahmaa = non. sing of brahman, masc brahmaaNaM = Lord Brahma brahmaaNDapraaNa = cosmic breath brahmaadiinaamapi = even of Brahma and others brahmaadyaacharaNaM = practises this brahma science brahmaasi = are Brahma brahmaasmi = brahmA and asmi: Brahma and am brahmamuhuurta m. a partic. hour of the day Sin6ha7s. (see also: braahmamuhuurta) brahmiSTha *= mfn. (superl. fr. %{brahma4n}) a Bra1hman in the highest degree (as a N. of Brihaspati or
401

Praja1-pati and of very learned and pious Bra1hmans or princes) TS. &c. &c. ; m. N. of a prince Ragh. ; (%{A}) f. N. of Durga1 Devi1P. braviimi = I am speaking braviishhi = You are explaining briMh* = {bRnhaNa} &c. see 2. 4. {bRh}. briMhaNa* = mfn. (fr. Caus.) making big or fat or strong, nourishing Sus'r.; m. a kind of sweetmeat W.; n. the act of making big &c. ib.; a means for making strong or firm RPrt. briMhaNatva* = n. the quality of making fat or strong Sus'r.; the quality of making solid or firm Hariv. briMhaNIya* = mfn. to be fattened or nourished Pn. 82 Sch.; fattening, nutritious Sus'r. briMhayitavya* = mfn. to be nourished or strengthened Sus'r. briMhayitR* = mfn. strengthening, increasing L. briMhita* =1 mfn. (for 2. see under 4. {bRh}) strengthened, nourished, cherished, grown, increased MBh. Hariv. &c.; ({A}) f. N. of one of the Mtriis
402

attendant on Skanda MBh.; (v.l. {bRMhila}). \\=2 n. (for 1. see under 2. {bRh}) the roar or noise made by elephants MBh. Kv. &c. brihat * mf({atI4})n. (in later language usually written {vRhat}) lofty, high, tall, great, large, wide, vast, abundant, compact, solid, massy, strong, mighty RV. &c. &c.; full-grown, old RV.; extended or bright (as a luminous body) ib.; clear, loud (said of sounds) ib.; m. N. of a Marut Hariv.; of a prince MBh.; of a son of Suhotra and father of Aja-midha Hariv. m. or n. (?) speech ({-tAm pati} = {bRhaspati}) S'is'. ii, 26; ({tI}) f. see s.v.; n. height (also= heaven, sky) RV.; N. of various Smans composed in the metrical form Briihat (also with {Aneyam}, {bharad-vAjasya}. {bhAradvAjam}, {vAmadevyam}, {sauram}) rshBr. [736, 1]; N. of Brahman, Bhp.; of the Veda ib.; ({a4t}) ind. far and wide, on high RV.; firmly, compactly ib.; brightly ib.; greatly, much ib.; aloud ib. (also {atA4} AV.) bri^ihatsaama = the Braahat-sama bri^ihaspatiM = Brhaspati bri^ihaspatiH = the teacher of the Devas called "Brihaspati" literally bri^ihaspatirdadhaatu = Brihaspadi may give us

403

bri^ihaspatii = A name of the planet Jupiter bri^ihaspatii-varshha = The Jovian or Jupiter Year. Cycle of 60 years which starts with the first New Moon in Tropical Aries. Mundane Astrology term bri^ihaspatiivaara = Thursday brisii * = f. (also written {briSI}, {vRsI}, or {vRSI}) a roll of twisted grass, pad, cushion, (esp.) the seat of a religious student or of an ascetic, S'rs. MBh. &c. bruu = to speak * = cl. 2. P. A1. (Dha1tup. xxiv, 35) % {bra4vIti}, %{brUte4} (only pr. stem; the other forms are supplied by %{vac} cf. Pa1n2. 2-4, 53; %{brUmi} for %{bravImi} R.; Subj. %{bra4vas}, %{-vat} RV.; Impv. %{brUhi}, ep. also %{bravIhi}, % {bruvadhvam}; %{brUtAt} Pa1n2. 7-i, 35 Sch.; impf. % {abruvam} for %{abravam} Up. MBh.; pr.p. A1. ep. % {bruvamANa} for %{bruvANa}; Prec. 2. pl. % {brUyAsta} Nal. xvii, 36, prob. w.r. for % {brUyAs@tat}), to speak, say, tell (either intrans.; or with acc. of pers. or thing; or with acc. of thing and acc. dat. gen. or loc. of person = to tell or relate anything to; with two acc. also = declare or pronounce to be, call) RV. &c. &c.; to speak about any person or thing (acc. with or without %{prati}, or %{adhikRtya}) Mn. MBh. Ka1v. &c.; to proclaim predict Var.; to answer (either intrans. with %{punar} or trans. with %{praznam}, `" a
404

question "') Mn. MBh.; (with %{anyathA}) to speak or decide or judge wrongly Mn. Pan5cat.; (A1., rarely P.) to call or profess one's self to be (nom., rarely with % {iti}) RV. Br. MBh.; (A1.) to designate for one's self, choose AitBr.; (A1.) to be told by itself tell itself (tell its tale) Pa1n2. 3-1, 89 Va1rtt. 1 Pat. [Cf. Zd. {mru1}.] [742,2] bruuhi = tell bubhuushu*= mfn. wishing to be or become anything (nom.) S3is3. HParis3.; wishing to become powerful or prevail Ka1tyS3r. MBh. BhP.; wishing the welfare of (gen.) MBh. (see also vibhubhusu) bud.hdhyaa = by intelligence bud.hdhvaa = knowing bud.hbudaaH = (m) bubbles buddha = Buddha* mfn. awakened, awake MBh.; expanded, blown SmavBr.; conscious, intelligent, clever, wise (opp. to {mUDha}) MBh. Kv. &c.; learnt, known, understood past. MBh. (`" by "', usually instr., but also gen. according to Pn. 2-2, 12; 3, 67 Sch.); m. a wise or learned man, sage W.; (with Buddhists) a fully enlightened man who has achieved perfect knowledge of the truth and thereby is liberated from all existence
405

and before his own attainment of Nirvna reveals the method of obtaining it, (esp.) the principal Buddha of the present age (born at Kapila-vastu about the year 500 B.C. his father, S'uddhodana, of the S'kya tribe or family, being the Rja of that district, and his mother, My-dev, being the daughter of Rja Su-prabuddha MWB. 19 &c.; hence he belonged to the Kshatriya caste and his original name S'kya-muni or S'kya-sinha was really his family name, while that of Gautama was taken from the race to which his family belonged; for his other names see ib. 23; he is said to have died when he was 80 years of age, prob. about 420 B.C. ib. 49 n. 1; he was preceded by 3 mythical Buddhas of the present Kalpa, or by 24, reckoning previous Kalpa, or according to others by 6 principal Buddhas ib. 136; sometimes he is regarded as the 9th incarnation of Vishnu Hariv. Kv. Var. &c.); n. knowledge BhP. (B. {buddhi}). buddhagataM = having gone to Buddhaor due to Buddha buddhayaH = intelligence buddhi = intelligence buddhiM = intelligence buddhiH = intellect

406

buddhinaashaH = loss of intelligence buddhinaashaat.h = and from loss of intelligence buddhibhedaM = disruption of intelligence buddhimataaM = of the intelligent buddhimaan.h = is intelligent buddhiyuktaH = one who is engaged in devotional service buddhiyuktaaH = being engaged in devotional service buddhiyogaM = real intelligence buddhiyogaat.h = on the strength of KRishhNa consciousness buddhisa.nyogaM = revival of consciousness buddhii = Intelligence buddheH = more than the intelligence buddhau = in such consciousness

407

budha = wise budhaH = the intelligent person budhakaushika = the person budhakaushika budhakaushikaH = budhakaushikaH (the author of this hymn) budhavaara = Wednesday budhaaH = those who know budhaadityayoga = Combination for learning budhiH = mind

ca* = 1 and, likewise, accordingly (introducing quotations) Mn. ix, 19 and 45 Dhrtas. Hit. iti ca* = 2 ind. (fr. pronominal base 3. {i}), in this manner, thus (in its original signification {iti} refers to
408

something that has been said or thought, or lays stress on what precedes; in the Brhmanas it is often equivalent to `" as you know "', reminding the hearer or reader of certain customs, conditions, &c. supposed to be known to him). In quotations of every kind {iti} means that the preceding words are the very words which some person has or might have spoken, and placed thus at the end of a speech it serves the purpose of inverted commas ({ity uktvA}, having so said; {iti kRtvA}, having so considered, having so decided). It may often have reference merely to what is passing in the mind e.g. {bAlo 'pi nA7vamantavyo manuSya iti bhUmipaH}, a king, though a child, is not to be despised, saying to one's self, `" he is a mortal "', (Gr. 928.) In dram. {iti tathA karoti} means `" after these words he acts thus. "' Sometimes {iti} is used to include under one head a number of separate objects aggregated together (e.g. {ijyA7dhyayanadAnAni tapaH satyaM kSamA damaH} {alobha iti mArgo 'yam}, `" sacrificing, studying, liberality, penance, truth, patience, self-restraint, absence of desire "', this course of conduct, &c.) {iti} is sometimes followed by {evam}, {iva}, or a demonstrative pronoun pleonastically (e.g. {tAm brUyAd bhavatI7ty evam}, her he may call `" lady "', thus). {iti} may form an adverbial compound with the name of an author (e.g. {iti-pANini}, thus according to Pnini). It may also express the act of calling attention (lo! behold!) It may have some other significations e.g. something additional (as in {ityAdi},
409

et caetera), order, arrangement specific or distinctive, and identity. It is used by native commentators after quoting a rule to express `" according to such a rule "' (e.g. {anudAttaGita ity Atmanepadam bhavati}, according to the rule of Pnini i, 3, 12, the tmane-pada takes place). {kim iti} = {kim}, wherefore, why? (In the S'atapatha-brhmana {ti} occurs for {iti}; cf. Prkriit {ti} and {tti}.) caakra4 * = mfn. (fr. {cakra4}) carried on (a battle) with the discus Hariv. 5648; belonging to a wheel W.; circular W.; m. N. of a man S'Br. xii. caapaala * = N. of a Caitya DivyA7v. caapala * = n. (fr. {cap-} g. {yuvA7di}) mobility, swiftness Ragh. iii, 42 BhP. vii, 12, 20; agitation, unsteadiness, fickleness, inconsiderateness, insolence Gaut. ix, 50 Pn. 8-1, 12 Vrtt. 5 MBh. &c. caara * = m. ({car}) = {cara}, a spy Mn. vii, ix MBh. i, 5604 R. Mriicch. Kaths.; going, motion, progression, course (of asterisms VarBriS. BhP. v, 22, 12) ChUp. vii, 1, 5 R. &c.; wandering about, travelling W.; `" proceeding "' see {kAma-}; practising MBh. v, 1410; a bond, fetter L.; a prison L.; Buchanania latifolia Bhpr.; n. a factitious poison L. (v.l. for {vAra}); ({I}) f. a particular step (in dancing); a trap, snare HParis'. i, 353.

410

caaraNa* = mfn. depending on a Vedic school ({caraNa}) p.; belonging to the same Vedic school (`" reading the scripture "' W.) Gaut.; m. a wandering actor or singer Mn. xii, 44 MBh. v, 1039 and 1442 VarBriS. Pacat. &c.; a celestial singer MBh. R. S'ak. BhP. Gt. i, 2; a spy BhP. iv, 16, 12 Blar.; n. ( {car}, Caus.) `" pasturing, tending "' see {go-}; a kind of process applied to mercury; ({I}) f. a female celestial singer Blar. ix, 21/22 ff.; Hibiscus mutabilis Npr. caarita mfn. set in motion Ra1jat. iv, 653; caused to be done by (instr.) MBh. xii, 11584. [393,3] caaritra* =m. (%{car} cf. %{zAmitra}) `" moving "'N. of a Marut Hariv. 11547; n. (= %{car-}) proceeding, manner of acting, conduct R. iii, iv Pan5cat. (ifc. f. % {A}); good conduct, good character, reputation Hariv. 10204 Nal. R. &c. (`" life in accordance with the 5 great vows "' Jain.); peculiar observance, peculiarity of customs or conditions W.; a ceremony Buddh. L.; (% {A}) f. the tamarind tree L. caarma: made of skin, hide, leather caaru* = mf({us})n. (2. {can}) agreeable, approved, esteemed, beloved, endeared, (Lat.) {carus}, dear (with dat. or loc. of the person) RV. VS. xxxv, 17 TS. iii TBr. iii, 1, 1, 9 SnkhS'r. i, 5, 9; pleasing, lovely, beautiful, pretty RV. AV. MBh. &c.; ind. so as to please,
411

agreeably (with dat.) RV. ix, 72, 7 and 86, 21 AV. vii, xii, xiv; beautifully Hariv. Caurap.; m. (in music) a particular {vAsaka}; N. of Briihaspati L.; of a son of Kriishna Hariv. 6699 BhP. x, 61, 9; of a Cakra-vartin Buddh.; n. (v.l. for {vara}) saffron L. Sch.; ({vI}) f. a beautiful woman L.; splendour L.; moonlight L.; intelligence L.; N. of Kubera's wife L. caitya* = 1 m. (fr. 5. {cit} or 2. {citi}) the individual soul BhP. iii, 26; 28, 28; 31, 19 Sarvad. ii, 198f. caitya* =2 mfn. relating to a funeral pile or mound ({citA}) s'vGri. iii, 6 Griihys. ii, 4; m. n. a funeral monument or Stpa (q.v.) or pyramidal column containing the ashes of deceased persons, sacred tree (esp. a religious fig-tree) growing on a mound, hall or temple or place of worship (esp. with Buddh. and Jain. and generally containing a monument), a sanctuary near a village s'vGri. i, 12 Pars'. Yj. ii, 151 & 228 MBh. &c.; a Jain or Buddh. image L.; m. = {-tyaka}, ii, 814. caitaki* = m. pl. (fr. {cetaka}) N. of a family Pravar. ii, 2, 2. caitta* = mfn. belonging to thought ({citta4}), imagined Veda7ntas.; mental, mdar. ii, 2, 18 Sch. Prab. Sch. caitra* = m. N. of the 2nd spring month (its full moon standing in the constellation Citr cf. Pn. 4-2, 23)
412

S'nkhBr. xix, 3 KtyS'r. Lthy. Mn. vii, 182 MBh. &c.; the 6th year in the cycle of Jupiter VarBriS. viii, 8; a Buddh. or Jain religious mendicant L.; a common N. for any man (like Deva-datta), Gaudap. on Snkhyak. 5 and 7 Prab. iii, 7/8 Sch. Pn. 2-3, 29 Sch. (not in Ks'.); `" son of Citr "'N. of a son of Budha and grand father of Su-ratha BrahmaP.; = {caitriyAyaNa4} Anukr. on Kthh. xxxix, 14; N. of two Riishis VP. iii, 1, 12 and 18; one of the seven ranges of mountains (dividing the continent into Varshas) L.; n. = {caitya}, a sepulchre L.; a sanctuary L.; mfn. for {citra} (B) or {jaitra} (Sch.) MBh. vii, 76; ({I}) f. (with or without {paurNamAsI}) the day of full moon in month Caitra, sacrifice offered on that day S'nkhS'r. iii, 13, 2 KtyS'r.xiii Lthy.x Pn. 4-2, 23 MBh. xii, xiv. caittika* = mfn. belonging to thought W. caitraka* = m. = {-trika} L.; m. pl. N. of a warrior tribe Pn. 6-2, 34 Ks cakra = Circle, wheel, psychic centre in humans* = n. (Ved. rarely m.; g. {ardharcA7di}; fr. {car}?; 1. {kR} Pn. 6-1, 12 Ks'.) the wheel (of a carriage, of the Sus chariot [RV.], of Time [i, 164, 2-48]; {-kra4M-car}, to drive in a carriage S'Br. vi) RV. &c.; a potter's wheel S'Br. xi Yj. iii, 146 (cf. {-bhrama} &c.); a discus or sharp circular missile weapon (esp. that of Vishnu) MBh. R. Sus'r. Pacat. BhP.; an oil-mill Mn. iv. 85
413

MBh. xii, 6481 & 7697; a circle R. BhP. &c. ({kalA7pa-}, `" the circle of a peacock's tail "' Riitus. ii, 14); an astronomical circle (e.g. {rAzi-}, the zodiac) VarBriS. Sryas.; a mystical circle or diagram, Tantr.; = {-bandha} q.v. Sh. x, 13 a/b; a cycle, cycle of years or of seasons Hariv. 652; `" a form of military array (in a circle) "' see {-vyUha}; circular flight (of a bird) Pacat. ii, 57; a particular constellation in the form of a hexagon VarBriS. xx VarBri. Laghuj.; a circle or depression of the body (for mystical or chiromantic purposes; 6 in number, one above the other, viz. 1. {mUlA7dhAra}, the parts about the pubis; 2. {svA7dhiSThAna}, the umbilical region; 3. {maNi-pUra}, the pit of the stomach or epigastrium; 4. {anAhata}, the root of the nose; 5. {vizuddha}, the hollow between the frontal sinuses; 6. {AjJA7khya}, the fontenelle or union of the coronal and sagittal sutures; various faculties and divinities are supposed to be present in these hollows); N. of a metre (= {-pAta}); a circle or a similar instrument (used in astron.) Laghuj. Sryas. xiii, 20 Gol. xi, 10 ff.; (also m. L.) a troop, multitude MBh. v, ix ({krA7valI}, q.v.) Hariv. R. &c.; the whole number of (in comp.) Sarvad. xi, 127; a troop of soldiers, army, host MBh. (ifc. f. {A}, iii, 640) BhP. i, ix Cn.; a number of villages, province, district L.; (fig.) range, department VarBriS. xxx, 33; the wheel of a monarch's chariot rolling over his dominions, sovereignty, realm Yj. i, 265 MBh. i, xiii BhP. ix, 20, 32 VP.; (pl.) the winding of a river L.; a whirlpool L.; a crooked or fraudulent
414

device (cf. {cakrikA}) L.; the convolutions or spiral marks of the S'la-grma or ammonite W.; N. of a medicinal plant or drug Sus'r. vf.; of a Trtha BhP. x, 78, 19; m. the ruddy goose or Brhmany duck (Anas Casarca, called after its cries; cf. {-vAka4}) MBh. ix, 443 Blar. viii, 58 Kaths. lxxii, 40 S'rngP.; (pl.) N. of a people MBh. vi, 352; (g. {azvA7di}) N. of a man, BriArUp. iii, 4, 1 Sch.; of another man Kaths. lvi, 144; of a Nga MBh. i, 2147; of one of Skanda's attendants MBh. ix, 2539 and 2542; of a mountain BhP. v, 20, 15 Kaths. liv. 16; ({A}) f. a kind of Cyperus or another plant L.; ({I4}) f. a wheel (instr. sg. {-kri4yA}; gen. du. {-kryo4s}) RV.; (du. {-kriyau}) Kthh. xxix, 7; [cf. {a-}, {aSTA4-}, {uccA-}, {e4ka-}, {kAla-}, {kU-}, {daNDa-}, {dik-}, {dharma-}, {mahA-}, {mAtR-}, {ro4dha-}, {viSNu-}, {sa-}, {sapta4-}, {hiraNya-}; {tri-} and {sucakra4}; cf. also, $, Lat. {circus}; Angl. Sax. {hveohl}, Engl. {wheel}.] cakaara * m. the letter or sound {ca}. * m. the particle {ca} Pn. 2-3, 72 Ks' calataa * = f. shaking, tremulous motion cala * = mf({A})n. (g. {pacA7di}) moving, trembling, shaking, loose MBh. &c.; unsteady, fluctuating, perishable ib.; disturbed, confused ib.; m. `" agitation, shaking "' see {bhUmi-}; wind L.; wind (in med.) Ashtha7ng. i, 11, 1; quicksilver L.; a sprout, shoot Gal.;
415

n. water Gal.; ({A}) f. lightning L.; incense L.; the Goddess of Fortune Kaths. lx, 119; a metre of 4 x 18 syllables (cf. {a-}, {niz-}, {puMzcalI}, {cAla}.) campaka * =: m. Michelia Campaka(bearing a yellow fragrant flower) MBh. R. &c.; a kind of perfume VarBriS. lxxvii, 7; a particular part of the bread-fruit W.; N. of a man Rjat. vii; of a relation of the Jaina Meru-tunga; of a country Buddh.; n. the flower of the Campaka tree MBh. Sus'r. &c.; the fruit of a variety of the plantain L.; ({A}) f. N. of a town, JaimBhr. Hit. canda*= fierce, violent, cruel, impetuous, hot, ardent with passion, passionate, angr y caNDavega * = mfn. having an impetuous course or current (said of the sea, of the battle, and of time) R. iv f. BhP. iv, 29, 20; m. N. of a metre; of a Gandharva chief. 27, 13; (%{A}) f. `" N. of a river "'; %{-gAsaMgama-tIrtha} n. N. of a Ti1rtha Reva1Kh. xviii. cana = cha(?)+na, and +not capala * = mf({A})n. ({kamp}; g. {zauNDA7di}, {zreNy-Adi} and {vispaSTA7di}) moving to and fro, shaking, trembling, unsteady, wavering MBh. &c.; wanton, fickle, inconstant ib.; inconsiderate, thoughtless, ill-mannered Mn. iv, 177 MBh. xiv, 1251; quick, swift, expeditious Hariv. 4104; momentary,
416

instantaneous Subh.; m. a kind of mouse Sus'r. v, 6, 3 Ashtha7ng. vi, 38, 1; a fish L.; the wind Gal.; quicksilver L.; black mustard L.; a kind of perfume ({coraka}) L.; a kind of stone L.; N. of a demon causing diseases Hariv. 9562; of a prince MBh. i, 231; n. a kind of metal (mentioned with quicksilver); ({am}) ind. quickly Das'. vii, 420 f.; ({A}) f. lightning Gt. vii, 23; long pepper L.; the tongue L.; (g. {priyA7di}) a disloyal wife, whore L.; spirituous liquor (esp. that made from hemp) L.; the goddess Lakshmi or fortune (cf. MBh. xiii, 3861) L.; N. of two metres (cf. {mahA-}); (in music) the 5th note personified. car * =. 1. {ca4rati}, rarely {-te} (Subj. {ca4rat}, 3 pl. {ca4rAn} RV.; perf. {cacA4ra} [AV. &c.], 2 sg. {cacartha} BhP. iv, 28, 52; pl. {cerur}, &c.; {-ratur} S'Br. &c.; . {cere} BhP. iii, 1, 19; fut. {cariSyati}, {te}; aor. {acArIt} [S'Br. xiv &c.]; inf. {ca4ritum} [ii MBh. i, iii R.] or {cartum} [MBh. iii, xiii R. iii BhP. v], Ved. {cara4dhyai} [RV. i, 61, 12], {ca4ritave} [113, 5], {cara4se} [92, 9 and v, 47, 4], {carA4yai} [vii, 77, 1], {caritos} [Aitr. i, 1, 1, 7]; ind. p. {caritvA4} S'Br. xiv BhP. x, 75, 19; {cartvA} MBh. v, 3790; {cIrtvA}, xiii, 495; p. {ca4rat}) to move one's self, go, walk, move, stir, roam about, wander (said of men, animals, water, ships, stars, &c.) RV. AV. &c.; to spread, be diffused (as fire) VarBriS. xix, 7; to move or travel through, pervade, go along, follow Mn. MBh. &c.; to behave, conduct one's self, act, live, treat (with instr. or loc.) RV.
417

AV. &c.; to be engaged in, occupied or busy with (instr e.g. {yajJe4na c-}, `" to be engaged in a sacrifice "' S'Br.) RV. x, 71, 5 AV. vi, 117, 1 AitBr. &c.; (with [S'Br. iv ChUp. Kaus'. S'nkhS'r.] or without [S'Br. ii, xiv] {mithuna4m}) to have intercourse with, have to do with (instr.); (with a p. or adj. or ind. p. or adv.) to continue performing or being (e.g. {arcantaz cerur}, `" they continued worshipping "' S'Br. i; {svAminam avajJAya caret}, `" he may go on despising his master "' Hit.) RV. AV. VS. &c.; (in astron.) to be in any asterism or conjunction VarBriS.; to undertake, set about, under go, observe, practise, do or act in general, effect, make (e.g. {vratA4ni} `" to observe vows "' AV. &c.; {vighnaM c-}, `" to put a hindrance "' MBh.; {bhaikSaM c-} `" to beg "' Mn. ii; {vivAdaM c-} "', to be engaged in a lawsuit "' Mn. viii, 8; {mRgayAM c-}, to hunt "' MBh. R.; {sambandhAMz c}, `" to enter into connections "' Mn. ii, 40; {mArgaM cacAra bANaiH}, `" he made a way with arrows "' R. iii, 34, 4; {tapasA indriyANi c-}, to exercise one's organs with penance MBh. xiv, 544) RV. AV. &c.; to consume, eat (with acc.), graze Yj. iii, 324 Pacat. BhP. v, x Subh. Hit.; to make or render (with double acc. e.g. {nare4ndraM satya-sthaM carAma} "', let us make the king keep his word "' R. ii, 107, 19: Caus. {cArayati}, to cause to move or walk about AV. xii, 4, 28 (aor. {a4cIcarat}) S'nkhBr. xxx, 8 Lthy.; to pasture MBh. xiv R. BhP. iii, x; to send, direct, turn, move MBh. &c.; to cause any one (acc.) to walk through (acc.) MBh. xii R. v, 49, 14;
418

to drive away from (abl.) MBh. xii, 12944; to cause any one (acc.) to practise or perform (with acc.) Mn. xi, 177 and 192; to cause (any animal acc.) to eat Bdar. ii, 2, 5 Sch.; to cause to copulate Mn. viii, 362; to ascertain (as through a spy instr.) MBh. iii, xv R. i, vi; to doubt (cf. {vi-}) Dhtup. xxxiii, 71: Desid. {cicariSati}, to try to go S'nkhBr. xxx, 8 (p. {cicarSat}) [389, 2]; to wish to act or conduct one's self S'Br. xi; to try to have intercourse with (instr.), vi: Intens. {carcarIti} . or rarely [MBh. iii, 12850] Pass. {caJcUryate} ({-curIti} and {-cUrti} Pn. 7-4, 87f.; ind. p. {-cUrya} R. iv, 29, 22; p. once P. {-cUryat} Hariv. 3602) to move quickly or repeatedly, walk about, roam about (in loc.) AV. xx, 127, 4 MBh. &c.; to act wantonly or coquettishly Bhathth. iv, 19 (cf. Pn. 3-1, 24); [cf. $, $ &c.] cara * = mfn. (g. {pacA7di}) moving, locomotive (as animals opposed to plants, or as the Karanas in astrol.) VPrt. S'vetUp. iii, 18 Mn. vii, 15 MBh. &c.; (= {saMcArin}) forming the retinue of any one BhP. iv, 29, 23; movable, shaking, unsteady W.; ifc. going, walking, wandering, being, living, practising (e.g. {adhaz-}, {anta-}, {antarikSa-}, {ap-}, {AdAya-}, {udake-}, &c.; cf. Pn. 3-2, 16); ifc. (Pn. 5-3, 53 f.; vi, 3, 35; f. {I}) having been formerly (e.g. {ADhya-}, {devadatta-}, qq. vv.; {a-dRSTa-} or {nadRSTa-}, `" not seen before "' Kaths. [once f. irr. {A}, lx, 58] Sarvad. iii, 16; vii, 19; {an-Alokita-} id. Blar. iv, 54/55); m. a spy, secret emissary or agent Mn. vii, 122 Hariv. 10316 R. &c.; =
419

{caraTa} L.; the small shell Cypraea moneta L.; the wind, air BhP. x, 14, 11; the planet Mars L.; a game played with dice (similar to backgammon) L.; a cowrie W.; `" passage "' see {a-}, {duz-}; n. (in astron.) ascensional difference Gol. vii; ({A4}) f. dat. {-rA4yai} inf. {car} q.v.; (in music) N. of a Mrchan; ({I}) f. a young woman (cf. {caraTi}) L.; = {digambaraprasiddhA} g. {gaurA7di}; also ifc. see {anu-} and {sahacarI}. caraTa * m. (= {cara}) a wagtail L.; ({I}) f. (= {raNTI}, {ciraTI}, {ciraNTI}) a woman married or single who after maturity resides in her father's house L. Sch. carama m. (nom. pl. %{-me}, or %{-mAs} Pa1n2. 11, 33)f(%{A})n. (in comp. Pa1n2. 2-1, 58) last, ultimate, final RV. vii, 59, 3; viii, 20, 14 TS. i, v BhP. &c. (%{-mA@kriyA}, `" the [final i.e.] funeral ceremony "' MBh. iv, 834); the outermost (first or last, opposed to the middle one) RV. viii, 61, 15; later KapS. i, 72; (%{-maM@kiM}, `" what more? "' Prasannar. v, 3/4); `" western "', in comp.; lowest, least L.; a particular high number Buddh. L.; (%{am}) ind. last MBh. i, iii; at last, at the end Ra1jat. v, 7; after any one (gen.) Mn. ii, 194 Kir. caraNa* = m. n. (g. {ardharcA7di}) a foot Gobh. Mn. ix, 277 Bdar. MBh. &c. (ifc. f. {A} Hariv. 3914
420

Mlav.); (ifc. pl.) `" the feet of "', the venerable (N. N. ) MBh. xii, 174, 24 Sch.; a pillar, supor Hariv. 4643; the root (of a tree) L.; a Pda or line of a stanza, S'rut.; a dactyl; a 4th part (pda) VarBri. Ll.; a section, subdivision Bhpr. Sarvad. ({catuz-} q.v.); a school or branch of the Veda Nir. i, 17 Pn. MBh. xii, xiii Pacat. iv, 3; n. going round or about, motion, course RV. iii, 5, 5; ix, 113, 9; x, 136, 6 and 139, 6 S'Br. ii, x Sh. [389, 3]; acting, dealing, managing, (liturgical) performance, observance AV. vii, 106, 1 S'Br. S'nkhS'r. KtyS'r. VP. iii, 5, 13; behaviour, conduct of life KtyS'r. ChUp. v, 10; good or moral conduct Kaus'. 67 MBh. xiii, 3044 Lalit.; practising (generally ifc. cf. {tapaz-} [{tapasaz c-} Mn. vi, 75], {bhikSA-}, {bhaikSa-}) Gobh. iii, 1, 12 Nal.; grazing W.; consuming, eating L.; a particular high number Buddh. L. (cf. {dvi-}, {puraz-}, {ratha-}). carita * = mfn. gone, gone to, attained W.; `" practised "', in comp.; espied, ascertained (by a spy, %{cara}) R. vi, 6, 16 and 7, 21; (%{a4m}) n. going, moving, course AV. iii, 15, 4; ix, 1, 3 Gobh. iii Sus3r.; motion (of asterisms) Su1ryas.; acting, doing, practice, behaviour, acts, deeds, adventures RV. i, 90, 2 MBh. R. VarBr2S. &c. (ifc. f. %{A} Gi1t. ix, 1); fixed institute, proper or peculiar observance W. (cf. %{uttara-rAma-}, % {du4z-}, %{sac-}, %{saha-}, %{su-}). caritArtha * = mf(%{A})n. attaining one's object, successful in any undertaking S3ak. vii, 31/32 Ma1lav.
421

v, 19/20 Ragh. Kum. Pa1n2. Ka1s3. and Siddh.; %{-tA} f. successfulness S3ak. v, 5/6 %{-tva} n. id. Sa1m2khyak. Bha1sha1p. (cf. %{cAritA7rthya}.) caritra* = n. (Pa1n2. 3-2, 184; rarely m. VS. vi, 14 MaitrS. i, 2, 16) a foot, leg RV. AV. x, 2, 12 Kaus3. 44; n. going VS. xiii, 19; acting, behaving, behaviour, habit, practice, acts, adventures, deeds, exploits Mn. ii, 20; ix, 7 R. &c. (ifc. f. %{A} Pan5cat. iv, 7, 5); nature, disposition W.; custom, law as based on custom Na1r. i, 10 f.; xx, 24; (%{A}) f. the tamarind tree L. (cf. % {cAr-}). carItra* = n. = %{-ritra}, behaviour, conduct L. carma: a shield carmasAra* = m. `" skin-essence "', lymph, serum L. caru* = m. (g. {bhImA7di}) a kind of vessel (in which a particular oblation is prepared), saucepan, pot RV. AV. S'Br. xiii KtyS'r. Kaus'. Mn. Yj.; a cloud (cf. RV. i, 7, 6) Naigh. i, 10; an oblation (of rice, barley and pulse) boiled with butter and milk for presentation to the gods or manes VS. xxix. 6 TS. i S'Br. AitBr. i, 1 & 7 KtyS'r. &c. (pl. Yj. i, 298). [390, 2] carya* = mfn. (Pn. 3-1, 100) to be practised or performed Mn. iii, 1; m. (= {cara}) the small shell
422

Cypraea moneta L.; n. ifc. driving (in a carriage) MBh. viii, 4215; ({A}) f. going about, wandering, walking or roaming about, visiting, driving (in a carriage, {ratha-} MBh. ix, xiii R. i, 19, 19) MBh. R. BhP. ix, 16, 1; (often ifc.) proceeding, behaviour, conduct S'Br. xi, 5, 7, 1 Lthy. viii s'vS'r. xii, 4 Mn. vi, 32 &c.; due observance of all rites and customs Sarvad. vi ff.; a religious mendicant's life L.; practising, performing, occupation with, engaging in (instr. [Gaut.] or generally in comp.) S'Br. xiv s'vGri. iii, 7 Mn. i, 111 MBh. &c.; deportment, usage W.; (in music) a kind of composition; N. of Durg Gal. (cf. {brahma-}, {bhikSA-}, {bhaikSya-}). cashtha * = mfn. (%{cakS}) spoken W. catvaraH = (adj) four caura* = mfn. ({cur}) thievish HParis'. ii, 170 (= {cora4} g. {prajJA7di}; g. {chattrA7di}) a thief. robber Mn. iv, viii, xi (ifc.) Hariv. &c.; a dishonest or unfair dealer, usurper Pacat. i, 8, 11/12 and 18/19 (also in comp. translatable as adj.); (ifc.e.g. {kavi-}, `" a plagiarist "') Ganar. 114; a (heart-) captivator Hariv. 7125; 9981 and 9994; the perfume Coraka L.; `" plagiarist "'N. of a poet (cf. {cora}) S'rngP.; pl. N. of a family Pravar. i, 7 (Kty. and Vis'van.); ({I}) f. a female thief. (heart-)captivator Kaths. vc, 54; civ, 168; = {-rakarman} L.
423

caurya* = n. (g. {brAhmaNA7di}) = {-ra-karman} Mn. ix, xi Yj. ii, 72 Mriicch. &c.; trickery Hariv. 15163 f.; (ifc. with {zulka}) defraudation Pacat. iv, 5, 0/1. c(h)arina A* = wandering, staying cha = and ceratah *= wandering, rambling, playingamble, bat around, branch off, bum around, clamber, climb, cruise, depart, digress, divagate, diverge, drift, excurse, extend, fork, gad, gallivant, get sidetracked, grow, knock about, knock around, meander, perambulate, percolate, peregrinate, promenade, range, roam, rove, saunter, sc ramble, snake, sprangle, sprawl, spread, spread-eagle, straddle, straggle, stray, stroll, trail, traipse, travel aimlessly, turn, twist, walk ceshth *= cl. I. %{ce4STati} , %{-te} (inf %{-Titum}) to move the limbs , move , stir MBh. R. BhP. S3ak. ; to make effort , exert one's self , struggle , strive , be active AV. xi , 4 , 23 f. S3Br. iii La1t2y. Kaus3. Mn. MBh. ; to be busy or occupied with (acc.) ; to act , do , perform , care for Gobh. i , 6 , 19 MBh. R. S3ak. Ra1jat. iii , 493 ; to prepare S3Br. xiv , 9 , 4 , 18 (ind. p. %{ceSTitvA4}): Caus. %{tayati} , %{-te} (aor. %{aciceSTat} [Bhat2t. xv , 60] or %{acac-} Pa1n2. 7-4 , 96) to cause to move , set in motion , impel , drive S3a1n3khS3r. viii , 9 , 3 Mn. xii , 15 MBh. R. Sus3r. iv , 32 , 17.
424

ceshtha *= m. `" moving "' , a kind of fish (% {tapasvin}) L. ; n. moving the limbs , gesture Mn. vii , 63 ; behaviour , manner of life Hariv. 5939 ; (%{al}) , f , (Pa1n2. 2-3 , 12) moving any limb , gesture Mn. vii f. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. (ifc. Ragh. ii , 43) ; action , activity , effort , endeavour , exertion A1s3vS3r. i S3vetUp. ii , 9 (ifc.) Mn. iv , 65 Bhag. &c. ; doing , performing Mn. i , 65 ; behaving , manner of life Mn. vii , 194 KapS. iii , 51 VarBr2S. (ifc.) &c. ; cf. %{a-} , %{naSTa-} , % {niz-}. ceshthaanaaza * m. ceasing of every motion L.; destruction of the world L. ceshthaanirUpaNa * = n. observing any one's actions W ceshthaarha * =({-TA7r-}) mfn. worthy of effort W ceshthaavat * = mfn. moveable Sus'r. iii, 5, 23; full of activity, active W ceshtha * = m. `" moving "', a kind of fish ({tapasvin}) L.; n. moving the limbs, gesture Mn. vii, 63; behaviour, manner of life Hariv. 5939; ({al}), f, (Pn. 2-3, 12) moving any limb, gesture Mn. vii f. Yj. MBh. &c. (ifc. Ragh. ii, 43); action, activity, effort, endeavour, exertion s'vS'r. i S'vetUp. ii, 9 (ifc.) Mn. iv, 65 Bhag. &c.; doing, performing Mn. i, 65; behaving, manner of life Mn. vii, 194 KapS. iii, 51 VarBriS. (ifc.) &c.; cf.
425

{a-}, {naSTa-}, {niz-}. ceshthaka * =mfn. making effort or exertion W.; m. a kind of fish (= {-Ta}) L.; a kind of coitus. ceshthana * = n. making effort W.; motion Mn.xii, 120 MBh. xii, 6363 R. BhP.; ifc. performing KapS. i, 3; effort, exertion W. ceshthayitR * mfn. one who sets in motion MBh. xii, 1181. ceshthita * = mfn. set in motion W. ; done with effort , exerted W. ; done S3ak. iii , 23/24 (v.l.) ; v , 9 ; frequented Ragh. xi , 51 ; n. moving any limb , gesture Mn. Sus3r. VarBr2S. ; doing , action , behaviour , manner of life Mn. MBh. R. KapS. iii , 59 ff. S3ak. &c. (ifc. f. %{A} Bhar. xxxiv , 118). cet* = Nom. (fr. {ce4tas}) {-tati} (Vop. xxi, 8; aor. 3. pl. {acetiSur}) to recover consciousness Bhathth. xv, 109. cet* = 1 Nom. {tati}. see {cit}.\\ = 2 see {ce74d}. cetanatA* = f. the state of a sentient or conscious being, intelligence. cetanatva* = n. id. Sarvad. vii, 8 Kum. iii, 39 Sch.
426

KapS. i, 100 Sch. cetanAcetana* = pl. sentient and unsentient beings Megh. 5. cetanAvat* = mfn. having consciousness, knowing, understanding, reasonable Nir. MBh. xii, xiv Snkhyak. Sus'r. cetanikA* = f. Terminalia Chebula L. cetu* = m. heedfulness RV. ix, 81, 3. ceTa* = m. a servant, slave Mriicch. Kaths. vi, 127 (ifc.) Sh.; a kind of fish p.i, 17, 38; ({I}) f. a female servant R. ii, 91, 62 S'ak. "' &c. cetti* = {ce4tya} see {cit}. cetR* = 1 m. an observer S'vetUp. vi, 11. cetR* = 2 m. a revenger RV. vii, 60, 5. cetaH* = in comp. = {-tas}. cetaH-pIDA * = f. grief L. ceTa* = m. a servant, slave Mr2icch. Katha1s. vi, 127 (ifc.) Sa1h.; a kind of fish A1p.i, 17, 38; (%{I}) f. a
427

female servant R. ii, 91, 62 S3ak. "' &c. ceTaka * = m. a servant, slave Bhartr2. i, 91 Katha1s. vi and lxxi (ifc.) Hit.; a paramour L.; (%{ikA}) f. = %{TI} Katha1s. iv, xii, lii. cetana* = mf(%{I4})n. visible, conspicuous, distinguished, excellent RV. AV. ix, 4, 21; percipient, conscious, sentient, intelligent Kat2hUp. v, 13 S3vetUp. vi, 13 Hariv. 3587 KapS. Tattvas. &c.; m. an intelligent being, man Sarvad. ii, 221; soul, mind L.; n. conspicuousness RV. i, 13, 11 and 170, 4; iii, 3, 8; iv, 7, 2; soul, mind R. vii, 55, 17 and 20; (%{A}) f. consciousness, understanding, sense, intelligence Ya1jn5. iii, 175 MBh. &c. (often ifc. [f. %{A}] Mn. ix, 67 MBh. &c.) (cf. %{a-}, %{niz-}, %{puru-ce4t-}, % {vi-}, %{sa-}, %{su4-}). cetanatA* = f. the state of a sentient or conscious being, intelligence. cetanatva* =n. id. Sarvad. vii, 8 Kum. iii, 39 Sch. KapS. i, 100 Sch. cetanAvat* =mfn. having consciousness, knowing, understanding, reasonable Nir. MBh. xii, xiv Sa1m2khyak. Sus3r. ce4tana-tA * = f. the state of a sentient or conscious
428

being, intelligence. ce4tana-tva * = n. id. Sarvad. vii, 8 Kum. iii, 39 Sch. KapS. i, 100 Sch. ce4tana-bhAva * = m. id. Bdar. ii, 1, 6 Sch. cetanA7cetana* = pl. sentient and unsentient beings Megh. 5. cetanA-vat * = mfn. having consciousness, knowing, understanding, reasonable Nir. MBh. xii, xiv Snkhyak. Sus'r. cetanA7STaka * = n. N. of wk. cetanikA * = f. Terminalia Chebula L. cetanI * = ind. for {-na}. cetanI-kri * = to cause to perceive or become conscious BhP. viii, 1, 9 Sch. cetanI-bhU * = to become conscious ib. [398, 1] cetaniiyaa * = f. the medicinal herb {Rddhi} L. cetas *= n. splendour RV.; (Naigh. iii, 9) consciousness, intelligence, thinking soul, heart, mind VS. xxxiv, 3 AV.
429

Mn. ix, xii MBh. &c. (ifc. Kat2hUp. Mn.&c.); will AV. vi, 116, 3 TBr.iii, 1, 1, 7; cf. %{a-ceta4s}, %{dabhra4-}, %{pra4-}, %{laghu-}, %{vi4-}, %{sa4-}, %{suce4tas}. cetasaka * = m. pl. N. of a people MBh. vii, 2095. cetasam * = ind. ifc. fr. {-tas} Vop. vi, 62. cetayaana * = mfn. (irreg. pr. p.) having sense, reasonable MBh. iii, v, viii R. ii, 109, 7. cetayitavya * = mfn. to be perceived Pras'nUp. cetayitR * = mfn. = {-ya} MBh. xii S'vetUp. Sch. cetishthha* = mfn. (fr. {ce4ttR}) most attentive (with gen.) RV. i, 65, 9 and 128, 8; v, vii; x, 21, 7; (fr. {citra4}) most conspicuous, viii, 46, 20 VS. xxvii, 15. cetI * = ind. in comp. for {-tas}. cetI-kR * = Vop.vii, 84. cetu4 * = m. heedfulness RV. ix, 81, 3. ce4ttR * = mfn. attentive, guardian, RY. x, 128, 9 (see also s.v. 4. {cit}) AV. iv and vi ({cettR4}) TS. if.

430

ce4tya * = mfn. perceivable RV. vi, 1, 5; ({A4}) f. = {tu4} (?), x, 89, 14. ceTa * = m. a servant, slave Mriicch. Kaths. vi, 127 (ifc.) Sh.; a kind of fish p.i, 17, 38; ({I}) f. a female servant R. ii, 91, 62 S'ak. "' &c. cetuyA * = N. of a place Kshiti7s'. vii. ce4tti * = {ce4tya} see {cit}. cetavya4 * = mfn. to be piled up TS. v S'Br. vi; ix, 5, 1, 64 Bhathth. ix, 13; = {cayanIya} Vop. xxvi, 3. ceto * = in comp. for {-tas}. ceto-bhava * = m. = {citta-ja} L. Sch. ceto-bhU * = m.id., Mlatim. Blar. Vcar.xi, 94. ceto-mat * = mfn. endowed with consciousness, living MBh. iii, 8676. ceto-mukha * = mfn. one whose mouth is intelligence, MndUp. ceto-vikAra * = m. disturbance of mind Sus'r. Mn. i, 25 Sch.

431

ceto-vikArin * = mfn. disturbed in mind Sus'r. i, 46, 4, 4. ceto-hara * = mf({A})n. captivating the heart Bhm. iii, 10. cetR * = 1 m. an observer S'vetUp. vi, 11. cetR4 * = 2 m. a revenger RV. vii, 60, 5. cha..ndramaa = (Fem.nom.S)the moon cha.ndramaaH = the Moon god chakaara = did (past perfect tense of kRi+kar to do) chaakalehaH = (m) chocolate candy, toffee chaalakaH = (m) driver chaandoga* = mfn. `" relating to the Chando-gas "', in comp. chaandramasaM = the moon planet chaanyatraika = cha+anyatra+ekaH, and+in any other place+only one chaapaM = the bow
432

chaapabaaNadharo = bearing bow\&arrow chaapalya = (from chapala) rashness chaasmi = as I am chaapi = also chaariNau = blowing chaataka = the ever thirsty chaataka bird that lives only on raindrops chaaturvarNyaM = the four divisions of human society chakaastu = let it be shining chakra: see cakra chakraM = cycle chakrabandha = wheel pattern, a form of bandha poetry chakram.h = (n) wheel, cycle, circle chakravaataH = (m) cyclone chakrahastaM = disc in hand
433

chakraaakaara = (bauvriihi) wheel-shaped chakraasana = the wheel posture chakriNaM = with discs chakshu = eye chakshuH = eyes chakshus.h = eye chal.h = to walk chala = moving chalaM = flickering chalachchitra = movie chalati = (1pp) to walk chalita = deviated; calita mfn. shaking, tremulous, unfixed MBh. &c.; one who has moved on MBh. Sryas. iii, 11; gone, departed (e.g. {sa calitaH}, `" he started off "' Pacat. Gt. iii, 3 Hit.); walked Vet. iii, 1/2 (v.l.); being on the march (an army) L.; moved from one's usual course, disturbed, disordered (the mind, senses, fortune, &c.) Hariv. 5669 R. &c.; caused to
434

deviate, turned off from (abl.) Yj. i, 360 Bhag. vi, 37; n. unsteady motion (of eyes) Bhartri. i, 4. chamasaH = (m) spoon chamuuM = military force chanda* =mfn. pleasing, alluring, inviting RV. i, 92, 6; viii, 7, 36; {-nda4}, praising ({cha4nda} Naigh. iii, 16) RV. vi, 11, 3; cf. {madhu-cch-}; m. appearance, look, shape Hariv. 8359 ff.; cf. {prati} and {vi-cch-}; pleasure, delight, appetite, liking, predilection, desire, will Yj. ii, 195 MBh. &c.; ({ena}) instr. ind. [also with {svena}, viii, 1249 R. ii, 83, 25; or ifc. with {sva-} (Hariv. 7017) or {Atma-} MBh. v, xiii R. v, 26, 18] according to one's own wish Mn. viii, 176 Nal. xxiii, 15 R. v; according to the wish of (gen.) MBh. iii, 7096 Hariv. 7097; ({a-cch-} neg. `" against the wish of "') 7098 and 8557; ({At}) abl. ind. according to the wish of (in comp.) MBh. viii, 3542; ({a-cch-} neg. `" involuntarily "' R. iii, 5, 2); poison L.; N. of S'kyamuni's charioteer ({chandaka}) Lalit. xv DivyA7v. xxvii, 159; of a prince W.; cf. {sva-}; {indra-}, {kalA7pa-}, {deva} and {vijaya-}, various kinds of pearl-ornaments. cha4nda-ja * = mfn. `" originating from one's own wish "', self-produced (gods) Hariv. 12296.

435

chandaska * = ifc. (f. {A}) = {-das}, metre Nyyam. ix, 2, 5 and 8 Sch. chandasya4 * = mfn. (Pn. 4-3, 71 and 4, 93, 140 Vrtt. 1) taking the form of hymns, metrical, relating to or fit for hymns RV. ix, 113, 6 TS. i, 6, 11, 4; made or done according to one's wish Pn. 4-4, 93 Ks'.; ({A4}) f. (with {I4STakA}) N. of a sacrificial brick S'Br. vii, 5, 2, 42; viii, 2 f. chAndasa * = mf({I})n. having the sacred text of the Veda ({cha4ndas}) as (its) subject, peculiar or relating or belonging to the Veda, Vedic Kaus'. Pn. 4-3, 71 Pat. Hariv. 12284 BhP.; (once {-nda} BhavP. i); archaistic Sarvad. vi, 11; (g. {manojJA7di} Pn. 5-2, 84 Ks'.) studying the holy text of the Vedic hymns, familiar with it Kaths. lxii, cxviii; (ifc. g. {khasUcy-Adi} Ganar. 114 Sch.); relating to metre RAnukr. Sch. chandaka* = mfn. ifc. `" charming "' see {sarva-}; m. N. of S'kya-muni's charioteer DivyA7v. xxvii, 158 Lalit. chandana * = mfn. charming VarBriS. civ, 61. chandaka * = 1 n. `" roof "' see {bRha4c-}; deceit Un. [404, 3] cha4ndas * = n. desire, longing for, will MBh. xii, 7376 Pn. 4-4, 93 Ks'.; intention, purport W.; a sacred hymn
436

(of AV.; as distinguished from those of RV. SV. and YajurV.), incantation-hymn RV. x AV. S'Br. viii MBh. v, 1224 Ragh. i, 11; the sacred text of the Vedic hymns S'Br. xi, 5, 7, 3 s'vGri. Kaus'. Gobh. VPrt. Pn. Mn. &c.; metre (in general, supposed to consist of 3 or 7 typical forms [AV. VS. &c.] to which Virj is added as the 8th [S'Br. viii, 3, 3, 6]; {cha4ndas} opposed to {gAyatri4} and {triSTu4bh} RV. x, 14, 16); metrical science MundUp. i, 1, 5 MBh. i, 2887 Pacat. S'rut.; = {-do-grantha} Nyyam. ix, 2, 6 Sch.; [cf. Lat. {scando}, `" to step, scan. "'] chandana = sandal chandoga* = m. ({gai}) `" singer in metre "', chanter'of the SV., Udgtrii priest AitBr. iii, 32 S'Br. x S'nkhS'r. &c.; {-paddhati} f. N. of the work Yaja-prs'va (YajurV. Paris'. xv Caran.); {-pariziSTa} n. Kty.'s supplement on Gobh. Mn. ii, 44 Kull.; {-brAhmaNa} n. = {chAndogya-br-} AitBr. iv, 18 Sy.; {-mAhaki} m. N. of a teacher VBr.; {-vRSo7tsarga-tattva} n. N. of wk.; {-zAkhA} f. a branch of the SV. (quoted in a work on S'rddhas); {-zrAddha-tattva-pramANa} n. N. of wk. by Raghu-nandana; {-zruti} f. `" tradition of the Chandogas "', the SV. Pars'. ii, 5/111, 3, 6; {-sopAna} n. N. of wk.; {-gA7hnika-paddhati} f. N. of wk. by Rma-kriishna. chandra = Name for the Moon

437

chandra-kuNDalii = Chart where the Ascendant or lagna is the sign of the natal moon chandra-raashi = Natal Moon sign. Used in India much like we use the Sun sign system in the West chandra-lagna = Ascendant using the Natal lunar position chandrabimba = moon disc chandramasi = in the moon chandrika = moonlight chandrodaya = moon-rise channa* = mfn. covered, covered over MBh. iii, 800 R. i f. Megh. BhP. &c. (ifc. cf. Pn. 6-2, 170); obscured (the moon) MBh. i, 2699 Sryas. iv, 10 and 22; hidden, unnoticed by (dat.), secret, clandestine, disguised MBh. iii f. R. ii, v BhP. Kaths. Rjat.; ({am}) ind. secretly Mn. ix, 98 and 100 Mriicch. Das'.; (in comp. {-nna-}) Rjat. v, 467; (with {gai}, to sing) privately, in a low voice Lthy. iii, 1, 12 ff.; ({e}) loc. ind. secretly Hariv. 8686. chaJNchalaM = flickering

438

chaJNchalatvaat.h = due to being restless chapala = fickle, unstable chapalaM = fickle-minded char.h = to wander chara = moving chara-raashi = Moveable signs charaM = moving charaNa = foot charaNaH = (m) foot charataaM = while roaming charati = (1 pp) to move, to roam charan.h = acting upon charanti = move or travel or wander charaacharaM = moving and nonmoving

439

charita = nature charitaM = story, character charitra = life charitraaNi = tales of valour charaiveti = chara:moving (things) +eva:alone; only + iti:thus charchaa = discussion charpaTa = torn/tattered cloth charman.h = (neu) skin, leather charyaa = practise / observance chashhakaH = (m) glass chashhakaadhaanii = (f) saucer chaTakaH = (m) sparrow chatuH = four chaturaH = capable / skiled/ clever
440

chaturastraH = (m) square chaturastrakam.h = (n) frame (of a photograph or a picture) chaturtha = fourth chaturthyaaM = during the (auspicious)4th day (from New Moon, full moon) chaturbhujena = four-handed chaturvidhaM = the four kinds chaturvidhaaH = four kinds of chaturhastaM = who has four hands chatushhpaada-raashi = Quadrupedal signs chatus.h = four chatussaagaraparya.ntaM = till or upto the four oceans chatvaaraH = four chatvaari = four

441

chaya = (m) a heap chayanam.h = (n) selection, choice chaitanya = energy, enthusiasm chattragRha * = n. the room in which the parasol (or badge of royalty) is kept MBh. v, 3544. chattra-cakra * = n. (in astrol.) a kind of diagram. chattra-pati * = m. the officer watching over the royal parasol, Sinha7s. xxiii, 0/1 chattra-yukti * = f. "' use of the parasol "'N. of a chapter of Bhoja's Yukti-kalpa-taru. chattra-vat * = mfn. furnished with a parasol Sus'r. i, 10, 1; ({tI}) f. N. of a town ({ahi-cchattra} Sch.) MBh. i, 6348. chattrika * = m.= {-ttra-dhara} g. {purohitA7di}. chattrin * = mfn. furnished with a parasol MBh. xiii, 739 Hariv. 14205 R. i, iii; m. a barber L. chattvara * = m. a house Un. iii, 1; a bower ib chailaajina = of soft cloth and deerskin
442

chha.nda = Hobby chha.ndaH = metre (poetic) chhatra = umbrella chhatram.h = (n) umbrella chhatraakam.h = (n) mushroom chhadiH = (m) roof chhadmachaariNaH = those who wander by adopting tricks such as becoming chhandasaaM = of all poetry chhandaa.nsi = the Vedic hymns chhandobhiH = by Vedic hymns chhalayataaM = of all cheats chhavii = picture, portrait chhaatraaH = students chhaadana = covering
443

chhaayaa = shade chhittva = cutting chhittvaa = cutting off chhid.h = to cut, break by cutting chhidra = (neut in this sense) hole, cut chhinatti = to tear, to break chhindanti = can cut to pieces chhinna = having torn off chhurikaa = (f) knife chhettaa = remover chettavya *= mfn. to be cut off Mn. viii , 279 R. vi , 92 , 4 ; to be cut Nya1yam. ix , 3 , 13 Sch.\2 %{-ttR} , &c. see 1. %{chid}. chettri *= mfn. one who cuts off , cutter , woodcutter Mn.iv , 71 Sch. (ifc.) Hit. i , 4 , 3 ; a remover (of doubts , %{saMzayAnAm} , 2 , 21) MBh. xiii Bhag. chhettuM = to dispel
444

chhedana = cutting chekitaanaH = Cekitana cheshhTaH = the endeavorscheshhTate = (1 ap) to try, to attempt cheshhTasya = of one who works for maintenance cheTii = (f) maid, dasii chet.h = if chetanaa = the living force chetas.h = mind chetasaH = their hearts chetasaa = by consciousness chetasaaM = of those whose minds chetaaH = in heart chidra *= mf(%{A})n. torn asunder RV. i, 162, 20; containing holes, pierced Ka1tySr. xv ff. R. i, 73, 20 Sus3r. v, 1, 43; leaky MBh. v, 1307; 1047 (= xii, 8782); n. a hole, slit, cleft, opening VS. TS. i, vi Ka1tyS3r. La1t2y. Kaus3. Mn. &c. (%{daiva-kRta}, `" opening or
445

hole made by nature "', the cartilage of the ear, pupil of the eye Sus3r.; %{-draM} %{dA}, to yield an opening or free access "' BhP. v, 6, 4); defect, fault, blemish, imperfection, infirmity, weak point, foible MBh. &c.; (in astrol.) the 8th lunar mansion VarBr2. Laghuj. i, 17; the number `" nine "' (there being 9 openings in the body) Su1ryas. ii, 18; the lower regions Gal. (cf. % {a4-}, %{karNa-}, %{kRta-}, %{gRha-}, %{niz-}, % {mahA-}). chihna = sign chii = to increase chiira = dress made of bark? chikitsaka = remedy chikitsaalayam.h = (n) hospital chikiirshhavaH = wishing chikiirshhuH = desiring to lead chikroDaH = (m) squirrel chinoti = to collect, to gather chint.h = to think
446

chintaya = (causative of cit) to think chintayati = (10 up) to think chintayantaH = concentrating chintayet.h = should think of chintaa = worrying chintaaM = fears and anxieties chintaamaNi = the gem that gives you anything you can think about chintita = something one has thought about chinmayaH = full of the `mind' or consciousness chira = permanently chirakaala = always, everpresent, permanent chiraat.h = after a long time chiraaya = for long chiraayuH = long-life- span (`chira' actually means
447

permanent cf. chiranjIvI) chit.h = pure consciousness chitaa = funeral pyre chitta = mind chittaM = mind chittaH = mind chittalayaH = absorbed mind chittavikshepa = confusion, distraction chittavritti = a mode of behaviour chittaa = mind chittaatmaa = mind and intelligence chittvara * = mfn. (Un2. iii, 1) fit for cutting off. L.; hostile L. (cf. %{chatt-}) roguish L. chitti * = f. division W.; Pongamia glabra L. chitra = strange// citra *= mf({A4})n. conspicuous,
448

excellent, distinguished RV.; bright, clear, brightcoloured RV.; clear (a sound) RV.; variegated, spotted, speckled (with instr. or in comp.) Nal. iv, 8 R. Mriicch. VarBriS.; agitated (as the sea, opposed to {sama}) R. iii, 39, 12; various, different, manifold Mn. ix, 248 Yj. i, 287 MBh. &c.; (execution) having different varieties (of tortures) Mn. ix, 248 Das'. vii, 281; strange, wonderful Rjat. vi, 227; containing the word {citra4} S'Br. vii, 4, 1, 24 KtyS'r. xvii; ({a4m}) ind. so as to be bright RV. i, 71, 1; vi, 65, 2; in different ways R. i, 9, 14; (to execute) with different tortures Das'. vii, 380; ({a4s}) m. variety of colour L. Sch.; Plumbago zeylanica L.; Ricinus communis L.; Jonesia As'oka L.; a form of Yama Tithyd.; N. of a king RV. viii, 21, 18 ({ci4tra}); of a Jbla-griihapati (with the patr. Gaus'ryani), KaushBr. xxiii, 5; of a king (with the patr. Gngyyani) KaushUp. i; of a son of Dhritarshthra MBh. i, vii; of a Dravida king, Padma P.v, 20, 1 (v.l. {-trA7kSa}); of a Gandharva Gal.; ({A4}) f. Spica virginis, the 12th (in later reckoning the 14th) lunar mansion AV. xix, 7, 3 TS. ii, iv, vii TBr. i S'Br. ii, &c.; a kind of snake L.; N. of a plant (Salvinia cucullata L.; Cucumis maderaspatanus L.; a kind of cucumber L.; Ricinus communis L.; Croton polyandrum or Tiglium L.; the Myrobalan tree L.; Rubia Munjista L.; the grass Gandadrv L.) Car. vii, 12 (= {dravanti}) Sus'r.; a metre of 4 X 16 syllabic instants; another of 4 x 15 syllables; another of 4 x 16 syllables; a kind of stringed instrument; a kind of Mrchan (in music); illusion,
449

unreality L.; `" born under the asterism Citr (Pn. 4-3, 34 Vrtt. 1)N. of Arjuna's wife (sister of Kriishna = {subhadrA} L.) Hariv. 1952; of a daughter of Gada (or Kriishna v.l.), 9194; of an Apsaras L.; of a river DivyA7v. xxx; of a rock BhP. xii, 8, 17; f. pl. the asterism Citr VarBriS. xi, 57; ({a4m}) n. anything bright or coloured which strikes the eyes RV. VS. TS. S'Br. TndyaBr. xviii, 9; a brilliant ornament, ornament RV. i, 92, 13 S'Br. ii, xiii; a bright or extraordinary appearance, wonder, ii S'ak. Pacat. Bhartri. &c.; (with {yadi} [S'ak. iii, 9/10] or {yad} [Hariv. 9062 S'ak. Kaths. xviii, 359] or fut. [Pn. 3-3, 150 f.]) strange, curious (e.g. {citraM badhiro vyAkaraNam adhyeSyate} `" it would be strange if a deaf man should learn grammar "' Ks'.) [396, 2]; strange! Hariv. 15652 Kaths. v, vii Rjat. i, iv; the ether, sky L.; a spot MBh. xiii, 2605; a sectarial mark on the forehead L.; = {kuSTha} L.; a picture, sketch, delineation MBh. Hariv. 4532 ({sa-} mfn. = {-ga}) R. S'ak. &c. (ifc. f. {A} Megh. 64); variety of colour L.; a forest ({vana} for {dhana}?) of variegated appearance Sch. on KtyS'r. xxi, 3, 23 and ShadvBr. ii, 10; various modes of writing or arranging verses in the shape of mathematical or other fanciful figures (syllables which occur repeatedly being left out or words being represented in a shortened form) Sarasv. ii, 16 Kpr. ix, 8 Sh.; punning in the form of question and answer, facetious conversation, riddle, iv, 14/v Pratpar. Kuval.; cf. a- and, {su-citra4}, {dA4nu-}, {vi-}; {caitra}.
450

chitraM = surprising chitrakaH = (m) a leopard chitrakaara = (m) painter, artist chitrapatangaH = (m) butterfly chitramandiram.h = (n) movie theatre chitrarathaH = Citraratha chitraraasabhaH = (m) zebra chitraveshhTiH = (m) lungi chitraa = Fourteenth nakshatra chitrinii = a fine cord within the spine chitroshhTraH = (m) giraffe chuTati = to pinch chubukasamarpitajaanu = face dedicated to(huddled up between) the knees chumbati = to kiss
451

churikaabandha = pattern of sword, a form of bandha poetry chulli = (f) cooking fire chuurNam.h = (n) fine powder chuurNayati = to grind (as wheat to flour) chuurNitaiH = with smashed chodanaa = the impetus chodhitakaraNa = tested or awakened senses chorayati = (10 up) to steal, to rob chorah = (m) thief chyavanti = fall down ciirNa *= mfn. (%{car}) practised , observed (as a vow , austerity) Mun2d2Up. iii , 2 , 10 MBh. xv , 91 DivyA7v. BhP. v , 6 , 3 ; n. conduct W. cikiirsh* = mfn. ( %{kR} Desid.) wishing to do Vop. cikiirshA* = f. (Pa1n2. 3-3, 102 Ka1s3.) intention or desire to make or do or perform (generally ifc.) MBh. i
452

R. i, v Pa1n2. 2-3, 66 Ka1s3. (with gen.) BhP. ii f.; (%{raSA}) xi, 9, 26; desire for (gen. or in comp.) MBh. i, 1860 and 5172 Hariv. 4907. cikiirshaka* = mfn. id. Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 1-1, 58 and vi, 1, 193. cikiirshita* = n. `" intended to be done, designed "', purpose, design, intention Mn. iv, vii MBh. R. &c. cikiirshu* = mfn. (Pa1n2. 3-2, 168 Ka1s3.) intending to make or do or perform (with acc. or ifc.) MBh. R. Pa1n2. 2-3, 69 Ka1s3. BhP. Katha1s.; wishing to exercise one's self in the use of (acc.) MBh. viii, 1965; cf. %{upahArI-}. cikIrSuka* = mfn. = %{-rS} (with acc.), vi, 48, 83. [395,1] cintaka* = mfn. ifc. one who thinks or reflects upon, familiar with (e.g. {daiva-}, {vaMza-}, &c., qq. vv.) Gaut. Mn. vii, 121 MBh. Hariv. R. Pacat.; m. an overseer DivyA7v.; N. of the 23rd Kalpa period VyuP. i, 21, 48 f.; cf. {kArya-}, {graha-}, {megha-}. cintana* = n. thinking, thinking of. reflecting upon; anxious thought Mn. xii, 5 MBh. Kaths. Rjat.v, 205 Sh.; consideration Sarvad. x; xii, 6 ff.

453

cintaniiya* = mfn. to be thought of or investigated VarBriS. xliii, 37 Pacat. 1, 1/2; iii BhP. viii, 11, 38. cintayAna* = mfn. (irr. pr. p.) reflecting, considering MBh. ii, 1748; iii, 12929 Pacat. iv, 14/15. cintaa* = f. (Pn. 3-3, 105), thought, care, anxiety, anxious thought about (gen. loc., {upari}, or in comp.) Mn. xii, 31 Yj. i, 98 MBh. &c. ({-tayA} instr. `" by mere thinking of "' VP. i, 13, 50); consideration Sarvad. xii f. [398,2]; N. of a woman Rjat. viii, 3453. cintaavat* = mfn. = {-para} W. cintita * = mfn. thought, considered W.; thought of. imagined Pan5cat. Vet.; found out, investigated Nal. xix, 4 Hit. (%{su-}); treated of. Madhus.; reflecting, considering W.; n. thought, reflection, care, trouble VarBr2S.li, 24 Dhu1rtas.; intention R. i; (%{A}) f. see %{caintita}. cit * = 4 cl. 1. %{ce4tati} (impf. %{acetat} RV. vii , 95 , 2 ; p. %{ce4tat} RV.) cl. 2. (A1. Pass. 3. sg. % {cite4} , x , 143 , 4 ; p. f. instr. %{citantyA} , i , 129 , 7 ; A1. %{citAna} , ix , 101 , 11 VS. x , 1) cl. 3. irreg. %{cIhetati} (RV. ; Subj. %{ciketat} RV. ; Impv. 2. sg. %{cikiddhi} RV. ; p. %{cikitAna4} RV. ; perf. % {cike4ta} RV. &c. ; %{ciceta} Vop. viii , 37 ; 3. du. % {cetatur} AV. iii , 22 , 2 ; A1. and Pass. %{cikite4} RV.
454

&c. ; 3. pl. %{-tre} RV. ; for p. %{cikitva4s} see s.v. ; A1. Pass. %{cicite} Bhat2t2. ii , 29 ; aor. %{acetIt} Vop. viii , 35 ; A1. Pass. %{a4ceti} and %{ce4ti} RV. ; for %{acait} see 2. %{ci} ; fut. 1st %{ce4ttA} , i , 22 , 5) to perceive , fix the mind upon , attend to , be attentive , observe , take notice of (acc. or gen.) RV. SV. AV. Bhat2t2. ; to aim at , intend , design (with dat.) RV. i , 131 , 6 ; x , 38 , 3 ; to be anxious about , care for (acc. or gen.) , i , ix f. ; to resolve , iii , 53 , 24 ; x , 55 , 6 ; to understand , comprehend , know (perf. often in the sense of pr.) RV. AV. vii , 2 , 1 and 5 , 5 ; P. A1. to become perceptible , appear , be regarded as , be known RV. VS. x , xv: Caus. %{ceta4yati} , %{-te} (2. pl. % {ceta4yadhvam} Subj. %{cetayat} Impv. 2. du. % {cetayethAm} impf. %{a4cetayat} RV. ; 3. pl. % {cita4yante} RV. ; p. %{cita4yat} RV. (eleven times) ; %{ceta4yat} , x , 110 , 8 , &c. ; A1. %{cetayAna} see s.v.) to cause to attend , make attentive , remind of. i , 131 , 2 and iv , 51 , 3 ; to cause to comprehend , instruct , teach RV. ; to observe , perceive , be intent upon RV. MBh. xii , 9890 Katha1s. xiii , 10 ; A1. (once P. MBh. xviii , 74) to form an idea in the mind , be conscions of , understand , comprehend , think , reflect upon TS. vi S3Br. ChUp. vii , 5 , 1 MBh. BhP. viii , 1 , 9 Prab. ; P. to have a right notion of. know MBh. iii , 14877 ; P. `" to recover consciousness "' , awake Bhat2t2. viii , 123 ; A1. to remember , have consciousness of (acc.) Pa1n2. 3-2 , 112 Ka1s3. Ba1dar. ii , 3 , 18 Sch. ; to appear , be conspicuous , shine RV.
455

TS. iii: Desid. %{ci4kitsati} (fr. %{kit} Pa1n2. 3-1 , 5 Dha1tup. xxiii , 24 ; exceptionally A1. MBh. xii , 12544 ; Impv. %{-tsatu} Subj. %{-tsAt} aor. 2. sg. % {a4cikitsIs} AV. ; Pass. p. %{cikitsyamAna} Sus3r. Pan5cat.) to have in view , aim at , be desirous AV. v , 11 , 1 ; ix , 2 , 3 ; to care for , be anxious about , vi , x ; (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 5 Siddh.) to treat medically , cure Ka1tyS3r. xxv MBh. i , xii Sus3r. Pan5cat. Bhartr2. ; to wish to appear RV. i , 123 , 1: Caus. of Desid. (fut. % {cikitsayiSyati}) to cure Ma1lav. iv , 4/5 , 6 f.: Intens. % {cekite} (fr. 2. %{ci}? , or for %{-tte} RV. i , 53 , 3 and 119 , 3 ; ii , 34 , 10 ; p. %{ce4kitat} , ix , 111 , 3 ; A1. % {ce4kitAna} RV. eight times) to appear , be conspicuous , shine RV. citta* = mfn. `" noticed "' see {a-ci4tta}; `" aimed at "', longed for ChUp.vii, 5, 3; `" appeared "', visible RV. ix, 65, 12; n. attending, observing ({tira4z cittA4ni}, `" so as to remain unnoticed "'), vii, 59, 8; thinking, reflecting, imagining, thought RV. VS. S'Br. &c.; intention, aim, wish RV. VS. AV. TBr. &c.; (Naigh. iii, 9) the heart, mind TS. i S'vetUp. vi, 5 MBh. &c. (ifc. f. {A} Pacat.); memory W.; intelligence, reason KapS. i, 59 Yogas. i, 37; ii, 54 Veda7ntas.; (in astrol.) the 9th mansion VarYogay. iv, 1; cf. {iha-}, {cala-}, {pU4rva-}, {prA4yaz-}, {laghu-}, {su-}, {sthira-}. citra * = conspicuous, excellent, distinguished RV.; bright, clear, bright-coloured RV.; clear (a sound) RV.;
456

variegated, spotted, speckled (with instr. or in comp.) Nal. iv, 8 R. Mriicch. VarBriS.; agitated (as the sea, opposed to {sama}) R. iii, 39, 12; various, different, manifold Mn. ix, 248 Yj. i, 287 MBh. &c.; (execution) having different varieties (of tortures) Mn. ix, 248 Das'. vii, 281; strange, wonderful Rjat. vi, 227; containing the word {citra4} S'Br. vii, 4, 1, 24 KtyS'r. xvii; ({a4m}) ind. so as to be bright RV. i, 71, 1; vi, 65, 2; in different ways R. i, 9, 14; (to execute) with different tortures Das'. vii, 380; ({a4s}) m. variety of colour L. Sch.; Plumbago zeylanica L.; Ricinus communis L.; Jonesia As'oka L.; a form of Yama Tithyd.; N. of a king RV. viii, 21, 18 ({ci4tra}); of a Jbla-griihapati (with the patr. Gaus'ryani), KaushBr. xxiii, 5; of a king (with the patr. Gngyyani) KaushUp. i; of a son of Dhritarshthra MBh. i, vii; of a Dravida king, Padma P.v, 20, 1 (v.l. {-trA7kSa}); of a Gandharva Gal.; ({A4}) f. Spica virginis, the 12th (in later reckoning the 14th) lunar mansion AV. xix, 7, 3 TS. ii, iv, vii TBr. i S'Br. ii, &c.; a kind of snake L.; N. of a plant (Salvinia cucullata L.; Cucumis maderaspatanus L.; a kind of cucumber L.; Ricinus communis L.; Croton polyandrum or Tiglium L.; the Myrobalan tree L.; Rubia Munjista L.; the grass Gandadrv L.) Car. vii, 12 (= {dravanti}) Sus'r.; a metre of 4 X 16 syllabic instants; another of 4 x 15 syllables; another of 4 x 16 syllables; a kind of stringed instrument; a kind of Mrchan (in music); illusion, unreality L.; `" born under the asterism Citr (Pn. 4-3,
457

34 Vrtt. 1)N. of Arjuna's wife (sister of Kriishna = {subhadrA} L.) Hariv. 1952; of a daughter of Gada (or Kriishna v.l.), 9194; of an Apsaras L.; of a river DivyA7v. xxx; of a rock BhP. xii, 8, 17; f. pl. the asterism Citr VarBriS. xi, 57; ({a4m}) n. anything bright or coloured which strikes the eyes RV. VS. TS. S'Br. TndyaBr. xviii, 9; a brilliant ornament, ornament RV. i, 92, 13 S'Br. ii, xiii; a bright or extraordinary appearance, wonder, ii S'ak. Pacat. Bhartri. &c.; (with {yadi} [S'ak. iii, 9/10] or {yad} [Hariv. 9062 S'ak. Kaths. xviii, 359] or fut. [Pn. 3-3, 150 f.]) strange, curious (e.g. {citraM badhiro vyAkaraNam adhyeSyate} `" it would be strange if a deaf man should learn grammar "' Ks'.) [396, 2]; strange! Hariv. 15652 Kaths. v, vii Rjat. i, iv; the ether, sky L.; a spot MBh. xiii, 2605; a sectarial mark on the forehead L.; = {kuSTha} L.; a picture, sketch, delineation MBh. Hariv. 4532 ({sa-} mfn. = {-ga}) R. S'ak. &c. (ifc. f. {A} Megh. 64); variety of colour L.; a forest ({vana} for {dhana}?) of variegated appearance Sch. on KtyS'r. xxi, 3, 23 and ShadvBr. ii, 10; various modes of writing or arranging verses in the shape of mathematical or other fanciful figures (syllables which occur repeatedly being left out or words being represented in a shortened form) Sarasv. ii, 16 Kpr. ix, 8 Sh.; punning in the form of question and answer, facetious conversation, riddle, iv, 14/v Pratpar. Kuval.; cf. a- and, {su-citra4}, {dA4nu-}, {vi-}; {caitra}.

458

codapravRddha* = ({-da4-}) mfn. exalted by the inspiring (draught of Soma), i,: 174, 6. codana* = mfn. impelling AV. vii, 116, 1 (cf. {RSi-}, {eka-}, {kIri-}, {brahma-}, {radhra-co4d-}); ({A}, {am}) fn. impelling, invitation, direction, rule, precept VS. xxix, 7 RPrt. S'nkhS'r. KtyS'r. Lthy. Mn. ii, &c.; ({A}) f. reproof (as in Pli) DivyA7v. i, 54; ({i}),f. N. of a plant(v.l. for {rodanI}) L. Sch. codanAguDa* = m. a ball to play with L. codayanmati* = mfn. (fr. {-da4yat}, p. {cud}, Caus.) promoting devotion RV. v, 8, 6; viii, 46, 19. codayitavya* = mfn. to be criticised Bdar. Sch. codayitR* = mf({trI4})n. one who impels or animates or promotes RV. i, 3, 11; vii, 81, 6 Kum. iii, 21. codas* = see {a-coda4s}. codaayani* = m. pl. N. of a family Pravar. iv, 8. coDakarNa* = m. `" projecting-ear "'N. of a man Kaths. lxix, 164. codaka* = Meaning* = mfn. impelling MBh. xiii, 71; m. direction, invitation KtyS'r. i. 10 Nyyam. x; (in Gr.) =
459

{pari-graha} q.v. RPrt. x, 10 [400,2]; xi, 14; asker, objectioner, pupil Jain. coDaka* = {-colaka}, a jacket DivyA7v. xxvii, 541. coda* = m. an implement for driving horses, goad or whip, v, 61, 3; ({-da4}) mfn. animating, inspiring, promoting, i, 143, 6; ii, 13, 9 and 30, 6 (cf. {radhracoda4}.) coDa* = m. {-cU4Da}, a sort of protuberance on a brick TS. v, 3, 7, 1 (ifc.); = {-Daka} SaddhP.; pl. N. of a people L.; sg. a prince of that people Pn. 4-1, 175 Vrtt. (v.l. {cola}); ({A}) f. N. of a plant L. coda* = {-daka}, {-dana}, &c. see {cud}. codana * = mfn. impelling AV. vii, 116, 1 (cf. %{RSi-}, %{eka-}, %{kIri-}, %{brahma-}, %{radhra-co4d-}); (% {A}, %{am}) fn. impelling, invitation, direction, rule, precept VS. xxix, 7 RPra1t. S3a1n3khS3r. Ka1tyS3r. La1t2y. Mn. ii, &c.; (%{A}) f. reproof (as in Pa1li) DivyA7v. i, 54; (%{i}),f. N. of a plant(v.l. for % {rodanI}) L. Sch. codita * = mfn. caused to move quickly RV. ix, 72, 5; driven, impelled, incited MBh. R.; carried on (a business), iv, 28, 21 ({a-} neg.); invited, directed, ordered MBh. Ragh. xii, 59; informed, apprised W.;
460

inquired after, BP. vii, 15, 13; enjoined, fixed, appointed, S'nkhS'r. KtyS'r. Mn. ii f. viii MBh. xiii, 2439 R. (B) iii, 56, 16. coditatva * n. the being enjoined Jaim. vi, 1, 9; ({a-} neg.) KtyS'r. i, 6 cumbita * m= mfn. kissed S'ak. iii Sh. i; touched closely or softly Mlatm. Vcar. xiv, 7 Sarvad. cuuDa * = mfn. stupid (?) Divya7v. xxxv, 99 f.; m. (cf. {kU4Ta}) a sort of protuberance on a sacrificial brick S'Br. viii and KtyS'r. (also ifc. f. {A}); m. or n. = {DA-karaNa} Yj. iii, 23; m. N. of a man (with the patr. Bhgavitti) S'Br. xiv, 9, 3, 17 f.; ({A}) f. (beginning a Gana of Ganar. 365: g. {bhidA7di}) the hair on the top of the head, single lock or tuft left on the crown of the head after tonsure Ragh.xviii, 50 (ifc.) Pars'. [401, 1]; = {-DA-karaNa} (cf. {-Do7panayana}) Ragh. iii, 28 Smriitit. i; the crest of a cock or peacock L.; any crest, plume, diadem W.; the head L.; the top (of a column) Hcat. i, 3; the summit Hit. i, l 01; a top-room (of a house) L.; a kind of bracelet L.; a small well L.; N. of a metre; of a woman g. {bAhvAdi} ({-DAlA} Ks'.); cf. {cUla}, {coDa}, {caula} {uc-}, {candra-}, {tAmra-}, {svarNa-}; {paMca-} and {mahA-cUDA}. cuuta: *V= species of mango tree.

461

cyuta* = 1 mfn. moved, shaken AV. ix, 2, 15; gone away from (abl.) R. ii, 52, 27 and 72, 5; (with abl. or ifc.) deviated from (lit. [Pacat. v, 3, 10/11] and fig. [Mn. viii, 418; xii, 70 ff. Hariv. 11105 and 11188]); (said of arrows) failing an aim (abl.) L.; flying away from (abl. or in comp.; said of missile weapons) MBh. xiii, 4610 Hariv. 8088 R. iii BhP. iii, 18, 5; expelled from, deprived of (abl.) MBh. iii Bhathth. vii, 92; destitute of. free of (in comp.) Pacat. i, 10, 26 Kaths. lx, 178; abandoned by (in comp.) VarBriS.li, 2; disappeared, vanished Hariv. 11173 Ragh. iii, 45; viii, 65 Bhathth. iii; come forth from, dropped from, streaming forth from (lit. and fig., as speech from the mouth) Mn. vi, 132 MBh. xiii, 2183 R. i-iii BhP. Bhathth. ix, 71; fallen from, fallen MBh. &c.; fallen from any divine existence for being re-born as a man Buddh. Jain.; (in astrol.) standing in the $ Laghuj. x, 5; sunk (morally) Kum. v, 81; (in math.) divided Bijag.; cf. {a4-}, {ha4sta-}.\\ 2 mfn. ifc. id. see {ghRta-}, {madhu-}. cyuuta* = v.l. for {cUta}, the anus W.

462

daa = (v) to give daa* = 3 For {do}, to cut q.v. * =4 cl. 4. P. {dya4ti} (cf. {A-} 4. {dA}), to bind, only in {dISva} VS. xxxviii, 3 [cf. $ $]. * =5 For {de} q.v. * =6 f. ( {de}), protection, defence L. * =7 For {dai} q.v. * =8 f. ( {das}) cleansing, purifying L. daa*1 cl. 3. {da4dAti} (pl. {-dati} RV. &c.; . {datte} Pacat. i, 4, 19/20 12, 7 Subh.; 1. sg. {dadmi} MBh. xii Hariv. R. if.; Impv. {da4dAtu} pl. {-dahu}; 2. sg. {daddhi4} RV. i f. iv, vi, viii, x; {dehi4} [Pn. 6-4, 119] RV. iii f. viii, x AV. v, xviii f. &c. [473,3]; 2. pl. {da4dAta} RV. vii, 57, 6, {-tana} x, 36, 10, {datta4} 51, 8 VS. AV. &c.; 2. du. {-tta4m} RV. i, 34, 6 AV. &c.; Pot. {dadyA4} AV. &c.; impf. {a4dadAt}; pl. {a4dadur} RV. vi, x AV. v, 18, 1; 2. du. {a4dattam} RV. &c.; 2. pl. {-ttana i}, 139, 7, {a4dadAta} x, 64, 12; Subj. {da4dat} ii, v, vii f. x, {-das} vii f. {-dan} AV. vi, 24, 1 p. m. nom. sg. {da4dat} pl. {-tas} RV. &c.; p. . {da4dAna}, v, 33, 9; {-na4}, i. 148, 2; v, 2, 3; sg. {dadati}, ii, 35, 10 MBh. iii, 13422; pl. {-danti}, xii f.; Impv. {-da}, ix MrkP.; {-data} Sinha7s.; Pot. {-det} Pars'. vi, 19; impf. {a4dadat} AV. xii, 4, 23 MBh. R.; . sg. {da4date} RV. i, 24, 7 AV. x, 8, 36; pl. {-dante}, 35 VS. viii, 31; Impv. sg. {-datAm} RV. iii, 53, 17; {dasva} MBh. Hariv. &c.; impf. pl. {a4dadanta} RV. vii, 33, i i AV. xiv; p. {da4damAna} RV. i, 41, 9; iv, 26, 6; aor. {a4dAt} [Pn. 2-4, 77], {dat}, {a4dur}, {du4r} &c.;
463

Subj. 2. du. {dAsathas} RV. viii, 40, 1 [cf. Naigh. ii, 30]; Pot. 1. pl. {deSma} VS. ii, 32; pf. {dadau4}, {du4r}, {-da4thur}, {-datur}, {-do4} RV. &c.; Pass {de4}, iv, 34 & 37 AV. X, 2, 16; {dadade}, {-dAte}, {dire} Pn. 6-4, 126 Ks'.; p. gen. {dadu4Sas} RV. i, viii, {-SAm} vi; nom. {-dvA4n}, x, 132, 3; {-dAvan} AV. v, 11, 1; acc. {-divA4Msam}, ix, 5, 10 [cf. Vop. xxvi, 133]; fut. p. {dAsya4t} AV.vi, 71, 3; . {-syate}, {syante}, 1. sg. {-sye} MBh. Hariv. R. MrkP.; Prec. {deyAt} Pn. 6-4, 67; inf. {dAva4ne} RV.; {dA4tos}, vii, 4, 6; {-tave}, vii-ix AV. iii, 20, 5; {dA4tavai4} [Pn. vi, 1, 200 Siddh.] RV. iv, 21, 9; {-tum}, v AV. &c.: ind. p. {dattvA4ya} [Pn. 7-1, 47 Ks'.] RV. x, 85, 33; {ttva} AV. &c.; {-dA4ya} [Pn. 6-4, 69] RV. &c.: Pass. {dIyate} [Pn. 6-4, 62]; p. {-ya4mAna} AV. ix; aor. {adAyi} Pn. 7-3, 33 Ks'.; Prec. {dAsISTa}, {dAyis-}, vi, 4, 62) cl. 1. {dA4ti} (RV. iv-vii; Impv. {-tu}, 15, 11; cf. Pn. 6-1, 8 Vrtt. 3 Pat.; ii, 4, 76 Ks'.) to give, bestow, grant, yield, impart, present, offer to (dat., in later language also gen. or loc.) RV. &c.; to give (a daughter, {kanyAm}) in marriage Mn. v, ix Yj. MBh. &c.; to hand over Mn. viii, 186 & 234; (with {haste}) Kaths.; to give back, 222 f. MBh. iii Pacat. VP. Kaths. lxxiv; to pay ({daNDam}, `" a fine "' Mn. viii f.; {RNam}, a debt "', viii Yj. ii, 45); to give up, cede ({Asanam}, `" one's seat "') Mn. iv, 54; ({panthAnam} or {mArgam}, `" to give up the road, allow to pass "') viii, 275 and R. v, 94, 8; to sell (with instr. of the price), i Nal. xiv, 21 VarBriS. xlii, 11; to sacrifice
464

({AtmAnam}, `" one's self. "' Kaths. xxii, 227; {At-} {khedAya}, to give one's self up to grief "', v, 57); to offer (an oblation &c.) Mn. Yj. R. &c.; to communicate, teach, utter (blessings, {AziSas} S'ak. MrkP.), give (answer, {prati-vacas}, {-canam}, {pratyuttaram} Nal. S'ak. &c.), speak ({satyaM vacas}, the truth, yj. ii, 200; {vacam}, to address a speech to [dat.] S'ak. vi, 5); to permit, allow (with inf.) MBh. i S'ak. vi, 22; to permit sexual intercourse S'Br. xiv, 9, 4, 7; to place, put, apply (in med.) Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; to add Pacat. ii, 6, 5 Sryas. VarBriS. Laghuj.; with {varam} "', to grant a boon "' S'Br. xi KtyS'r. MBh. &c.; {zoham}, to cause grief "', xiii R. ii; {avakAzam}, `" to give room or space, allow to enter Yj. ii, 276 Mriicch. Ragh. &c.; {prANAn} or {jIvitam}, `" to spare any one's life "' MBh. Kaths. xviii, 275; {talam} or {lAn}, to slap with the palms of the hands MBh. iii, ix Hariv. 15741; {-la-prahAram}, to strike with the palm Pacat. iv,. 2, 0/1 {tAlam}, to beat time with the hands MBh. i Bhathth.; {saMjJAm}, to make a sign Mriicch.; {saMketakam}, to make an appointment Pacat. ii, 4, 3/4 {samayam}, to propose an agreement Kaths. xviii, 139; {upamAm}, to compare with [gen.] Cn.; {paTaham}, to proclaim with the drum Kaths. lxxiii, 357; {zabdam}, to make a noise, call out Vet. iv, 2/3; {zApam}, to utter a curse MBh. R. &c.; {gAIh}. id. Bhartri.; {anuyAtram}, to accompany Kaths. xviii, 197; {AliGganane}, {parirambhaNam}, to embrace, 209 Gt. iii, 8; {jhampam}, to jump Hit.; {zrAddham}, to
465

perform a Srddha MBh. xiv R. ii; {vratakam}, to accomplish a vow Hariv.; {yuddham}, {niy-}, {saMgrAmam}, to give battle, fight with MBh. Hariv. R.; {AjJAm} {Adezam}, to give an order, command, i BrahmaP. Vet.; {saMdezam}, to give information Kaths. xvii, 161; {prayogam}, to give a dramatic representation Mlav. i, 12/13 {vRtim}, to fence in Mn. viii, 240 Kull.; {darzanam}, to show one's self Prab. iii,; 0/1 {dRSTim} {dRzam} {akSi} {caksus}, to fix the eyes on (loc.) S'ak.i, 6 Kaths. Dhrtas. S'riingrat. Sh.; {karNam}, to give ear, listen S'ak. Kaths.; {manas}, to direct the mind to (loc.) MBh. xii, 2526; {kars} {kapolam}, to rest the cheek on the hand Krand. xviii, 73 [474,1]; {nigaDAni} to put on or apply fetters Mriicch. vii, 6/7 {pAvakam}, to set on fire; {agnIn} to consume by fire Mn. v, 168; {zAram}, to move a chessman Das'. vii, 137; {argalam}, to draw a bolt, bar Kaths. Rjat. vi, 96; {jAnu}, to kneel upon (gen.) MBh. iii f.; {padam}, to tread upon [loc.] Bhartri. Hit. ii, 12, 25 SS'ankar. i, 38; to direct the steps Amar. 74; {viSam}, to poison Pacar. i, 14, 80 (with acc.!); {garam} id. VP. iv, 3, 16 (with gen.); -. to carry, hold, keep, preserve RV. AV. VS.; to show SV. i, 2, 1, 4, 7 (aor. {adadiSTa}; {aded-} fr. {diz} RV.): Caus. {dApayati} (Pn. vii, 3, 36; aor. {adIdapat}, 4, 1 and 58 Ks'.) to cause to give or be given, cause to bestow or present or give up, oblige to pay, make restore VS. ix, 24 AV. iii, 20, 8 Mn. &c.; to demand from (abl.) Mn. viii, 47; to cause to utter or speak Hariv. 15782 Yj. ii,
466

6/7 {ghoSaNAm}, to cause to be made known Kaths. lxiv, 86; to cause to place or advance, xii, 160; to cause to perform, v, 112 to cause to be put on (loc.) MBh. i, 5724: Desid. {di4tsati} (Pn. 7-4, 54 and 58; p. {di4dAsat} RV. x, 151, 2; {di4tsat}, ii, vii-ix AV. v, 7, 6 MBh.; Pot. {-tseyam} RV. viii MBh.; pf. 2. sg. {didAsitha} AitBr. viii, 21 S'nkhS'r. xvi, 16; cf. S'Br. xiii, 7, 1, 15) to wish to give, be ready to bestow RV. &c.; to wish to give in marriage MBh. &c.: Intens. {dedIyate} Pn. 6-4, 66 Ks'.; [cf. $; Lat. {do}; &c.] daa*2 m. a giver RV. v, 41, 1 (dat. {de4}); vi, 16, 26 (nom. {dA4s}); ifc., giving, granting "' see {an-azva-}, {a-bhikSa-}, {azva-}, {Atma-}, &c. {-dA4}; {a4nAzIr-}. daaH = giving daaha *= m. (fr. %{dah}) burning , combustion , conflagration , heat Ka1tyS3r. Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. R. &c. ; place of cremation Vas. xix , 26 ; glowing , redness (of the sky cf. %{dig-}) Mn. MBh. VarBr2S. &c. ; cauterizing , cautery (of a wound) Sus3r. Ma1lav. iv , 4 ; internal heat , fever Sus3r. ; pl. N. of a people (v.l. for %{vaideha}) Va1yuP. 1 ; %{-haka} mf(%{I})n. burning , setting on fire Ya1jn5. ii , 282 BhP. xi , 10 , 8 ; m. Plumbago Zeylanica. daahana *= n. (fr. the Caus.) causing to burn or be
467

burnt , reducing to ashes MBh. i , 403 BhP. xii , 12 , 40 ; cauterizing W. ; (%{I}) f. Grislea Tomentosa L. daakiNii = the goddess in mulaadhaara chakra daaDimaphalam.h = (n) pomegranate, anaar daaDhaa* = f. (= and prob. fr. %{daMSTrA}) large tooth, tusk L.; wish, desire L.; number, multitude daadhaara = holds daakshya = cleverness, honesty, brilliance daakshyaM = resourcefulness daakshiNa * = nif({I})n. (fr. {da4kSiNA} f.) belonging or relating to a sacrificial fee S'Br. S'nkhS'r.; relating to the south W.; ({A}) f. the southern country i.e. the Deccan (see below, {-ja}); n. a collection of sacrificial fees (g. {bhikSA7di}); pl. N. of a Knda of TS. daal: thick lentil soup daama = garland (like) daambha* = mf({I})n. (fr. {dambha}) deceitful, hypocritical Nalac

468

daamyati = (4 pp) to tame daanta* = 1 mfn. ( {dam}) tamed, broken in, restrained, subdued; mild, patient Br. Mn. MBh. &c.; liberal L.; m. a tamed ox or steer (cf. {damya}) Rjat. v, 432; a donor, giver W.; Ficus Indica or = {damanaka} L.; N. of a son of Bhma Nal. 1, 9; of a bull Kaths. xvi, 295; pl. of a school of the AV.; ({A}) f. of an Apsaras MBh. xiii, 1425.\\* = 2 mf({I})n. (fr. {danta}) made of ivory MBh. R. Sus'r.\\= 3 mfn. ending in {dA}, MnGr, i, 18 Gobh. ii, 8, 16. daana = the act of giving daana* = 1 n. the act of giving RV. S'Br. MBh. &c.; giving in marriage (cf. {kanyA-}); giving up (cf. {prANa-}, {Atma-}, {zarIra-} Pac. ii); communicating, imparting, teaching (cf. {brakma-}); paying back, restoring Mn. Yj.; adding, addition (VarBriS.); donation, gift Lat. {donum}] RV. S'Br. &c. ({-naMdA}, to offer a ggift Mn. Yj. Hit. &c.; {-nam prayam}, to bestow a ggift Mn. iv, 234); oblation (cf. {udaka-}, {havir-}); liberality (cf. 2. {dAna}); bribery Mn.vii, 198 (cf. {upA7ya}). daana* = 2 n. cutting off. splitting, dividing L.; pasture, meadow RV.; rut-fluid (which flows from an elephant's temples) MBh. Hariv. &c.; ({dAna4}) m. (only in RV. but cf. {vasu-}) distribution of food or of a sacrificial
469

meal; imparting, communicating, liberality; part, share, possession; distributor, dispenser RV. vii, 27, 4. daana* = 3 n. purification L. daanaiH = by charity daanaM = charity daanava = a demon daanavaH = the demons daaNDa* = 1 mf({I})n. relating to a stick or to punishment W.; m. patr. fr. {daNDa}, (g. {zivA7di}); ({A}) f. a partic. game with sticks Pn. 4-2, 57 Ks'.; n. the being a staff (g. {pRthv-Adi}); multitude of staffbearers, vi, 4, 164 Sch. daane = in charity daanena = by charity daaneshhu = in giving charities daanika * = mfn. relating to a gift, &c. (only ifc.; cf. % {adhyayana-}, %{udaka-}, %{vara-}). daanta \\ 1 mfn. ( %{dam}) tamed , broken in ,
470

restrained , subdued ; mild , patient Br. Mn. MBh. &c. ; liberal L. ; m. a tamed ox or steer (cf. %{damya}) Ra1jat. v , 432 ; a donor , giver W. ; Ficus Indica or = % {damanaka} L. ; N. of a son of Bhi1ma Nal. 1 , 9 ; of a bull Katha1s. xvi , 295 ; pl. of a school of the AV. ; (% {A}) f. of an Apsaras MBh. xiii , 1425.\\ 2 mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{danta}) made of ivory MBh. R. Sus3r. \\3 mfn. ending in %{dA} , Ma1nGr , i , 18 Gobh. ii , 8 , 16. daantau = with good teeth? daara* =1 Inf({I})n. ( {dRR}) tearing up, rending (cf. {bhU-}); m. rent, cleft, hole TndyaBr. xv, 3, 7 (cf. {udara-}, {karbu-}, {a-dAra-sRt}); ({I}) f. id. Sus'r. daara* =2 m. pl. (probably not connected with s. {dAra} and {dRR}, but cf. Pn. 3-3, 20 Vrtt. 4) a wife (wives) GriS. Mn. MBh. &c. ({-An} {kR} or {pra-kR}, take to wife, marry MBh.; cf. {kRta-}); rarely m. sg. (p. i, 14, 24 Gaut. xxii, 29) f. sg. (BhP. vii, 14, ii) and n. pl. (Pac. i, 450). daaraa = woman daaridrya = poverty daars'a* = mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{darza}) relating to the new moon or the nnew mmoon sacrifice Kaus3. 24; m. (scil. %{yajJa}) the nnew moon ssacrifice Mn. vi, 9.
471

daaru = (neut) tree, wood daaruNa * = mf({A}, once {I})n. hard, harsh (opp. {mRdu}) S'Br. MBh. Sus'r.; rough, sharp, severe, cruel, pitiless; dreadful, frightful; intense, violent Mn. MBh. R. S'ak. Pac. &c.; (in comp. or {-am} before a vb. to express excellence or superiority cf. g. {kASThA7di}); m. Plumbago Zeylanica L.; n. harshness, severity, horror MBh.; {-Naka} n. N. of a disease of the roots of the hair Sus'r.; {-Nya} n. harshness (of sound, TPrat. ii, 10). daarvaaghaaTaH = (m) woodpecker daasa* = 1 m. fiend, demon; N. of certain evil beings conquered by Indra (e.g. Namuci, Pipru, S'ambara, Varcin &c.) RV.; savage, barbarian, infidel (also {dA4sa}, opp. to {Arya}; cf. {dasyu}); slave, servant RV. AV. Mn. &c.; a s'dra L. Sch.; one to whom gifts may be made W.; a fisherman (v.l. for {dAza}); ifc. of names, esp. of S'dras and Kya-sthas (but cf. also {kAli-}); ({I}) f. a female servant or slave AV. S'Br. Mn. MBh. &c.; harlot L. Sch.; N. of a plant (= {nilA} or {pItA jhintI}, {kAka-jaGghA}, {nIlA7mlANa} &c.) L.; an altar L.; N. of a river L.; ({dA4sa}) mf({I})n. fiendish, demoniacal, barbarous, impious RV.\\ 2 m. a knowing man, esp. a knower of the universal spirit L. daasharathiH = dasharatha's son

472

daasaH = (male, nom.sing.) servant daasosmyaham.h = disciple+am+I daasya* = n. servitude, slavery, service S'Br. Mn. &c. daas'u * =worshipping, sacrificing daas'a * =(written also {dAsa}) m. fisherman, ferryman, mariner VS. xxx, 16 Mriicch. viii, 408, 9 MBh. Hariv. &c.; the son of a Nishda by a woman of the yogava caste Mn. x, 34; servant, slave L.; ({I}) f. fisherwoman, female slave L. \\dAza * =3 the Vriiddhi form of 2. {daza} in comp. daasya * = n. servitude , slavery , service S3Br. Mn. &c. Daakinii * = f. (of {-ka} Pn. 4-2, 51 Pat.) a female imp attending Kl (feeding on human flesh) BhP.x BrahmaP. MrkP. Kaths. ({DAginI}, cii, cviii f.) (cf. {zAk-}); N. of a locality S'ivaP. i, 38, 18. daasyante = will award daasyaami = I shall give charity daatavya = shouold be given

473

daatavyaM = worth giving daataa = (masc.Nom.S) the giver daataaraM = the giver daataaram.h = one who gives daava * = conflagration, esp. a forest conflagration S'Br. MBh. &c.; fire, heat; distress L.; m. n. a forest MBh. (always connected with fire) Ragh. ii, 8. daaya* =1 mfn. (Pn. 3-1, 139; 141) giving, presenting (cf. {zata-}, {go-}); m. gift, present, donation MBh. R. &c.; nuptial fee L. (cf. {su-}); gift at the ceremony of initiation W.; handing over, delivery Mn. viii, 165; n. game, play Pacad. \\2 m. share, portion, inheritance RV. TS. &c. ({dAyAd upA7gata}, obtained through inheritance, Mit.; {dAyam upai9ti pitus}, he obtains his father's inheritance Br.); division, part (ifc. = fold cf. {zata4-}); dismembering, destruction L.; irony L.; place, site L. daayinii = giver dadati = give, donate dadadaH = (n) a thunder

474

dadaami = I give dadaasi = you give, confer upon dadau = gave (from daa: to give) dadha* = mfn. (iii, i, 139) `" giving "' see %{iDA-}, % {ilA-}.\\1 mfn. (2, 171 Va1rtt. 3) `" giving "' RV. x, 46, 1; preserving (with acc.) Vop.; n. a house L. dadhatamurujaTaa = bearing, head adornments dadhaatu = let them give( us welfare) dadhaami = create dadhichii = a sage who gave his bones to the gods to make a thunderbolt dadhmuH = blew dadhmau = blew dagdha = burned, tormented, pained, consumed by grief or hunger, distressed; dry, insipid; inauspicious; miserable, execrable daghibaaga = (f) Chinese take-out
475

dah *= 1 cl. 1. P%{dahati} (ep. a1so A1. ; p. % {da4hati} impf. %{a4dahat} ; aor "' %{adhAk} RV. ii , 15 , 4 ; 1 .sg. %{-kSam} MBh. vii ; 3. pl %{-kskur} Katha1s. ; Subj. %{dhAk} RV. i , 158 , 4 ; 2. sg. % {dhakSi} , iv , 4 , 4 ; p. %{dha4kSat} [also nom. m.] , vi , 3 , 4 x , 91 , 7 %{da4hSat} , i , 130 , 8 ; fut. % {dhakSyati} [Pa1n2. 7-2 , 10 Siddh. Ka1r. 6] MBh. [Pot. %{dhakSyet} , i , 8383] &c. ; %{dahiSy-} , i , 2120 BhP. iv Prasan3g. xix , 7 ; inf. %{dagdhum}) to burn , consume by fire , scorch roast RV. &c. ; to cauterise Sus3r. ; to consume , destroy completely Mn. vii , 9 MBh. &c. ; to torment, torture, pain, distress, disturb, grieve MBh. &c.: Pass. %{dahyate} (%{-ti} Ma1nGr2. ii , 15 MBh. if. , xiif.) ; to be burnt , burn , be in flames AV. Nir. &c. ; to be consumed by fire or destroyed Mn. vi , 71 ; to be inflamed (a wound) Sus3r. i , 28 ; to be consumed by internal heat or grief , suffer pain , be distressed or vexed MBh. &c. ; Caus. % {dAhayati} to burn or be burned Mn. Ya1jn5. i , 89 MBh. &c. ; to cause to be cooked Hariv. 15523 (aor. pl. %{adIdahan}): Desid. %{didhakSati} (cf. %{-kSA} , % {-kSu}) to be about to burn or consume or destroy MBh. i-iv R. (p. %{-kSamANa}): Desid. Caus. (p. %{kSayat}) to cause any one to make efforts to burn Bhat2t2. iii , 33: Intens. %{dandahIti} , %{-hyate} (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 24 ; 7-4 , 86) to burn or destroy completely Hariv. 8726 BhP. vi , 8 , 21 (Impv. %{-dagdhi}) S3is3. Prasannar. vi , 32 and 48 ; A1. to be burnt completely Hariv. 7040 BhP. Pan5cat. i , 8 , 23/24 [cf. Lith.
476

{degu4} , I am hot "' ; Goth. {dag-s} ; Old Germ. {ta1ht} , `" a wick "'].\\dah 2 mfn. `" burning "' see % {uza4-}. dahana *= mf(%{I})n. burning , consuming by fire , scorching , destroying (chiefly ifc.) Hariv. BhP. Bhartr2. ; (said of the %{dhAraNA} of fire) Goraksh. 164 ; m. fire (of three kinds) , Agni Kaus3. MBh. &c. (ifc. f. % {A} Hora1s3.) ; the numeral three VarBr2S. Su1ryas. ; one of the 5 forms of fire in the Sva1ha1-ka1ra Hariv. 10465 ; a pigeon L. ; Plumbago zeylanica L. ; Anacardium officinarum L. ; N. of an attendant of Skanda MBh. ix , 2536 ; N. of a Rudra , i MatsyaP. ; n. burning , consuming by fire Kaus3. 80 R. vii Ragh. &c. ; cauterising Sus3r. ; sour gruel Npr. ; (%{A}) f. N. of part of the moon's course VarBr2S. ix , 1-3 Sch. ; (% {I}) f. Sanseviera Roxburghiana L.dahat.h = one that burns dahati = (1 pp) to burn, to pain dahra *= 1 mfn. small , fine , thin , Na1-rUp. A1p. i , 9 , 23 (%{-re@para-rAtre} , in the shorter half of the night "') ; (%{a4m} , n) ind. little TS. vii , 5 , 3 , 1 ; n. the cavity of the heart BhP. iii ; vi , 9.\\ 2 m. a wood on fire Un2. vr2. ; fire ib. daihya *= nif(%{A})n. being in the body (%{At} , nan) ib. ; m. the soul ib.

477

Daitya = a demon son of Diti DaityaanaaM = of the demons dainya *= n. wretchedness , affliction , depression , miserable state MBh. Ka1v. Sus3r. &c. ; meanness , covetousness W. dainyayoga = Combination of planets (Yoga) which give rise to poverty. Usually it is caused by the malefic conjunctions of house lords with the lords of the 6th, 8th or 12th houses daiva = destiny daivaM = in worshiping the demigods daivaH = godly daivii = transcendental daiviiM = divine dal* = (= {dRR}) cl. l. {-lati} [pf. {dadAla}] Bhathth. xiv; aor. pl. {adAliSur}, xv) to, crack, fly open, split, open (as a bud) Sus'r. ii, 16 Sis'. ix, 15 Bhm. i, 4 Amar. Gt. Dhrtas.: Caus. {dAlayati}, to cause to burst Sus'r. Bhathth.: {dal-} id., Anargh. Gt. i, 8 Sch. [471, 2]; to expel Mlatm. viii, 1 Kaths. lviii, 8; cii, 58; cf. {ava-},
478

{ud-}, {vi-}. Dam * = cl. 1. P. (p. %{-mat}) to sound (as a drum) Prab. iii , 14. dam * = 1 cl.4. %{dAmyati} (Pa1n2. 7-3 , 74 ; ind. p. %{dAntvA} and %{damitvA} , 2 , 56 ; aor. Pass. % {adami} , 3 , 34 Ka1s3. ; P. %{-mit} Bhat2t2. xv , 37) to be tamed or tranquillised S3Br. xiv , 8 , 2 , 2 (Impv. %{dA4myata}) ; to tame , subdue , conquer MBh. vii , 2379 and BhP. iii , 3 , 4 (ind. p. %{damitvA}) Bhat2t2.: cl. 9. irreg. (? Subj. 2. sg. %{da4nas}) id. RV. i , 174 , 2: Caus. %{damayati} (p. %{-ma4yat} ; A1. Pa1n2. 1-3 , 89) to subdue , overpower RV. vii , 6 ; x , 74 , 5 AV.v , 20 , 1 MBh. Ra1jat. ; Desid. see %{dAn} ; [cf. $ , $ ; Lat. {domare} &c.]\\ 2 a house RV. x , 46 , 7 (gen. pl. %{damAm}) ; %{pa4tir@da4n} (gen. sg.) = %{da4mpatis} , 99 , 6 ; 105 , 2 ; i , 149 , 1 ; 153 , 4 ; % {pa4ti@da4n} = %{da4m-patI} , 120 , 6 ; % {zi4zur@da4n} `" a child of the house "' , x , 61 , 20 ; [cf. $ &c.] da.nDaH = punishment da.ntii = the tusked one da.nsh.h = to bite da.nshhTra = tooth
479

da.nshhTraa = (fem) tooth, fang dakaraakSasa* = m. a water-Rkshasa DivyA7v. viii, 262 ff. dakalaavaNika* = mfn. prepared with water and salt L. Dakaara* = m. the letter {D} TPrt. iv, 38 Sch. dakaara* = m. the letter or sound {d}. Daaka* = m. an imp attending Kl Klac. v, 38. daka* = n. = {ud-}, water Phetk. xvii; cf. {dagA7rgala}. dakhiNa = right side daksha = a lord of created beings dakshaH = expert* = mf({A})n. able, fit, adroit, expert, clever, dexterous, industrious, intelligent RV. &c.; strong, heightening or strengthening the intellectual faculties (Soma), ix f.; passable (the Ganges) MBh. xiii, 1844; suitable BhP. iv, 6, 44 Bhartri. iii, 64; right (opposed to left) RmatUp. i, 22 Phetk. i; m. ability, fitness, mental power, talent (cf. {-kratu4}), strength of will, energy, disposition RV. AV. VS.; evil disposition RV. iv, 3, 13; x, 139, 6; a particular form of temple Hcat. ii, 1, 390; a general lover W.; a cock Car. i, vi; N.
480

of a plant L.; fire L.; Siva's bull L.; N. of an ditya (identified with Praj-pati TS. iii S'Br. ii; father of Kriittik S'ntik.) RV. if., x Nir. ii, xi; N. of one of the Praj-patis (MBh. xii, 7534 Hariv. VP. i, 7, 5 and 22, 4 BhP.iii, 12, 22 MatsyaP. cvl, 15 KrmaP. &c. S'ak. vii, 27; born from Brahm's right thumb MBh. i, xii Hariv. &c.; or from A-ja "', the unborn "' BhP. iv, 1, 47; or son of Pra-cetas or of the of 10 Pra-cetasas, whence called Prcetasa MBh. i, xii f. Hariv. 101 VP. i, 15; father of 24 daughters by Pra-sti VP. i, 7, 17 ff. BhP. &c.; of 50 [or 60 MBh. xii, 61 36 R. iii, 20, 10; or 44 Hariv. 1 1521 ff.] daughters of whom 27 become the Moos wives, forming the lunar asterisms, and 13 [or 17 BhP.; or 8 R.] those of Kas'yapa, becoming by this latter the mothers of gods, demons, men, and animals, while 10 are married to Dharma Mn. ix, 128f. MBh. i, ix; xii, 7537ff. Hariv. VP. &c.; celebrating a great sacrifice [hence {dakSa sya4yana}, `" N. of a sacrifice "' Mn. vi, 10] to obtain a son, he omitted, with the disapproval of Dadhca, to invite Siva, who ordered Vira-bhadra to spoil the sacrifice Hariv. 12212 [identified with Vishnu] ff. VyuP.i, 30, = BrahmaP. i LingaP. MatsyaP. xiii VmP. ii-v S'ivaP. i, 8 Ks'Kh. lxxxvii ff.; named among the Vis've-devs Hariv. 11542 VyuP.; Briihasp. [Hcat] &c.); N. of a son of Garuda MBh. v, 3597; of a man with the patr. Prvati S'Br. ii, 4, 4, 6; of a law-giver Yj. i, 5 Mn. ix, 88 Sch. &c.; of a son of Us'i-nara BhP. ix, 23, 2; of one of the 5 Knyakubja Brhmans from whom the Bengal Brhmansare said to have sprung
481

Kshiti7s'. i, 13 and 41; ({A}) f. the earth L.; cf. {atUta-}, {dina4-}, {samAna4}; {su-da4kSa}; {mArgadakSaka}; {dAkSAya4n}; $; Lat. {dex-ter}; Goth. {taiksvs}. dAkSa* = mf({I})n. (fr. {dakSa}) relating to Daksha (Hariv.) or to Dkshi (Pn. 4-2, 112); southern, dwelling in the south SS'ankar.; m. or n. the south (in {SasyA7yana} n. the sus progress towards ssouth, the winter solstice and sacrifice then performed Mn. vi, 10 [v.l. {dakS-}]); m. pl. N. of the disciples of a partic. school (see {kumArI-d-}). dakshiNa = South * = (also {-Na4} S'Br.) mf({A})n. (declined as a pron. when denoting relative position [`" right "' or, southern "'] KtyS'r. As'vGri. &c.; cf. Pn. 11, 34; vii, 1, 16; but not necessarily in abl. and loc. sg. m. n. [{-Ne} KtyS'r. Mn. ii, 63] and nom. pl. m.; except Hariv: 12390) able, clever, dexterous Pn. 1-1, 34 Ks'. S'atr. (ifc.); right (not left) RV. AV. VS. &c. ({NaM parI7}, to walk round a person with the right side towards him "' BhP. iv, 12, 25; {-maMkR}, to place any one on the right side as a mark of respect "', i, viii); south, southern (as being on the right side of a person looking eastward), situated to the south, turned or directed southward AV. VS. &c.; coming from south (wind) Sus'r. Ragh. iv, 8; (with {AmnAya}) the southern sacred text (of the Tntrikas), Kularn. iii; straightforward, candid, sincere, pleasing, compliant
482

MBh. iv, 167 R. S'ak.iv, 18 Sh. iii, 35 Pratpar. BrahmaP.; m. the right (hand or arm) RV. i, viii, x TS. v; the horse on the, right side of the pole of a carriage, i, x VS. ix, 8; S'iva; m. or n. the south Nal. ix, 23 R. iv; n. the righthand or higher doctrine of the S'ktas Kula7rn. ii; ({am}) ind. to the right R. ii, 92, 13; ({A}) f. (scil. {go}), able to calve and give milk "', a prolific cow, good milch-cow RV. AV.; a fee or present to the officiating priest (consisting originally of a cow cf. Kty S'r. xv Lthy. viii, 1, 2 ). RV. Rc.; Donation to the priest (personified along with brhmanas-pati, Indra, and Soma, i, 18, 5; x, 103, 8; authoress of x, 107 RAnukr.; wife of Sacrifice [Ragh. i, 31 BhP. ii, 7, 21, both being children of Ruci and Akti, iv, l, 4 f. VP. i, 7, 18 f.); reward RV. viii, 24, 2I; (offered to the Guru) MBh. v Ragh. v, 20 Kaths. iv, 93 f.; ({-NAm A-} {diz}, to thank "' DivyA7v. vii, 104; Caus. to earn thanks, i); a gift, donation (cf. {abhaya-}, {prA7Na-}) Mn. iii R. ii; (scil. {diz}) the south, Deccan L.; a figure of Durg having the right side prominent W.; completion of any rite ({pra-tiSThA}) L.; ({e}) loc. ind. on the right side Hemac.; ({At}) abl. ind. from or on the right side Pn. 5-3, 4; from the south, southward ib.; ({ena}) instr. ind. on the right or south (35), on the right side of or southward from (acc.; ii, 3, 31) S'Br. KtyS'r. MBh. &c. (with {kR}, to place or leave on the right BhP. v, 21, 8); ({ais}) instr. ind. to the right Kaus'. 77; [cf. Lith. {de4szine7} f. the right hand. "']

483

dakshiNaattaat.h = from the southern direction dakshiNaayanaM = when the sun passes on the southern side dakshiNe = in the southern direction dakshiNeshvara = Dakshineshvar, place near Calcutta danta* = m. (fr. &) = {da4t} RV. vi, 75, 11 AV. &c. (n. R. vi, 82, 28; ifc., {al} [Kaths. xxi Caurap.] or {I} [MBh. ix Mriicch. x, 13 VarBriS. Ghath.] Pn. 4-1, 55); the number 32 Ganit.; an elephant's tusk, ivory MBh. R. &c. [468, 3]; the point (of an arrow? {atharI4}) RV. iv, 6, 8; the peak or ridge of a mountain, Haravij. iv, 32 Dharmas'arm. vii, 32; an arbour S'is'. iv, 40; a pin used in playing a lute, Haravij. i, 9; ({i}) f. = {-tikA} Sus'r. VarBriS.; (in music) N. of a composition; cf. {ibhadantA}; {kuDmala-} and {krUra-a-dantI} &c. daNDa = a staff, also monetary punishment for wrong doing\\* = ( = $ -v, hence cognate with {d4ru} and {dRR}) m. (n. [cf. {ikSu-}] g. {ardharcA7di}) a stick, staff, rod, pole, cudgel, club RV. &c. (staff given at investiture with the sacred thread S'Br. &c.; `" penis [with {vaitasa4}] "', xi, 5, 1, 1; `" trunk "' see {zuNDA-}; `" arm "' or `" leg "' see {dor-}, {bAhu-}; `" tusk "' see {daMSTrA-}); = {-DakA7sana} BriNrP. xxxi, 115 (n.); a stalk, stem (of a tree; cf. {ikSu-},
484

{ud-}, {khara-}) MBh. ii, 2390; the staff of a banner, 2079; iv, xiv; the handle (of a ladle, sauce-pan, fly-flap, parasol &c.) AitBr. S'Br. &c.; the steam of a plough L.; `" a mast "' see {mahAdaNDa-dhara}; the cross-bar of a lute which holds the strings S'nkhS'r. xvii; the stick with which a lute is played L.; a churning-stick (cf. {DA7hata}) L.; a pole as a measure of length (= 4 Hastas) VarBriS.xxiv, 9 MrkP.il; N. of a measure of time (= 60 Vi-kals) BrahmaP. ii VarP. BhavP.; N. of a staff-like appearance in the sky (`" N. of a planet "' (L.; cf. {-bhAsa}) VarBriS.; N. of a constellation, xx, 2 VarBri. Laghuj.; a form of military array (cf. {-vyuha}) L.; a line (cf. {-pAta}); a staff or sceptre as a symbol of power and sovereignty (cf. {nyasta-}), application of power, violence Mn. vii f. MBh.; power over (gen. or in comp.), control, restraint (cf. {vAg-}, {mano-}, {kAya-} [{karma-} MrkP. xli, 22]; {tri-daNDin}) Subh.; embodied power, army ({koza-}, du `" treasure and army "' Mn. ix, 294 MBh. Kir. ii, 12) Mn. vii Ragh. xvii, 62; the rod as a symbol of judicial authority and punishment, punishment (corporal, verbal, and fiscal; chastisement and imprisonment, reprimand, fine) TndyaBr. xvii, 1 Mn. MBh. &c. (cf. {gupta4} & {gUDha-}) [466,3]; pride L.; m. a horse L.; Punishment (son of Dharma and Kriy VP. i, 7, 27 MrkP. l); Yama L.; S'iva MBh. xii, 10361; N. of an attendant of the Sun, iii, 198; (g. {zivA7di} and {zaunakA7di}) N. of a man with the patr. Aupara MaitrS. iii, 8, 7 TS. vi, 2, 9, 4; of a prince slain by Arjuna (brother of {-dhara}, identified
485

with the Asura Krodha-hantrii) MBh. if., viii; of a Rakshas R. vii, 5, 39; see {-oDaka}; ({A}) f. Hedysaruni lagopodioides, Npr dANDa* = 1 mf({I})n. relating to a stick or to punishment W.; m. patr. fr. {daNDa}, (g. {zivA7di}); ({A}) f. a partic. game with sticks Pn. 4-2, 57 Ks'.; n. the being a staff (g. {pRthv-Adi}); multitude of staffbearers, vi, 4, 164 Sch. daNDaM = stick(walking) daNDaasana = the staff posture daNDii = Dandii dala = leaf dalam.h = (n) flower petal Dam* = cl. 1. P. (p. {-mat}) to sound (as a drum) Prab. iii, 14. dam* =1 cl.4. {dAmyati} (Pn. 7-3, 74; ind. p. {dAntvA} and {damitvA}, 2, 56; aor. Pass. {adami}, 3, 34 Ks'.; P. {-mit} Bhathth. xv, 37) to be tamed or tranquillised S'Br. xiv, 8, 2, 2 (Impv. {dA4myata}); to tame, subdue, conquer MBh. vii, 2379 and BhP. iii, 3, 4 (ind. p. {damitvA}) Bhathth.: cl. 9. irreg. (? Subj. 2. sg.
486

{da4nas}) id. RV. i, 174, 2: Caus. {damayati} (p. {ma4yat}; . Pn. 1-3, 89) to subdue, overpower RV. vii, 6; x, 74, 5 AV.v, 20, 1 MBh. Rjat.; Desid. see {dAn}; [cf. $, $; Lat. {domare} &c.] dam* =2 a house RV. x, 46, 7 (gen. pl. {damAm}); {pa4tir da4n} (gen. sg.) = {da4m-patis}, 99, 6; 105, 2; i, 149, 1; 153, 4; {pa4ti da4n} = {da4m-patI}, 120, 6; {zi4zur da4n} `" a child of the house "', x, 61, 20; [cf. $ &c.] dama = self-control *= m. (or n.) house , home ($ , Lat. {domus}) RV. AV. vii (also %{puru-da4ma} q.v.) VS. viii , 24 ; mfn. ifc. `" taming , subduing "' see % {ariM-} , %{gaM-} %{baliM-} ; m. self-command , self-restraint , selfcontrol S3Br. xiv , 8 , 2 , 4 (%{ma4} , but cf. Pa1n2. 7-3 , 34 Ka1s3.) TUp. KenUp. Mn. &c. ; taming L. ; punishment , fine , viii f. Ya1jn5. ii , 4 BhP. ; N. of a brother of Damayanti1 Nal. i , 9 ; of a Maha-rshi MBh. xiii , 1762 ; of a son of Daksha , i Sch. ; of a grandson [or son BhP. ix , 2 , 29] of Marutta VP. iv , 1 , 20 Ma1rkP. cxxxiv Va1yuP. ; cf. %{dur-} , %{su-}. damaH = control of the senses damayataaM = of all means of suppression dambha = of pride* m. N. of a man Rjat. viii, 1135;
487

({A}) f. N. of a weapon Buddh. L. * m. deceit, fraud, feigning, hypocrisy Mn. iv, 163 MBh. &c.; Deceit (son of A-dharma and Mriish BhP.iv, 8, 2) Prab.ii; Indra's thunder bolt L.; S'iva; N. of a prince ({darbha} AgP.; {rambha} VP.) PadmaP. dambhaH = pride dambhena = out of pride daNDa* = ( = $ -v, hence cognate with {d4ru} and {dRR}) m. (n. [cf. {ikSu-}] g. {ardharcA7di}) a stick, staff, rod, pole, cudgel, club RV. &c. (staff given at investiture with the sacred thread S'Br. &c.; `" penis [with {vaitasa4}] "', xi, 5, 1, 1; `" trunk "' see {zuNDA-}; `" arm "' or `" leg "' see {dor-}, {bAhu-}; `" tusk "' see {daMSTrA-}); = {-DakA7sana} BriNrP. xxxi, 115 (n.); a stalk, stem (of a tree; cf. {ikSu-}, {ud-}, {khara-}) MBh. ii, 2390; the staff of a banner, 2079; iv, xiv; the handle (of a ladle, sauce-pan, fly-flap, parasol &c.) AitBr. S'Br. &c.; the steam of a plough L.; `" a mast "' see {mahAdaNDa-dhara}; the cross-bar of a lute which holds the strings S'nkhS'r. xvii; the stick with which a lute is played L.; a churning-stick (cf. {DA7hata}) L.; a pole as a measure of length (= 4 Hastas) VarBriS.xxiv, 9 MrkP.il; N. of a measure of time (= 60 Vi-kals) BrahmaP. ii VarP. BhavP.; N. of a staff-like appearance in the sky (`" N. of a planet "' (L.; cf. {-bhAsa}) VarBriS.; N. of a constellation, xx, 2
488

VarBri. Laghuj.; a form of military array (cf. {-vyuha}) L.; a line (cf. {-pAta}); a staff or sceptre as a symbol of power and sovereignty (cf. {nyasta-}), application of power, violence Mn. vii f. MBh.; power over (gen. or in comp.), control, restraint (cf. {vAg-}, {mano-}, {kAya-} [{karma-} MrkP. xli, 22]; {tri-daNDin}) Subh.; embodied power, army ({koza-}, du `" treasure and army "' Mn. ix, 294 MBh. Kir. ii, 12) Mn. vii Ragh. xvii, 62; the rod as a symbol of judicial authority and punishment, punishment (corporal, verbal, and fiscal; chastisement and imprisonment, reprimand, fine) TndyaBr. xvii, 1 Mn. MBh. &c. (cf. {gupta4} & {gUDha-}) [466,3]; pride L.; m. a horse L.; Punishment (son of Dharma and Kriy VP. i, 7, 27 MrkP. l); Yama L.; S'iva MBh. xii, 10361; N. of an attendant of the Sun, iii, 198; (g. {zivA7di} and {zaunakA7di}) N. of a man with the patr. Aupara MaitrS. iii, 8, 7 TS. vi, 2, 9, 4; of a prince slain by Arjuna (brother of {-dhara}, identified with the Asura Krodha-hantrii) MBh. if., viii; of a Rakshas R. vii, 5, 39; see {-oDaka}; ({A}) f. Hedysaruni lagopodioides, Npr danDadiipa = (m) tubelight danDayati = (10 up) to punish danta *= m. (fr. &) = %{da4t} RV. vi , 75 , 11 AV. &c. (n. R. vi , 82 , 28 ; ifc. , %{al} [Katha1s. xxi Caurap.] or %{I} [MBh. ix Mr2icch. x , 13 VarBr2S.
489

Ghat2.] Pa1n2. 4-1 , 55) ; the number 32 Gan2it. ; an elephant's tusk , ivory MBh. R. &c. [468,3] ; the point (of an arrow? %{atharI4}) RV. iv , 6 , 8 ; the peak or ridge of a mountain , Haravij. iv , 32 Dharmas3arm. vii , 32 ; an arbour S3is3. iv , 40 ; a pin used in playing a lute , Haravij. i , 9 ; (%{i}) f. = %{-tikA} Sus3r. VarBr2S. ; (in music) N. of a composition ; cf. %{ibha-dantA} ; % {kuDmala-} and %{krUra-a-dantI} &c. dantaH = (m) tooth dantapaalii = (f) gums dantacAla* = m. looseness of the teeth Sus'r.iv, 39. dantakAra* = m. an ivory worker R. ii. dantajAha* = n. the root of a tooth g. {karNA7di} dantapattra* = n. a kind of ear-ring dara* = (Pn. 3-3, 58) mfn. ( {dRR}) ifc., cleaving, breaking see {puraM-dara4}, {bhagaM-}; m. (g. {ardharcA7di}, {uJchA7du}) = {-rI} R. ii, 96, 4; a conch-shell BhP. i, vf., x Kramadp.; m. the navel Gal.; `" stream "' see {asRg-}; fear MBh. v, 4622; n. poison (v.l. {dhara}) L.; ({I}) f. a hole in the ground, cave MBh. R. Hariv. Kum. &c.; ({am}) ind. a little Bhartri. iii, 24.
490

darbha * = m. (2. {dRbh}) a tuft or bunch of grass (esp. of Kus'a grass; used for sacrificial purposes) RV. i, 191, 3 AV. &c.; N. of a grass (different from Kus'a and Ks'a Sus'r. i, 38; Saccharum cylindricum W.) Lalit. xvii, 89 Sus'r.; (Pn. 4-1, 102; g. {kurv-Adi} v.l.) N. of a man Pravar. ii, 3, 1 (s'vGri. Kty. &c.); `" of a prince "' see {dambha}. dari // daari *: splitting, opening, tearing asunder daridrataa = poverty; shortage darpa = pride (masc) darpaM = pride darpaH = arrogance darpaNa = Mirror darpaNaH = (m) mirror darbha = a sweet-smelling dried grass dars'a * = mfn. ( %{dris}) ifc. `" looking at, viewing "' see %{avasAna-}, %{Adinava-}, and %{vadhUdarza4}, %{tattva-}; `" showing "' see %{Atma-}; m. `" appearance "' see %{ca4dir-darza4}, %{dur-}, % {prity-}; (g. %{pacA7di}) the moon when just become
491

visible, day of new moon, halfmonthly sacrifice performed on that day AV.; (parox.) TS. TBr. & S3Br. ix Kaus3. A1s3vGr2. &c. (n. MBh. iii, 14206); (Day of) New Moon (son of Dha1tr2i BhP. vi, 18, 3; of Kr2ishn2a, x, 61, 14; N. of a Sa1dhya Va1yuP. ii, 5, 6); du. = %{pUrNamAsa4} TS. Sch. dars'ana = seeing * =darzana mf({I})n. showing. Pn. 52, 6; ifc. seeing, looking at (see {tulya-}, {deva-}, {sama-}.) Ragh. xi, 93; `" knowing see {dharma-}; exhibiting, teaching MBh. i, 583 BhP. v, 4, 11; n. seeing, observing, looking, noticing, observation, perception RV. i, 116, 23 S'Br. xiv S'nkhGri. v, 5 MBh. &c. [471, 1]; ocular perception Sus'r. iv, 27; the eyesight, vi, 17; inspection, examination Yj. 1, 328 Hariv. 5460; visiting Yj. i, 84 Kaths. iii, 8; audience, meeting (with gen. Cn.; instr. with or without {saha} Vet.; in comp. Ragh. xii, 60 S'ak. v, 5/6; vii, 25/26 Rjat. vi, 43; experiencing BhP. i, 8, 25; foreseeing Ragh. viii, 71; contemplating Mn. viii, 9 and 23; apprehension, judgment S'ak. iii, 6/7 discernment, understanding, intellect Mn. vi, 74 Yj. i, 8 Bhag. &c.; opinion Mlav. v, 13/14 Km. ii, 6; intention (cf. {pApa-}) R. i, 58, 18; view, doctrine, philosophical system (6 in number, viz. [Prva-] Mmns by Jaim. Uttara-Mmns by Bdar.; Nyya by Gotama Vais'eshika by Kana7da Snkhya by Kap.; Yoga by Pat.) MBh. xii, 11045 f. BhP. &c.; the eye Sus'r. v, 8 S'ak. iv, 6 Prab. iii, 10; the becoming visible or known,
492

presence s'vGri. iii, 7 Mn. ii, 101; iv Yj. i, 131; ii, 170 MBh. &c.; appearance (before the judge) Mn. viii, 158 Yj. ii, 53 Km.; the being mentioned (in any authoritative text) Kty. S'r. i, xxvi Lthy. vi, ix Bdar. i, s, 25 MBh. xiv, 2700; a vision, dream Hariv. 1285 Hit. iii, 0/1; ifc. appearance, aspect, semblance Mn. ii, 47 MBh. (Nal. ii, 3; xii, 18 and 44) R. Ragh. iii, 57; colour L.; showing (cf. {danta-}) Bhartri. ii, 26 Dhrtas. i, 35/11 a mirror L.; a sacrifice L.; = {dharma} L.; ({I}) f. Durg Hariv. 10238; N. of an insect Npr.; cf. {a-}, {su-}. darshanaM = sight, Darshan darshanakaankshiNaH = aspiring to see darshanaaya = for seeing darshaniiya = handsome darshanena = at the sight of darshaya = show darshayaamaasa = showed darshitaM = shown darshinaH = seers
493

darshibhiH = by the seers darvii = (f) serving spoon, ladle Dasa* = mfn. id. g. {tRNA7di}. dasa* = m. a demon, vi, 21, 11. das'a = (adj) ten* =1 ifc. for {-zA} ({ajpa-}, {udag-} &c.) \\=2 ifc. ({tri-}, {dvi-}, {nir-}) and in comp. for {zan} ({as}) f. pl. `" Decads "'N. of 10 Jain texts ({upA7saka-}. &c.) consisting of 10 chs. each. das'aa * =f. ( {daMz}?) the fringe of a garment, loose ends of any piece of cloth, skirt or hem KtyS'r. iv, 1, 17 ({UrNA}) Lthy. viii, 6, 22 Kaus'. S'nkhGri. ii, 12, 5 Mn. &c.; a wick Gobh. iv, 2, 32 ({kSauma-}) Kum. iv, 30 Bhartri. iii, i; state or condition of life, period of life (youth, manhood, &c.), condition, circumstances R. Pacat. Megh. &c.; the fate of men as depending on the position of the planets, aspect or position of the planets (at birth &c.) VarBriS. VarBri. Laghuj.; the mind L.; cf. {vastra-}; i. {daza}. dashati = (1 pp) to bite dashanavihiinaM = dashana+vihInaM, teeth+bereft dashanaantareshhu = between the teeth
494

dashamukhaantakaH = the finisher (destroyer) of the ten-faced one (rAvaNa) dasharatha = dasharatha's dasharathatanayaM = the son of dasharatha dasharathasyaitau = dasharathasya+etaau, dasharatha's+this pair dashaa = Planetary period or system of directions. Also means the actual Major planetary period itself. There are many of these the most used being vi.nshottarii or 120 year cycle system. Others are ashhTottari (108), Chatursheetisama (84), Dwadashottari (112), Dwisaptatisama (72), Panchottari (105), ShashhTisama (60), Shatatri.nshatsama (36), Shodashottari (116), Yogini (30). These are lunar based. Then there are Rashi (sign) based systems: chara, sthira, kaala chakra and kendraadi dashas etc dashaa.nsha = One of the varga-s or harmonic divisions of a sign. This is the 10th division dashaanana = Another name for Ravana dashaavataara = the ten avataara-s of Vishnu dashaikaM = eleven
495

dashhTa = bite dasyu* = m. ( {das}) enemy of the gods (e.g. {za4mbara}, {zu4SNa}, {cu4muri}, {dhu4ni}; all conquered by Indra, Agni, &c.), impious man (called {a-zraddha4}, {a-yajJa4}, {a4-yajyu}, {a4-pRnat}, {avrata4}, {anya-vrata}, {a-karma4n}), barbarian (called {a-nA4s}, or {an-A4s} `" ugly-faced "', {a4dhara}, inferior "', {a4-mAnuSa}, inhuman "'), robber (called {dhani4n}) RV. AV. &c.; any outcast or Hind who has become so by neglect of the essential rites Mn.; not accepted as a witness, viii, 66; cf. {traso4-} ({da4syave vR4ka} m. `" wolf to the Dasyu "'N. of a man RV. viii, 51; 55 f; {da4syave sa4has} n. violence to the DDasyu (N. of Turvti), i, 36, 18). dasyuhan* = m. (nom. {-hA4} instr. {-ghnA4})fn. destroying the Dasyus (Indra i, vi, viii [473,2]; Indra's gift, x, 47, 4; {manyu4}, 83, 3; {ma4nas}, iv, 16, 10); {ha4n-tama} mfn. (superl.) most destructive to the Dasyus, vi, 16, 15 and viii, 39, 8 (Agni); x, 170, 2 (Light) Hariv. (Buddha); cf. Pn. 8-2, 17 Ks'. da *=1 the 3rd cerebral consonant (pronounced like {d} in {drum} by slightly turning the tip of the tongue upwards [430,2]; and often in Bengal like a hard {r}).\\ *=2 m. a sound L.; a kind of drum W.; fear L.; submarine fire L.; Siva L.; ({A}) f. a Dkin L.; a basket &c. carried by a sling L. \\*=1 the 3rd and soft letter of
496

the 4th or dental class. \\*=2 mf({A})n. (1. {dA}) ifc. (Pn. 3-2, 3) giving, granting, offering, effecting, producing (e.g. {abhI7STa-}, `" giving any desired object "' Pacat. ii, 50; {gaja-vAji-vRddhi-}, `" promoting the welfare of elephants and horses "' VarBriS. xviii, 5) Mn. MBh. &c. (cf. {agni-}; {a-domada4}; {anna-}, {artha-}, {garbha-}, {janma-} &c.); m. n. a gift L.; ({A}) f. id. L. \\ *=3 mfn. ( {do}) ifc. see {anala-}, 2. {jIva-}; m. n. the act of cutting off L.; ({A}) f. id. L. \\ *=4 mfn. (4. {da-}) ifc. see {Rzya-da4}. \\*=5 = {da4t} cf. {a-panna-}, {panna-}; {So-Da}. \\ *=6 m. a mountain L.; n. a wife (derived fr. {da4m-patI}) L.; ({A}) f. heat, pain L dat * = m. (taking the form {da4nta} in the strong cases Pn. 6-1, 63) a tooth RV. (nom. {da4n}, x, 115, 2) AV. VS. S'Br. s'vGri. BhP.; often ifc. (Pn. 5-4, 141-145) see {a-} &c.; {a-dat-ka}; {dac-chada} [cf. $, Lat. {dens} &c.] dattaM = given dattvaa V= granted, promised, * resumption to give dattaan.h = things given daurbalyaM = weakness daurmanasya = despair
497

daur * = Vriiddhi of {dur} for {dus}. dauraatmya* = n. badheartedness, wickedness, depravity MBh. Kv. &c.; {-myaka} mfn. wicked, evil (deed) R. daur-ita4 * =n. mischief. harm S'Br. daur-gatya * =n. distress, misery, poverty MBh. &c. daur-gaha4 * = m. `" descendant of Dur-gaha "' patr. of Puru-kutsa (Naigh. `" horse "'). RV. iv, 42, 8. daur-jana * = mf({I})n. consisting of bad people (company) Nalac.; {-nya} n. wickedness, depravity [499, 2]; evil, wrong Hit. BhP.; ill-will, envy, S'rng P. daurbhikSa * =n. famine TndyaBr. Sch. daurmadya * =n. brawl, fight L. daur-mitri * =m. metron. fr. {dur-mitrA} (g. {bAhvAdi}). daur-mukhi * = m. patr. fr. {dur-mukha} MBh. vii, 7008 &c. daur-vAsa * = or mf({I})n. relating to Dur-vsas Madhus.

498

daur-vratya * = ({dau4r-}) n. disobedience, ill conduct VS. daur-hArda * = n. badness of mind, wickedness, enmity, g. {yuvA7di}. daur-hRda * = n. id. MBh. v, 751; m. villain Nlak.; morbid longing of pregnant women L. daurudhara * = mfn. (fr. {durudharA}) Var. daurezruta * = m. (fr. {dUre-zruta}) patr. of the serpentpriest Timirgha ib. daurgya * = n. difficulty, inaccessibility W. dauhitra = (m) grandson (daughter's son) dauhitri = (m) granddaughter (daughter's daughter) dautya * n. (fr. {dUta}) the state or function of a messenger, message, mission dava * = (see also daava). (2. {du}) a wood on fire BhP. viii, 6, 13; fire L. Sch.; burning, heat Car. i, 20; fever W.; a forest L.; cf. {dAva}. dayaa = mercy* = f. sympathy, compassion, pity for (loc. MBh. Pacat. Bhartri. &c. [470,1]; gen. R. Hariv.
499

8486; in comp. MBh. xiv Hit. i, 6, 41 ) S'Br. xiv &c. ({yAM} {kR}, `" to fake pity on "' [loc. MBh. Hit. i, 2, 7; gen. Vop.]); Pity (daughter of Daksha and mother of Abhaya BhP. iv, 1, 49 f.) Hariv. 14035; cf. {a-daya4}; {nir-}, and {sadaya}. dayaaluH = the kind-hearted dayita = dear *= mfn. cherished, beloved, dear MBh. R.; protected Bhat2t2. x, 9; m. a husband, lover S3ak. iii, 19/20 (v.l.); (%{A}) f. a wife, beloved woman Ragh. ii, 30 Megh. 4 Sis3. ix 70 Katha1s. Dhu1rtas. ii, 13. Dayate = to fly deha = body: * = m. n. ( {dih}, to plaster, mould, fashion) the body Tr. KtyS'r. Mn. &c.; (in a triad with {manas} and {vAc}) Mn. i, 104 &c.; ({-haMdhAraya}, to support the body i.e. exist Nal.); form, shape, mass, bulk (as of a cloud; ifc. f. {A}) Var.; per. son, individual Subh.; appearance, manifestation ifc. having the appearance of ({saMdeha-} Blar. iii, 43/44); N. of a country L.; ({I4}) f. mound, bank, rampart, surrounding wall RV. dehaM = body, existence dehatrayaH = the three forms of bodies (corporal or physical, astral and causal
500

dehabhrit.h = the embodied dehabhritaa = by the embodied dehabhritaaM = of the embodied dehali = doorstep dehavadbhiH = by the embodied dehaaH = material bodies dehaantara = of transference of the body dehaapaaye = when life departs the body dehin.h = man dehinaM = of the embodied dehinaaM = of the embodied dehii = the self dehiinaM = the living entity dehiinaH = of the embodied

501

dehe = in the body dehe.asmin.h = in this body deheshhu = bodies deva = God* = mf({i})n. (fr. 3. {div}) heavenly, divine (also said of terrestrial things of high excellence) RV. AV. VS. S'Br. (superl. m. {deva4-tama} RV. iv, 22, 3 &c.; f. {devi-tamA}, ii, 41, 16); m. (according to Pn. 33, 120 {de4va}) a deity, god RV. &c.&c.; (rarely applied to) evil demons AV. iii, 15, 5 TS. iii, 5, 4, 1; (pl. the gods as the heavenly or shining ones; {vi4zve devA4s}, all the gods RV. ii, 3, 4 &c., or a partic. class of deities [see under {vi4zva}], often reckoned as 33, either 11 for each of the 3 worlds RV. i, 139, 11 &c. [cf. {tri-daza}], or 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, and 12 dityas [to which the 2 As'vins must be added] Br.; cf. also DivyA7v. 68; with Jainas 4 classes, viz. {bhavanA7dhI7za}, {vyantara}, {jyotiSka}, and {vaimAnika}; {devA4nAm pa4tnyas}, the wives of the gods RV. VS. Br. [cf. {deva-patnI} below]) [492,3]; N. of the number 33 (see above) Ganit.; N. of Indra as the god of the sky and giver of rain MBh. R. &c.; a cloud L.; (with Jainas) the 22nd Arhat of the future Ut-sarpin; the image of a god, an idol Vishn.; a god on earth or among men, either Brhman, priest RV. AV. (cf. {bhUd-}), or king, prince (as a title of honour, esp. in the voc. `" your majesty "' or `" your honour "'; also ifc. e.g. {zrI502

harSa-d-}, {vikramA7Gka-d-}, king S'r-hharsha or VikrVikrama7nka, and in names as {puruSo7ttama-d-} [lit. having Vishnu as one's deity; cf. {atithi-d-}, {AcArya-d-}, {pitR-d-}, {mAtR-d-}]; rarely preceding the name e.g. {deva-caNDamahAsena} Kaths. xiii, 48) Kv. Pac. &c. (cf. {kSiti-}, {nara-}, &c.); a husband's brother (cf. {devR} and {devara}) W.; a fool, dolt L.; a child L.; a man following any partic. line or business L.; a spearman, lancer L.; emulation, wish to excel or overcome L.; sport, play L.; a sword Gal.; N. of men VP.; of a disciple of Nga7rjuna MWB. 192; dimin. for {devadatta} Pn. 5-3, 83 Vrtt.4 Sch.; (n. L.) an organ of sense MundUp. iii, 1, 8; 2, 7; ({A}) f. Hibiscus Mutabilis or Marsilia Quadrifolia; ({I4}), f. see s.v. [Cf. Lat. {dvus}, {deus}; Lit. {de14vas}; Old Pruss. {deiwas}.] devaaH = demigods devaalayaH = (m) temple devaan.h = demigods devaanaaM = of the demigods devaaya = Divine* = Nom. P., only p. {-ya4t} = {vaya4t}, Maitr. and KapS. Kthh. devabhogaan.h = the pleasures of the gods
503

devadevasya = of the Supreme Personality of Godhead devadatta = one of the vital airs, which causes yawning devadattaM = the conchshell named Devadatta devadaasii = God's (female) servant (word degenerated to a temple prostitute) devadeva = O Lord of all demigods devadevasyadevaH = (masc.nom.sing.) god; demi-god devahitaM = that which is healthy or `pro' or good for the Devas devaM = God devataa = goddess devataaH = the demigods devarshiH = the sage among the demigods devarshiiNaaM = of all the sages amongst the demigods devarishi* = m. `" a Riishi among the gods "'N. of Nrada, 16, 1 (cf. {-varSi}).
504

devarshi* = m. ({deva} + {RSi}) a Riishi, a saint of the celestial class, as Nrada, Atri &c. MBh. (xiv, 781 {sapta saptarSayaH} for {ssapta devarS-}) R. Pur. &c. (cf. {brahmarSi} and {rAjarSi}); N. of S'iva MBh. xiii, 1259; {-carita} n. the deeds of ddivine sages MBh. xii, 7663; {-tva} n. state or rank of a ddivine ssages BhP. i, 3, 8; {pitR-vallabha} m. sesamum Gal.; {-varya} m. chief of sages MW. devalaH = Devala devala* = 1 m. an attendant upon an idol (who subsists on the offerings made to it; oftener {-laka} Mn. iii, 152; 180 MBh.); a virtuous or pious man Un. i, 108 Sch.; N. of a descendant of Kas'yapa and one of the authors of RV. ix; of Asita or a son of AAsita MBh. Pur.; of a man mentioned with AAsita, Prav.; of an astronomer Var.; of a legislator (also, {-bhaTTa}) Madhus. Kull.; of a son of Pratysha MBh. Hariv.; of an elder brother of Dhaumya MBh.; of the husband of Eka-parn Hariv.; of the father of Sannati (the wife of Brahma-datta) ib.; of the grandfather of Pn. Col.; of a son of Vis'v-mitra (pl. his descendants) Hariv.; of a son of Kriis's'va by Dhishan BhP. devanAgarii* = f. `" divine city writing "'N. of the character in which Sanskriit is usually written (prob. from its having originated in some city) Col. MWB. 66, 1.
505

devavara = O great one amongst the demigods devavrataaH = worshipers of demigods devayajaH = the worshipers of the demigods devayaa* = mfn. going to the gods, longing for them RV. devaya* = Nom. P., only p., {-ya4t}, loving or serving the gods, religious RV. (cf. {a4-}); divine or shining (?) BhP. iii, 20, 22. devi = Goddess devii = Goddess * = f. (cf. {deva4}) a female deity, goddess RV. AitBr. MBh. &c. (e.g. Ushas RV. vii, 75, 5; Sarasvat, v, 41, 17; Svitr, the wife of Brahm MBh.; Durg, the wife of S'iva MBh. Hariv. Kv. &c.; the 4 goddesses of Buddhists are Rocan, Mmaki, Pndur and Tr Dharmas. iv); N. of nymph beloved by the Sun L.; of an Apsaras MBh. i, 4818; (with Jainas) the mother of 18th Arhat of present Ava-sarpin L.; queen, princess lady (the consecrated wife or daughter of a king, but also any woman of high rank) MBh. Kv. &c.; a kind of bird (= {zyAmA}) L.; a partic. supernatural power (= {kuNDalinI}) Cat.; worship, reverence W.; N. of plants (colocynth, a species of cyperus, Medicago Esculenta &c.) L
506

devesha = O Lord of all lords deveshhu = amongst the demigodsdava *= a wood on fire B; fire; burning, heat = (water) deyaM = is to be given deyam.h = to be given desha = country deshe = land dhaa * = 1 cl. 3. P. . {da4dhAti}, {dhatte4} RV. &c. &c. (P. du. {dadhva4s}, {dhattha4s}, {dhatta4s} [Pn. 8-2, 38]; pl. {dadhma4si} or {-ma4s}, {dhattha4}, {dAdhati}; impf. {a4dadhAt} pl. {-dhur}, 2. pl. {a4dhatta} or {a4dadhAta} RV. vii, 33, 4; Subj. {da4dhat} or {-dhAt} [Pn. 7-3, 70 Ks'.], {-dhas}, {dhatas}, {-dhan}; Pot. {dadhyA4t}; Impv. {dAdhAtu} pl. {-dhatu}; 2. sg. {dhehi4} [fr. {dhaddhi}; cf. Pn. 6-4, 119] or {dhattAt} RV. iii, 8, 1; 2. pl. {dhatta4}, i, 64, 15, {dhattana}, i, 20, 7, {da4dhAta}, vii, 32, 13, or {tana}, x, 36, 13 [cf. Pn. 7-1, 45 Sch.]; p. {da4dhat}, {ti} m. pl. {-tas}; . 1. sg. {dadhe4} [at once 3. sg. = {dhatte4} RV. i, 149, 5 &c. and= pf..], 2. sg. {dha4tse}, viii, 85, 5 or {dhatse4} AV. v, 7, 2; 2. 3. du. {dadhA4the}, {-dhA4te}; 2. pl. {-dhidhve4} [cf. pf.]; 3. pl. {da4dhate} RV. v, 41, 2; impf. {a4dhatta}, {-tthAs};
507

Subj. {da4dhase}, viii, 32, 6 [Pn. 3-4, 96 Ks'.]; Pot. {da4dhIta} RV. i, 40, 2 or {dadhIta4}, v, 66, 1; Impv. 2. sg. {dhatsva}, x, 87, 2 or {dadhiSva}, iii, 40, 5 &c.; 2. pl. {dhaddhvam} [Pn. 8-2, 38 Ks'.] or {dadhidhvam} RV. vii, 34, 10, &c.; 3. pl. {dadhatAm} AV. viii, 8, 3; p. {da4dhAna}); rarely cl. 1. P. . {dadhati}, {-te} RV. MBh.; only thrice cl. 2. P. {dhA4ti} RV.; and once cl. 4. . Pot. {dhAyeta} MaitrUp. (pf.P. {dadhau4}, {dhA4tha}, {-dhatur}, {-dhimA84}, {-dhur} RV. &c.; . {dadhe4} [cf. pr.], {dadhiSe4} or {dhiSe} RV. i, 56, 6; 2. 3. du. {dadhA4the}, {-dhA4te}, 2. pl. {dadhidhve4} [cf. pr.]; 3. pl. {dadhire4}, {dadhre}, x, 82, 5; 6, or {dhire}, i, 166, 10 &c.; p. {da4dhAna} [cf. pr.]; aor. P. {a4dhAt}, {dhA4t}, {dhA4s}; {adhu4r}, {dhu4r} RV. &c.; Pot. {dheyAm}, {-yur}; {dhetana} RV. TBr.; 2. sg. {dhAyIs} RV. i, 147, 5; Impv. {dhA4tu} [cf. Pn. 6-i, 8 Vrtt. 3 Pat.]; 2. pl. {dhA4ta} or {-tana}, 3. pl. {dhAntu} RV.; . {adhita}, {-thAs}, {adhItAm}, {adhImahi}, {dhImahi}, {dhimahe}, {dhAmahe} RV.; 3. sg. {ahita}, {hita} AV. Tr.; Subj. {dhe4the} RV. i, 158, 2, {dhaithe}, vi, 67, 7; Impv. {dhiSvA84}, ii, 11, 18, &c.; P. {adhat} SV.; {dhat} RV.; P. {dhAsur} Subj. {-sathas} and {-satha} RV.; . {adhiSi}, {-Sata} Br.; Pot. {dhiSIya} ib. [P. vii, 4, 45]; {dheSIya} MaitrS.; fut. {dhAsyati}, {-te} or {dhAtA} Br. &c.; inf. {dhA4tum} Br. &c.; Ved. also {-tave}, {-tavai4}, {-tos}; {dhiya4dhyai} RV.; Class. also {-dhitum}; ind. P. {dhitvA4} Br.; {hitvA} [Pn. 7-4, 42], {-dhA4ya} and {-dhA4m} AV.: Pass. {dhIya4te} RV. &c. [Pn. 6-4,
508

66], p. {dhIya4mAna} RV. i, 155, 2 [513, 3]; aor. {a4dhAyi}, {dhA4yi} RV. [Pn. 7-3, 33 Ks'.]; Prec. {dhAsISTa} or {dhAyiSISTa} [vi, 4, 62]) to put, place, set, lay in or on (loc.) RV. &c. &c. (with {daNDam}, to inflict punishment on [with loc. MBh. v, 1075, with gen. R. v, 28, 7]; with {tat-padavyAm padam}, to put one's foot in another's footstep i.e. imitate, equal Kvya7d. ii. 64); to take or bring or help to (loc. or dat.; with {Are4}, to remove) RV. AV. S'Br.; (.) to direct or fix the mind or attention ({cintAm}, {manas}, {matim}, {samAdhim} &c.) upon, think of (loc. or dat.), fix or resolve upon (loc. dat. acc. with {prati} or a sentence closed with {iti}) RV. Mn. MBh. Kv. BhP.; to destine for, bestow on, present or impart to (loc. dat. or gen.) RV. Br. MBh. &c. (Pass. to be given or granted, fall to one's [dat.] lot or share RV. i, 81, 3); to appoint, establish, constitute RV. S'Br.; to render (with double acc.) RV. vii, 31, 12 Bhartri. iii. 82; to make, produce, generate, create, cause, effect, perform, execute RV. TBr. S'vetUp. &c. (aor. with {pUrayAm}, {mantrayAm}, {varayAm} &c. = {pUrayAm} &c. {cakAra}); to seize, take hold of, hold, bear, support, wear, put on (clothes) RV. AV. Kv. BhP. &c.; (.) to accept, obtain, conceive (esp. in the womb), get, take (with {o4kas} or {ca4nas}, to take pleasure or delight in [loc. or dat.]) RV. AV. Br.; to assume, have, possess, show, exhibit, incur, undergo RV. Hariv. Kv. Hit.etc.: Caus. {-dhApayati} Pn. 7-3, 36 (see {antar-dhA}, {zrad-dhA} &c.): Desid. {dhi4tsati}, {-te} (Pn. 7-4,
509

54), to wish to put in or lay on (loc.) RV. AitBr. (Class. Pass. {dhitsyate}; {dhitsya} see s.v.); {di4dhiSati}, {te}, to wish to give or present RV.; (.) to wish to gain, strive after (p. {di4dhiSANa}, x, 114, 1) ib.: with {avadya4m}, to bid defiance ib. iv, 18, 7 (cf. {didhiSA4yya}, {didhiSu4}): Intens. {dedhIyate} Pn. 6-4, 66. [Cf. Zd. {d}, {dadaiti}; Gk. $; &158945[513, 3] Lith. {dedu4}, {de4ti}; Slav. {dedja}, {diti}; Old Sax. {duan}, {do7n}, Angl. Sax. {do7n}, Engl. {do}; Germ. {tuan}; {tuon}, {thun}.] dhaanya = grain dhaa4na * = mfn. containing, holding (cf. {uda-}); n. receptacle, case, seat (cf. {agni-}, {kSura-}, {rajju-} &c.; {-nam akto4s} prob. = womb or bosom of the night RV. iii, 7, 6); ({I}) f. = n. (cf. {aGgAra-}, {gopAla-}, {rAja-} &c.); the site of a habitation L.; coriander L.; N. of a river L.; ({A4}) f. see s.v. dhaanaaq4 * = f. corn, grain (originally the grains of seed from their being `" laid "' into and `" conceived "' by the earth cf. 1. {dhA}, but usually = fried barley or rice or any grain fried and reduced to powder) RV. &c. &c.; coriander L.; bud, shoot L. dhaama = one who has the abode dhaaman.h = (n) lustre
510

dhaaraNa* = mf({I})n. holding, bearing, keeping (in remembrance), retention, preserving, protecting, maintaining, possessing, having (ifc. or with gen.) Tr. MBh. Sus'r.: BhP.; assuming the shape of (gen.), resembling MBh.xiii, 739; m. N. of S'iva MBh.; of a son of Kas'yapa ib.; of a prince of the Candravatsas ib.; du. the two female breasts L.; ({dhA4raNa}) n. the act of holding, bearing &c. S'Br. Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; wearing (see {liGga-}); suffering, enduring R.; keeping in remembrance, memory Tr. Mn. MBh. Hariv.: immovable concentration of the mind upon (loc.) Veda7ntas.; restraining (cf. {zvAsa-}); keeping back i.e. pronouncing imperfectly Prt.; ({A} and {I}) f. see {dhAraNA} and {-NI}. dhaaraNaa* = f. (cf. {-Na}, col. 1) the act of holding, bearing, wearing, supporting, maintaining MBh. R.; retaining, keeping back (also in remembrance), a good memory KathhUp. GriS. MBh. BhP.; collection or concentration of the mind (joined with the retention of breath) Mn. MBh. Sus'r. Kv. Pur. &c.; cf. MWB. 239 ({-NAM-dhR}, to exercise concentration Yj.; {-NAM gataH}, having composed one's self R.); understanding, intellect Yj. iii, 73; firmness, steadfastness, righteousness L.; fixed preceptor settled rule, certainty Mn. MBh.; pl. the 8th to the 11th day in the light half of month Jyaishthha Var. dhaataa = supporter
511

dhaataaraM = the maintainer dhaataaram.h = the creator dhaatu = verb dhaatu * = 1 m. layer, stratum KtyS'r. Kaus'.; constituent part, ingredient (esp. [and in RV. only] ifc., where often= `" fold "' e.g. {tri-dhA4tu}, threefold &c.; cf. {triviSTi-}, {sapta-}, {su-}) RV. TS. S'Br. &c.; element, primitive matter (= {mahA-bhUta} L.) MBh. Hariv. &c. (usually reckoned as 5, viz. {kha} or {AkAza}, {anila}, {tejas}, {jala}, {bhU}; to which is added {brahma} Yj. iii, 145; or {vijJAna} Buddh.); a constituent element or essential ingredient of the body (distinct from the 5 mentioned above and conceived either as 3 humours [called also {doSa}] phlegm, wind and bile BhP. [cf. {purISa}, {mAMsa}, {manas}, ChndUp. vi, 5, 1]; or as the 5 organs of sense, {indriyANi}.[cf. s.v. and MBh. xii, 6842, where {zrotra}, {ghrANa}, {Asya}, {hRdaya} and {koSTha} are mentioned as the 5 dhdhtu of the human body born from the either] and the 5 properties of the elements perceived by them, {gandha}, {rasa}, {rUpa}, {sparza} and {zabda} L.; or the 7 fluids or secretions, chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, semen Sus'r. [L. {rasA7di} or {rasa-raktA7di}, of which sometimes 10 are given, the above 7 and hair, skin, sinews BhP.]); primary element of the earth i.e. metal, mineral, are
512

(esp. a mineral of a red colour) Mn. MBh. &c. element of words i.e. grammatical or verbal root or stem Nir. Prt. MBh. &c. (with the southern Buddhists {dhAtu} means either the 6 elements [see above] Dharmas. xxv; or the 18 elementary spheres [{dhAtu-loka}] ib. lviii; or the ashes of the body, relics L. [cf. {-garbha}]). \\2 mfn. ( {dhe}) to be sucked in or drunk ({havis}) RV. v, 44, 3 f. = {dhenu}, milch cow Lthy. vii, 5, 9. \\3 n. (with {rauhiNa}) N. of a Sman rshBr. dhaatrii = (f) nurse dhaatrI* = f. `" female supporter "', a nurse MBh. Kv. &c.; midwife Hit. iv, 61; mother Yj. iii, 82; the earth Var. MBh. Hariv. &c.; Emblica Officinalis Var. Sus'r. (some derive it fr. {dhe} cf. {dhAyas} and Pn. 3-2, 181). [514,2] dhaatra* = 1 n. receptacle, vessel L. \\2 mf({I})n. belonging to Dhtrii S'Br. dhaaraNaa = concentration dhaarayate = one sustains dhaarayan.h = considering dhaarayaami = sustain

513

dhaaraa = (fem) rain dhaariNi = wearer dhaartaraashhTrasya = for the son of Dhritarashtra dhaartaraashhTraaH = the sons of Dhritarashtra dhaartaraashhTraaNaaM = of the sons of Dhritarashtra dhaartaraashhTraan.h = the sons of Dhritarashtra dhaarma* = 1 mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{dharma}) relating to justice or virtue S3Br.; belonging to Dharma (god of justice) MBh.\\Vr2iddhi form of %{dharma} in comp. dhaarmiNa* = n. an assemblage of virtuous men g. {bhikSA7di} (iv, 2, 38). dhaarmika* = mf({I})n. righteous, virtuous, pious, just Up. Mn. MBh. &c.; resting on right, conformable to justice (mind, words &c.) R.; m. judge L.; a bigot Kd.; juggler Ratn.; a Bodhi-sattva L. dhaarmikam.h = the religious one dhaaryate = is utilized or exploited dhaava* = mfn. washing, cleansing (ifc.; cf. {asi-},
514

{caila-}); m. see {danta-}. dhaav.h = to run dhairya = courage dhamana *V = dispeller, subduer * dhamana blowing with a bellows L.; blowing i. e. scaring away (cf. {mAyA-}); cruel L.; m. reed Bhpr. [510, 1]; Azadirachta Indica L.; m. or n. a partic. high number Buddh.; n. melting (of ore). dhamani = a layer within a nadi allowing for the passage of energy dhana = money * = n. the prize of a contest or the contest itself (lit. a running match, race, or the thing raced for; {hita4M} {dhA7nam}, a proposed prize or contest; {dhanaM-ji}, to win the pprize or the fight) RV.; booty, prey ({dhanam-bhR} ., to carry off the prize or booty) RV. AV.; any valued object, (esp.) wealth, riches, (movable) property, money, treasure, gift RV. &c. &c.; capital (opp. to {vRddhi} interest) Yj. ii, 58; = {go-dhana} Hariv. 3886; (arithm.) the affirmative quantity or plus (opp. to {RNa}, {kSaya}, {vyaya}, {hAni}); N. of the 2nd mansion Var.; m. N. of a merchant HParis'. Sinha7s. dhanaM = wealth
515

dhanakaaraka = Significator for Wealth which is Jupiter dhanaJNjaya = O conqueror of wealth dhanaJNjayaH = Dhananjaya (Arjuna, the winner of wealth) dhanapati = kubera (Lord of the wealth) dhanabhaava = Second house ruling over Wealth dhanamaana = of wealth and false prestige dhanayoga = The 2nd, 5th, 9th and 11th are Wealth producing houses. Any inter-relation of their lords, by way of position aspect or conjunction, will produce money. The more strongly they are inter-related, the more wealth is promised in the birth chart, which the native will get eventually in the related major or subperiods dhanaani = wealth dhanishhThaa = Twenty-third nakshatra dhanu = The Zodiacal sign Sagittarius dhanuH = (m) a bow

516

dhanuraasana = the bow posture dhanurdharaH = the carrier of the bow and arrow dhanushha = The Zodiacal sign Sagittarius dhanushhaM = bow dhanushhaa = thro'bow dhanvan * n. a bow RV. &c. (esp. ifc.; cf. {asthi-}, {ugra-}, {kSipra-} &c., and Pn. 5-4, 132 &c. Vm. v, 2, 67); rain-bow MnGri. i, 4; the sign of the zodiac Sagittarius Jyot.; (also m.) dry soil, shore ({samudasya}; cf. {dhanu}); a desert, a waste RV. &c. &c.; m. Alhagi Maurorum L.; N. of a country. BhP. (Cf. {dhanu}, {nus}.) dhanyaH = are praiseworthy dhara* = mf({A})n. ( {dhR}) bearing, supporting (scil. the world, said of Kriishna and S'iva) MBh.; ifc. holding, bearing, carrying, wearing, possessing, having, keeping (also in memory), sustaining, preserving, observing (cf. {aMzu-}, {akSa-}, {kulaM-} &c.) MBh. R. &c.; m. a mountain Kir. xv, 12 (cf. {kSiti-}, {bhU-} &c.); a flock of cotton L.; a frivolous or dissolute man (= {viTa}) L.; a sword Gal.; N. of a Vasu MBh.; of a follower of the Pndavas ib. of the king of the tortoises
517

L.; of the father of Padma-prabha (6th Arhat of pres. Ava-sarpin) L.; ({A}) f. `" bearer, supporter "', the earth Mn. MBh. Kv. &c.; the uterus or womb Bhpr.; a vein or tubular vessel of the body L.; marrow L.; a mass of gold or heap of valuables (representing the earth and given to Brhmans) W.; one of the 8 forms of Sarasvat id.; N. of one of the wives of Kas'yapa (mother of the land and water-birds, prob. = the Earth) Hariv. 232 (v.l. {irA}); n. poison L. (v.l. {dara}) daambhika * = mf(%{I})n. id.; m. a cheat, hypocrite Mn. MBh. Hariv.; Ardea Nivea L. (cf. %{baka}). dhaara * = 1 mf({I})n. ( {dhR}) holding, supporting, containing (ifc.; cf. {karNa-}, {chattra-}, {tulA-} &c.); m. N. of Vishnu L.; debt L. dhaara * = 2 m. or n. (1. {dhAv}) stream, gush (cf. {taila-} [add.] and {toya-}); mfn. coming down in a stream or as rain Sus'r. Bhpr. dhaa4raa * = 1 f. stream or current of water; (cf. {tri-}, {dvi-}, {zata-}, {sahasra-}), flood, gush, jet, drop (of any liquid), shower, rain (also fig. of arrows, flowers, &c.; {va4sor dh-}, `" source of goodN. of a partic. libation to Agni AV. S'Br. MBh.; of a sacred bathingplace MBh.; of Agni's wife BhP.); a leak or hole in a pitcher &c. L.; the pace of horse S'is'. v, 60 (5 enumerated, viz. {dhorita}, {valgita}, {pluta}, {ut518

tejita}, {ut-te7rita}, or {A-skandita}, {recita} for the two latter L.; with {paramA}, the quickest pace Kaths. xxxi, 39); uniformity, sameness (as of flowing water?) L.; custom, usage W.; continuous line or series (cf. {vana-}); fig. line of a family L.; N. of a sacred bathingplace (also with {mAhezvarI} cf. above) MBh.; of a town (the residence of Bhoja) Cat. dhaara * = 3 m. a sort of stone L.; edge. boundary L. (cf. 2. {dhArA}); deep place, depth W. (to 1. {dhAra}?). dhaa4raa * = 2 f. (2. {dhAv}) margin, sharp edge, rim, blade (esp. of a sword, knife, &c.; fig. applied to the flame of fire) RV. S'Br. MBh. Kv. &c.; the edge of a mountain L.; the rim of a wheel Ragh. xiii, 15; the fence or hedge of a garden L.; the van of an army L.; the tip of the ear L.; highest point, summit (cf. {-rA7dhirUDha}) glory, excellence L.; night L.; turmeric L. dhaaraya * = mfn. holding , bearing &c. (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 138) ; owing a sum (gen.) to (dat.) L. dhaaraaya * = Nom. A1. %{-yate} , to be like a stream Amar. 20 Sch. dhaarayadvat * = mfn. possessing the quality of sustaining or supporting (A1dityas) TS. dhak 1 nom. fr. %{dagh} or %{dah} (cf. %{dakSiNa519

dagh} and %{uza4-dah}).//2 an exclamation of wrath Uttarar. iv, 23. dhAka * = m. an ox Un2. iii, 40 Sch.; a receptacle (= % {AdhAra}; v.l. %{AhAra}, food) ib.; a post L.; (%{A}) f. Pa1n2. 7-4, 13 Va1rtt. 1 Pat. [cf. $]. dhara = earth dharaM = wearing dharaNa * = mf({I})n. bearing, supporting VS. Tr.; m. a dike or bank L.; the world L.; the sun L.; the female breast L.; rice-corn L.; N. of a king of the Ngas S'atr.; m. or n. a sort of weight variously reckoned as= 10 Palas, = 16 silver Mshakas, = 1 silver Purna, = 1/10 S'atamna, = 19 Nishpva, = 2/5 Karsha, = 1/10 Pala, = 24Raktik Mn. Yj. Sus'r. Var. &c.; n. the act of bearing, holding, &c. Kv.; bringing, procuring (cf. {kAma-}); support, prop, stay (cf. {pRtkivI-}, {savana}.); a partic. high number Buddh. (cf. {dhamana}, {dhamara}); ({I}) f. see s.v. dharaNi = earth dharati = to wear dharayet.h = bears

520

dharitri = earth dhartaa.asi = are the bearer or support dharma = religion * = 1 m. (rarely n. g. % {ardharcA7di}; the older form of the RV. is % {dha4rman} q.v.) that which is established or firm, steadfast decree, statute, ordinance, law; usage, practice, customary observance or prescribed conduct, duty; right, justice (often as a synonym of punishment); virtue, morality, religion, religious merit, good works (%{dha4rmeNa} or %{-mAt} ind. according to right or rule, rightly, justly, according to the nature of anything; cf. below; %{mesthita} mfn. holding to the law, doing one's duty) AV. &c. &c.; Law or Justice personified (as Indra S3Br. &c.; as Yama MBh.; as born from the right breast of Yama and father of S3ama, Ka1ma and Harsha ib.; as Vishn2u Hariv.; as Praja1-pati and son-in-law of Daksha Hariv. Mn. &c.; as one of the attendants of the Sun L.; as a Bull Mn. viii, 16; as a Dove Katha1s. vii, 89, &c.); the law or doctrine of Buddhism (as distinguished from the %{saJgha} or monastic order MWB. 70); the ethical precepts of Buddhism (or the principal %{dharma} called %{sUsra}, as distinguished from the %{abhi-dharma} or, further dharma and from the %{vinaya} or `" discipline, these three constituting the canon of Southern BBuddhism MWB. 61); the law of Northern BBuddhism (in 9 canonical scriptures, viz. Prajn5a1-pa1ramita1, Gan2d2a-vyu1ha, Das3a521

bhu1mi7s3vara, Samadhira1ja, Lan3ka7vata1ra, Saddharma-pun2d2arika, Tathagata-guhyaka, Lalitavistara, Suvarn2a-prabha1sa,ib. 69); nature, character, peculiar condition or essential quality, property, mark, peculiarity (= %{sva-bhAva} L.; cf. %{daza-dh--gata} S3Br. &c. &c.; %{upamAno7pameyayor@dh-}, the tertium comparationis Pa1n2. 2-1, 55 Sch.); a partic. ceremony MBh. xiv, 2623; sacrifice L.; the ninth mansion Var.; an Upanishad L.; associating with the virtuous L.; religious abstraction, devotion L.; = % {upamA} L. (cf. above); a bow Dharmas3.; a Somadrinker L.; N. of the 15th Arhat of the present Avasarpin2i1 L.; of a son of Anu and father of Ghr2ita Hariv.; of a sson of Ga1ndha1ra and ffather of Dhr2ita Pur.; of a sson of Haihaya and ffather of Netra BhP.; of a sson of Pr2ithu-s3ravas and of Us3anas ib.; of a sson of Su-vrata VP. (cf. %{dharmasUtra}); of a sson of Di1rgha-tapas, Va1yup.; of a king of Kas3mi1ra, Ra1j. iv, 678; of another man ib. vii, 85; of a lexicographer &c. (also %{-paNDita}, %{-bhaTTa} and %{-zAstrin}) Cat. [Cf. Lat. {firmus}, Lith. {derme4}.]\\ 2 Nom. P. %{-mati}, to become, law Vop.\\3 in comp. for %{-man} q.v. 2.\\ see p. 510, col. 3. dharmadeva * = m. the god of justice MBh. dharmaM = doctrines

522

dharman* = m. bearer, supporter, arranger RV.; N. of a son of Br2ihad-ra1ja and father of Kr2itam2-jaya VP.; (%{dhA7rman}) n. (older than %{dha4rma} q.v., in later language mostly ifc.; cf. below) support, prop, hold RV. VS.; established order of things, steadfast decree (of a god, esp. of Mitra-Varun2a), any arrangement or disposition; will, pleasure; law, rule, duty; practice, custom, mode, manner (%{dha4rmaNA}, %{-mabhis}; %{-maNas@pa4ri} in regular order, naturally; % {svAya@dhar@maNe} at one's own pleasure; % {dharmaNi} with the permission of, %{a4dhi@dh-} against the will of [gen.]) RV. AV. VS.; (esp. ifc.) nature, quality, characteristic mark or attribute S3Br. (cf. %{an-ucchitti-}) MBh. (cf. %{uJcha-} [add.], % {kSatra-}, %{phala-}, %{phena}.) Var. (cf. %{dasyu-} [add.]) Kap. (cf. %{cid-dh-} [add.]) Ka1v. (cf. % {vinAza-}.). dharmaH = (masc.nom.sing.)(roughly)religion; lifecode; way of good living;duty dharmapatnii = respectable address for wife, wife from prescribed vedic rituals dharmaruci * = mfn. delighting in or devoted to virtue A1past.; m. N. of a Da1nava Katha1s.; of a god of the Bodhi tree Lalit.; of a man Buddh. dharmasaadhanaM = the means for doing one's duty
523

dharmasya = occupation dharmakshetre = in the place of pilgrimage dharmaatmaa = righteous dharmaarthaM = For the sake of dharma dharmaaviruddhaH = not against religious principles dharme = religion dharmeNahiinaaH = bereft of dharma or duty dharmin* = mfn. knowing or obeying the law, faithful to duty, virtuous, pious, just Gaut. MBh. R.; endowed with any characteristic mark or peculiar property Hariv. Kvya7d. (cf. below) Sh.; (ifc.) following the laws or duties of, having the rights or attributes or peculiarities of. having anything as a characteristic mark, subject to any state or condition Mn. MBh. Kv. Pur. &c.; m. the bearer of any characteristic mark or attribute, object, thing Kap.; N. of the 14th Vysa, DevbhP.; of a king VP.; (in) f. a kind of perfume L.; N. of a woman (cf. {dhArmiNeya}). dharmitA* = f. the being endowed with any chcharacteristic mmark or aattribute (ifc.) Sarvad.; {-tA7va-} {ccheda} m. {-tA7vacchedakatA-vAda} and
524

{-vAdA7rtha}, m. {-tA7vacchedaka-pratyAsatti} f. {tti-nirUpaNa} n. {-tA7vacchedaka-rahasya} n. {tA7vacchedaka-vAda} m. N. of wks. [513, 1] dharmitva* = n. virtuousness, justice, faithfulness to duty Km.; (ifc.) the being obliged to Gaut.; the being endowed with or obnoxious to Sus'r. Kv. Pur. dharmiSTha* = mfn. (superl.) very virtuous or righteous, completely lawful or legal Mn. MBh. Kv. &c. dharmIyas* = mfn. (compar.) more virtuous &c.; very pious or moral &c. W. dharmika* = w.r. for {dhArmika}. dharmya * = mfn. legal, legitimate; usual, customary Mn. MBh. Ka1v. &c.; just, virtuous, righteous Mr2icch. ix, 5; endowed with qualities or properties, `" propertied "' Kat2hUp. ii, 13 (cf. %{tad-}); suitable to (gen.) Pa1n2. 4-4, 47; N. of a man(cf %{-dhArmyAyaNa}); n. a customary donation, vi, 2, 65. dharmyaM = as a religious duty dharmyaaNi = religious (used in plural ) dharmyaat.h = for religious principles
525

dharmvirahiita = adj. irreligious dharsha* n= m. ( {dhRS}) boldness, insolence, arrogance MBh. i, 7040 (cf. {dur-}); impatience W.; paralysing, rendering weak or impotent ib.; violation (of a woman) ib.; injury, wrong, insult; restraint ib.; a eunuch ib. (cf. below). dharshita* = mfn. overpowered, violated, illtreated MBh. Hariv. Pur.; n. contumely, insolence W.; copulation ib.; ({A}) f. an unchaste woman L. dhasaJNjaya = a vital air that stays in the body after death dhatta [dhaTa] * = m. (prob. fr. {dhri} like {bhaTa} fr. {bhR}) a balance or the scale of a bbalance Hcat. (cf. {tulA-}); ordeal by the bbalance Mit.; the sign of the zodiac Libra Jyot.; ({I}) f. old cloth or raiment; a piece of cloth worn over the privities L. dhatu = element dhatte V* accepts; SB 1.2.23\\ is manifested; SB 1.10.25\\ eternally accepts; SB 1.15.35\\ take place; SB 1.19.14\\accepts; SB 2.10.36\\ executes; SB 3.5.13\\ He assumes; SB 3.17.31\\she inflicts; SB 3.27.24\\ has taken; SB 4.8.26\\accept; SB 5.1.13\\gives; SB 6.1.51\\ possesses; SB 6.8.32-33\\ accepts; SB 7.2.22\\ he
526

assumes; SB 7.14.41\\ one possesses; SB 7.15.45\\He performs; SB 8.1.13\\He accepts; SB 8.5.22\\ dhatte &emdash; accepts the forms of incarnations; SB 8.24.5\\takes upon Himself; SB 10.74.3\\ manifests; SB 10.87.46\\ (the devotee) places; SB 11.4.10\\ He impregnates; SB 11.6.16\\assumes its position; SB 11.22.17\\gives; CC Antya 1.150 dhauta = white* = mfn. (2. {dhAv}) washed, cleansed, purified TndBr. Sus'r. Kv. &c.; washed off, removed, destroyed Klid. S'is'. Bhathth. (cf. {dhUta4}) [520, 3]; polished, bright, white, shining MBh. Kv. &c.; ({I}) f. washing Sinha7s.; n. id. Cn.; silver L. dhavala = white dhava* = 1 m. Grislea Tomentosa or Anogeissus Latifolia AV. MBh. &c. Sus'r. Bhpr. \\2 m. (accent. only Naigh.; said by some to be fr. {dhU}, but more probably a secondary formation fr. {vi-dha4vA} q.v.) a man Naigh. ii, 3 Pac. ii, 109; a husband BhP. i, 16, 20; lord, possessor Hariv. 14952; rogue, cheat L.; N. of a Vasu (w.r. for {dhara}?) VP. dhenu = a cow dhenuunaaM = of cows dhii * = 1 cl. 3. . {dIdhIte}, &c. RV. (cf. {dIdhI}; the
527

forms {dhImahi} and {a4dhAyi} belong rather to 1. {dhA}; pf. {dIdhaya}, {-dhima}, {-dhiyur} or {-dhyur}, {-dhire} RV. AV. Br.) to perceive, think, reflect; wish, desire: Intens. {dedhyat} TS. \\ 3 cl.4. . {dhIyate}, to contain, bold (Pass. of 1. {dhA}?); to slight, disregard; to propitiate (?) Dhtup. xxvi, 37. dhii * 4 = 2 f. thought, (esp.) religious thought, reflection, meditation, devotion, prayer (pl. Holy Thoughts personified) RV.; understanding, intelligence, wisdom (personified as the wife of Rudra-Manyu BhP.), knowledge, science, art; mind, disposition, intention, design (ifc. intent upon Kv.); notion, opinion, the taking for (comp.) RV. &c. &c. ({ya4thA dhiyA4} or {dhiyA4 na4}, according to thy wisdom or will; {itthA4 dhiyA4} or {dhi4yaH}, willingly lit. such is thy will RV.); N. of the 5th house from the Lagna Var. \\ 4 f. for {dI}, splendour RV. iii, 34, 5; vi, 3, 3. dhiimat.h = learned man dhiimataa = very intelligent dhiimataaM = of those who are endowed with great wisdom dhiimahi = V* upon meditate d dhiira = courageous, steadfast
528

dhiira* = 1 mf({I4} or {A})n. intelligent, wise, skilful, clever, familiar with, versed in (loc.) RV. &c. &c. (compar. {dhI4ra-tara} AV. R.); m. N. of a Buddha L.; of sev. men with the patr. S'ataparneya S'Br. -1.\\ 2 mf({A})n. ( {dhR} or {dhA}? cf. Un. ii, 24) steady, constant, firm, resolute, brave, energetic, courageous, self-possessed, composed, calm, grave Hariv. Kv. Pur.; deep, low, dull (as sound) Klid. Amar. &c.; gentle, soft L.; well-conducted, well-bred L.; ({am}) ind. steadily, firmly &c.; m. the ocean, sea (as an image of constancy?); N. of Bali L.; of other men Rjat.; f. N. of sev. medic. plants ({kAkolI}, {kSIra-kAk-}, {mahAjyotiSmatI}, {medA}, {zveta-vacA}, Rosa Glandulifera) Bhpr. L.; an intoxicating beverage L.; a woman who keeps down all expression of resentment or jealousy Sh.; N. of a woman Cat.; n. saffron L. (not always, esp. in comp., separable from 1. {dhIra}). dhiiraM = patient dhiiraH = the sober dhiirataa = courage dhiivara = (m) a fisherman dhi * =1 cl. 6. P. {dhiyati} ({didhAya}, {dheSyati} &c.) to hold (Dhtup. xxviii, 113). Prob. abstracted fr. 1. {dhA}, of which it is the weak form. \\ 2 m. receptacle
529

(only ifc.; cf. {ambu-}, {iSu-} &c.) \\ 3 or {dhinv} cl. 5. P. {dhinoti} (aor. {adhinvIt} Br.; pf. {didhinva}; fut. {dhinviSyati}, {dhinvitA} Gr.) to nourish, satiate, satisfy Br.; to delight, please Kv. dhik * = ind., used as a prefix or as an interj. of reproach, menace or displeasure = fie! shame! out upon! what a pity! &c. (with acc., rarely gen. voc. or nom.) Up. Lthy. MBh. Kv. &c. (also {dhig dhik}, {aho dhik}, {hA dhik}, {hA dhik kaSTam}, {hA8 hA dhik} &c.; {dhik tvAm}, or {tava} [also with {astu}] shame upon you!) dhik.h = to be condemned dhikbalaM = dhik.h:fie upon it + balam:power or strength dhisa-naramdhisha*= watching or heeding men (?) "'N. of Vishnu V dhishnya * = mfn. mindful, attentive, benevolent, liberal (As'vins) RV. i, 3, 2; 89, 4 &c.; devout, pious (voice, hymn), x, 114, 9; m. (f. {A} only RV. iv, 3, 6; n. MBh. i, 7944) a sort of subordinate or side-altar (generally a heap of earth covered with sand on which the fire is placed, and of which 8 are enumerated, viz. besides the {AgnIdhrIya} [in the gndhra] those in the Sadas [see s.v.] belonging to the {hotR}, the {maitrA-varuNa} or
530

{pra-zastR}, the {brAhmaNAcchaMsin}, the {potR}, {neSTR} and {acchA-vAka}; and the {mArjAlIya}) Br. S'rS. &c. (cf. {klRpta-}) &c.; N. of Us'anas i.e. the planet Venus L. (cf. {dhiSaNa}); ({A}) f. a meteor Var. (n. only MBh. v, 7272); n. site, place, abode, region, house MBh. Kv. Pur. &c.; the seat of a god i.e. a quarter of the sky VP.; star, asterism (looking like the fire on the side altars) Var.; the orb of an asterism (on which its light seems to centre) MBh. VP.; power, strength L.; mfn. placed upon a mound of earth serving as an altar AV. Br. &c.; m. (with or scil. {agni}) a fire so placed VS. TS.&c. dhiya: see dhI, dhyati dhiyati= dhi dhruk*= unworthy, opposing, killing, harming dhruva*= mf(%{A4})n. (prob. fr. %{dhR}, but cf. % {dhru} and %{dhruv}) fixed, firm, immovable, unchangeable, constant, lasting, permanent, eternal RV. &c. &c. (e.g. the earth, a mountain, a pillar, a vow &c.; with %{svA7Gga} n. an inseparable member of the body Pa1n2. 6-2, 177; with %{dhenu} f. a cow which stands quiet when milked AV. xii, 1, 45; with %{diz} f. the point of the heavens directly under the feet [reckoned among the quarters of the sky cf. 2. %{diz}] AV. Br. [521,3]; with %{smRti} f. a strong or retentive
531

memory ChUp. vii, 26, 2; cf. also under %{karaNa} and %{nakSatra}); staying with (loc.) RV. ix, 101, 12; settled, certain, sure Mn. MBh. Ka1v. &c.; ifc. = % {pApa} L.; m. the polar star (personified as son of Utta1na-pa1da and grandson of Manu) Gr2S. MBh. &c.; celestial pole Su1ryas.; the unchangeable longitude of fixed stars, a constant arc ib.; a knot VS. v, 21; 30; a post, stake L.; the Indian fig-tree L.; tip of the nose (?) L.; a partic. water-bird ib.; the remaining (i.e. preserved) Graha which having been drawn in the morning is not offered till evening S3Br. Vait.; (in music) the introductory verse of a song (recurring as a kind of burthen) or a partic. time or measure (%{tAla-vizeSa}); any epoch to which a computation of dates is referred W.; N. of an astrol. Yoga; of the syllable Om Ra1matUp.; of Brahma1 L.; of Vishn2u MBh.; of S3iva S3ivag.; of a serpent supporting the earth Gr2S. TA1r.; of a Vasu MBh. Hariv. Pur.; of a son of Vasu-deva and Rohin2i1 BhP.; of an A1n3girasa (supposed author of RV. x, 173) Anukr.; of a son of Nahusha MBh.; of a follower of the Pa1n2d2us ib.; of a son of Ranti-na1ra (or Ranti-bha1ra) Pur.; (%{A}) f. the largest of the 3 sacrificial ladles AV. xviii, 4, 5, 6 (with %{juhU} & % {upabhRt}) VS. S3Br. &c.; (scil. %{vRtti}) a partic. mode of life Baudh.; (scil. %{strI}) a virtuous woman L.; Desmodium Gangeticum L.; Sanseviera Zeylanica L.; (in music) the introductory verse (cf. above); n. the fixed point (from which a departure takes place) Pa1n2. 1-4, 24; the enduring sound (supposed to be heard after
532

the Abhinidha1na) RPra1t.; air, atmosphere L.; a kind of house Gal.; (%{am}) ind. firmly, constantly, certainly, surely Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. Ka1v. &c.; (%{Aya}) ind. for ever Hariv. [Cf. Zd. {drva}.] dhmaati = to blow air into, to inflate dhri = to bear dhrishtha [dhRSTa] *= mfn. bold , daring , confident , audacious , impudent RV. AV. (cf. %{a4-} , %{a4nA-}) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; secured , obtained W. ; profligate , abandoned ib. (ifc. it gives a bad sense to the first member of the comp. Pa1n2. 2-1 , 53 Gan2ar. ii. 114) ; m. a faithless husband ib. ; a magic. formula spoken over weapons R. ; N. of a son of Manu Vaivasvata Hariv. (C. %{-SNu}) Pur. (cf. % {dhArSTa}) ; of a son of Kunti Hariv. ; of a son of Bhajama1na ib. (C. %{-SNa}) ; (%{A}) f. a disloyal or unchaste woman W. ; (%{am}) ind. boldly , courageously , fearlessly S3Br. La1t2y. R. [520,1] dhriti* = f. holding, seizing, keeping, supporting (cf. {carSaNI-}, {vi-}), firmness, constancy, resolution, will, command RV. &c. &c. [519, 3]; satisfaction, content, joy MBh. Kv. &c. ({-tiM-kR}, to keep ground or stand still MBh. vii, 4540; to find pleasure or satisfaction Ratn. iv, 4/5; {-tim-bandh}, to show firmness Amar. 67; to fix the mind on Mn. v, 47); Resolution or Satisfaction
533

personified as a daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma (MBh. Hariv. Pur.) or as a S'akti (Hcat. &c.); N. of partic. evening oblations at the as'vamedha S'Br.; any offering or sacrifice W.; of sev. kinds of metre and of a class of metres consisting of 4 X 18 syllables Col.; of the numeral 18 Var. Ganit.; of one of the astrol. Yogas. L.; of a mythical garden Gol.; of one of the 16 Kals of the moon Pur.; of a goddess (daughter of a Kal of Prakriiti and wife of Kapila) ib.; of the wife of RudraManu ib.; of the 13th of the 16 Mtriiks L.; m. wish {kSatrasya} = {kSatra-dh-} Lthy.; N. of one of the Vis've Devs MBh.; of a preceptor Cat.; of the son of Vijaya and father of Dhriita-vrata Hariv. Pur.; of a son of Vta-havya and father of Bahula7s'va Pur.; of a son of Babhru L.; of a Varsha in Kus'a-dvpa VP. dhrita = ghee * dhrita * = mfn. held, borne, maintained, supported kept, possessed; used, practised, observed RV. &c. &c.; measured, weighed (with or scil. {tulayA}) MBh.; worn (as clothes, shoes, beard, &c.) Mn. MBh. Kv.; kept back, detained ({kare}, by the hand) Hit.; drawn tight (reins) S'ak.; turned towards or fixed upon, ready or prepared for, resolved on (loc. or dat.) MBh. R.; continuing, existing, being ib.; prolonged (in pronunciation) Prt. ({am} ind. solemnly, slowly Pac. iii, 72/73); (with {antare}) deposited as surety, pledged ib. iv, 31/32; quoted, cited by (comp.) L.; m. N. of a son
534

of the 13th Manu Hariv. (v.l. {bhRtha}); of a descendant of Druhyu and son of Dharma Pur. (cf. {dhArteya}); n. a partic. manner of fighting Hariv. dhritaraashhTrasya = of Dhritarashtra dhriti = with determination dhritiM = steadiness dhritiH = firmness dhritigrihiitayaa = carried by conviction dhriteH = of steadiness dhritya = by determination dhrityaa = determination drishtha4 * = mfn. seen, looked at, beheld, perceived, noticed Mn. MBh. Kv. &c.; visible, apparent AV. VS.; considered, regarded, treated, used S'ak. iii, 7 Pac. i, 401/402; appeared, manifested, occurring, existing, found, real Kv. Pac. Hit.; experienced, learnt, known, understood MBh. Kv. &c.; seen in the mind, devised, imagined MBh. R.; allotted, destined ib.; settled, decided, fixed, acknowledged, valid Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; n. perception, observation Snkhyak. Tattvas.;
535

(scil. {bhaya}) a real or obvious danger. drishtha * = mfn. beheld, visible, conspicuous, famous, celebrated BhP. (= {pra-khyAta} Sch.); {-TAnta} see p. 662, col. 1. dhrishhTaketuH = Dhrishtaketu dhrishhTadyumnaH = Dhristadyumna (the son of King Drupada) dhruvaM = certainly * = mf({A4})n. (prob. fr. {dhR}, but cf. {dhru} and {dhruv}) fixed, firm, immovable, unchangeable, constant, lasting, permanent, eternal RV. &c. &c. (e.g. the earth, a mountain, a pillar, a vow &c.; with {svA7Gga} n. an inseparable member of the body Pn. 6-2, 177; with {dhenu} f. a cow which stands quiet when milked AV. xii, 1, 45; with {diz} f. the point of the heavens directly under the feet [reckoned among the quarters of the sky cf. 2. {diz}] AV. Br. [521, 3]; with {smRti} f. a strong or retentive memory ChUp. vii, 26, 2; cf. also under {karaNa} and {nakSatra}); staying with (loc.) RV. ix, 101, 12; settled, certain, sure Mn. MBh. Kv. &c.; ifc. = {pApa} L.; m. the polar star (personified as son of Uttna-pda and grandson of Manu) GriS. MBh. &c.; celestial pole Sryas.; the unchangeable longitude of fixed stars, a constant arc ib.; a knot VS. v, 21; 30; a post, stake L.; the Indian fig-tree L.; tip of the nose (?) L.; a partic. water-bird ib.; the
536

remaining (i.e. preserved) Graha which having been drawn in the morning is not offered till evening S'Br. Vait.; (in music) the introductory verse of a song (recurring as a kind of burthen) or a partic. time or measure ({tAla-vizeSa}); any epoch to which a computation of dates is referred W.; N. of an astrol. Yoga; of the syllable Om RmatUp.; of Brahm L.; of Vishnu MBh.; of S'iva S'ivag.; of a serpent supporting the earth GriS. Tr.; of a Vasu MBh. Hariv. Pur.; of a son of Vasu-deva and Rohin BhP.; of an ngirasa (supposed author of RV. x, 173) Anukr.; of a son of Nahusha MBh.; of a follower of the Pndus ib.; of a son of Ranti-nra (or Ranti-bhra) Pur.; ({A}) f. the largest of the 3 sacrificial ladles AV. xviii, 4, 5, 6 (with {juhU} & {upabhRt}) VS. S'Br. &c.; (scil. {vRtti}) a partic. mode of life Baudh.; (scil. {strI}) a virtuous woman L.; Desmodium Gangeticum L.; Sanseviera Zeylanica L.; (in music) the introductory verse (cf. above); n. the fixed point (from which a departure takes place) Pn. 14, 24; the enduring sound (supposed to be heard after the Abhinidhna) RPrt.; air, atmosphere L.; a kind of house Gal.; ({am}) ind. firmly, constantly, certainly, surely Mn. Yj. MBh. Kv. &c.; ({Aya}) ind. for ever Hariv. [Cf. Zd. {drva}.] dhruvaH = a fact dhruvaa = certain

537

dhutavastra = Washed garment dhuka* = m. a kind of plant (commonly Bhuyabora or Rnabora). L.; ({A}) f. id. ib. dhumaH = smoke dhuumra * = mf(%{A})n. smoke-coloured , smoky , darkcoloured , grey , dark-red , purple VS. Br. &c. &c. ; dim , obscured (see below) ; m. a camel TS. ; a mixture of red and black , purple (the colour) W. ; incense (= % {turuSka}) L. ; (in astrol.) the 28th Yoga ; N. of one of Skanda's attendants MBh. ; of a Da1nava Hariv. ; of S3iva MBh. ; of a monkey or bear R. ; of an author and other men Cat. (cf. %{dhUmrAyaNa} and %{dhaumr-}) ; pl. of a family of R2ishis R. ; (%{A}) f. a kind of gourd (= %{zazANDulI}) L. ; N. of the mother of the Vasu Dhara MBh. ; of Durga1 Devi1m. ; n. wickedness , sin W. dhunvan *V: waving dhuraa = (f) yoke, responsibility dhuriNa = awakened/aroused? dhuuka* = m. wind L.; rogue L.; time L.; Mimusops Elengi Car.

538

dhuuma = smoke dhuumaH = (m) smoke dhuumaketuH = (m) comet dhuumanirgamaH = (m) chimney dhuumapaana = smoking dhuumena = by smoke dhuupita * = mfn. incensed, perfumed MBh. R.; suffering pain or fatigue L. dhuurta = adj. clever dhuusaraH = grey dhUrjaTa * = m. N. of an attendant of S'iva Kaths. (cf. next). dhUr-jaTi * = m. `" having matted locks like a burden "', N. of Rudra-S'iva MBh. Kaths. Hit. &c. ({-Tin} MBh. xiii, 7510); N. of a poet (also {-rAja}) Cat. dhvajaH = (m) flag * = m. (n. only Hariv. 9245 and g. {ardharcA7di}; fr. 2. {dhvaj}) a banner, flag, standard (ifc. f. {A}) RV. &c. &c.; a flag-staff W.; mark,
539

emblem, ensign, characteristic, sign MBh. Hariv.; attribute of a deity (cf. {makara-}, {vRSabha-} &c.); the sign of any trade (esp. of a distillery or tavern) and the business there carried on Mn. iv, 85; a distiller or vendor of spirituous liquors L.; (ifc.) the ornament of (e.g. {kula-dhvaja}) L.; the organ of generation (of any animal, male or female) Sus'r. L. (cf. {puM-}, {strI-}); a skull carried on a staff (as a penance for the murder of a Brhman W.; as a mark of ascetics and Yogis MW.); N. of a tree (= {-vRkSa}) Cat.; a place prepared in a peculiar way for building L. (in pros.) an iambic; (in Gr.) a partic. kind of Krama-pthha: (in astrol.) N. of a Yoga; pride, arrogance, hypocrisy L.; N. of a Grma Pn. 4-2, 109 Sch. dhvaMsana * = mfn. = {-saka} MBh. (cf. {dakSA7dhvara-}); spluttering Nir. ii, 9; n. destruction, ruin R. BhP. dhvani = sound dhvanigraahakam.h = (n) microphone dhvanivardhakam.h = (n) amplifier, loud-speaker dhvanii = sound dhvaniifita = audio cassette

540

dhvasta* = mfn. fallen, destroyed, perished, lost Br. &c. &c.; eclipsed, obscured Var.; scattered or covered with (instr. or comp.) MBh. Kv. &c. dhyaatvaa = having meditated dhyaana = contemplation * n. meditation, thought, reflection, (esp.) profound and abstract religious meditation, ({-nam Apad}, {A-sthA} or {-naM-gam}, to indulge in rreligious mmeditation) ChUp. Mn. MBh. Kv. &c. (with Buddhists divided into 4 stages MWB. 209 Dharmas. lxxii; but also into 3 ib. cix); mental representation of the personal attributes of a deity W.; insensibility, dulness Bhpr.; ({-na4}) m. N. of a partic. personification MaitrS.; of the 11th day of the light half in Brahma's month dhyaanam.h = meditation dhyaanayogaparaH = absorbed in trance dhyaanaat.h = than meditation dhyaanena = by meditation dhyaaya.nti = meditate or think dhyaayataH = while contemplating

541

dhyaayati = meditates dhyaayantaH = meditating dhyaayed.h = may we meditate dhyeyaM = is to be meditated digbala = Directional strength dina* =3 (accented only Naigh. i, 9) m. n. (g. % {ardharcA7di}, only occurring as n.) a day Mn. Ragh. Pan5cat. and o. (ifc. also in Vedic texts) ifc. f. %{A} Ra1jat. i, 347. [Cf. Lat. {peren-dinus}, {nUndinus} &c.; Got. {sin-teins}; Lit. {de0na}; O.Pr. acc. sg. {deinan}; Slav. {dr2ni1}.] diti = mother of the Daityas demons didarshayishhan.h = wishing to show diikinaaH = (m) a happy homosexual diikshaa* = f. preparation or consecration for a religious ceremony, undertaking religious observances for a partic. purpose and the observances themselves AV. VS. Br. S'rS. &c.; dedication, initiation (personified as the wife of Soma RV. 25, 26, of Rudra Ugra or RRudra Vmadeva Pur.); any serious preparation (as for battle)
542

MBh. Hariv. Kv.; self-devotion to a person or god, complete resignation or restriction to, exclusive occupation with (comp.; cf. {viraha-}, {zAka-}, {zRGgAra}.)diinajanaaya = to the poor (humble state) people diikshita mf(%{i} GopBr. i, 5, 24)n. consecrated, initiated into (dat. loc. instr., or comp.) AV. TS. Br. S3rS. Mn. MBh. &c.; prepared, ready for (dat. instr. or comp.) MBh. R. (%{-taM-kR}, to initiate, instruct Katha1s. xx, 198); performed (as the Di1ksha1 ceremony) W.; m. a priest engaged in a DDi1ksha1 (% {-tva} n. Jaim.); a pupil of (affixed, and rarely prefixed to the N. of a teacher, and given as a N. to a Bra1hman to denote his being a pupil of that tteacher e.g. % {bhaTToji-}, %{zaM-kara-}; sometimes the teacher's N. is dropped and DDi1ksha1 is used alone). diina* = mfn. (fr. 3. %{di}?) scarce, scanty RV.; depressed, afflicted, timid, sad; miserable, wretched Mn. MBh. Ka1v. &c.; (%{am}) ind. sadly, miserably S3iksh. 35; n. distress, wretchedness Hariv. Pan5c.; Tabernamontana Coronaria L.; (%{A}) f. the female of a mouse or shrew L. diip.h = to adorn, to grace diipa = light

543

diipaH = lamp diipaka = Lamp diipena = with the lamp diipta = blazing diiptaM = glowing diiptaanala = blazing fire diipti = light diiptimantaM = glowing diiptaiH = shining diiyate = is given diirgha = Long diirgha-suutra = one who works slowly, procrastinates diirghaH = (adj) long diirghasuutrii = procrastinating

544

diirghaa = (adj) long dik * = in comp. for 2. {diz}, see dis' dina = Day dinadarshikaa = (f) calendar dinakara * = mf({I})n. making day or light; m. the sun Kv. &c.; N. of an ditya RmatUp.; of the author of the wk. Candra7rk; of a Sch. on S'is'. ({mizra-d-}); of other men; ({I}) f. (scil. {TIkA}) N. of Comm. on the Bhshsp. and Siddha7nta-mukta7val; {-ra-TppanI} f. N. of a Comm.; {-ra-tanaya} m. `" son of the sun "', the planet Saturn Var.; {-ra-deva} m. N. of a poet; {-rabhaTTa} m. N. of an author; {-TIya} n. his wk.; {rA7tmaja} m. `" daughter of the sun "' patr. of the Yamun; {-rIya} n. {-ro4ddyota} m. N. of wks. di4na-kRt * = m. = {-kartR} MBh. VarBriS. &c.; {suta} m. = {-karatanaya} VarYogay.; {-d-divasa} m. Sunday ib. di4na-kesara * = (also written {-zara}) m. `" day-hair "', darkness L. di4na-gaNa * = m. = {ahar-} Ganit.; {-Nita} n. N. of wk.

545

di4na-caryA * = f. daily-work Kaths. di4na-naktam * = ind. by day and night MrkP. di4na-niz * = f. du. day and night VarBriS. xxxii, 7. di4na-pa * = m. the regent of a week-day ryabh. iii, 16. di4na-pati * = m. id. Ganit.; `" day-lord "', the sun Bhartri. Rjat. dinayaaminyau = dina+yAminI, day + night dinaankaH = (m) date dine = (Loc.sing.) during the day i.e day-by-day dis' * = 1 cl. 3. P. {di4deSTi} (Imper. {di4deSTu} RV.; cl. 6. {diza4ti}, {-te} [later the only Pres. stem]; pf. {dide4za}, {didize4}; fut. {dekSyati}, {-te} [{deSTA} Siddh.]; aor. {adikSat} S'Br. &c.; {adikSi}, {a4diSTa} RV.; inf. {deSTum} MBh. etc.; {di4ze} RV.) to point out, show, exhibit RV.viii, 82, 15; to produce, bring forward (as a witness in a court of justice) Mn. viii; to promote, effect, accomplish Kir., i, 18; to assign, grant, bestow upon (dat. RV. ii, 41, 17 AV. xiv, 2, 13; gen. MBh. iii, 14278; xiii, 1843; loc. R. i, 2, 28); to pay (tribute) Hariv. 16061; to order, command, bid (inf.)
546

Kir. v, 28: Pass. {dizyate} MBh. &c.: Caus. {dezayati}, {-te}; aor. {adIdizat}, to show, point out, assign MBh. R.; to direct, order, command ib.; teach, communicate, tell, inform confess Buddh.: Desid. {didikSati}, {-te}, to wish to show &c.: Intens. {de4diSTe}, 3. pl. {-zate}, (p. f. pl. {-zatIs}) to show, exhibit, manifest RV.; to order, command ib.: Pass. {dedizyate}, to show or approve one's self. AV. VS. [Cf. Z. {dis}; Gk. $; Lat. {dco}, &149116[479, 3] {in-dricare} &c.; Goth. {teihan}; O. E. {te4on} (fr. {ti4han}).] dis' * = 2 f. quarter or region pointed at, direction, cardinal point RV. AV. S'Br. &c. (four in number, viz. {prAcI}, east; {dakSiNA}, south; {pratici}, west; and {udIcI}, north AV. xv, 2, 1 s'vGri. iv, 8 &c.; Sometimes a 5th, {dhruvA} AV. iii, 9, 15 S'Br. ix, 4, 3, 10; and a 6th, {UrdhvA} AV. iii, 27, 1 S'Br. xiv, 6, 11, 5; and a 7th, {vy-adhvA} AV. iv, 40, l S'Br. ix, 5, 2, 8; but oftener 8 are given i.e. the 4 cardinal and the 4 intermediate quarters, S.E., S.W.N. W., and N. E. Mn. i, 13 [cf. {upa-}]; and even a 9th, and 10th, {tiryak} or {adhas} and {Urdhvam} S'Br. vi, 2, 2, 34 MBh. i, 729; {dizAm pati} [cf. {dik-pati}) below] = Soma RV. ix, 113, 2, or = Rudra VS.xvi, 17); quarter, region, direction, place, part (pl., rarely eg. the whole world e.g. {dizi}, {dizi}, in all directions, everywhere Bhartri. i, 86; {digbhyas}, from every qquarter BhP. i, 15, 8 [480, 2]; {dizo dizas}, hither and thither Pac. ii, 116/117; {dizo'valokya}, looking into the qquarter of the sky i.e.
547

into the air Ratn. iv, 4/5 {di4so 'ntAt}, from the extremities of the world ib., Introd. 6); country, esp. foreign country, abroad (cf. {dig-Agata} and {-lAbha}, below); space (beside {kAla}) Kap. ii, 12; the numeral 10 (cf. above) S'rutab. Sryas.; a hint, reference, instance, example Sus'r. Sh. Sch.; precept, order, manner RV. [cf. $ O. H.G. {zeiga} (see also {dizA})]; mark of a bite L.; N. of a river MBh. vi, 327. dis' * = 3 a vulgar form for {dRz}, to see Pn. i, 3, 1 Vrtt. 13 Pat. dishtha * = mfn. shown, pointed out, appointed, assigned ({diSTA gatis}, the appointed way "' i.e. death R. ii, 103, 8); fixed, settled; directed, bidden RV. AV. MBh. R. &c.; m. time L.; a sort of Curcuma L.; N. of a son of Manu Vaivasvata Pur.; n. appointed place ChUp. v, 9, 2; aim, goal TBr. ii, 4, 2, 2 &c.; allotment, assignment, decree; fate, destiny AV. x, 3, 16 MBh.; direction, order, command BhP. v, 1, 11 &c. Rjat. iv, 121; a description according to space and time (i.e. of a natural phenomenon) Sh. dishtha4-kArin * =mfn. executing an order or acting according to fate BhP. iv, 28, 1. dishtha4-dRz * =mfn. looking at fate or at one's lot BhP. iv, 21, 22.

548

dishtha4-para * =mfn. relying on fate, fatalist MBh. iii, 1214. dishtha4-bhAva * =m. `" appointed state "' i.e. death MBh. v, 4529. dishtha4-bhuj * =mfn. reaping the appointed results of one's works BhP. vii, 13, 39. dishthA7nta * =m. `" appointed end "' i.e. death MBh. R. &c. dishthi * =f. direction, prescription, TndyaBr. xxv, 18; auspicious juncture, good fortune, happiness (esp. instr. {-TyA}, thank heaven! I congratulate you on your good luck! often with {vardhase}, you are fortunate) MBh. Kv. &c.; a kind of measure of length Kaus'. Sch. on Kty. Sr. dishthi-vRddhi * =f. congratulation Kd. Hcar. dita * = 1 mfn. (3. %{dA}) bound (cf. %{ud-} , % {ni-} , %{saM-}).\\ 2 mfn. ( %{do} Pa1n2. 7-4 , 40) cut , torn , divided BhP. vi , 6 , 23 (cf. %{nir-}). dhisthhita - see adhishthhita divaM = to heaven

549

divangataH = died divasa = day divasakritaM = day-time-done divasasya = of days divase = on the day diva *= n. heaven , sky MBh. Hariv. ; day , esp. in % {dive4-dive} , day by day , daily RV. and ifc. (g. % {zaradAdi}) ; wood L. [Cf. %{a4har-} , %{tri-} , % {naktaM-} , %{naktaM-} %{bRhad-}. %{rAtrim-} , % {su-} ; cf. also $ Fo in $ Lat. (?) {biduum}. divaa *= ind. (for %{divA4} , instr. of 3. %{di4v}) g. %{svarAdi} , by day (often opposed to %{na4ktam}) RV. ; used also as subst. e.g. %{divA@bhavati} ChUp. iii , 11 , 3 ; (with %{rAtris}) MBh. ii , 154 &c. ; esp. in beginning of comp. divam *V= to the spiritual world, the heavens, the sky, to heaven, the higher planets, to their heavenly himes, to the spiritual world, the higherplanets, the celestial planets. divaakara = sun

550

divi = in heaven divya = divine divyaM = transcendental divyaaH = divine divyaan.h = celestial divyaanaaM = of the divine divyaani = divine divyaayudhaH = the man with divine weapons divyau = transcendenta diSTa * =fate, destiny; direction, order, command mfn. shown, pointed out, appointed, assigned, the appointed way "' i.e. death; fixed, settled; directed, bidden; a sort of Curcuma L.; N. of a son of Manu Vaivasvata Pur.; n. appointed place; aim, goal; allotment, assignment, decree; BhP. v,; a description according to space and time (i.e. of a natural phenomenon) Sh. dishaH = on all sides dishati = (6 pp) to show
551

dishaa = directions dishaaM = direction dishi = in all directions dogdhi = milks (from duh.h: to milk ) dodhayati = to explain doraka = (m) rope, string dolaa = swing doshaa * = 1^ f. darkness, night RV. AV. &c. ({A4m} & {A4} [instr.; cf. g. {svar-Adi}] ind. in the evening, at dusk, at night); Night personified (and regarded with Prabhs as wife of Pushpa7rna and mother of Pradosha or Evening, Nis'itha [!] or Midnight and Vyushtha or Daybreak) BhP. iv, 13, 13; 14 (cf. {doSa4s}, {pazcA-doSa}, {pra-doSa}, {prati-doSam}) 1. dosha * = 1 m. evening, darkness (only BhP., where personified as one of the, 8 Vasus and husband of Night, vi, 6, 11; 14); ({A4}) f. see next. \\2 m. rarely n. ( {duS}) fault, vice, deficiency, want, inconvenience, disadvantage Up. Mn. MBh. Kv. &c. [498, 3]; badness, wickedness, sinfulness Mn. R.; offence, transgression, guilt, crime (acc. with {R} or {labh}, to incur guilt),
552

SrS. Mn. MBh. &c.; damage, harm, bad consequence, detrimental effect ({nai9Sa doSaH}, there is no harm; {ko'tra d-}, what does it matter?) Mn. MBh. Kv. &c.; accusation, reproach ({-SaMkR} or {-SeNa-gam} with acc., to accuse) R.; alteration, affection, morbid element, disease (esp. of the 3 humours of the body, viz. {pitta}, {vAyu}, and {zleSman}, 1 [cf. {tridoSa} and {dhAtu}], applied also to the humours themselves) Sus'r.; (also {Saka}) a calf L. doshaa* = 2 f. (for 1. see 1. {doSa}) the arm L. doshaiH = by faults doshha = Blemish doshhaM = fault doshhavat.h = as an evil doshhaaH = the faults doshhena = with fault doshhaiH = by such faults drAva * = m. (fr. 2. %{dru}) going quickly, speed, flight; fusing, liquefaction; heat L.

553

draavya* = mfn. to be made to run or put to flight W.; fusible, liquefiable. drava = liquid * = mfn. (fr. 2. %{dru}) running (as a horse) RV. iv, 40, 2; flowing, fluid, dropping, dripping, trickling or overflowing with (comp.) Ka1t2h. Mn. MBh. Ka1v.; fused, liquefied, melted W.; m. going, quick motion, flight Hariv.; play, sport Ja1takam.; distilling, trickling, fluidity Bha1sha1p.; juice, essence, decoction; stream or gush of (comp.) Ka1v.; (dram.) the flying out against one's superior Das3ar. Sa1h.; N. of one of the Vis3ve Deva1s, Hcat "' dravaNa = melting dravati = (1 pp) to melt dravanti = glide draviNa* = n. movable property (as opp. to house and field), substance, goods (m.pl. BhP. v, 14, 12), wealth, money RV. AV. Mn. MBh. &c.; essence, substantiality, strength, power RV. AV. S'Br. R. &c.; N. of a Sman ArshBr.; m. N. of a son of Vasu Dhara (or Dhava) MBh. Hariv. VP.; of a son of Priithu BhP.; of a mountain ib.; pl. the inhabitants of a Varsha in Krauca-dvpa ib. dravya* = n. a substance, thing, object Up. Mn. MBh. &c.; the ingredients or materials of anything MBh. R.;
554

medicinal substance or drug Sus'r.; (phil.) elementary substance (9 in the Nyya, viz "' {pRthivI}, {ap}, {tejas}, {vAyu}, {AkAza kAla}, {diz}, {Atman}, {manas}; 6 with Jainas, viz. {jIva}, {dharma}, {adharma}, {pudgala}, {kAla}, {AkAza}); (Gr.) single object or person, individual (cf. {eka-}); fit object or person (cf. {A-}.); object of possession, wealth, goods, money Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; gold R. vii, 18, 34 Sch.; bellmetal, brass L.; ointment L. "'; spirituous liquour L.; a stake, a wager W. dravya* = 2 mfn. (fr. 4. {dru}) derived from or relating to a tree Pn. 4-3, 161; tree-like or corresponding to a tree S'nkhBr. x, 2; n. lac, gum, resin L. dravyamayaat.h = of material possessions dravyayaGYaaH = sacrificing one's possessions dravyeNa = (instr.S) money or riches or wealth drashhTaa = consciousness, the 'witness, ' also a statesman with insight drashhTuM = to be seen drakshyasi = you will see draakshaa = (f) grapes
555

dhR * =. 1. P. . {dharati}, {-te} (Dhtup. xxii, 3; . Pot. {dhareran} pS'r.), but more commonly in the same sense the Caus. form {dhArayati}, {-te} (perf. P. {dA8dhA4ra}, {-dha4rtha} [Impv. {dadhartu} AV. Paipp.]; . {dadhre4}, 3. pl. {-dhrire4} RV. &c. &c.; aor. {adhAram} R.; {adhRta}, {dhRthAs} AV.; {a4dIdharat} RV. &c. &c. [{dIdhar}, {didhRtam}, {-ta} RV.; 3. pl. {-rata} S'Br.]; {adArSIt} Gr.; fut. {dhariSyati} MBh.; {-Sye4} AV.; {dhartA} BhP.; inf. {dhartum} Kv., {-tavai} Br. [{dharta4ri} see under {Tri}]; ind. p. {dhRtvA}, {-dhRtya} Br.) to hold, bear (also bring forth), carry, maintain, preserve, keep, possess, have, use, employ, practise, undergo RV. &c. &c.; (with or scil {AtmAnam}, {jIvitam}, {prANAn}, {deham}, {zarIram} &c.) to preserve soul or body, continue living, survive MBh. Kv. &c. (esp. fut. {dhariSyati}; cf. Pass. below); to hold back, keep down, stop, restrain, suppress, resist Br. MBh. Kv. &c.: to place or fix in, bestow or confer on (loc.) RV. AV. Br. &c.; destine for (dat.; . also to be destined for or belong to) RV.; present to (gen.) Krand.; to direct or turn (attention, mind, &c.) towards, fix or resolve upon (loc. or dat.) Up. Yj. MBh.; . to be ready or prepared for S'Br.; P. . to owe anything (acc.) to (dat. or gen.) MBh. (cf. Pn. 1-4, 35); to prolong (in pronunciation) AitBr. RPrt.; to quote, cite L.; (with {garbham}) to conceive, be pregnant (older {-bham-bhR}) MBh. Kv. &c.; (with {daNDam}) to inflict punishment on (loc.) MBh. R. BhP. (also {damam}); (with {kezAn}, or
556

{zmazru}) to let the hair or beard grow MBh.; (with {razmIn} [ib.] or {praharAn} [S'ak.]) to draw the reins tight; (with {dharamam}) to fulfil a duty R.; (with {vrata4m}) to observe or keep a vow RV. &c. &c.; (with {dhAraNAm}) to practise self-control Yj.; (wit. {ipas}) to perform penance BhP.; (with {mUrdhnA} or {-dhni}, {zirasA} or {-si}) to bear on the head, honour highly Kv.; (with or scil. {tulayA}) to hold in a balance, weigh, measure MBh. Kv. &c.; (with or scil. {manasA}) to bear in mind, recollect, remember ib.; (with {samaye}) to hold to an agreement, cause to make a compact Pac. i, 125/126 (B. {dRSTvA} for {dhRtvA}): Pass. {dhriya4te} (ep. also {-yati}; pf. {dadhre4} &c. = .; aor. {adhAri}) to be borne &c.; so be firm, keep steady RV. &c. &c.; continue living, exist, remain Br. MBh. Kv. &c. (also {dhAryate} R.); to begin, resolve upon, undertake (dat.; acc. or inf.) AV. S'Br. ChUp.: Caus. {dhAra4yati}, {-te} see above: Desid. {didhIrSati} (see {-SA}), {didhariSate} Pn. 7-2, 75; {didhArayiSati}, to wish to keep up or preserve ({AtmAnam}) Gobh. iii, 5, 30: Intens. {da4rdharti} (RV.) and {dAdharti} (3. pl. {-dhrati} TS.; cf. Pn. 7-4, 65) to hold fast, bear firmly, fasten. [Cf. Zd. {dar} [519, 2]; Gk. $; Lat. {fre1-tus}, &160659[519, 2] {fre1num}.] dRta *= respected, honoured driDha = unrelenting
557

driDhaM = strongly driDhataa = firmness, strength driDhanishchayaH = with determination driDhavrataaH = with determination driDhaasana = the side relaxation posture driDhena = strong dRpta* = mfn. mad, wild, proud, arrogant ({-tara}, compar.) MBh. Kv. &c. (cf. {a4-d-} and {a-dRpita4}). drishau = eyes drishh = (pashyati) to see drishaH = eyes dris'a m. look , appearance (cf. %{I-d-} , %{kI-d-} , % {tA-d-} &c.) ; (%{am}) ind. = 2. %{dRz} ifc. (g. % {zarad-Adi}) ; (%{A}) f. the eye L. dris'a mf(%{I})n. id. Ka1v. Katha1s. Ra1jat.

dris'ad * = %{dRzadvati} = %{dRSad} , % {dRSadvatI} below.


558

dris'aakaaGkshya * = n. `" desirable to the eye "' , a lotus L. dris'aalu * = m. the sun L. dris'aana * = m. (cf. 1. %{dRz}) a Bra1hman or spiritual teacher L. ; N. of a R2ishi with the patr. Bha1rgava Ka1t2h. ; of a demon L. ; n. light , brightness L. dris'aasphutamAlA * = (or %{-zA-sph-}?) f. N. of wk. dris'ati * = f. look , appearance RV. vi , 3 , 3. drishad *= f. ( %{dRR}? Un2. i, 130) a rock, large stone, mill-stone, esp. the lower mmill-ststone (which rests on the %{upala}) RV. AV. VS. S3Br.; GS. Ka1v. &c. drishhTaH = observed drishhTavaan.h = seeing drishhTavaanasi = as you have seen drishhTiM = vision drishhTii = Sight

559

drishhTiibheda = difference in seeing, observing or outlook drishhTvaa = having seen drikshyati = see draavya * = mfn. to be made to run or put to flight W.; fusible, liquefiable. draupadeyaaH = the sons of Draupadi dravya * = n. a substance, thing, object Up. Mn. MBh. &c.; the ingredients or materials of anything MBh. R.; medicinal substance or drug Sus'r.; (phil.) elementary substance (9 in the Nyya, viz "' {pRthivI}, {ap}, {tejas}, {vAyu}, {AkAza kAla}, {diz}, {Atman}, {manas}; 6 with Jainas, viz. {jIva}, {dharma}, {adharma}, {pudgala}, {kAla}, {AkAza}); (Gr.) single object or person, individual (cf. {eka-}); fit object or person (cf. {A-}.); object of possession, wealth, goods, money Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; gold R. vii, 18, 34 Sch.; bellmetal, brass L.; ointment L. "'; spirituous liquour L.; a stake, a wager W. dravya * = 2 mfn. (fr. 4. {dru}) derived from or relating to a tree Pn. 4-3, 161; tree-like or corresponding to a tree S'nkhBr. x, 2; n. lac, gum, resin L.

560

drogdhavya* = mfn. to be injured S3Br. MBh. drogdhovya* = &c. see above. drogdhR* = m. injurer, ill-wisher MBh. Ra1jat. droha *= m. injury, mischief. harm, perfidy, treachery, wrong, offence Mn. MBh. R. &c. droha *= m. injury , mischief. harm , perfidy , treachery , wrong , offence Mn. MBh. R. &c. drohabhAva *= m. hostile disposition Mn. ix , 17. drohabuddhi *= mfn. maliciously-minded , malevolent MW. drohacintana *= n. injurious design L. drohapara *= mfn. full of malice , Rajat. drohATa *= (%{-hA7Ta}?) m. a false man ; a hunter ; a form of metre (L.). drohavacana *= n. injurious language MBh. drohavRtti *= mfn. malicious , wicked Ra1jat. drohin *= mfn. hurting , harming ; perfidious against , hostile to (gen. or comp.) MBh. R. &c.
561

drohita *= mfn. hostile , maliciously inclined L. druh: * =1 cl. 4. P. {dru4hyati} (ep. and metr "' also . {-te}) Br. MBh. R. &c. (pf. {dudrbha} RV., {-hitha} AV.; aor. {adruhat}, Gr "' Subj. 2 sg. {druhas} MBh., 3 pl. {druhan} [with {mA}] RV.; 2 sg. adrukshas AitBr.; fut. {dhrokSyati} MaitrS., {drohiSyati} Pn. 7-2, 45; {drogdhA}, {droDhA} or {drohitA} Gr.; inf. {drogdhavai} Kthh.; ind. p. {drugdhvA}, {drochitvA}, {druhitvA} Gr.; {-druhya} MaitrS.) to hurt, seek to harm, be hostile to (dat.; rarely gen. [R. ii, 99, 23 Hit. ii, 121] loc. [BhP. iv, 2, 21] or acc "' [Mn. ii, 144]); absol. to bear malice or hatred MBh. Hit.; to be a foe or rival Kvya7d. ii, 61: Caus. {drohayati}: Desid. {dudrohiSati}, {dudruh-} Gr.; {dudrukSat} Kthh. (cf. {abhi-} and {dudhrukSu}). [Orig. {dhrugh} [502, 3]; cf. Zd. {druj}; Germ. {triogan}, {trgen}.] druh4: * 2 mfn. (nom. {dhruk} or {dhruT} Pn. 8-2, 33; wrongly {druk}; cf. {ni4drA-}.) injuring, hurtful, hostile to (gen. or comp.) Mn. MBh. Pur.; m.f. injurer, foe, fiend, demon RV. Kthh.; f. injury, harm, offence RV. AV. [Cf. Zd. {druj}; Germ. {gidrog}, {gethroc}.] druha * = m. a son L.; a lake L. (cf. {draha}); ({I}) f. a daughter L. druhiNa * = m. id. Rjat.; N. of S'iva or Vishnu Hariv. (w.r. {-hina}).
562

druhvan * = mfn. hurting, injuring RV. AV. druhyu * = m. pl. N. of a people RV.; sg. N. of a son of Yayti and brother of Yadu &c. MBh. (w.r. {du4hyu}) Hariv. (v.l. {druhya}) Pur. druhya* = m. N. of a man; g. {zivA7di} pl. his descendants; g. {yaskA7di} (also v.l. for the next Hariv.) druhyet *V= will commit violence. druhaNa * =m. (either fr. 1. {druh}, or = {dru-ghaNa}) N. of Brahm L. drudha = robust drupadaH = Drupada drupadaputreNa = by the son of Drupada druta* = mfn. quick, speedy, swift MBh. R.; quickly or indistinctly spoken Gt.; flown, run away or asunder Kv. Pur.; dissolved, melted, fluid Kv.; m. a scorpion L.; a tree (cf. {druNa} and {druma}) L.; n. a partic. faulty pronunciation of vowels Pat.; ({am}) ind. quickly, rapidly, without delay. Mn. MBh. &c. dreshhkaaNa = A Varga. This is a subdivision of one
563

third or a sign. Also known as Dreshkana droha * = m. injury, mischief. harm, perfidy, treachery, wrong, offence Mn. MBh. R. &c. droNa = the teacher Drona droNaM = Drona droNaH = Dronacarya droNii = (f) bucket druma = tree druta * = quick, speedy, swift MBh. R.; quickly or indistinctly spoken Gt.; flown, run away or asunder Kv. Pur.; dissolved, melted, fluid Kv.; m. a scorpion L.; a tree (cf. {druNa} and {druma}) L.; n. a partic. faulty pronunciation of vowels Pat.; ({am}) ind. quickly, rapidly, without delay. Mn. MBh. &c. duda * = m. N. of a mountain MBh. xiii, 7658. dudda * = and mfn. giving pain, cruel, wicked L. duddAdin * = mfn. giving pain, cruel, wicked L. duddhara * = m. (for %{dur-dh-}?) a kind of ropeladder Pan5cad.
564

dudh * = cl. 1. P. %{do4dhati} (Nigh. ii, 12), to be angry, hurt, injure; Pres. p. %{do4dhat}, impetuous, wild, fierce RV. dudhi * = mfn. violent, impetuous, injurious RV.

duhitaH = (f) daughter duhitaa = (f) daughter duHs'Ila * = mfn. badly disposed, ill-behaved MBh. R. &c. ({-tA} f. Kull.); ({A}) f. N. of a woman Kaths.; {citta} mfn. bad-hearted, Subhsh. duHshcharita = adj. bad blooded duHkha = sorrow * = 1 mfn. (according to grammarians properly written {duS-kha} and said to be from {dus} and {kha} [cf. {su-kha4}]; but more probably a Prkritized form for {duH-stha} q.v.) uneasy, uncomfortable, unpleasant, difficult R. Hariv. (compar. {-tara} MBh. R.); n. (ifc. f. {A}) uneasiness, pain, sorrow, trouble, difficulty S'Br. xiv, 7, 2, 15 Mn. MBh. &c. (personified as the son of Naraka and Vedan VP.); ({am}) ind. with difficulty, scarcely, hardly (also {at} and {ena}) MBh. R.; impers. it is difficult to or to be (inf.with an acc. or nom. R. vii, 6, 38 Bhag. v, 6); {duHkham} - {as}, to be sad or uneasy Ratn. iv, 19/20; - {kR}, to cause or feel pain Yj. ii, 218 MBh. xii,
565

5298.\\2 Nom. P. {-khati}, to pain SaddhP. duHkhaM = distress duHkhataraM = more painful duHkhasa.nyoga = of the miseries of material contact duHkhahaa = diminishing pains duHkhaanaaM = material miseries duHkhaalayaM = place of miseries duHkhe = and distress duHkhena = by miseries duHkheshhu = in the threefold miseries duHkhaiH = the distresses duHkhita *= mfn. pained, distressed; afflicted, unhappy Mn. MBh. R. &c.; %{-citta} mfn. grieved in mind MW duHshiila = adj. bad-tempered duHstha mfn. `" standing badly "', unsteady,
566

disquieted (lit. and fig.); uneasy, unhappy, poor, miserable Pur. Ra1jat.; ignorant, unwise, a fool L.; covetous W.; (%{am}) ind. badly, ill; with %{sthA}, to be unwell Amar. 29. dukhanda = hot iron dugdha = milk duHs'iila* = mfn. badly disposed, ill-behaved MBh. R. &c. ({-tA} f. Kull.); ({A}) f. N. of a woman Kaths.; {citta} mfn. bad-hearted, Subhsh. DukriJNkaraNa = grammatic formula ``DukRi.nkaraNa'' DukriJNkaraNe = the grammatical formula ``DukRi.nkaraNe'' dura * = 1 = 1. {dur} only in {zata-} (q.v.) \\ * = 2 m. (perhaps {dRR}) `" one who opens or unlocks "', giver, granter (= {dAtR} Sy.) RV. i, 53, 2; vi, 35, 5. duraas'aya *= mfn. evil-minded, malicious Prab. ii, 28/29 BhP.; m. the subtle body which is not destroyed by death Sch. duravaapa *= mfn. ddifficult to be attained or accomplished MBh. vii, 727 S3ak. i, 26/27.

567

dur-bhraatri = bad brother duratyaya = very difficult to overcome * = mfn. {atikrama} KathhUp. iii, 14 MBh. R. &c.; inaccessible MBh. xiii, 4880; inscrutable, unfathomable R. iii, 71, 15 BhP.; {-yA7nukramaNa} mfn. whose ways are past finding out (God) MW. duraatman.h = evil natured, vile duraasadaM = formidable duraas'a * = mfn. having bad expectations Prab.iii, 5; ({A}) f. bad expectation, vain hope, despair Rjat. Bh duranvaya * = mfn. difficult to be passed along (road) R. ii, 92, 3; ddifficult to be accomplished or performed MBh. Hariv.; ddifficult to be found out or fathomed R.; not corresponding or suitable BhP. x, 84, 14; m. a false concord (in gram.); a consequence wrongly deduced from given premises MW duraapa * = mfn. didifficult to be attained or approached, inaccessible S3Br. Mn. MBh. &c.; m. N. of a Da1nava Hariv. duraasada *= ddifficult or dangerous to be approached MBh. Kv. Pur.; ddifficult to be found or met with, unheard of, unparalleled MBh. R.; difficult to be
568

accomplished (v.l. {-saha}); m. N. of S'iva, mystical N. of a sword MBh. xii, 6203. durbala = weak durbuddhi = stupid person, idiot durbuddheH = evil-minded durbhiksha = famine durdars'a * = mfn. difficult to be seen or met with KathhUp. past. MBh. R. &c.; disagreeable or painful to the sight MBh. Hariv. &c.; {-tA} f. MBh. viii, 861; {zatAya} Nom. . {-yate}, to have a bad or disgusting appearance MW. dureva* = mfn. ill-disposed, malignant; m. evildoer, criminal RV. AV. durga = fort durgati = bad state, defeat durgatiM = to degradation durgam.h = (n) fort durgama* = mfn. difficult to be traversed or travelled over, impassable, inaccessible, unattainable MBh.
569

Hariv. Kv.; m. or n. a ddifficult situation; m. N. of a son of Vasu-deva and Pauravi VP.; of Dhriita ib., &c.; {-mArga-nirgama} mfn. of ddifficult access and issue Pac. i, 427; {durgamA7zu-bodhinI} f. N. of a Comm. durgaa = Goddess Durga durgaaNi = impediments durghaTanaa = (f) calamity, disaster durita * = ({du4r-} RV. i, 125, 7) n. bad course, difficulty, danger. discomfort, evil, sin (also personified) RV. AV. Hariv. Kv. &c.; mfn. difficult, bad AV. xii, 2, 28; wicked, sinful L.; {-kSaya} m. destruction of sin BhP.; N. of a man ib.; {-damanI} f. Mimosa Suma L.; {tA7tman} mfn. evil-minded, malicious Subh. 147; {tA7ri} f. `" enemy of sin "'N. of a Jaina goddess; {tA7rNava} m. `" ocean of sins "'N. of a king Kautukar. durjana = wicked person durjanaM = bad person durnigrahaM = difficult to curb durniriikshyaM = difficult to see durnivaara = hard to correct
570

durlabha = ungettable durlabhaM = rare (thing) durlabhataraM = very rare durlakSya* = mfn. hardly visible Das3. Ra1jat.; n. a bad aim Ratn. iii, 2 durmada * = mad conception or illusion, foolish pride or arrogance Pur.; ({-ma4da}) mfn. drunken, fierce, mad, infatuated by (comp.) RV. MBh. &c.; m. N. of a son of Dhriita-rshthra MBh. i; of a son of Dhriita (father of Pracetas); of a son of Bhadra-sena (father of Dhanaka); of a son of Vasu-deva and Rohini or Paurav Pur.; {-davIra-mAnin} mfn. foolishly fancying (one's self) a hero BhP. iii, 17, 28; {-dA7ndha} mfn. `" blinded by mad illusion "', besotted, v, 12, 16; {-din} m. drinker, drunkard Pat. durmatiH = foolish durmanaH = (adj) evil-minded durmanaH = adj. evil-minded durmedhaa = unintelligent duryodhanaH = King Duryodhana
571

durvachana = wicked statements durvaadalashyaamaM = black as the'durvA' (flower)petal durvibhaavya *= mfn. d difficult to be perceived or understood Ka1v. durvidagdha = foolishly puffed up, vain durviniita * = mfn. badly educated, ill-conducted, undisciplined, mean, wicked, obstinate, restive MBh. Kv. &c. ({-taka} id. Kaths. xx, 9); m. N. of a sage (associated with Durvsas &c.) VarBriS. xlviii, 63; of a prince. durvisha* = m. `" ddifficult to be pervaded or approached "'N. of S'iva MBh. xii, 104 durvishaha* = mfn. ddifficult to be borne or supported, intolerable, irresistible, impracticable MBh. R. BhP. ({Sahya} id. MBh. R.); m. N. of S'iva MBh. xii, 10431; of a son of Dhriita-rshthra MBh. i. durvitarkya * = mfn. difficult to be discussed or understood BhP durvritta = those having wickedness

572

durvrittaM = bad deed dush*= ind. a prefix to nouns and rarely to verbs or adverbs (Pn. 2-1, 6; 2, 18 Vrtt. 2 Pat.; iii, 3, 126 &c.) implying evil, bad, difficult, hard [488, 2]; badly, hardly; slight, inferior &c. (opp. to {su}), often = Engl. {in-} or {un-} [cf. 2. {duS}; Zd. {dush-}; Gk. $; Goth. {tuz-}; O.H.G. {zur}.]. It becomes {dur} (q.v.) before vowels and soft consonants; {dU} (q.v.) before {r} and sometimes before {d}, {dh}, {n}, which become {D}, {Dh}, {N}; remains unchanged before {t}, {th} (in older language however {ST}, {STh}); becomes {duS} (q.v.), rarely {duH} before {k}, {kh}; {p}, {ph}; {duz} (q.v.) before {c}, {ch}; {duH} (q.v.), rarely {duz}, {duS}, {dus}, before {z}, {S}, {s}. dushkirtii = adj. declared evil dushhkritaaM = of the miscreants dushhkritinaH = miscreants dushhTagraha = Aspected (Aspecting) Planet dushhTabuddhii = adj. evil spirited dushhTaasu = being so polluted dustyajya * mfn. difficult to be relinquished or quitted

573

dushhpuuraM = insatiable dushhpuureNa = never to be satisfied dushhpraapaH = difficult to obtain dustara = hard to cross dustarka* = m. false reasoning, wrong argument BhP.; {-mUla} mfn. founded on it MW. dushtha* = mfn. spoilt, corrupted; defective, faulty; wrong, false; bad, wicked; malignant, offensive, inimical; guilty, culpable S'rS. Mn. Yj. Sus'r. MBh. &c.; sinning through or defiled with (cf. {karma} {mano-}, {yoni-}, {vAg-}); m. a villain, rogue; a kind of noxious animal Vishn. xii, 2; ({A}) f. a bad or unchaste woman L.; u. sin, offence, crime, guilt Hariv. R. (cf. {zruti-}); Costus Speciosus or Arabicus L. dushthataa* = f. or badness, wickedness dushthara* = mfn. difficult to be passed or overcome or endured; unconquerable, irresistible; incomparable, excellent RV. AV. (cf. {dus-t-}); {-ta4rItu} mfn. id. RV. TS.; N. of a man S'Br. xii, 9, 3, 1. dustara* = mfn. (cf. {S-T-}) difficult to be passed or overcome, unconquerable, invincible MBh. Kv. &c.
574

dustyajya * = mfn. difficult to be relinquished or quitted MBh. R. &c dussthaana = An evil position (6, 8, 12 Houses) duuda * = mfn. afflicting, harassing L. (For 1 . %{dU} see p. 488, col. 2.) duuta = messenger duura = far duura4 * = mf({A})n. (prob. fr. 1. {du}, hut see Un. ii, 21; compar. {da4vIyas}, superl. {daviSTha}, qq.vv.) distant, far, remote, long (way); n. distance, remoteness (in space and time), a long way S'Br. MBh. Kv. &c.; ({a4m}) ind. far, far from (gen. or abl. Pn. 2-3, 34 Ks'.), a long way off or a long period back RV. AV. S'Br. &c. (also {dUrA4d dUra4m} AV. xii, 2, 14); far above ({ut-patati} Hit. i, 101/102) or below ({ambhasi} Kaths. x, 29); far i.e. much in a high degree ({dUram un-mani-kRta} Prab. iii, 21/22; {dUraM-kR}, to surpass, exceed Ragh. xvii, 18; {-M-karaNa} mf({i})n. making far or distant, removing Vop. (v. l.); {-M-gata} mfn. = {-ra-g-} Sank.; {-M-gama4} mfn. going far away VS. xxxiv, 1; ({A}) f. (scil. {bhUmi}) one of the 10 stages in the life of a S'rvaka L.; ({eNa}) ind. (Pn. 23, 35) far, from afar, by far MBh. Kv. &c.; compar. {ra-tareNa} VP. iii, 7, 26, 33; ({At}) ind. (Pn. ib.) from
575

a distance, from afar RV. AV. MBh. &c.; far from (abl.) Mn. iv, 151; a long way back or from a remote period, iii, 130; in comp. with a pp. e.g. {dUrAd-Agata}, come from afar Pn. 2-1, 39; vi, 1, 2; 2, 144 Ks'.; ({e}) ind. (Pn. 2-3, 36 Ks'.) in a distant place, far, far away RV. i, 24, 9; iv, 4, 3 (opp. {a4nti}) and c AV. S'Br. Ts'Up.5(opp. {antike}) Mn. MBh. &c.; compar. {-ratare}, some way from (abl.) Mn. xi, 128; {dUre-kR}, to discard Amar. 67; {dUre-bhU} or {gam}, to be far away or gone off Kaths. Vet.; {-re tiSThatu}, let it be far i.e. let it be unmentioned, never mind Kaths. vi, 37. duuradarshakam.h = (n) telescope duuradarshana = television duuradarshanam.h = (n) television duuradarshii = one with far-sight especially a statesman duuradhvanii = telephone duuravaaNiivinimayakendram.h = (n) telephone exchange duurasthaM = far away durAza* = mfn. having bad expectations Prab.iii, 5; ({A}) f. bad expectation, vain hope, despair Rjat. BhP.
576

duurena = discard it at a long distance duure* = loc. of {dUra} (q.v.) in comp. duureanta* = mfn. ending in the remote distance, boundless (heaven and earth) RV. AV. duureartha* = ({-re4-}) mfn. whose aim is far off RV. vii, 63, 4. duuretya* = mfn. being far off, distant Pn. 4-2, 104 Vrtt. 1 Pat. duurebhaa* = ({-re4-}) mfn. shining to a distance RV. i, 65, 10. duureheti* = ({-re4-}) mfn. whose arrows fly to a distance PrGri. iii, 14; m. a partic. form of Agni TS. Comm. duurvaa.nkuraiH = with the bud of `dUrva' duushita * = mfn. spoiled , corrupted , contaminated , defiled , violated , hurt , injured Mn. MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; censured , blamed MBh. Katha1s. ; calumniated , blemished , compromised , falsely accused of (often in comp. see %{manyu-} , %{zatrU7pajApa}.) Mn. vi , 66 (v.l. %{bhUSita}) , viii , 64 &c. MBh. Bhartr2. Pan5c. &c. ; (%{A}) f. a girl who has been violated or deflowered W.
577

dva * =original stem of {dvi} q.v. (nom. acc. du. m. {dva4}, or {dvau4} fn. {dve4}; instr. dat. abl. {dvA4bhyAm} gen. loc. {dva4yos}) two RV. &c. &c.; both (with {api} Ragh. xii, 93); loc. {dvayos} in two genders (masc. and fem.) or in two numbers (sing. and pl.) Gr. L. [Cf. {dvA} and {dvi}; Zd. {dva}; Gk. &155939[503, 2] $, $ and $= $; Lat. {duo18} and {bi} = {dvi}; Lith. {du}, {dvi}; Slav. {du8va}; Goth. {tvai}, {tva} &c.] dvaa * =old nom. du. of {dva}, substituted for {dvi} in comp. before other numerals dvaapara * = m. n. that die or side of a die which is marked with two spots VS. TS. Ka1t2h. MBh.; the Die personified Nal. vi, 1; `" the age with the number two "'N. of the 3rd of the 4 Yugas or ages of the world (comprising 2400 years; the YYugas itself = 2000, and each twilight = 200 years; it is also personified as a god) AitBr. Mn. MBh. &c. RTL. 111; 433; N. of a myth. being MBh. i, 2713; doubt, uncertainty L.; %{cchandas} n. pl. a partic. class of metre Nida1nas.; %{stoma} m. pl. of Stomas ib. dvaara = entry (neut) dvaaraka* n. door, gate MBh.; ifc. occasioned or caused by S'ank.; ({akA}) f. `" many-gated "'N. of the capital of Kriishna (on the western point of Gjart, supposed to
578

have been submerged by the sea) MBh. Hariv. Pur. &c. ({ikA} f. id. L. RTL. 55, 1; 113; 400, 2). dvaaraM = door dvandva = couple dvandvaM = tha pair dvandvaH = the dual dvandvaiH = from the dualities dvayaM = twin dvaadashamaJNjarikaabhiH = by the bouquet consisting of 12 flowers (12 dvaidhaaH = duality dvau = (adj) two dve = two dvesha = haterd dveshha = hatred

579

dveshhaH = hatred dveshhau = also detachment dveshhTi = envies dveshhya = the envious dveshhyaH = hateful dvi = two, both dvisha * = mfn. (ifc.) hostile, hating (cf. {-tA} and {tva}) [507, 1]; hateful or unpleasant to Hariv.; m. foe, enemy L. dvishaa * = f. cardamoms dviguNa = twice dvichakrikaa = (f) bicycle dvija = brahmin, tooth dvijaa* = mfn. twice-born RV dvija* = mfn. twice-born; m. a man of any one of the first 3 classes, any ryan, (esp.) a Brhman (re-born through investiture with the sacred thread cf. {upa580

nayana}) AV. Mn. MBh. &c.; a bird or any oviparous animal (appearing first as an egg) Mn. MBh. &c.; a tooth (as growing twice) Sus'r. Bhartri. Var. (n. BhP. ii, 1, 31); coriander seed or Xantboxylum Alatum L.; ({A}) f. Piper Aurantiacum Bhpr.; Clerodendrum Siphonantus L.; {pAlaGkI} L. (cf. {-jA4} and {-jati}). dvijottama = O best of the brhmanas dvipa = elephant\\m. elephant (lit. drinking twice, sc. with his trunk and with his mouth) Mn. MBh. R. &c. (ifc. f. %{A}); N. of the number 8 Gan2it.; Mesua Ferrea L.; %{-dAna} n. the rut-fluid of an elephant Ragh.; %{-pati} m. `" prince of elephants "', a large eelephants Ratn.; %{-mada} m. = %{-dAna} L.; %{-pA7ri} m. `" foe of elephants "', a. lion BhP.; %{pA7sya} m. having an eelephant's face "'N. of Gan2e7s3a L.; %{--pe7ndra} m. = %{-pa-pati} Ragh.; %{--pe7ndradAna} n. the rut-fluid of a large eelephants Var.; %{-pe7zvara} m. = %{-pe4udra}, Malatim. dvipaada = two feet dvirdvaadashaa = 2nd and 12th house from each other dvishhataH = envious dvisvabhaavaraashi = Common Signs
581

dvitiiya* = mf({A})n. (fr. {dvi} Pn. 5-2, 54; decl "' i, 1, 36 Vrtt. 3 Pat. cf. vii, 3, 115) second RV. &c. &c.; ({am}) ind. for the second time KathhUp. MBh. &c.; m. companion, fellow (friend or foe) S'Br. MBh. &c.; ifc. doubled or accompanied by, furnished with (cf. a-, {chAyA-}, {dhanur-} &c.); the 2nd in a family (i.e. a son L.; cf. AitBr. vii, 29); the 2nd letter of a Varga i.e. the surd aspirate Prt. Pn. &c.; ({A}) f. female companion or friend Kthh. xcviii, 33; wife (a second self) L.; (sc. {vibhakti}) the 2nd case, the accusative or its terminations Pn. 2-1, 24 &c.; (sc. {tithi}) the 2nd day of a half-month Rtn. iv, 2/3; ({dvi4tIya}) mfn. (Pn. 5-3, 49) forming the 2nd part or half of anything, with {bhAga} m. half of (gen.) Mn. iv, 1 &c.; n. the half (at the beginning or end of a comp.) Pn. ib., ii, 2, 3 Ks'. dviipaH = (m) island * = m. n. (fr. %{dvi} + %{ap} Pa1n2. 5-4, 74; vi, 3, 97) an island, peninsula, sandbank RV. S3Br. MBh. &c.; a division of the terrestrial world (either 7 [Jambu, Plaksha or Go-medaka, S3a1lmali1, Kus3a, Kraun5ca, S3a1ka and Pushkara MBh. vi, 604 &c. Hariv. Pur. &c.] or 4 [Bhadra7s3va, Ketu-mlla, Jambu-dvipa and Uttara1h2 Kuravah2 MBh. vi, 208 Hariv. Ka1v. &c. cf. Dharmas. cxx] or 13 [the latter four + 9, viz. Indra-dvipa, Kaseru1-mat, Ta1mra-varn2a, Gabhasti-mat, Na1ga-dvipa, Saumya, Ga1ndharva, Varun2a and Bha1rata, which are enumerated VP. ii, 3, 6; 7, as forming Bha1rata-varsha] or 18 [among which
582

the Upa-dvipas are said to be included Naish. i, 5 Sch.]; they are situated round the mountain Meru, and separated from each other by distinct concentric circumambient oceans; %{ayaM@dvIpaH} = %{jambudv-} BhP. v, 16, 5 or = %{bhArata-dv-} VP. ii, 3, 7); m. place of refuge, shelter, protection or protector MBh. Ka1ran2d2.; a tiger's skin L.; cubebs L. (cf. %{sambhava}). dvividhaa = two kinds of dyaamutemaaM = sky dyutaM = gambling dyuta* = n. N. of the 7th mansion (= $) Var. (v.l. {dyuna}, or {dyUna}). dyUta* = n. (m. only MBh. ii, 2119; cf. Pn. 2-4, 31) play, gaming, gambling (esp. with dice, but also with any inanimate object). AV. S'rS. Mn. MBh. &c.; (fig.) battle or fight, contest for (comp.) MBh. iii, 3037 &c.; the prize or booty won in battle ib. vii, 3966; ix, 760. dyuti (dyoti)= gleam* = f. splendour (as a goddess Hariv. 14035), brightness, lustre, majesty, dignity. Mn. MBh. Var. Kv. &c.; (dram.) a threatening attitude Das'ar. Sh.; m. N. of a Riishi under Manu Merusvarna Hariv.; of a son of Manu Tmasa ib.
583

dyutiM = the sunshine dyau = from outer space

E ebhiH = by them ebhyaH = to these demigods edh* =cl. 1. . {e4dhate} (rarely P. {-ti}), {edhAMcakre}, {edhitA}, {edhiSyate}, {aidhiSTa}, to prosper, increase, become happy, grow strong RV. AV. VS. S'Br. Mn.; to grow big with self-importance, become insolent; to become intense, extend, spread, gain ground (as fire or passions) MBh. BhP.; to swell, rise (as waters) BhP.: Caus. {edhayati}, to cause to prosper or increase, wish for the welfare or happiness (of any one), bless BhP. Kum. vi, 90 Bhathth. edha* = m. ({indh}), fuel RV. i, 158, 4; x, 86, 18 VS. S'Br. Ragh. &c. [232,1]; (mfn.) ifc. kindling see {agnyedha}; [cf. Gk. $, $; Hib. &72394[232,1] {aodh}; O. H. G. {eit}; Angl. Sax. {a7d}.] edhaa.nsi = firewood

584

edhamAnadviS * = mfn. hating those who have become insolent or impious (through prosperity) edhate = (1 ap) to grow edhita * = mfn. grown, increased, enlarged, made big, made to spread, filled up edhitR * = mfn. one who increases edhanIya * mfn. to be increased or enlarged. edhavat * =mfn. kept up with fuel (as fire) edhodaka * =n. fuel and wate r edhatu * =1 (for 2. see p. 232, col. 1), {us} mf. prosperity, happiness RV. viii, 86, 3 AV. S'Br. &c.; ({us}) m. man Un. i, 79; (mfn.) increased, grown L. edhas * =1 {as} n. happiness, prosperity\\ 2 n. fuel edha * =m. ({indh}), fuel RV. i, 158, 4; x, 86, 18 VS. S'Br. Ragh. &c. [232, 1]; (mfn.) ifc. kindling see {agnyedha}; [cf. Gk. $, $; Hib. &72394[232, 1] {aodh}; O. H. G. {eit}; Angl. Sax. {a7d}.] eka = one

585

ekaM = one ekaH = (adj) one ekatvaM = in oneness ekatvena = in oneness ekada.ntaM = one who has a single tusk ekada.ntaaya = to the one-tusked ekamaksharaM = pranava ekamevaadvitiiyaM = one without a second ekaanta *= m. a lonely or retired or secret place, (%{e} ind. in a lonely or solitary place, alone, apart, privately) MBh. Mn. S3ak. &c.; a single part, part, portion Pat.; the only end or aim, exclusiveness, absoluteness, necessity R. Sus3r. &c.; devotion to one object, worship of one Being, monotheistic doctrine MBh. BhP.; (% {am}, %{ena}, %{At}) ind. solely, only, exclusively, absolutely, necessarily, by all means, in every respect, invariably MBh. Megh. Bhartr2. Kap. &c.; (mfn.) directed towards or devoted to only one object or person BhP. R. &c.; %{-karuNa} mfn. wholly and solely compassionate, wholly charitable Hit.; %{-grahaNa} n. partial comprehension Car.; %{-grAhin} mfn.
586

comprehending partially ib.; %{-tas} ind. lonely, alone; solely, exclusively, invariably, &c.; %{-tA} f. %{-tva} n. exclusive worship BhP.; the state of being a part or portion Pat.; %{-duHSamA} f. `" containing only bad years "', (with Jainas) N. of two spokes in the wheel of time (the sixth of the Avasarpin2i1 and the first of the Utsarpin2i1, qq.v.); %{-bhAva} m. devotedness to only one object MBh.; %{-bhUta} mfn. one who is alone or solitary BhP.; %{-mati} mfn. having the mind fixed on one object; %{-rahasya} n. N. of wk.; %{-rAj} m. N. of a Bodhi-sattva; %{-vihArin} mfn. wandering alone; % {-zIla} mfn. fond of loneliness MBh.; %{-suSamA} f. `" containing only good years "', (with Jainas) N. of two spokes in the wheel of time (the first of Avasarpin2i1 and the sixth of Utsarpin2i1, qq. v.); %{-sthita} mfn. staying or remaining alone or apart. akatva * = n. oneness, unity, union, coincidence, identity Ka1tyS3r. MBh. Sus3r. &c.; (in Gr.) the singular number Ka1s3.; singleness, soleness HYog. ekayaa = by one ekavachanaM = singular ekasthaM = in one place ekasmin.h = in one

587

ekaaH = one ekaakini = solitary woman ekaakii = alone ekaagra = one-pointed ekaagraM = with one attention ekaagreNa = with full attention ekaantaM = overly ekaaksharaM = the one syllable eke = in one ekena = alone ekaikaM = one by one ekaikamaksharaM = each and every word eko.ahaM = I the one single being enaM = this

588

enas * = {as} n. ( {i} Un. iv, 197; {in} BRD.), mischief, crime, sin, offence, fault RV. AV. S'Br. Mn. &c.; evil, unhappiness, misfortune, calamity RV. AV.; censure, blame L.; [cf. Zd. {aenaGh}; Gk. $.] enasvin * = mfn. wicked, &72437[232, 1] sinful, a sinner RV. AitBr. S'Br. Mn. enasya * = mfn. produced by sin; counted a sin or crime, wicked, sinful AV. vi, 115, 2; viii, 7, 3 S'Br. eraka * = m. N. of a Nga MBh. i, 2154; ({A}) f. a kind of grass of emollient and diluent properties MBh. VP. Bhpr. &c.; [cf. Gk. $]; &72471[232, 1] ({I}) f. a species of plant; N. of a river; ({am}) n. a woollen carpet (Buddh.) eSaNa* = 1 {am}, {A} n. f. impulse, ardent desire BhP. \\* = 2 mfn. seeking for, wishing Nir.; m. an iron arrow L.; ({A}) f. seeking with, desire, begging, solicitation, request S'Br. Pn. Rjat. &c.; (with Jainas) right behaviour when begging food Sarvad. 39, 9; ({I}) f. an iron or steel probe Sus'r.; a goldsmith's scale L.; ({am}) n. the act of seeking, begging, solicitation MBh.; medical examination, probing Sus'r. eSa* = 1 mfn. gliding, running, hastening RV. \\* = 2 (nom. m. of {eta4d} q.v.)\\* = 3 mfn. (fr. 3. {iS}) ifc. seeking S'Br. xiii; m. the act of seeking or going after
589

RV. x, 48, 9; ({eSa4}), wish, option RV. i, 180, 4, (cf. {svaI7Sa4}); ({A}) f. wish L.; [cf. Zd. {ae7sha}; O. H. G. {e1r}.] eshhaH = this eshhaa = this eshhaaM = of them eshhyati = comes eshhyasi = you will attain etat.h = it etan.h = this etayoH = of these two etasya = of this etaaM = this etaan.h = all these etaani = all these

590

etaavan* = (by Sandhi for {etA4vat}) etaavat.h = this much * = mfn. so great, so much, so many, of such a measure or compass, of such extent, so far, of such quality or kind RV. AV. S'Br. MBh. &c.; (often in connection with a relative clause, the latter generally following; {etAvAn eva puruSo yaj jAyA7tmA prajA}, a man is of such measure as [i.e. made complete by] his wife, himself, and his progeny Mn. ix, 45) R. BhP. Hit. &c.; ({at}) ind. so far, thus far, so much, in such a degree, thus RV. vii, 57, 3 S'Br. Hit. &c. etad * = mfn. (Gr. 223; g. %{sarvA7di} Pa1n2. 1-1, 27) this, this here, here (especially as pointing to what is nearest to the speaker e.g. %{eSa@bANaH}, this arrow here in my hand; %{eSa@yAti@panthAH}, here passes the way; %{eSa@kAlaH}, here i.e. now, is the time; % {etad}, this here i.e. this world here below); sometimes used to give emphasis to the personal pronouns (e.g. % {eSo'ham}, I, this very person here) or with omission of those pronouns (e.g. % {eSa@tvAM@svargaM@nayAmi}, I standing here will convey thee to heaven; %{etau@praviSTau@svaH}, we two here have entered); as the subject of a sentence it agrees in gender and number with the predicate without reference to the noun to be supplied (e.g. % {etad@eva@hi@me@dhanam}, for this [scil. cow] is my only wealth MBh.); but sometimes the neuter sing.
591

remains (e.g. %{etad@guruSu@vRttiH}, this is the custom among Gurus Mn. ii, 206); %{etad} generally refers to what precedes, esp. when connected with % {idam}, the latter then referring to what follows (e.g. % {eSa@vai@prathamaH@kalpaH} % {anukalpas@tv@ayaM@jJeyaH}, this beforementioned is the principal rule, but this following may be considered a secondary rule Mn. iii, 147); it refers also to that which follows, esp. when connected with a relative clause (e.g. % {eSa@cai9va@gurur@dharmo@yam@pravakSyAmy @ahaM@tava}, this is the important law, which I will proclaim to you MBh.) RV. &c. &c.; (%{a4d}) ind. in this manner, thus, so, here, at this time, now (e.g. % {na4@vA4@u@eta4n@mriyase}, thou dost not die in this manner or by that RV. i, 162, 21) AV. VS. &c.; [cf. Zd. {ae7ta}; Old Pers. {aita}; Armen. {aid}; Osk. {eiso}.] eti = attain * = f. arrival, approach RV. x, 91, 4; 178, 2. ete = they etena = by this eteshhaaM = of the Pandavas etaiH = all these

592

etaiH = all these eva = ( used to put emphasis ) eva * = 1 (in the Sanhit also {evA4}) ind. ({i} Un. i, 152; fr. pronom. base {e} BRD., probably connected with 2. {e4va}), so, just so, exactly so (in the sense of the later {evam}) RV. AV.; indeed, truly, really (often at the beginning of a verse in conjunction with other particles, as {id}, {hi}) RV.; (in its most frequent use of strengthening the idea expressed by any word, {eva} must be variously rendered by such adverbs as) just, exactly, very, same, only, even, alone, merely, immediately on, still, already, &c. (e.g. {tvam eva yantA nA7nyo 'sti pRthivyAm}, thou alone art a charioteer, no other is on earth, i. e. thou art the best charioteer MBh. iii, 2825; {tAvatIm eva rAtrim}, just so long as a night; {evam} {eva} or {tathai9va}, exactly so, in this manner only; in the same manner as above; {tenai9va mantreNa}, with the same Mantra as above; {apaH spRSTvai9va}, by merely touching water; {tAn eva}, these very persons; {na cirAd eva}, in no long time at all; {japyenai9va}, by sole repetition; {abhuktvai9va}, even without having eaten; {iti vadann eva}, at the very moment of saying so; {sa jIvann eva}, he while still living, &c.) RV. &c. MBh. &c.; (sometimes, esp. in connection with other adverbs, {eva} is a mere expletive without any exact meaning and not translatable e.g. {tv eva}, {cai9va}, {eva ca},
593

&c.; according to native authorities {eva} implies emphasis, affirmation, detraction, diminution, command, restrainment); [cf. Zd. {aeva}; Goth. {aiv}; Old Germ. {eo}, {io}; Mod. Germ. {je}.] e4va * = 2 mfn. ({i}), going, moving, speedy, quick TBr. iii Un.; m. course, way (generally instr. pl.) RV.; the earth, world VS. xv, 4; 5 [Mahdh.]; a horse RV. i, 158, 3 [Sy.]; ({As}) m. pl. way or manner of acting or proceeding, conduct, habit, usage, custom RV.; [cf. Gk. $, $; Lat. &72584[232, 2] {aevu-m}; Goth. {aivs}; O.H.G {e7wa} and Angl. Sax. {e7u}, {e7o}, `" custom "', `" law "'; Germ. {ehe}.] evam * = ind. (fr. pronom. base %{e} BRD.; probably connected with 1. %{eva4}), thus, in this way, in such a manner, such, (it is not found in the oldest hymns of the Veda, where its place is taken by 1. %{eva4}, but occurs in later hymns ind in the Bra1hman2as, especially in connection with %{vid}, `" to know "', and its derivatives [e.g. %{ya@evaM@veda}, he who knows so; cf. %{evaM-vi4d}, col. 3]; in classical Sanskr2it %{evam} occurs very frequently, especially in connection with the roots %{vac}, `" to speak "', and %{zru}, `" to hear "', and refers to what precedes as well as to what follows [e.g. %{evam@uktvA}, having so said [232,3]; %{evam@evai9tat}, this is so; % {evam@astu}, or %{evam@bhavatu}, be it so, I assent; %{asty@evam}, it is so; %{yady@evam}, if this be so;
594

%{kim@evam}, how so? what is the meaning of it? what does this refer to? %{mai9vam}, not so! %{evam} - %{yathA} or %{yathA} - %{evam}, so - as) Mn. S3ak. &c.; (it is also often used like an adjective [e.g. % {evaM@te@vacane@rataH}, rejoicing in such words of thine; where %{evam} = %{evaM-vidhe}]) MBh. S3ak. &c.; sometimes %{evam} is merely an expletive; according to lexicographers %{evam} may imply likeness (so); sameness of manner (thus); assent (yes, verily); affirmation (certainly, indeed, assuredly); command (thus, &c.); and be used as an expletive. eva.nvidhaH = like this eva.nvidhaaH = like this evaapi = also

G ga *= 1 (3rd consonant of the alphabet), the soft guttural having the sound %{g} in %{give}; m. N. of Gan2e7s3a L.\\ 2 mf(%{A})n. (%{gam}) only ifc. going, moving (e.g. %{yAna-}, going in a carriage Mn. iv, 120 Ya1jn5. iii, 291; %{zIghra-}, going quickly R. iii, 31, 3; cf. %{antarikSa-} &c.); having sexual intercourse with (cf. %{anya-strI-}); reaching to (cf. %
595

{kaNTha-}); staying, being, abiding in VarBr2. Ragh. iii, 13 Katha1s. &c. (e.g. %{paJcama-}, abiding in or keeping the fifth place, S3rut.); relating to or standing in connection with R. vi, 70, 59 BhP. &c. (cf. %{a-}, % {agra-}, %{a-jihma-}, %{atyanta-}, &c.; %{agre-ga4}, &c.)\\3 mf(%{I} Pa1n2. 3-2, 8)n. (%{gai}) only ifc. singing (cf. %{chando-}, %{purANa-}, %{sAma-}); m. a Gandharva or celestial musician L.; (%{A}) f. a song L.; (%{am}) n. id. L.\\ 4 (used in works on prosody as an abbreviation of the word %{guru} to denote) a long syllable W.; (in music used as an abbreviation of the word %{gAndhAra} to denote) the third note. gaa = (v) to come gaana* = n. singing, song KtyS'r. Lthy. i, vii Hariv. 11793 Sis'. ix, 54; a sound L. (cf. {araNya-}, {Uha-}, {Uhya-} gaathazravas * = ({-tha4-}) mfn. famous through (epic) songs (Indra), viii, 2, 38. gaathaka * = m. (Pn. 3-1, 146) a singer (chanter of the Purnas) Pn. 1-1, 34 Ks'. Rjat. vii, 934; ({ikA}) f. an epic song Yj. i, 45 MBh. iii, 85, 30 Ratna7v. ii, 5/6. gaathA-kAra * = m. author of (epic) songs or verses Pn. 3-2, 23; a singer, reciter W.

596

gaathA-nArAzaMsI4 * = f. du. epic songs and particularly those in praise of men or heroes MaitrS. i, 11, 5; f. pl. id. S'Br. xi, 5, 6, 8 (cf. {nArAzaMsI4}.) gaathAnI * = mfn. leading a song or a choir RV. i, 190, 1 and viii, 92, 2. gaathA7ntara * = m. N. of the fourth Kalpa or period of the world. gaatha * = m. a song RV. i, 167, 6 and ix, 11, 4 SV.; ({gA4thA}) f. id. RV.; a verse, stanza (especially one which is neither Riic, nor Sman, nor Yajus, a verse not belonging to the Vedas, but to the epic poetry of legends or khynas, such as the S'unahs'epa-khyna or the Suparn.) AV. TS. TBr. S'Br. &c.; the metrical part of a Stra Buddh.; N. of the ry metre; any metre not enumerated in the regular treatises on prosody (cf. {RggAthA}, {riju-gAtha}, {yajJa-gAthA}.) gaaM = the planets gaanga = of the ganga river gaaNDiivaM = the bow of Arjuna gaatraaNi = limbs of the body gaana = singing
597

gaayakaH = (m) singer gaaayantikaa * = f. (fr. %{-ntI} f. of %{gAyat}), `" singing "'N. of a cave in the Hima7laya MBh. v, 2836 gaayati = (1 pp) to sing gaayatrii = the Gayatri hymns gaayikaa = (f) singer gaahate = (1 ap) to plunge gaahamaana = (present participle) swimming or floating gaganayaatrikaH = (m) astronaut gabhiira* = mf({A4})n. deep (opposed to {gAdha} and {dIna}) RV. &c. [346, 3]; (Naigh. i, 11) deep in sound, deepsounding, hollow-toned RV. v, 85, 1 Riitus.; profound, sagacious, grave, serious, solemn, secret, mysterious RV. AV. v, 11, 3; ({gambh-} MBh. &c.) Prab. iv, 15 Sh.; dense, impervious BhP. viii, 3, 5; ({gambh-} R. iii); not to be penetrated or investigated or explored, inscrutable; `" inexhaustible "', uninterrupted (time) BhP. i, 5, 8; ({gambh-}, iv, 12, 38; v, 24, 24); m. N. of a son of Manu Bhautya or of Rambha VP. iii, 2, 43 BhP. ix, 17, 10.

598

gachati = to go gaccha* = m. ({gam}) a tree L.; the period (number of terms) of a progression ryabh. ii, 20 and Sch. on 19; family, race Jain.; ({As}) m. pl.N. of a people (v.l. for {kakSa}). gachchhataam.h = (may the two)go gachchhati = goes gachchhan.h = going gachchhanti = they reach gada * = m. a sentence MBh. i, 1787; disease, sickness Sus'r. Ragh. &c.; N. of a son of Vasu-deva and younger brother of Kriishna MBh. Hariv. BhP.; of another son of Vasu-deva by a different mother, ix, 24, 51; n. poison L.; ({A}) f. a series of sentences RmatUp. ii, 5, 4; a mace, club, bludgeon MBh. R. &c.; Bignonia suaveolens L.; N. of a musical instrument; of a constellation VarBri. Laghuj.; v.l. for {gadhA} TS. Sch. (cf. {a-gada4}, {a4-vijJAta-g-}.) gaDa * = m. a kind of gold-fish (the young of the Ophiocephalus Lata or another species, Cyprinus Garra) L.; a screen, covering, fence L.; a moat, ditch L.; an impediment L.; N. of a district (part of Malva,
599

commonly Garha or Garha Mandala) L.; ({A}) f. (in music) a kind of Rgin (cf. {tRNa-g-}, {payo-g-}.) gadati = (1 pp) to say gadinaM = with maces gahanaa = very difficult gahvara: deep, impervious, impenetrable TS. v Hariv. BhP.; confused (in mind) Kaths. lxi, 39 and 41; m. an arbour, bower L.; a cave, cavern L.; ({A}) f. the plant Embelia Ribes L.; ({I}) f. a cave, cavern L.; the earth Gal.; ({am}) n. `" an abyss, depth "' (`" water "' Naigh. Nir.) see {-re-STha4}; a hiding-place, thicket, wood AV. xii, 2, 53 MBh. R. &c.; an impenetrable secret, riddle MBh. xiii, 1388; a deep sigh L.; hypocrisy L.; Abrus precatorius (?) L. gaja = Elephant gajaH = elephant gajakeshariyoga = Yoga in which the Moon is in an angular position (Kendra) or 1, 4, 7, 10 signs from Jupiter. Good Yoga for Wealth and Power based on strength and other factors in the chart gajendraaNaaM = of lordly elephants
600

gaJNjiiphaa = playing cards gakaaraH = beginning with the letter `ga' gala = neck galita = (adj) dropped off galitaM = weakened gam * =1 Ved. cl. 1. P. {ga4mati} (Naigh.; Subj. {gamam}, {ga4mat} [{gamAtas}, {gamAtha} AV.], {gamAma}, {gaman} RV.; Pot. {game4ma} RV.; inf. {ga4madhyai} RV. i, 154, 6): cl. 2. P. {ga4nti} (Naigh.; Impv. 3. sg. {gantu}, [2. sg. {gadhi} see {A-}, or {gahi} see {adhi-}, {abhy-A-}, {A-}, {upA7-}], 2. pl. {ga4ntA} or {gantana} RV.; impf. 2. and 3. sg. {a4gan} [RV. AV.], 1. pl. {a4ganma} [RV. AV.; cf. Pn. 8-2, 65], 3. pl. {a4gman} RV.; Subj. [or aor. Subj. cf. Pn. 24, 80 Ks'.] 1. pl. {ganma}, 3. pl. {gma4n} RV.; Pot. 2. sg. {gamyAs} RV. i, 187, 7; Prec. 3. sg. {gamyA4s} RV.; pr. p. {gma4t}, x, 22, 6): cl. 3. P. {jaganti} (Naigh. ii, 14; Pot. {jagamyAm}, {-yAt} RV.; impf. 2. and 3. sg. {ajagan}, 2. pl. {ajaganta} or {-tana} RV.): Ved. and Class. cl. 1. P. (also . MBh. &c.), with substitution of {gacch} [= $] for {gam}, {ga4cchati} (cf. Pn. 7-3, 77; Subj. {gA7cchAti} RV. x, 16, 2; 2. sg. {gacchAs} [RV. vi, 35, 3] or {gacchAsi} [AV. v, 5, 6]; 2. pl. {gacchAta} RV. viii, 7, 30; 3. pl. {ga4cchAn} RV. viii, 79, 5; impf.
601

{a4gacchat}; Pot. {gacchet}; pr. p. {ga4cchat} RV. &c.; aor. {agamat} Pn. 3-1, 55; vi, 4, 98 Ks'.; for . with prepositions cf. Pn. 1-2, 13; 2nd fut. {gamiSyati} AV. &c.; 1st fut. {ga4ntA} [Pn. 7-2, 58] RV. &c.; perf. 1. sg. {jagamA} [RV.], 3. sg. {jagAma}, 2. du. {jagmathur}, 3. pl. {jagmu4r} RV. &c.; p. {jaganva4s} [RV. &c.] or {jagmivas} Pn. 7-2, 68 f. {jagmu4SI} RV. &c. [347, 1]; Ved. inf. {ga4ntave}, {ga4ntavai4}; Class. inf. {gantum}: Ved. ind. p. {gatvAya}, {gatvI4}; Class. ind. p. {gatvA4} [AV. &c.], with prepositions {gamya} or {-gatya} Pn. 6-4, 38) to go, move, go away, set out, come RV. &c.; to go to or towards, approach (with acc. or loc. or dat. [MBh. Ragh. ii, 15; xii, 7; cf. Pn. 2-3, 12] or {prati} [MBh. R.]) RV. &c.; to go or pass (as time e.g. {kAle gacchati}, time going on, in the course of time) R. Ragh. Megh. Naish. Hit.; to fall to the share of (acc.) Mn. &c.; to go against with hostile intentions, attack L.; to decease, die Cn.; to approach carnally, have sexual intercourse with (acc.) s'vGri. iii, 6 Mn. &c.; to go to any state or condition, undergo, partake of, participate in, receive, obtain (e.g. {mitratAM gacchati}, `" he goes to friendship "' i.e. he becomes friendly) RV. AV. &c.; {jAnubhyAm avanIMgam}, `" to go to the earth with the knees "', kneel down MBh. xiii, 935 Pacat. v, 1, 10/11; {dharaNIM mUrdhnA-gam}, `" to go to the earth with the head "', make a bow R. iii, 11, 6; {ma4nasA-gam}, to go with the mind, observe, perceive RV. iii, 38, 6 VS. Nal. R.; (without {ma4nasA}) to observe, understand, guess
602

MBh. iii, 2108; (especially Pass. {gamyate}, `" to be understood or meant "') Pn. Ks'. and L. Sch.; {doSeNa} or {doSato-gam}, to approach with an accusation, ascribe guilt to a person (acc.) MBh. i, 4322 and 7455 R. iv, 21, 3: Caus. {gamayati} (Pn. 2-4, 46; Impv. 2. sg. Ved. {gamayA} or {gAmaya} [RV. v, 5, 10], 3. sg. {gamayatAt} AitBr. ii, 6; perf. {gamayA4M cakAra} AV. &c.) to cause to go (Pn. 8-1, 60 Ks'.) or come, lead or conduct towards, send to (dat. AV.), bring to a place (acc. [Pn. 1-4, 52] or loc.) RV. &c.; to cause to go to any condition, cause to become TS. S'Br. &c.; to impart, grant MBh. xiv, 179; to send away Pn. 1-4, 52 Ks'.; `" to let go "', not care about Blar. v, 10; to excel Prasannar. i, 14; to spend time S'ak. Megh. Ragh. &c.; to cause to understand, make clear or intelligible, explain MBh. iii, 11290 VarBriS. L. Sch.; to convey an idea or meaning, denote Pn. 3-2, 10 Ks'.; (causal of the causal) to cause a person (acc.) to go by means of {jigamiSati} another Pn. 1-4, 52 Ks'.: Desid. {ji4gamiSati} Pn., or {jigAMsate} Pn. 6-4, 16 Siddh.; impf. {ajigAMsat} S'Br. x) to wish to go, be going Lthy. MBh. xvi, 63; to strive to obtain S'Br. x ChUp.; to wish to bring (to light, {prakA4zam}) TS. i: Intens. {ja4Gganti} (Naigh.), {jaGgamIti} or {jaGgamyate} (Pn. 7-4, 85 Ks'.), to visit RV. x, 41, 1 (p. {ga4nigmat}) VS. xxiii, 7 (impf. {aganIgan}); [cf. $; Goth. {qvam}; Eng. {come}; Lat. {venio} for {gvemio}.]

603

gama*= mf({A})n. (Pn. 3-3, 58) ifc. going (e.g. {araM-}, {kAma-}, {kha-}, {tiryag-}, &c.); riding on (in comp.) Hcat. i, 11, 718; m. going, course Pn. 5-2, 19; march, decampment VarYogay. iv, 58; intercourse with a woman (in comp.) Mn. xi, 55 Yj. ii, 293; going away from (abl.) Caurap.; (in math.) removal (as of fractions), Bjag.; a road L.; flightiness, superficiality L.; hasty perusal W.; a game played with dice and men (as backgammon &c.) L.; a similar reading in two texts Jain. gamaH = take to gamana = Going gamanaM = going gamyate = one can attain gaNa* = m. a flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, class (of animate or inanimate beings), body of followers or attendants RV. AV. &c.; troops or classes of inferior deities (especially certain troops of demigods considered as S'iva's attendants and under the special superintendence of the god Gane7s'a; cf. {devatA}) Mn. Yj. Lalit. &c.; a single attendant of S'iva VarBriS. Kaths. Rjat. iii, 270; N. of Gane7s'a W.; a company, any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims Mn. Yj.
604

Hit.; the 9 assemblies of Riishis under the Arhat Mahvra Jain.; a sect in philosophy or religion W.; a small body of troops (= 3 Gulmas or 27 chariots and as many elephants, 81 horses, and 135 foot) MBh. i, 291; a series or group of asterisms or lunar mansions classed under three heads (that of the gods, that of the men, and that of the Rkshasas) W.; (in arithm.) a number L.; (in metre) a foot or four instants (cf. {-cchandas}); (in Gr.) a series of roots or words following the same rule and called after the first word of the series (e.g. {ad-Adi}, the g. {ad} &c. or the whole series of roots of the 2nd class; {gargA7di}, the g. {garga} &c. or the series of words commencing with {garga}); a particular group of Smans Lthy. i, 6, 5 VarYogay. viii, 7; a kind of perfume L.; = {vAc} (i.e. `" a series of verses "') Naigh. i, 11; N. of an author; ({A}) f. N. of one of the mothers in Skanda's retinue MBh. ix, 2645 (cf. {ahar-}, {maru4d-}, {vR4Sa-}, {sa4-}, {sapta4-}, {sa4rva-}; {deva-}, {mahA-}, and {vida-gaNa4}.) ga.n = the letter or sound `ga.n gantavyaM = to be reached gantaasi = you shall go gandha = smell (masc) gandhaH = fragrance
605

gandharva = of the Gandharvas gandharvaaNaaM = of the citizens of the Gandharva planet gandhaan.h = smellsgariimaa = (f) superiority gangaa = river Ganga gangaasaagara = the sea of Ganga (banks of the Ganges) gaN.h = to count, to consider gaNa = Number gaNadevatA* = {As} f. pl. troops of deities who generally appear in classes (dityas, Vis'vas, Vasus, Tushitas, bhsvaras, Anilas, Mahrjikas, Sdhyas, and Rudras) gaNakarishhiH = the rishi of this stotra is gaNaka gaNanaa = consideration gaNapataye = to gaNapati gaNapati = gaNaanaaM pathiH or lord of groups (of devas)
606

gaNapatiM = Ganesh gaNapatirdevataa = the god of this stotra gaNapatii = god of luck and wisdom gaNayati = (10 up) to count gaNita = mathematics gaNeshavidyaa = the knowledge of gaNeshha gaNDa = the cheek garbha = womb * = m. (%{grabh} = %{grah}, `" to conceive "'; 2. %{gRR} Un2. iii, 152) the womb RV. AV. &c.; the inside, middle, interior of anything, calyx (as of a lotus) MBh. VarBr2S. &c. (ifc. f. %{A}, `" having in the interior, containing, filled with "' S3a1n3khS3r. RPra1t. MBh. &c.) [349,3]; an inner apartment, sleepingroom L.; any interior chamber, adytum or sanctuary of a temple &c. VarBr2S. RTL. p. 445; a foetus or embryo, child, brood or offspring (of birds) RV. AV. &c.; a woman's courses Vishn2.; `" offspring of the sky "' i.e. the fogs and vapour drawn upwards by the rays of the sun during eight months and sent down again in the rainy season (cf. Mn. ix, 305) R. iv, 27, 3 VarBr2S. Ba1lar. viii, 50; the bed of a river (esp. of the Ganges) when fullest i.e. on the fourteenth
607

day of the dark half of the month Bha1dra or in the height of the rains (the Garbha extends to this point, after which the Ti1ra or proper bank begins, and extends for 150 cubits, this space being holy ground); the situation in a drama when the complication of the plot has reached its height Das3ar. i, 36 Sa1h. vi, 68 and 79; the rough coat of the Jaka fruit L.; fire L.; joining, union L.; N. of a R2ishi (called Pra1ja1patya) Ka1t2h.; [cf. % {amRta-}, %{ardha-}, %{kRSNa-}, %{mUDha-}, % {vizva-}, %{hiraNya-}; cf. also $; Hib. {cilfin}, `" the belly "'; Angl. Sax. {hrif}; Germ. {kalb}: Engl. {calf}.] garbhaM = pregnancy garbhaH = embryo garbhapiNDa = an embryo garbhaasana = the foetus posture garbhiNii = (f) a pregnant woman garbhin* mfn. pregnant, impregnated or filled with (acc. S3Br.vi, viii f. xi; or instr., xiv, 9, 4, 21) RV. iii, 29, 2 TS. (f. pl. %{garbhi4Nayas}, ii, 1, 2, 6; cf. Pa1n2. 7-3, 107 Pat.) &c.; (%{iNI}), a pregnant woman Mn. Ya1jn5. i, 105 MBh. &c.; pregnant (as an animal) VarBr2S. lxvii, 1O (cf. Un2. iii, 152); ifc. with words denoting animals (e.g. %{go-garbhiNI}, a pregnant
608

cow) Pa1n2. 2-1, 71. garda = Dark shade gardabha = donkey gardabhaH = (m) donkey Garhapatya: the fire from which sacrificial fires are lighted. garhaNa* = mfn. containing a blame (as a question) Kaths. lxxxiii; n. censuring, censure, blame, reproach MBh. xii, 9153 R. Sarvad. iv, 1; (in rhet.) Sh. vi, 174 and 190; ({A}) f. id. MBh. iii, 1283; {-NAM-yA}, to meet with reproach Mn. ii, 80. garhaNIya* = mfn. to be blamed, blamable Yj. i, 86 MBh. i, 3604; iii, 3888. [350,3] gArhapata* = n. (fr. {gRha4-pati} g. {azvapaty-Adi}) the position and dignity of a householder S'Br. v TndyaBr. x KtyS'r. Lthy. (cf. {kuru-g-}.) gArhapatya* = mfn. with {agnI}, or m. (Pn. 4-4, 90) the householder's fire (received from his father and transmitted to his descendants, one of the three sacred fires, being that from which sacrificial fires are lighted RTL. 364) AV. VS. S'Br. &c.; m. or n. = {-sthAna}
609

S'Br. vii, 1, 2, 12 KtyS'r. xvii, 1, 3; m. pl.N. of a class of manes MBh. ii, 462; n. the government of a family, position of a householder, household RV. i, 15, 12; vi, 15, 19; x, 85, 27 and 36. gArhasthya* = (sometimes wrongly spelt {-stha}) mfn. (fr. {gRha-stha}), fit for or incumbent on a householder MBh. ix, xiii; n. the order or estate of a householder, of the father or mother of a family Gaut. iii, 36 MBh. i, iii R. ii, &c.; household, domestic affairs MBh. xiv, 162 BhP. iii; ix, 6, 47. garhaa* = f. censure, abuse MBh. Pn. Pacat.; disgust exhibited in speech Sh. iii, 180. gaarha* = mfn. (fr. {gRha4}), `" domestic "', in comp gariiyaan.h = glorious gariiyaH = better gariiyas mfn. (TBr. i; compar. fr. %{guru4} Pa1n2. 64, 157) heavier W.; extremely heavy R. vi; greater than (abl.) MBh. xiv, 255; more precious or valuable, dearer than (abl.) Gaut. Mn. MBh. &c.; extremely important, i, 8426; very honourable Pan5cat.; highly venerable, more venerable than (abl.) Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c.; dearer than (abl.), dearer MBh. &c.; worse, i, 1886 Ca1n2. gariiyasa mfn. dearer than (instr.) MBh. i, 67, 114.
610

gariiyase = who are better gariiyastara mfn. greater MBh. vii, 5324.

gariiyastva n. great weight Katha1s. lxxiv, 192; importance MBh. R. Ka1m. garj.h = to thunder garjanam.h = thundering sound garta = (m) pit, trench, cavity garuDa = eagle garuDaasana = the eagle posture garva = vanity garvaM = arrogance/haughtiness gata = gone; -* gata. gone, gone away, departed, departed from the world, deceased, dead RV. i, 119, 4 AV. &c.; past (as time), gone by Mn. viii, 402 MBh. &c.; disappeared (often in comp.) Mn. vii, 225 MBh. &c.; come, come forth from (in comp. or abl.) R. iv, 56, 10 Kaths. ii, 11; come to, approached, arrived at, being in, situated in, contained in (acc. or loc. or in comp. e.g. {sabhAM g-}, `" come to an assembly "' Mn. viii, 95;
611

{kAnyakubje g-}, gone to Knyakubja Pacat. v; {ratha-g-}, sitting or standing in a carriage R. iii; {Adya-g-}, {turya-g-}, {antya-g-}, taking the first, fourth, last place; {sarva-g-}, spread everywhere Nal. ii, 14) RV. i, 105, 4 AV. x, 10, 32 S'Br. &c.; having walked (a path acc.); gone to any state or condition, fallen into (acc. or loc. or in comp. e.g. {kSayaM} or {ye g-}, gone to destruction; {Apad-g-}, fallen into misfortune Mn. ix, 283) TUp. Mn. &c.; relating to, referring to, connected with (e.g. {putra-g- sneha}, love directed towards the son R. i; {tvad-g-}, belonging to thee); walked (a path), frequented, visited RV. vii, 57, 3 R. Kum.; spread abroad, celebrated MBh. iii; `" known, understood "', having the meaning of (loc.) L.; n. going, motion, manner of going MBh. iv, 297 R. S'ak. vii, 7 Vikr. &c.; the being gone or having disappeared Cn.; the place where any one has gone Pn. Ks'.; anything past or done, event W.; diffusion, extension, celebration ChUp. vii, 1, 5; manner Pn. 1-3, 21 Vrtt. 5. gata(H) = (Masc.Nom.S)having gone or the person who has gone gataM = reached (past part.) gataH = returned gatachintaa = thinking of

612

gatarasaM = tasteless gatavati = while gone gatavyathaaH = freed from all distress gatasangasya = of one unattached to the modes of material nature gataa = became gataaH = having achieved gataagataM = death and birth gataasuun.h = gata + asuun.h:departed life (dead people) gati = the movement; gati* = f. going, moving, gait, deportment, motion in general RV. v, 64, 3 VS. TS. &c.; manner or power of going; going away Yj. iii, 170; procession, march, passage, procedure, progress, movement (e.g. {astra-g-}, the going or flying of missile weapons R. v; {parAM gatiM-gam}, `" to go the last way "', to die; {daiva-g-}, the course of fate R. vi Megh. 93; {kAvyasya g-}, the progress or course of a poem R. i, 3, 2); arriving at, obtaining (with gen. loc., or ifc.) S'Br. ix MBh. &c.; acting accordingly, obeisance towards (loc.) p. i, 13 f.; path, way, course (e.g. {anyatarAM gatiM-gam}, `" to go either way "', to
613

recover or die s'vS'r.) R. Bhag. &c.; a certain division of the moos path and the position of the planet in it (the diurnal motion of a planet in its orbit?) VarBriS.; issue Bhag. iv, 29; running wound or sore Sus'r.; place of issue, origin, reason ChUp. i, 8, 4 f. Mn. i, 110 R. Mudr.; possibility, expedient, means Yj. i, 345 R. i Mlav. &c.; a means of success; way or art, method of acting, stratagem R. iii, vi; refuge, resource Mn. viii, 84 R. Kaths. Vet. iv, 20; cf. RTL. p. 260; the position (of a child at birth) Sus'r.; state, condition, situation, proportion, mode of existence KathhUp. iii, 11 Bhag. Pacat. &c.; a happy issue; happiness MBh. iii, 17398; the course of the soul through numerous forms of life, metempsychosis, condition of a person undergoing this migration Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; manner s'vGri. i Sch.; the being understood or meant Pat.; (in gram.) a term for prepositions and some other adverbial prefixes (such as {alam} &c.) when immediately connected with the tenses of a verb or with verbal derivatives (cf. {karmapravacanIya}) Pn. 1-4, 60 ff.; vi, 2, 49 ff. and 139; viii, 1, 70 f.; a kind of rhetorical figure Sarasv. ii, 2; a particular high number Buddh.; `" Motion "' (personified as a daughter of Kardama and wife of Pulaha) BhP. i, v, 1; m. N. of a son of Anala Hariv. i, 3, 43. gatiM = progress, V*= destination, position, way, progress, path

614

gatiH = entrance gatra = body gatvaa = attaining gavaakshaH = (m) window, an opening for ventilation gaurava = glory gata mfn. gone, gone away, departed, departed from the world, deceased, dead RV. i, 119, 4 AV. &c.; past (as time), gone by Mn. viii, 402 MBh. &c.; disappeared (often in comp.) Mn. vii, 225 MBh. &c.; come, come forth from (in comp. or abl.) R. iv, 56, 10 Katha1s. ii, 11; come to, approached, arrived at, being in, situated in, contained in (acc. or loc. or in comp. e.g. % {sabhAM@g-}, `" come to an assembly "' Mn. viii, 95; %{kAnyakubje@g-}, gone to Ka1nyakubja Pan5cat. v; %{ratha-g-}, sitting or standing in a carriage R. iii; % {Adya-g-}, %{turya-g-}, %{antya-g-}, taking the first, fourth, last place; %{sarva-g-}, spread everywhere Nal. ii, 14) RV. i, 105, 4 AV. x, 10, 32 S3Br. &c.; having walked (a path acc.); gone to any state or condition, fallen into (acc. or loc. or in comp. e.g. %{kSayaM} or %{-ye@g-}, gone to destruction; %{Apad-g-}, fallen into misfortune Mn. ix, 283) TUp. Mn. &c.; relating to,
615

referring to, connected with (e.g. %{putra-g-@sneha}, love directed towards the son R. i; %{tvad-g-}, belonging to thee); walked (a path), frequented, visited RV. vii, 57, 3 R. Kum.; spread abroad, celebrated MBh. iii; `" known, understood "', having the meaning of (loc.) L.; n. going, motion, manner of going MBh. iv, 297 R. S3ak. vii, 7 Vikr. &c.; the being gone or having disappeared Ca1n2.; the place where any one has gone Pa1n2. Ka1s3.; anything past or done, event W.; diffusion, extension, celebration ChUp. vii, 1, 5; manner Pa1n2. 1-3, 21 Va1rtt. 5. gauravaM = respect gautama* = mf({I})n. relating to Gotama (with {padastobha} m. pl.N. of a Sman); m. patr. fr. Gotama (N. of Kus'ri, Uddlaka, Aruna S'Br.; of S'aradvat Hariv. Mriicch. v, 30 VP.; of S'ata7nanda L.; of S'kya-muni; of Nodhas and Vma-deva RAnukr.; of a teacher of ritual Lthy. s'vS'r. s'vGri.; of a grammarian TPrt. Lthy. [with the epithet {sthavira}]; of a legislator Yj. i, 5; the father of Ekata, Dvita, and Trita MBh. ix, 2073); (= {got-}) N. of the first pupil of the last Jina (one of the three Kevalins); N. of a Nga (also {-maka}) DivyA7v. ii; m. pl. Gautama's family Hariv. 1788 Pravar.; a kind of poison L.; n. N. of several Smans rshBr. Lthy. iv, 6, 16; fat (cf. {bhAradvAja}, `" bone "') L.; ({gau4tamI}) f. (ganas {gaurA7di} and {zArGgaravA7di}) a female descendant of Gotama (N.
616

of Kriip Hariv. BhP.; of Mah-prajpat Lalit. vii, xv) MBh. xiii, 17 ff. S'ak.; N. of Durg Hariv. 10236; of a Rkshas L.; of a river (= {go-dAvarI}, or {go-matI}) MBh. xiii, 7647 R. vi, 2, 27; the bile-stone of cattle ({go-rocanA}) L.; = {rAjanI} L. gavi = in the cow geya = that which can be sung * = mfn. (Pn. 3-1, 97 Ks'.) to be sung, being sung or praised in song Lthy. Hariv. Pn. 3-4, 68 BhP. x; singing, singer of (gen.) Pn. 3-4, 68; n. a song, singing MBh. R. Megh. &c. (said of the flies) humming Pacat. i, 15, 8/9); cf. {AzIr-}, {prAtar-}. geyaM = is to be sung gehe = in the house gehenardin * = mfn. `" shouting defiance at home "', id. ib. Bhathth. v, 41. ghRNa = heat, ardour, sunshine, through heat or sunshine; a warm feeling towards others, compassion, tenderness; aversion, contempt; horror, disgust; a kind of cucumber ghaaTa * =mfn. (%{ghaT}) `" working on "' see % {danta-}; = %{ghATA} (or %{-Te}) %{yasyA7sti} (or
617

%{-sya@stas}) g. %{arza-Adi} (not in Ka1s3.); n. management of an elephant Gal.; m. for %{ghaTa} (a pot) Hariv. 16117 (C); the nape or back of the neck, cervical ligament L.; (%{A}) f. id. Car. i, 17, 17 Sus3r. vi, 25, 11 (cf. g. %{arza-Adi}) (cf. %{kara-}.) //2 ghaata = mfn. (%{han} Pa1n2. 7-3, 32 and 54) ifc. `" killing "' see %{amitra-}, %{go-}; m. a blow, bruise MBh. R. &c.; slaying, killing Mn. x, 48 Ya1jn5. MBh. &c.; injuring, hurting, devastation, destruction Ya1jn5. ii, 159 MBh. &c.; (see %{grAma-} & %{karma-}); (in astron.) entrance Su1ryapr. AV. Paris3.; the product (of a sum in multiplication) Gan2it. ghanadhAtu* = m. `" inspissated element of the body "', lymph L ghaTa = pot * = mfn. intently occupied or busy with (loc.) Pa1n2. 5-2, 35; = %{ghaTA@yasyA7sti} g. % {arza-Adi}; m. a jar, pitcher, jug, large earthen waterjar, watering-pot Mn. viii, xi Ya1jn5. iii, 144 Amr2itUp. MBh. &c.; the sign Aquarius VarBr2S.; a measure = 1 Dron2a (or = 20 Dron2as W.) Asht2a7n3g. v, 6, 28 S3a1rn3gS. i, 28; the head MBh. i, 155, 38 Sch.; a part of a column VarBr2S. liii, 29; a peculiar form of a temple, lvi, 18 and 26; an elephant's frontal sinus L.; a border L.; (= %{kumbha4}) suspending the breath as a religious exercise L.; (along with %{karpara} cf. %{karpara}) N. of a thief Katha1s. lxiv, 43; (%{A}) f. (gan2as %{arza-Adi}, %{sidhmA7di} and %
618

{picchA7di}) effort, endeavour L.; an assembly L.; a number, collection, assemblage BhP. iii, 17, 6 Kpr. vii, 11/12; a troop (of elephants) assembled for martial purposes Ma1lati1m. v, 19 VarBr2S. xliii S3is3. i, 64 Katha1s. Ra1jat.; justification (%{-TAm-aT}, `" to have one's self justified by another "') Bhadrab. iv; (perhaps %{-Ta}, m.) a kind of drum; a sweet citron L.; (%{I}) f. a waterjar Prab. ii, 7/8; (also %{-Ti} q.v.; cf. %{-TIghaTa}) a period of time (= 24 minutes) Sch. on Ya1jn5. ii, 100-102 and on Su1ryas. i, 25; the Ghari1 or Indian clock (plate of iron or mixed metal on which the hours are struck) L.; a particular procession PSarv. (cf. %{dur-}, %{bhadra-}.) ghaTaH = (m) earthen pot ghaTaka = component ghaTi = Hour ghataH = (m) earthen pot ghatii = (f) clock, watch ghana = dark, ghana also means cloud ghanasama = Like cloud ghanishha = well-built
619

ghaatayati = causes to hurt ghaatukaH = (m) butcher ghna * = mf({A} MBh. xiii, 2397 Hariv. 9426; {I} f. of 2. {han} q.v.)n. ifc. striking with Mn. viii, 386; killing, killer, murderer, ix, 232 MBh. R. iii; destroying Mn. viii, 127 Yj. i, 138 R. i BhP. iv; removing Mn. vii, 218 Hariv. 9426 Sus'r.; multiplied by VarBriS. li, 39 Sryas. (f. {I}); n. ifc. `" killing "' see {a4hi-}, {parNaya-ghna4} (cf. {artha-}, {arzo-}, {kAsa-}, {kula-}, {kuSTha-}, {kRta-}, {kRmi-}, {gara-}, {guru-}, {go-}, {jvara-}, {puruSa-}, &c.) ghna4t * = mfn. pr. p. {han} q.v. ghora = horrible * = mf({A4})n. (cf. {ghur}) venerable, awful, sublime (gods, the Angiras, the Riishis) RV. AV. ii, 34, 4; terrific, frightful, terrible, dreadful, violent, vehement (as pains, diseases, &c. ) VS. AV. TS. ii S'Br. xii &c. (in comp., g. {kASThA7di}); ({am}) ind. `" dreadfully "', very much g. {kASTA7di}; m. `" the terrible "', S'iva L. (cf. {-ghoratara}); N. of a son of Angiras S'nkhBr. xxx, 6 s'vS'r. xii, 13, 1 ChUp. MBh. xiii, 4148; ({A}) f. the night L.; N. of a cucurbitaceous plant L.; (scil. {gati}) N. of one of the 7 stations of the planet Mercury VarBriS. vii, 8 and 11; ({I}) f. N. of a female attendant of Durg W.; ({a4m}) n. venerableness VS. ii, 32; awfulness, horror AV. S'Br. ix Kaus'. BhP. iv, 8, 36 Gobh. ii, 3 Sch.; `" horrible action "', magic
620

formulas or charms RV. x, 34, 14 s'vS'r. S'nkhS'r. R. i, 58, 8 [379,3]; a kind of mythical weapon MBh. v, 3491; poison L.; saffron L. (cf. {dhIra} and {gaura}). ghore = ghastly ghoshha = noise ghoshthha* =m. (n. L.; fr. {stha} Pn. 8-3, 97) an abode for cattle, cow-house, cow-pen, fold for cattle RV. VS. AV. &c.; stable or station of animals (in general Pn. 52, 29 Vrtt. 3) MBh.; meeting-place, xii, 6547 (= 9953); with {aGgirasAm}N. of a Sman TndyaBr. xiii; {apA4M g-}, a water-vessel AV. xi, 1, 13; `" refuge (of men) "', S'iva MBh. xiv, 198; N. of an author Buddh.; n. = {-SThI-zrAddha} Kull. on Mn. iii, 254; ({A}) f. a place where cows are kept Ganar. 56 Sch.; ({I}) f. an assembly, meeting, society, association, family connections (esp. the dependent or junior branches), partnership, fellowship MBh. (metrically {-SThi}, v, 1536) &c.; conversation, discourse, dialogue Pacat. Kd.; a kind of dramatic entertainment in one act Sh. vi, 274; N. of a village g. {palady-Adi} (Ks'. Ganar. 325); {-karman} n. a rite relating to the cow-stable Kaus'. 19; {-kukkuTa} m. a kind of crow Npr.; {gocara} m. id. ib.; {-cara} m. a kind of hawk Gal.; {-ja} m. `" born in a cow-pen "'N. of a Brhman PhithS.; {pati} m. a chief herdsman L.; {-zva} m. (fr. {zva4n}) `" a dog in a cow-pen which barks at every one "', one who
621

stays at home and slanders his neighbours, malicious or censorious person L.; {-SThA7gAra} m. n. a house in a cow-pen L.; {-SThA7dhyakSa} m. = {-STha-pati} L.; {SThA7STamI} f. N. of a festive day (cf. {gopA7ST-}); {-SThe-kSveDin} &c. see s. v. {-SThe}. 2. ghrita = purified butter, Hindi ghee ghritaM = (Nr.nom. + acc. S) ghee; clarified butter gheparaida = (m) a celebration of homosexuality ghoshhaH = vibration ghosha * = m. indistinct noise, tumult, confused cries of a multitude, battle-cry, cries of victory, cries of woe or distress, any cry or sound, roar of animals RV. AV. &c.; the sound of a drum, of a conchshell, of the Soma stones, of a carriage, &c. RV. AV. &c.; the whizzing or whir of a bow-string [TBr. ii], crackling of fire [MBh. ix, 1334], singing in the ear [S'Br. xiv]; the roaring of a storm, of thunder, of water, &c. RV. AV. Sus'r. Megh.; the sound of the recital of prayers MBh. R. Mriicch. x, 12; the sound of words spoken at a distance S'Br. ix; rumour, report (also personified KtyS'r. Sch.) RV. x, 33, 1; a proclamation SaddhP. iv; a sound (of speech) ChUp. Sus'r.; the soft sound heard in the articulation of the sonant consonants ({g}, {gh}, {j}, {jh}, {D}, {Dh}, {d}, {dh}, {b}, {bh}, {G}, {J}, {N}, {n}, {m}, {y},
622

{r}, {l}, {v}, {h}), the vowels, and Anusvra which with the Yamas of the first 10 of the soft consonants make up altogether 40 sounds (cf. {a-gh-}) RPrt. xiii, 5 f. APrt. Sch. Pn. 1-1, 9 Sch.; an ornament that makes a tinkling sound BhP. x, 8, 22; a station of herdsmen MBh. Hariv. R. &c. (ifc. cf. Pn. 6-2, 85); (pl.) the inhabitants of a station of herdsmen MBh. iv, 1152; a particular form of a temple Hcat. ii, 1, 389; a musquito L.; Luffa foetida or a similar plant L.; N. of S'iva MBh. xii, 10386; N. of a man (Sy.) RV. i, 120, 5; of an Asura Kthh. xxv, 8; of a prince of the Knva dynasty BhP. xii, 1, 16; of a son of Daksha's daughter Lamb Hariv. 148 and 12480; of an Arhat Buddh.; a common N. for a Kya-stha or one of the writer caste W.; m. pl. (g. {dhUmA7di}) N. of a people or country VarBriS. xiv, 2; m. n. brass, bellmetal L.; ({A}) f. Anethum Sowa L.; = {karkaTazRGgI} L.; N. of a daughter of Kakshvat RV. i, 117, 7; 122, 5 (? Impv. {ghuS}); x, 40, 5 (cf. {Atma-}, {indra-}, {uccair-}, &c.) ghoshhayati = (10 up) to proclaim, announce ghnataH = being killed ghnii = destroying ghoshaNa * = mfn. sounding BhP. iv, 5, 6; n. proclaiming aloud, public announcement R. v, 58, 18 Hit. (v.l.); (ifc. Ragh. xii, 72); (%{A}) f. id. Mr2icch. x,
623

12 and 25 Pan5cat. Das3. Katha1s. ghraaNaM = smelling power giiratha* = m. `" the vehicle of speech "' = {gir-Iza} L. gila * = swallowing gir.h = language giraH = words giraaM = of vibrations gira* = 1 ifc. = 1. {gi4r}, speech, voice VarBriS. xxxii, 5; 1. ({A}) f. (g. {ajA7di} Ganar. 41 Sch.) id. L. giri = mountain girikandara = (neut) ravine girijaa = paarvati girish = God of mountain attributed to Lord Shiva giri4s'a * =m. (g. {lomA7di}) `" inhabiting mountains "', N. of Rudra-S'iva VS. xvi, 4 (voc.) MBh. Ragh. Kum. &c.; N. of a Rudra RmatUp.; ({A}) f. = {-zAyikA} Sus'r. i, 46, 2, 14; N. of Durg Hariv. 9423 (v.l.
624

{guhasya jananI}). gir117s'a * =m. (= {-rI7ndra}) a high mountain; N. of the Himavat L.; `" mountain-lord "', S'iva MBh. xiii, 6348 Kum.; one of the 11 Rudras Yj. ii, 102/103, 34; ({A}) f. N. of Durg Hariv. 9424 (cf. {giri-zA}). gi4riis'a * m. `" lord of &110071[355, 1] speech "'N. of Briihaspati (regent of the planet Jupiter) L gilati = to swallow giita = (n) song* = mfn. ( {gai}) sung, chanted, praised in songs Mn. ix, 42 MBh. &c.; n. singing, song VS. xxx TBr. iii S'Br. iii, vi p. &c.; N. of four hymns addressed to Kriishna; ({A}) f. a song, sacred song or poem, religious doctrines declared in metrical form by an inspired sage (cf. Agastyaggta4. Bhagavad-ggta4 [often called Gt Prab. vi, 9/10 &c.], Rma-ggta4, S'iva-ggta4); N. of a metre. giitakrama* = m. the arrangement of a song W.; = {varNa} L. giitajJa* = mfn. versed in the art of singing, acquainted with songs Yj. iii, 116. giitanRtya* = n. sg. song and dance R. i, 24, 5; a particular dance.
625

giitaka* = n. a song, hymn Yj. iii, 113 BhP. viii VP. (Sh. i, 2/3, 14) Kaths.; a kind of metre ({narkuTaka}) VarBriS. civ, 52; melody (seven in number) MrkP. xxiii, 51 and 59 ({ikA}) f. a short song or hymn MBh. iii, 8173 ({gAthikA} ed. Bomb.); a metre of 4 X 20 syllables; a stanza composed in the Gti metre Kaths. cxvii, 109 (with reference to 65 f.) (cf. {daza-gItikA}.) giitaM = described giitaa = Shrimad.h Bhagavad.h gItA glaaniH = discrepancies glaayati = (1 pp) to fade go = cow / bull * = {gau4s} (acc. {gA4m} instr. {ga4vA} dat. {ga4ve}, gen. abl. {go4s} loc. {ga4vi}; du. {gA4vA} [Ved.], {gA4vau}; pl. nom. {gA4vas} acc. {gA4s} [rarely {gA4vas} TBr. iii TUp. MBh. iv, 1506 R. ii] instr. {go4bhis} dat. abl. {go4bhyas}, gen. {ga4vAm} [once at the end of a Pda RV. iv, 1, 19] and [in RV. at the end of Pdas only cf. Pn. 7-1, 57] {go4nAm} loc. {go4Su}) m. an ox f. a cow, (pl.) cattle, kine, herd of cattle RV. &c. (in comp. before vowels [cf. Pn. 6-1, 122 ff.] {gav}, {gava}, qq. vv.; cf. also {gavAm}, {gavi}, {gAM} ss.vv.; {gavAM vrata}N. of a Sman; {gavAM tIrtha} see {go t-}; {go4Su-gam}, to set out for a battle [to conquer cows] RV. ii, 25, 4; v, 45,
626

9; viii, 71, 5); `" anything coming from or belonging to an ox or cow "', milk (generally pl.), flesh (only pl. RV. x, 16, 7; `" fat "' Gmn.), skin, hide, leather, strap of leather, bow-string, sinew (RV. x, 27, 22 AV. i, 2, 3) RV.; = {go4-SToma} (q.v.) AitBr. iv, 15 S'Br. xiii ( also {go-Ayu4s}); (pl.) `" the herds of the sky "', the stars RV. i, 154, 6 and vii, 36, 1; (m. [also f. Un. Sch.]) rays of light (regarded as the herds of the sky, for which Indra fights with Vriitra) MBh. i, iii Hariv. 2943 R. &c.; m. the sign Taurus VarBriS. xl f. VarBri. Laghuj.; the sun (cf. {-putra}) Nir. ii, 6 and 14; the moon L.; a kind of medicinal plant ({RSabha}) L.; a singer, praiser (fr. {gai}) Naigh. iii, 16; `" a goer "', horse (fr. 1. {gA}) Sy. on RV. i, 121, 9 and iv, 22, 8; N. of two Riishis of the SV. (with the patr. ngirasa [TndyaBr. xvi] and Myka); N. of a man (who with Pushkara is said to be the {balA7dhyakSa} of the sons and grandsons of Varuna) MBh. ii, 381 (cf. R. vii, 23, 28); m. or f. (?) the sus ray called Sushumna Nir. ii, 6; water BhP. i, 10, 36 (also f. pl., xi, 7, 50); an organ of sense BhP. vii, 5, 30; the eye Kuval. 70; a billion TndyaBr. xvii, 14, 2; mf. the sky Naigh. i, 4 (perhaps VS. xxiii, 48); the thunderbolt Sy. on RV. v, 30, 7; the hairs of the body L.; f. an offering in the shape of a cow (= {dhenu} q.v.) W.; a region of the sky L.; (Naigh. i, 1) the earth (as the milk-cow of kings) Mn. iv, xii MBh. R. &c.; (hence) the number `" nine "' Jyot. Sryas.; = {go-vIthI} Sch. on VarBriS. ix, 1 ff.; a mother L. (cf. VarBriS. iii, 68); (Naigh. i, 11) speech, Sarasvat (goddess of speech)
627

MBh. i, iii, v Ragh. ii, v Cn.; voice, note (fr. {gai}) S'is'. iv, 36; N. of Gaur Gal.; of the wife [or of a daughter-in-law BhP. ix, 21, 25] of S'uka (a daughter of the manes called Suklas) Hariv. 986 MatsyaP.; N. of a daughter of Kakut-stha and wife of Yayti Hariv. 1601; [cf. $; Lat. {bos}; Old Germ. {chuo}; Mod. Germ. {Kuh}; Eng. {cow}; Lett. {gohw}; cf. also $, $; Goth. {gavi} and Mod. Germ. {Gau}.] gocara m. pasture ground for cattle A1pS3r. i , 2 , 4 ; (R. iv , 44 , 80) ; range , field for action , abode , dwelling-place , district (esp. ifc. `" abiding in , relating to "' ; `" offering range or field or scope for action , within the range of , accessible , attainable , within the power "') Kat2hUp. iii , 4 Mn. x , 39 MBh. &c. ; the range of the organs of sense , object of sense , anything perceptible by the senses , esp. the range of the eye (e.g. %{locana-gocaraM-yA} , to come within range of the eye , become visible Pan5cat.) MBh. vii , 5616 Sus3r. Vikr. iv , 9 &c. [364,2] ; the distance of the planets from the Lagna and from each other VarBr2S. civ , 2 Romakas. ; mf(%{A})n. being within the range of , attainable for (gen.) BhP. iii , 25 , 28 ; perceptible (esp. to the eye) MBh. xiii , 71 , 33 and 91 , 24 ; having (or used in) the meaning of (loc.) L. Sch. ; %{-gata} mfn. one who has come within the range of or in connection with (gen.) Bhartr2. ; %{-tA} f. the state of being liable to (in comp.) Sarvad. iv , 253 ; %{-tva} n. id. , 42 ; %{prakaraNa}N. of wk. ; %{-phala}N. of VarBr2S. civ ; %
628

{-pIDA} f. inauspicious position of stars within the ecliptic VarBr2S. xli , 13 ; %{-rA7dhyAya} m. = %{ra-phala} ; %{-rA7ntara-gata} mfn. being within the power of (gen.) Pan5cat. ; %{-rI-kRta} mfn. within the range of observation Sa1h. iii , 28 a/b ; overcome (by fatigue , %{glAnyA}) Hcar. v , 139. gocaryaa * = f. seeking food like a cow BhP. xi, 18, 29 gokula* = n. a herd of kine MBh. R. &c.; a cow-house or station ib.; a village or tract on the Yamun (residence of Nanda and of Kriishna during his youth BhP.; [RTL. p. 113] the inhabitants of that place) BhP. ii, 7, 31; N. of a certain sanctuary or holy place Rjat. v, 23; {-jit} m. N. of an author of the 17th century; {nAtha} m. N. of the author of the Padavkyaratna7kara; of the author of the Rasa-maha7rnava; {stha} m. pl.N. of a Vaishnava sect; {-lA7STaka} n. N. of a poem; {-le7za} m. `" lord of the Gokula "'N. of Kriishna Gal.; {-lo7dbhavA} f. N. of Durg L. gola = globe goloka * = m. (n., Tantr.), `" cow-world "', a part of heaven, or (in later mythol. RTL. 118 and 291) Kriishna's heaven MBh. xiii, 3195 (cf. 3347) Hariv. 3994 (cf. 3899) R. ii BrahmaP.; {-varNana} n. N. of BrahmaP. iv, 4; of part of the Sad-siva-sanhit; of part of SkandaP.
629

gomukha = musical instrument resembling a cow's face gomukhaaH = horns gomukhaasana = the cow-faced posture gotra = family, race gopa = cover, that which is not visible gosa* = m. ({so}) = {-visarga} L.; ({e}) loc. ind. (v.l. {go-ze}) at day-break L. Sch.; (in Prkriit Hl.) gosa* =2 m. myrrh L. goshaa* = mfn. ({sA} = {san} Ks'. on Pn. 3-2, 67 and viii, 3, 108 = {-Sa4Ni} RV. ix, 2, 10; 16, 2; 61, 20; x, 95, 3. [367,2] goshthhika* = mfn. relating to an assemblage or society Pacat. i, 14. goshthhe* = loc. of {-STha4} q.v.; {-kSveDin} mfn. `" bellowing in a cow-pen "', a boasting coward, g. {pAtresamitA7di} and {yuktA7rohy-Adi}; {-paTu} mfn. `" clever in a cow-pen "', a vain boaster ib.; {-paNDita} mfn. id. ib.; {-pragalbha} mfn. `" courageous in a cowpen "', a boasting coward ib.; {-vijitin} mfn. `" victorious in a cow-pen "' id. ib.; {-zaya} mfn. sleeping
630

in a cow-stable Yj. iii, 263; {-zUra} m. a hero in a cow-pen, boasting coward g. {pAtre-samitA7di} and {yuktA7rohy-Adi}. goshthhya* = ({go4-}) mfn. being in a cow-stable VS. xvi, 44. 1. gostana* = m. a cow's dug MBh. iii, 32, 4; a cluster of blossoms, nosegay W.; a pearl necklace consisting of 4 (or of 34 W.) strings L.; a kind of fort; ({I}) f. a kind of red grape Bhpr. v, 6, 108; N. of one of the mothers attending on Skanda MBh. ix, 2621; {-nA7kAra} mfn. shaped like cow's dug Sus'r. ii, vi Bhpr. v; {-nI-sava} m. a kind of wine Npr. goshthoma* = ({go4-}) m. ({sto4ma} Pn. 8-3, 105 Ks'.) an Eka7ha ceremony forming part of the Abhiplava which lasts 6 days (also called {go4} q.v.) TS. vii Lthy. x (cf. AitBr. iv, 15 and {-stoma}.) 1. goshthhaana* = mfn. ({sth-}) serving as an abode for cows VS. i, 25. goshthhI* = f. of {-STha4} q.v.; {-pati} m. the chief person or president of an assembly W.; {-bandha} m. meeting for conversation Kd. v, 825; {-yAna} m. a society-carriage Mriicch. vi, 4; {-zAlA} f. a meetingroom; {-zrAddha} n. a kind of S'rddha ceremony Kull. on Mn. iii, 254 (RTL. p. 305).
631

gostoma* = m. (Pn. 8-3, 105 Ks'.) = {-SToma} s'vS'r. ix, 5, 2. gosthaana* = n. a station for cattle, cow-pen Hariv. 3397 (cf. {-SThA4na}.) goshthha* = m. (n. L.; fr. {stha} Pn. 8-3, 97) an abode for cattle, cow-house, cow-pen, fold for cattle RV. VS. AV. &c.; stable or station of animals (in general Pn. 52, 29 Vrtt. 3) MBh.; meeting-place, xii, 6547 (= 9953); with {aGgirasAm}N. of a Sman TndyaBr. xiii; {apA4M g-}, a water-vessel AV. xi, 1, 13; `" refuge (of men) "', S'iva MBh. xiv, 198; N. of an author Buddh.; n. = {-SThI-zrAddha} Kull. on Mn. iii, 254; ({A}) f. a place where cows are kept Ganar. 56 Sch.; ({I}) f. an assembly, meeting, society, association, family connections (esp. the dependent or junior branches), partnership, fellowship MBh. (metrically {-SThi}, v, 1536) &c.; conversation, discourse, dialogue Pacat. Kd.; a kind of dramatic entertainment in one act Sh. vi, 274; N. of a village g. {palady-Adi} (Ks'. Ganar. 325); {-karman} n. a rite relating to the cow-stable Kaus'. 19; {-kukkuTa} m. a kind of crow Npr.; {gocara} m. id. ib.; {-cara} m. a kind of hawk Gal.; {-ja} m. `" born in a cow-pen "'N. of a Brhman PhithS.; {pati} m. a chief herdsman L.; {-zva} m. (fr. {zva4n}) `" a dog in a cow-pen which barks at every one "', one who stays at home and slanders his neighbours, malicious or censorious person L.; {-SThA7gAra} m. n. a house in a
632

cow-pen L.; {-SThA7dhyakSa} m. = {-STha-pati} L.; {SThA7STamI} f. N. of a festive day (cf. {gopA7ST-}); {-SThe-kSveDin} &c. see s. v. {-SThe}. 2. go4shthha* =goSTha* = Nom. . (fr. 1. {-STha}) {SThate}, to assemble, collect Dhtup. viii, 4. gosvaamin* = m. the master or possessor of a cow or of cows KtyS'r. Mn. viii, 231 VarBriS.; a religious mendicant (commonly {gosAin} cf. RTL. pp. 87; 135; 142; also affixed as a honorary title to proper names e.g. {vopadeva-g-}); `" lord of cows "', Kriishna W.; {-misthAna} n. N. of a mountain peak in the middle of the Hima7laya W. gorakshaasana = the cowherd posture gotama* = ({go4-}) m. (superl.) N. of a Riishi belonging to the family of Angiras with the patr. Rhgana (author of RV. i, 74-93) RV. AV. S'Br. i, xi, xiv ShadvBr. &c.; (for {gaut-}) N. of the chief disciple of Mah-vra; of a lawyer (cf. {gautama4}); of the founder of the Nyya phil.; `" the largest ox "' and `" N. of the founder of Nyya phil. "' Naish. xvii, 75; N. of a son of Karnika Buddh.; ? MBh. xiii, 4490 (cf. {-dama}); m. pl. (Pn. 2-4, 65) the descendants of the Riishi Gotama RV. s'vS'r. xii, 10 Lthy.; n. a kind of poison Gal.; ({I}) f. v.l. for {gaut-} in g. {gaurA7di}; {-gaura} m. = {gauragotama}, the white Gotama Ganar. 89 Sch.; {-pRcchA}
633

f. `" questions of (Mah-vra's pupil) Gotama (put forth in a discussion with Prs'va's pupil Kes'in) "'N. of a Jain work; {-stoma} m. N. of an Eka7ha sacrifice s'vS'r. S'nkhS'r. (cf. S'Br. xiii, 5, 1, 1); {-svAmin} m. Mahvra's pupil Gotama; {-mA7nvaya} m. N. of S'kyamuni L.; {-mI-putra} m. `" son of Gotam "'N. of a king (50 B.C. or A.D.) Inscr. VyuP. MatsyaP.; {-me7zvaratIrtha} n. N. of a Trtha S'ivaP. govinda = Lord KRishna govindaM = Govinda graamam.h = (n) village graaha * =(Pn. 3-1, 143) mf({I})n. ifc. seizing, holding, catching, receiving Yj. ii, 51 R. iv, 41, 38; taking (a wife) Yj. ii, 51 (cf. {karNa-}, {gila-}, {dhanur-}, {pANi-}, {pArSNi-}, {vandi-}, {vyAla-}, {hasta-}); m. a rapacious animal living in fresh or sea water, any large fish or marine animal (crocodile, shark, serpent, Gangetic alligator, water elephant, or hippopotamus) Mn. vi, 78 MBh. &c. (ifc. f. {A}, iv, 2017; xvi R. ii); a prisoner L.; the handle (of a sword &c.) Gal.; seizure, grasping, laying hold of Pacat. i, 10, 1 (v.l. for {graha}); morbid affection, disease S'Br. iii; paralysis (of the thigh, {Uru-grAha4} AV. xi, 9, 12 [{ur-} MSS.] MBh. v, 2024 and vi, 5680); `" mentioning "' see {nAma-}; fiction, whim Bhag. xvii, 19;
634

conception, notion of (in comp.) Vajracch. 6 and 9; ({am}) ind. see s.v.; ({I}) f. a female marine animal or crocodile R. vi, 82, 73 ff. graahakaH = (m) customer graahaya = (verbal stem) to cause to be caught graahaan.h = things graaheNa = with endeavor graahya = what is to be grasped * = mfn. to be seized or taken or held RV. x, 109, 3 Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; to be clasped or spanned Kaths. lxxiv, 217; to be captured or imprisoned Yj. ii, 267 & 283 MBh. &c.; to be overpowered Prab. ii, 8/9; ({a-} neg.) R. (B) iii, 33, 16; to be picked or gathered R. iv, 43, 29; to be received or accepted or gained Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; to be taken in marriage, xiii, 5091; to be received in a friendly or hospitable manner, xii, 6282; to be insisted upon Kaths. xvii, 83; to be chosen or taken account of Rjat. iv, 612; to be perceived or recognised or understood Mn. i, 7 MBh. &c. (cf. {a-}); (in astron.) to be observed VarBriS.; to be considered R. v, vii VarBriS. lxi, 19; to be understood in a particular sense, meant Vop. vi, 15 Pn. Sch.; to be accepted as a rule or law, to be acknowledged or assented to, to be attended to or obeyed, to be admitted in evidence Mn. viii, 78 Yj.
635

MBh. &c.; to be undertaken or followed (a vow) Kaths. vcii, 38; to be put (as confidence) in (loc.), lviii, 36; m. an eclipsed globe (sun or moon) Sryas.; n. poison (NBD.; `" a present "' BRD.) L.; the objects of sensual perception Yogas. i, 41; ({A}) f. archery exercise Gal. (cf. {dur-}, {suhha-}, {svayaM-}.) graahya * mfn. to be taken or accepted, acceptable MBh. R. (cf. {a-pratig-}); one from whom anything may be received MBh. (cf. {-gRhya} and Pn. ib.); m. N. of partic. Grahas TBr. Sch. graahyaM = accessible graama* = m. an inhabited place, village, hamlet RV. i, x AV. VS. &c.; the collective inhabitants of a place, community, race RV. x, 146, 1 AV. &c.; any number of men associated together, multitude, troop (esp. of soldiers) RV. i, iii, x AV. iv, 7, 5 S'Br. vi, xii; the old women of a family PrGri. i, 9, 3 Sch.; ifc. (cf. Pn. 6-2, 84) a multitude, class, collection or number (in general) cf. {indriya-}, {guNa-}, {bhUta-}, &c.; a number of tones, scale, gamut Pacat. v, 43 MrkP. xxiii, 52; = {indriya-} Jain.; m. pl. inhabitants, people RV. ii, 12, 7; x, 127, 5; n. a village R. ii, 57, 4 Hcat. i, 7, 721/722; [cf. {ariSTa-}, {mahA-}, {zUra-}, {saM-}; cf. Hib. {gramaisg}, `" the mob "'; {gramasgar}, `" a flock. "'] graamaka * = m. a small village Hcar. viii, 3; a village
636

MBh. v, 1466; N. of a town Buddh.; n. = %{-ma-caryA} BhP. iv, 25, 52. graamya4* = mfn. (Pn. 4-2, 94) used or produced in a village TS. v AitBr. vii, 7, 1 Kaus'.; relating to villages Mn. vii, 120; prepared in a village (as food) S'Br. ix, xii Mn. vi, 3; living (in villages i.e.) among men, domesticated, tame (an animal), cultivated (a plant; opposed to {vanya} or {araNya}, `" wild "') RV. x, 90, 8 AV. VS. &c.; allowed in a village, relating to the sensual pleasures of a village MBh. xii, 4069 R. iii f. BhP. iv, vi [374, 1]; rustic, vulgar (speech) Vm. ii, 1, 4; (see {-tA} and {-tva}); relating to a musical scale W.; m. a villager Yj. ii, 166 MBh. xiii BhP. &c.; a domesticated animal see {-mAMsa}; = {-ma-kola} W.; n. rustic or homely speech W.; the Prkriit and the other dialects of India as contra-distinguished from the Sanskriit W.; food prepared in a village MBh. i, 3637 KtyS'r. xxii Sch.; sensual pleasure, sexual intercourse MBh. ii, 2270 BhP. iv; ({A}) f. = {-miNI} L.; = {-maja-niSpAvI} L. graha = Planet * =(Pn. 3-3, 58; g. {vRSA7di}) mfn. ifc. (iii, 2, 9 Vrtt. 1) seizing, laying hold of, holding BhP. iii, 15, 35 (cf. {aGkuza-}, {dhanur-}, &c.); obtaining, v, viii; perceiving, recognising, iv, 7, 31; m. `" seizer (eclipser) "', Rhu or the dragos head MBh. &c.; a planet (as seizing or influencing the destinies of men in a supernatural manner; sometimes 5 are enumerated,
637

viz. Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn MBh. vi, 4566 f. R. i, 19, 2 Ragh. iii, 13 &c.; also 7 i.e. the preceding with Rhu and Ketu MBh. vii, 5636; also 9 i.e. the sun [cf. S'Br. iv, 6, 5, 1 and 5 MBh. xiii, 913; xiv, 1175] and moon with the 7 preceding Yj. i, 295 MBh. iv, 48 VarBriS.; also the polar star is called a Graha, Garg. (Jyot. 5 Sch.); the planets are either auspicious {zubha-}, {sad-}, or inauspicious {krUra-}, {pApa-} VarBriS.; with Jainas they constitute one of the 5 classes of the Jyotishkas); the place of a planet in the fixed zodiac W.; the number `" nine "'; N. of particular evil demons or spirits who seize or exercise a bad influence on the body and mind of man (causing insanity &c.; it falls within the province of medical science to expel these demons; those who esp. seize children and cause convulsions &c. are divided into 9 classes according to the number of planets Sus'r.) MBh. &c.; any state which proceeds from magical influences and takes possession of the whole man BhP. vii, ix BrahmaP. Hit. ii, 1, 20; a crocodile MBh. xvi, 142 (ifc. f. {A}) R. iv f. BhP. viii; any ladle or vessel employed for taking up a portion of fluid (esp. of Soma) out of a larger vessel Mn. v, 116 Yj. i, 182; N. of the 8 organs of perception (viz. the 5 organs of sense with Manas, the hands and the voice) S'Br. xiv NriisUp. i, 4, 3, 22; (= {gRha}) a house R. vii, 40, 30 (cf. {a-}, {khara-}, {druma} and {-pati}); `" anything seized "', spoil, booty MBh. iii, 11461 (cf. {-hA7luJcana}); as much as can be taken with a ladle or spoon out of a larger vessel,
638

ladleful, spoonful (esp. of Soma) RV. x, 114, 5 VS. TS. AitBr. S'Br. &c.; the middle of a bow or that part which is grasped when the bow is used MBh. iv, 1351 ({su-}, 1326); the beginning of any piece of music; grasp, seizing, laying hold of (often ifc.) Kaus'. 10 MBh. &c.; keeping back, obstructing Sus'r.; imprisoning, imprisonment ({-haM-gam}, `" to become a prisoner "' Km.) R. ii, 58, 2; seizure (by demons causing diseases e.g. {aGga-}, spasm of the limbs) Sus'r.; seizure of the sun and moon, eclipse AV. xix, 9, 7 and 10 VarBriS.; stealing, robbing Mn. ix, 277 MBh. vi, 4458; effort Hit.; insisting upon, tenacity, perseverance in (loc. or in comp.) BhP. vii, 14, 11 Naish. ix, 12 Kaths. Rjat. viii, 226; taking, receiving, reception Mn. viii, 180 S'riingr.; taking up (any fluid); choosing MBh. xii, 83, 12 Sh. vi, 136; `" favour "' see {-nigraha}; mentioning, employing (a word) Mn. viii, 271 Pn. 7-1, 21, Kr. 2 Amar. Rjat.; apprehension, perception, understanding Bhshp. BhP. Sarvad. Sch. on Jaim. and KapS.; ({Aya}) dat. ind. = {gRhItvA} see {grah} (cf. {guda-}, {ziro-}, {hanu-}, {hRd-}.) graaha * =m. a spittoon L.; accepting gifts W. grahaNa * =mfn. ifc. seizing, holding Hariv. 2734; resounding in (?) S'ak. ii, 0/1, 6; n. the hand L.; an organ of sense Yogas. i, 41; a prisoner MBh. xiii, 2051; a word mentioned or employed (e.g. {vacana-}, `" the word {vacana} "') Pat. and Ks'.; seizing, holding,
639

taking S'Br. xiv Mn. ii, 317 MBh. &c.; taking by the hand, marrying, i, 1044; catching, seizure, taking captive Mn. v, 130 MBh. &c.; seizure (as by a demon causing diseases), demoniacal possession Hcat.; seizure of the sun or moon, eclipse p. i, 11 Yj. i, 218 VarBriS. &c.; gaining, obtaining, receiving, acceptance R. i, 3, 18 Pacat. Kaths. xci, 37; choosing Snkhyak. Prab. Sh. vi, 201; purchasing Pacat.; taking or drawing up (any fluid) S'Br. iv KtyS'r.; the taking up of sound, echo W.; attraction Megh. Ragh. vii, 24 Pacat. v, 13, 5/6; putting on (clothes) MBh. ii, 840 Ragh. xvii, 21; assuming (a shape) Yj. iii, 69 MBh. xiv Devm.; undertaking, devoting one's self to (in comp.) R. v, 76, 22 Pacat. [372, 3]; service BhP. iii, 1, 44; including Pn. Ks'.; mentioning, employing (a word or expression) KtyS'r. Lthy. VPrt. Pn. Vrtt. Pat. and Ks'. Sh. vi, 205; mentioning with praise, acknowledgment Sus'r.; assent, agreement W.; perceiving, understanding, comprehension, receiving instruction, acquirement of any science Mn. ii, 173 MBh. iii, xiv Ragh. &c.; acceptation, meaning Pn. 1-1, 68 Vrtt. 5 Pat. Ks'. and Siddh. on Pn.; ({I}) f. an imaginary organ supposed to lie between the stomach and the intestines (the small intestines or that part of the alimentary canal where the bile assists digestion and from which vital warmth is said to be diffused) Sus'r.; = {-NI-gada} Ashtha7ng. iii, 8 Hcat. i, 7 (cf. {kara-}, {keza-}, {garbha-}, {cakSur-}, {nAma-}, {pANi-}, {punar-}.)
640

grahatva * = n. = %{-tA} Hariv. BhP. v f. ; the state of a ladleful or spoonful Ka1t2h. ix , 16. grAhita * = mfn. made to take or seize W.; made to accept or take (a seat &c.) Vikr. iii, 0/1 Das3. vii, 266 Katha1s. li, 71; made to undertake or to be occupied with (instr.) R. (G) i, 7, 14; taught MBh. iii, 12195. granthaalayaH = (m) library granthiH = (m) knot granthii = a knot, obstruction in the chitrini grasate = (1 pp) to swallow grasana * = swallowing, devouring, a kind of partial eclipse of the sun or moon, seizing, the mouth, jaws grasamaanaH = devouring grasishhNu = devouring grasta* = mfn. swallowed, eaten Pacat.; taken, seized W.; surrounded or absorbed Sus'r.; possessed (by a demon) Das'. iv Hit.; involved in MBh. xiii, 7292 R. iv, 50, 11; tormented, affected by Yj. iii, 245 Pacat. &c.; eclipsed MBh. iii, 2667 R. &c.; inarticulately pronounced, slurred RPrt. Lthy. Pn. S'. (RV.) 35 Pat.;
641

({a-} neg.) ChUp.; n. inarticulate pronunciation of the vowels Pat. Introd. on Vrtt. 18. grastaM = having been caught/seized grathita * = mfn. strung, tied, bound, connected, tied together or in order, wound, arranged, classed RV. ix, 97, 18 S3Br. xi MBh. &c.; set with, strewn with MBh. &c.; artificially composed or put together (the plot of a play) S3ak. i, 1/2 Ma1lav. i, 1/2 Vikr.; closely connected with each other, difficult to be distinguished from each other MBh. i, v, xii BhP. iv f.; having knots, knotty Sus3r. i f. iv; coagulated, thickened, hardened, vi; hurt, injured L.; seized, overcome L.; n. the being strung Sch.; a tumor with hard lumps or knots Sus3r. ii, 14, 1 and 4; iv, 21, 3. grihiita * = mfn. (%{grah}, but see %{gRbhAya}) grasped, taken, seized, caught, held, laid hold of ChUp. A1s3vGr2. &c.; received, accepted; received hospitably (as a guest) BhP. iii, 5, 19; obtained, gained; `" taken on one's self "' see %{-mauna}; mentioned Pan5cat.; perceived, understood S3ak. (v.l.) Mudr.; received completely into one's mind (opposed to %{adhI7ta}, `" studied "', but not successfully) Pa1n2. 2-3, 6 Ka1s3. BhP. i, 2, 12. griJNjanakam.h = (n) carrot

642

griNanti = are offering prayers griNaami = I hold gRR\\1 cl. 9. P. A1. %{gRNA4ti}, %{-NIte4} (1. sg. A1. and 3. sg. Pass. %{gRNe4} RV.; 1. sg. A1. % {gRNISe4} RV.; 2. pl. %{gRNa4tA} AV. v, 27, 9; p. P. %{gRNa4t} RV. &c.; A1. & Pass. %{gRNAna4} RV.; Ved. inf. Impv. %{gRNISa4Ni} RV. vi, 15, 6 and viii, 12, 19), to call, call out to, invoke RV. AV. S3Br. iv Bhag. xi, 21; to announce, proclaim RV.; to mention with praise, praise, extol RV. BhP. xi, 13, 41 Bhat2t2. viii, 77; to pronounce, recite MBh. vii, 1754 Ragh. BhP. i, 1, 14; to relate, teach in verses, 4, 9 Gan2it. i, 4, 5; [cf. $, $; Hib. {goirim}; Old Germ. {quar}, {quir}, &c.; Old Pruss. {gerbu}, `" to speak "'; Angl. Sax. {gale}; Germ. {Nachtigal}; Lat. {gallus} ?]\\2 cl. 6. P. %{girati} or (cf. P. viii, 2, 21) %{gilati} (S3Br. i MBh. Sus3r.), ep. also A1. %{girate} (1. sg. %{gi4rAmi} AV. vi, 135, 3; perf. %{jagAra} RV.; aor. Subj. 3. pl. %{garan} RV. i, 158, 5), to swallow, devour, eat RV. &c.; to emit or eject from the mouth MBh. xii, 12872: Caus. (aor. 2. sg. %{ajIgar}) to swallow RV. i, 163, 7: Intens. % {jegilyate} Pa1n2. 8-2, 20: Desid. %{jigariSati}, vii, 2, 75; [cf. 2. %{gal}, 2 %{gir}, %{gila}, 2. %{gIrNa4}; Lith. {gerru}, `" to drink "'; Lat. {glu-tio}, {gula}; Slav. {gr-lo}; Russ. {z8ora}.]\\ = 3 (= 3. %{kRR}) cl. 10. A1. %{gArayate}, to know Dha1tup. xxxiii, 33; to make known, teach ib.
643

gridhraH = (m) eagle griha = house grihagodhikaa = (f) house lizard grihapaaThaH = (m) homework grihasthaaH = householders grihaadishhu = home, etc grihiitvaa = holding the grihiita*= mfn. ({grah}, but see {gRbhAya}) grasped, taken, seized, caught, held, laid hold of ChUp. s'vGri. &c.; received, accepted; received hospitably (as a guest) BhP. iii, 5, 19; obtained, gained; `" taken on one's self "' see {-mauna}; mentioned Pacat.; perceived, understood S'ak. (v.l.) Mudr.; received completely into one's mind (opposed to {adhI7ta}, `" studied "', but not successfully) Pn. 2-3, 6 Ks'. BhP. i, 2, 12. grihiitacetas*= mfn. one whose mind or heart is captivated BhP. vi, 18, 38. grihiitavidya*= mfn. one who has acquired knowledge, learned W.

644

grihiiti*= f. `" seizing, taking "' (the hand, 1. {kara-}), and `" levying "' (taxes, 2. {kara-}) Hcar. iv, 23; perception Bdar. iii, 3, 16; taking anything to mean or understanding by anything, 4, 23 Sch. grihiitin*= mfn. one who has grasped &c. anything (loc.), g. {iSTA7di}. grihiitri*= mfn. (for {grah-}) one who seizes L. grihNan.h *V = accepting, exating, withdrawing, taking, chanting grihNaati = to catch grihyate = can be so controlled grihyavat*= m mfn. having many adherents or partisans TndyaBr. xiii, 11, 13 Sch. grihyaka*= mfn. domesticated (as animals) Pn. 3-1, 119 Ks'. grihya*=1 ind. p. Ved. ifc., `" seizing by "' see {karNa-}, {pAda-}, and {hasta-gR4hya}; {haste-}. \\*=2 mfn. (fr. {grah}) to be grasped or taken AV. v, 20, 4 S'nkhGri. v, 2, 5; perceptible S'vetUp. i, 13; ({a4-} neg.) S'Br. xiv; (Pn. 3-1, 119) `" to be taken together with "' (in comp.), adhering to the party of (Ks'.), being
645

in close relation to (as the lotus to the moon) Kvya7d. ii, 179 Das'. vi; vii, 254 Kir. ii, 5 Bhathth. vi, 61; to be acknowledged or admitted W.; to be adopted or trusted or relied on W.; = {ava-} Vop. xxvi, 20; n. for {guhya} (anus) L.; ({A}) f. (Pn. 3-1, 119) ifc. being outside (of a town or village, as {senA}, an army) Ks'.; a suburb L. \\*=3 mfn. (fr. {gRha4}) belonging to a house, domestic (said of an Agni) TS. v MaitrS. AitBr. viii, 10, 9 Gobh. &c. (said of a series of ceremonies relating to family or domestic affairs, such as marriages, births &c., and treated of in the Griihya-stras, q.v.); living in houses, domesticated (as animals) L.; not free, dependent, ({a-} neg.) Bhathth. vi, 61; m. the domestic Agni S'nkhGri. v, 2, 5; a domesticated animal L.; m. pl. the inmates of a house, domestics S'Br. ii f. xii KtyS'r. PrGri. ii; n. a domestic rite Gaut.; a domestic rule or affair BhP. x, 8, 25 Hcat.; = {-sUtra}; ({A}) f. domestic rites and the rules relating to them Griihys. griivaM = neck gu = darkness guDa = jaggery guDaH = (m) jaggery guDaakesha = O Arjuna

646

guDaakeshaH = Arjuna, the master of curbing ignorance guDaakeshena = by Arjuna guha * m. (g. {azmA7di}) `" reared in a secret place "'N. of Skanda (the god; cf. Krttikeya) MBh. iii, ix, xiii Hariv. 10478 Sus'r. Kum. &c.; N. of S'iva MBh. xiii, 1263; of Vishnu W.; of a king of the Nishdas (friend of Rma) R. i f. vi Mcar. iv, 60/7; N. belonging to persons of the writer caste W.; a horse (`" a swift horse "' W.) L.; m. pl.N. of a people in the south of India MBh. xii, 7559 [360, 3]; (2. {gu4hA}) f. (ganas {vRSA7di} and {bhidA7di}) a hiding-place, cave, cavern VS. xxx, 16 TBr. i MBh. &c. (ifc. f. {A} Hcat. i, 7 and 10); (fig.) the heart S'vetUp. iii, 20 MBh. xii BhP. ii, 9, 24; Hemionitis cordifolia Sus'r. i, 19, 27; v, 7, 1 (cf. {prati-g-}); Desmodium gangeticum L.; (3. {gu4hA}), Ved. instr. ind. in a hiding-place, in secret, secretly (opposed to {Avi4s}, and especially with {dhA}, {ni-dhA}, {kR}, `" to conceal, remove "') RV. AV. S'Br. xi, xiii. guhyaka* = m. N. of a class of demi-gods who like the Yakshas are attendants of Kubera (the god of wealth) and guardians of his treasures (they may have received their N. from living in mountain caverns) Mn. xii, 47 MBh. Hariv. &c. (identified with Yakshas MBh. v, 7480 Megh. 5 &c.); the number `" eleven "' Sryas.; N. of Kubera L.; m. `" mystery "' see {tathAgata-g-}.

647

gulma * = m. (rarely n. MBh. x BhP. viii, x) a cluster or clump of trees, thicket, bush, shrub VS. xxv, 8 Mn. Yj. &c.; a troop or guard of soldiers, body of troops, division of an army (consisting of 45 foot, 27 horse, 9 chariots, and 9 elephants MBh. i, 290; or of 135 foot, 81 horse, 27 chariots, and 27 elephants L.; cf. MBh. v, 5270) Mn. vii, ix MBh. &c.; a fort, entrenchment W.; disciplining an army W.; m. a chronic enlargement of the spleen or any glandular enlargement in the abdomen (as that of the mesenteric gland &c.) Sus'r. VarBri. xxi, 8 Kaths. xv; the spleen L.; `" a wharf or stairs, Ghath "' see {-tara-paNya}; ({I}) f. a cluster or clump of trees L.; the Myrobalan tree L.; jujube L.; small cardamoms L.; a tent L. guna = character guNa = qualities * = m. ( {grah} Un.) a single thread or strand of a cord or twine (e.g. {tri-g-} q.v.), string or thread, rope TS. vii Mriicch. Kum. Ragh.; a garland W.; a bow-string R. iii, 33, 16 ({cApa-}) Ragh. ix, 54 Riitus. Hit.; (in geom.) a sinew; the string of a musical instrument, chord S'is'. iv, 57: ifc. (f. {A}) with numerals `" fold, times "' (see {ca4tur-}, {tri-}, {daza-}, {dvi4-}, {paJca-}; rarely the numeral stands by itself along with {guNa4} [e.g. {viziSTo dazabhir guNaiH}, `" of ten times higher value "' Mn. ii, 85] AV. x, 8, 43 MBh. iii, 15649 Hariv. 509; [{guNa} = {bhAga}] Pn. 5-2, 47 Ks'.); a multiplier, co-efficient (in alg.);
648

subdivision, species, kind (e.g. {gandhasya guNAH}, the different kinds of smell MBh. xii, 6847); the 6 subdivisions of action for a king in foreign politics (viz. peace, war, march, halt, stratagem, and recourse to the protection of a mightier king) Mn. vii, 160 Yj. i, 346 MBh. ii, 155; = {upA7ya} (q.v., denoting the 4 ways of conquering an enemy) R. v, 81, 41; `" requisite "' see {No7pe7ta}; a secondary element, subordinate or unessential part of any action (e.g. {sarva-g-} mfn. `" reaching to all subordinate parts "', hence `" valid throughout "' KtyS'r.) S'nkhS'r. s'vS'r. KtyS'r. R. v, 1, 71; an auxiliary act S'nkhBr. xxvi, 4; a secondary dish (opposed to {anna} i.e. rice or the chief dish), sidedish Mn. iii, 224 ff.; (= {-karman}, in Gr.) the secondary or less immediate object of an action Pn. 1-4, 51 Sch.; a quality, peculiarity, attribute or property Lthy. S'nkhGri. Mn. iii, ix, &c.; an attribute of the 5 elements (each of which has its own peculiar quality or qualities as well as organ of sense; thus 1. ether has {zabda}, or sound for its Guna and the ear for its organ; 2. the air has tangibility and sound for its Gunas and the skin for its organ; 3. fire or light has shape or colour, tangibility, and sound for its Gunas, and the eye for its organs; 4. water has flavour, shape, tangibility, and sound for its Gunas, and the tongue for its organ; 5. earth has the preceding Gunas, with the addition of its own peculiar Guna of smell, and the nose for its organ) Mn. i, 20 and 76-78 MBh. xii, 6846 ff. S'ak. i, 1 BhP. iii, 5, 35; (in S'nkhya phil.) an ingredient or constituent of Prakriiti,
649

chief quality of all existing beings (viz. {sattva}, {rajas}, and {tamas} i.e. goodness, passion, and darkness, or virtue, foulness, and ignorance; cf. RTL. pp. 31; 36; 163) Mn. i; iii, 40; xii, 24 ff. Snkhyak. Bhag. xiii f.; (hence) the number `" three "' VarBriS. iic, 1; a property or characteristic of all created things (in Nyya phil. twenty-four Gunas are enumerated, viz. 1. {rUpa}, shape, colour; 2. {rasa}, savour; 3. {gandha}, odour; 4. {sparza}, tangibility; 5. {saMkhyA}, number; 6. {parimANa}, dimension; 7. {pRthaktva}, severalty; 8. {saMyoga}, conjunction; 9. {vibhAga}, disjunction; 10. {paratva}, remoteness; 11. {aparatva}, proximity; 12. {gurutva}, weight; 13. {dravatva}, fluidity; 14. {sneha}, viscidity; 15. {zabda}, sound; 16. {buddhi} or {jJAna}, understanding or knowledge; 17. {sukha}, pleasure; 18. {duHkha}, pain; 19. {icchA}, desire; 20. {dveSa}, aversion; 21. {prayatna}, effort; 22. {dharma}, merit or virtue; 23. {adharma}, demerit; 24. {saMskAra}, the self-reproductive quality); an epithet KtyS'r.; good quality, virtue, merit, excellence Mn. MBh. &c.; the merit of composition (consistency, elegance of expression, &c.) Kvya7d. i, 41 f. Kpr. viii Sh. viii; the peculiar properties of the letters (11 in number, viz. the 8 {bAhya-prayatnAs} [q.v.] and the 3 accents) Ks'. on Pn. 1-1, 9 and 50 (cf. {-mAtra}); the first gradation of a vowel, the vowels {a} (with {ar}, {al} Pn. 1-1, 51), {e}, {o} Nir. x, 17 RPrt. xi, 6 Pn.; an organ of sense L.; a cook (cf. {-kAra}) L.; Bhmasena (cf. {-kAra}) L.; ({A}) f. Sanseviera Roxburghiana
650

L.; the plant {mAMsarohiNI} L.; N. of a princess Rjat. iv, 695 (cf. {nir-}, {vi-}, {sa-}; {gauNa}.) guNaiH = by the qualities gunavat.h = man with good qualities guNakathanapuNyena = through the merit from praising Thy glories guNakarma = of works under material influence guNakarmasu = in material activities guNan.h = praising guNanam.h = (n) multiplication guNanidhiM = the stock-pile of good qualities guNabhedataH = in terms of different modes of material nature guNabhoktri = master of the gunas guNamayii = consisting of the three modes of material nature guNamayaiH = consisting of the gunas
651

guNataH = by the modes of material nature guNatrayaH = three qualities i.e satvaH, rajaH \&tamaH guNatva n. the condition of a string Hit.; subordination Ka1tyS3r.; the possession of qualities Sarvad. x, 35 and 52; excellence Sus3r. i, 45, 7, 19; multiplication W. guNavaan.h = a man with good qualities guNavat * = mfn. `" furnished with a thread or string "' and `" endowed with good qualities "' Pan5cat. S3a1rn3gP. Subh.; endowed with the five qualities or attributes of elements Sa1m2khyak. 60; endowed with good qualities or virtues or merits or excellences, excellent, perfect MBh. R. &c.; m. N. of a son of Gun2avati1 Hariv. 8840; (%{tI}) f. N. of a combination of three S3lokas forming all one phrase Ka1vya7d. i, 13 Sch.; of a daughter (of Suna1bha and wife of Sa1mba Hariv. 8762; 8779; 8840; of the prince Gun2a-sa1gara Katha1s. cxxiii); %{-tama} mfn. (superl.) most excellent Ya1jn5. ii, 78; %{-tara} mfn. (compar.) more excellent Mn. v, 113 R. iii Pan5cat.; %{-tA} f. the state of possessing qualities W.; possession of good qualities or virtues, excellence MBh. xiv, 86 R. ii Ragh. viii; %{tva} n. the state of possessing qualities Sa1h. i, 2/3, 37 f. guNasa.nkhyaane = in terms of different modes
652

guNasangaH = the association with the modes of nature guNaGYa = one who knows qualities (one who is a patron of good qualities) guNaaH = senses guNaatiitaH = transcendental to the material modes of nature guNaan.h = the three modes of nature guNaanvitaM = under the spell of the modes of material nature guNebhyaH = to the modes of nature guNeshhu = in sense gratification gup.h = guard, hide gupta = secret; gupta mfn. protected, guarded, preserved AV. &c.; hidden, concealed, kept secret, secret Bhartri. Pacat. Kaths. &c. (with {daNDa}, a secret fine, fine secretly imposed or exacted Hit.; cf. {gUDha-d-}); = {saMgata} (? joined, combined) W.; ({am}; in comp. {a-} Hcat.) ind. secretly, privately Kaths.; ({su-}) Pacat. iv; ({e}) loc. ind. in a hidden place Kaths. lxxv; m. (Pn. 6-1, 205 Ks'.) N. of several men belonging to
653

the Vais'ya caste (PrGri. i, 17; cf. RTL. p. 358), especially of the founder of the renowned Gupta dynasty in which the names of the sovereigns generally end in {gupta} (cf. {candra-}, {samudra-}, {skanda-}; {gupta} is also often found ifc. in names of the Vais'ya class); ({A}) f. a married woman who withdraws from her lover's endearments L.; Mucuna pruritus Sus'r. iv, 26, 33; vi, 46, 21 ({-pta}); N. of a woman Pn. 4-1, 121 Sch. ({gopA} Ks'.); of a S'kya princess Buddh. guptaasana = the hidden posture guru = (adj) heavy * = mf({vI})n. (cf. {giri4}; comp. {ga4rIyas}, once {-yas-tara}, {guru-tara}, superl. {gariSTha}, {gurutama} see ss. vv.) heavy, weighty (opposed to {laghu4}) RV. i, 39, 3 and iv, 5, 6 AV. &c. (g. {zauNDA7di} Ganar. 101); heavy in the stomach (food), difficult to digest MBh. i, 3334 Sus'r.; great, large, extended, long Yj. (see {-kratu}) Bhartri. &c.; (in prosody) long by nature or position (a vowel) Prt. (a vowel long both by nature and by position is called {garIyas} RPrt. xviii, 20) Pn. 1-4, 11 and 12; high in degree, vehement, violent, excessive, difficult, hard RV. MBh. &c.; grievous Megh. 80; important, serious, momentous MBh.&c.; valuable, highly prized Yj. ii, 30 ({guru} = {garIyas}) &c.; haughty, proud (speech) Pacat.; venerable, respectable; m. any venerable or respectable person (father, mother, or any relative older than one's self) Gobh. S'nkhGri. Mn. &c.; a spiritual
654

parent or preceptor (from whom a youth receives the initiatory Mantra or prayer, who instructs him in the S'stras and conducts the necessary ceremonies up to that of investiture which is performed by the crya Yj. i, 34) RPrt. s'vGri. PrGri. Mn. &c.; the chief of (gen. or in comp.) Cn. Ragh. ii, 68; (with S'ktas) author of a Mantra; `" preceptor of the gods "', Briihaspati Mn. xi; (hence) the planet Jupiter Jyot. VarBriS. Bhartri. &c.; `" Pndu-teacher "', Drona L.; Prabh-kara (celebrated teacher of the Mmns, usually mentioned with Kumrila) SS'ankar. vi, 50; xv, 157; (= {dharma}) `" venerable "', the 9th astrological mansion VarBriS. i, 16; Mucuna pruritus L.; N. of a son of Sankriiti BhP. ix, 21, 2 du. parents MBh.; m. pl. parents and other venerable persons Mn. iv Vikr. v, 10 Kaths.; a honorific appellation of a preceptor (whose N. is also put in the pl.), Jain Hit.; ({vI}) f. `" venerable woman "', a mother p. i, 21, 9; `" great (with child) "', pregnant, a pregnant woman L.; the wife of a teacher W.; [cf. $; Lat. {gravis}; Goth. {kauriths}; Lith. {gie4ras}.] guruH = teacher; weighty gurucharaNaambuja = the lotus feet of the teacher/guru guruNaapi = even though very difficult gurutvaM = (abstract noun)greatness;weeightiness

655

gurutvaaakarshhaNa = gravitational attraction gurun.h = the superiors guruvaara = Thrusday guruu = teacher, preceptor, long syllables as against short(laghuu) gulikaa = (f) tablet, pill gulma = the spleen guhaa = (fem) cave guhyaM = confidential subject guhyatamaM = the most confidential guhyataraM = still more confidential guhyaat.h = than confidential guhyaanaaM = of secrets guuna* = mfn. voided (as ordure) Pn. 8-2, 44 Vrtt. 2. guudha* = (%{gULha4} RV.) mfn. covered, hidden,
656

concealed, invisible, secret, private RV. &c.; disguised Mn. ix, 261 MBh. iii, 17311 [361,1]; n. a secret place or mystery Kat2hUp. i, 1, 29; one of the S3abda7lam2ka1ras Sarasv. ii, 19; (%{am}) ind. secretly Das3. vii, 248 Ra1jat. v, 268; (%{A}) f. N. of a S3ruti Gal.; (%{e}) loc. ind. secretly Mn. vii, 186; ix, 170. GYa = one who knows (suffix) GYanakaaraka = Significator of knowledge which is Jupiter GYaa = to know GYaatachara = (adj) known GYaatavyaM = knowable GYaati = community (people of the same caste etc.) GYaatuM = to know GYaate = in the realised state GYaatena = by knowing GYaatvaa = knowing well

657

GYaana = knowledge GYaanaM = knowledge GYaanaH = whose knowledge GYaanagamyaM = to be approached by knowledge GYaanachakshushhaH = those who have the eyes of knowledge GYaanachakshushhaa = by the vision of knowledge GYaanadiipite = because of the urge for self-realization GYaanaplavena = by the boat of transcendental knowledge GYaanamana.ntaM = Knowledge and Infinity or Absoluteness GYaanamayaH = (Masc. Nom.Sing.)full of knowledge GYaanamayo = full of Gyana or knowledge GYaanayaGYaH = sacrifice in knowledge GYaanayaGYaaH = sacrifice in advancement of transcendental knowledge
658

GYaanayaGYena = by cultivation of knowledge GYaanayogena = by the linking process of knowledge GYaanavataaM = of the wise GYaanavaan.h = learned GYaanavihinaH = (but)bereft of knowledge of the Self GYaanashabdayoH = of knowledge and sound GYaanasya = of knowledge GYaanaaH = knowledge GYaanaagniH = the fire of knowledge GYaanaat.h = than knowledge GYaanaanaaM = of all knowledge GYaanaavasthita = situated in transcendence GYaaninaH = of the knower GYaanibhyaH = than the wise

659

GYaanii = one who is in knowledge GYaane = in knowledge GYaanena = with knowledge GYaanenaiva = GYAnena + eva:thro' knowledge alone GYaanendriya = an organ of knowledge, i.e. the five senses GYaayate = known GYaayase = can to be known GYaasyasi = you can know GYeyaM = be known GYeyaH = should be known GYeyosi = You can be known

660

haa * = Meaning 1 ind. an exclamation expressive of pain, anger, astonishment, satisfaction &c. (= ah! alas! oh! ha! often before or after a voc. case, also repeated {hA-hA} cf. 1. {hahA} above, or followed by other particles, esp. {dhik}, {hanta}, {kaSTam} &c.) MBh. Kv.&c, haa * = Meaning 2 (not always separable fr. 3. {hA}) cl. 3. . (Dhtup. xxv, 7) {ji4hIte} (p. {ji4hAna} [q.v.]; pf. {jahire4} AV.; aor. {ahAsta} RV. &c.; fut. {hAtA} Gr.; {hAsyate} Br. MBh.; inf. {-hAtum} ib.; ind. p. {hAtvA} Gr.; {-hA4ya} RV.), to start or spring forward, bound away, give way to (dat.) RV.; to spring or leap upon (?) RV. x, 49, 5; to go or depart or betake one's self to have recourse to (acc.) Nalo7d. [1296, 2]; to fall or come into any state Kir.: Pass. {hAyate} (aor. {ahAyi}) Gr.: Caus. {hApayati} (aor. {ajIhapat}) ib.: Desid. {jihAsate} ib.: Intens. {jahAyate}, {jAhAti}, {jAheti} ib. haa * = Meaning 3 cl. 3. P. (Dhtup. xxv, 8) {ja4hAti} (rarely cl. 1. {jahati} 3. du. {jahltaH} Impv. {jahi4hi} For {jahAhi} Pn. 6-4, 117]; {jahItAt} AV.; Pot. {jahyAt} AV. &c.; pf. {jahau}, {jahu4H} RV. &c.; {jahe} Br.; aor. {ahAt} ib. &c.; {ahAsIt} Gr.; 3. sg. {ahAs} RV.; {a4hAsi} AV.; {hAsiSTa} ib.,; fut. {hAtA} Gr.; {hAsyati}, {-te} AV. &c, {jahiSyati} MBh. &c.; inf. {hAtum} ib.; ind. p. {hitvA4}. [q.v.] RV. &c.; {hitvI4} {-tvA4ya} RV.; {-hItvA} Gr.; {661

hA4ya} Br., {hI4yam} TS.), to leave, abandon, desert, quit, forsake, relinquish (with {zarIram}, {deham}, {prA7NAn}, {asUn}, {jvitam} &c. - "' to die "') RV. &c, &c.; to discharge, emit ib.; to put away, take off, remove, lay aside, give up, renounce, resign, avoid, shun, abstain or refrain from Mn. MBh. &c.; to disregard, neglect ib.; to lose, be deprived of. R. Km.; to get rid of. escape from Up. MBh. &c.; to cause to emit (with {zardham}, `" to cause to break wind "') Vop.: Pass. {hIya4te} or {hI4yate} (ep. also {hIyati}; aor. {ahAyi}), to be left or abandoned or deserted &c.; to be left behind, fall short of (abl.) RV. &c. &c.; to be excluded from or bereft of (abl. or instr.; with {prA7NaiH}, `" to die "') KathhUp. Mn. MBh. &c.; to be overtaken by (instr.) MBh.; to be deficient or wanting, suffer loss or injury, fail (also in a lawsuit), decrease, wane, decline, come to an end ChUp. Mn. MBh. &c.; to weigh less (at the ordeal of the balance) Yj. Sch.; to be given up or avoided Bhartri. (v.l.); to be subtracted VarBriS.; to become detached from (with abl. or instr.), fall out (as hair) BhP.: Caus. {hApayati} (m. c. also {-te} aor. {ajIhapat}; {-jIhipaH} RV.), to cause to leave or abandon &c.; to omit, neglect Mn. MBh. &c.; to fall short of. be wanting in (acc.) MBh. Cn.; to give up ({asUn}, `" life "') Hariv.; to lose ({kAlam}, `" time "') Km.; to abandon ({pratijJAm}, `" a thesis "') Jtakam.: Desid. {jihAsati}, to wish to leave or abandon Das'. BhP. HParis'.; to wish to reject or disdain Prab.; to wish to escape Sarvad.: Intens.
662

{jehIyate}, {jAhAti}, {jAheti} Gr. This page was generated by SFgate 4.0.30. Ha Meaning 1 the thirtythird and last consonant of the Ngar alphabet (in Pnini's system belonging to the guttural class, and usually pronounced like the English {h} in {hard}; it is not an original letter, but is mostly derived from an older {gh}, rarely from {dh} or {bh}). haa * = Meaning 2 (only L.) m. a form of S'iva or Bhairava (cf. {nakulI7za}); water; a cipher (i.e. the arithmetical figure which symbolizes o); meditation, auspiciousness; sky, heaven, paradise; blood; dying; fear; knowledge; the moon; Vishnu; war, battle; horripilation; a horse; pride; a physician; cause, motive; = {pApa-haraNa}; = {sakopa-vAraNa}; = {zuSka}; (also {A} f.) laughter; ({A}) f. coition; a lute ({am}) n. the Supreme Spirit; pleasure, delight; a weapon; the sparkling of a gem; calling, calling to the sound of a lute; (ind.) = {aham} (?), IndSt.; mfn. mad, drunk. haakiNii = the goddess in aGYaa chakra haalaahala = poison haana * 2 n. the act of abandoning, relinquishing, giving up, escaping, getting rid of Gaut. S'ank. Sarvad.; want, lack Kap.; cessation ib. Bhartri. (v.l.) haana 1 mfn. gone or departed &c. (in {sa4MhAna}, `"
663

risen "') VS. haani = damage haaniH = destruction haara = Garland *= 1 mf(%{I})n. bearing, carrying, carrying away, stealing (e.g. %{kSIra-h-}, `" stealing milk "') Ma1rkP.; levying, raising (e.g. %{kara-h-}, `" raising taxes "') BhP.; ravishing, charming, delightful (or `" relating to Hari i.e. Vishnu "') ib.; relating to Hara or S3iva Nalac.; m. taking away, removal ib.; confiscation, forfeiture (of land, money &c.) Mn. MBh. Katha1s.; waste, loss (see %{kAla-h-}); war, battle W.; a carrier, porter ib.; (in arithm.) a divisor or division Col.; (in prosody) a long syllable ib.; a garland of pearls, necklace (accord. to some, one of 108 or 64 strings) MBh. Ka1v. &c.; (%{A}) f. Pa1n2. 3-3, 104; (%{I}) f. a pearl L.; a girl of bad reputation (unfit for marriage) L.; a kind of metre Col.\\2 (for 3. see p. 1292, col. 1) Nom. P. %{-rati} to be like a string of pearls Dhu1rtas.\\ 3 mfn. (for 1. and 2. see p. 1289, col. 2) relating to Hari or Vishn2n BhP.\\ %{hAraka}, %{hArin} &c. see p. 1289, cols. 2 and 3. haariNii = remover haard * = (fr. and = {hRd}). see {dur-} and {su-hA4rd}.

664

haa4rdi * = m. the heart AV.; contentment, ease, comfort VarBriS.; n. the heart or interior of the body (also applied to the intestines) RV. haardikA * =see {yama-h-}. haardikya * =m. patr. of Kriita-varman MBh. Hariv.; friendship R. haardin * =mfn. feeling affection for (loc.) MrkP. haardivan * =(Tr.) or (vS.) mfn. hearty, cordial, having an affection for (loc.) haardvan * =(vS.) mfn. hearty, cordial, having an affection for (loc.) haasa = laughter haasya = the sentiment of humor haata * = mfn. given up, abandoned BhP ha = the sun ha * = Meaning1 the thirty-third and last consonant of the Ngar alphabet (in Pnini's system belonging to the guttural class, and usually pronounced like the English {h} in {hard}; it is not an original letter, but is mostly
665

derived from an older {gh}, rarely from {dh} or {bh}). ha * = Meaning 2 (only L.) m. a form of S'iva or Bhairava (cf. {nakulI7za}); water; a cipher (i.e. the arithmetical figure which symbolizes o); meditation, auspiciousness; sky, heaven, paradise; blood; dying; fear; knowledge; the moon; Vishnu; war, battle; horripilation; a horse; pride; a physician; cause, motive; = {pApa-haraNa}; = {sakopa-vAraNa}; = {zuSka}; (also {A} f.) laughter; ({A}) f. coition; a lute ({am}) n. the Supreme Spirit; pleasure, delight; a weapon; the sparkling of a gem; calling, calling to the sound of a lute; (ind.) = {aham} (?), IndSt.; mfn. mad, drunk. ha * = Meaning 3 ind. (prob. orig. identical with 2. {gha}, and used as a particle for emphasizing a preceding word, esp. if it begins a sentence closely connected with another; very frequent in the Brhmanas and Stras, and often translatable by) indeed, assuredly, verily, of course, then &c. (often with other particles e.g. with {tv eva}, {u}, {sma}, {vai} &c.; {na ha}, `" not indeed "'; also with interrogatives and relatives e.g. {yad dha}, `" when indeed "'; {kad dha}, `" what then? "' sometimes with impf. or pf. [cf. Pn. 3-2, 116]; in later language very commonly used as a mere expletive, esp. at the end of a verse) RV. &c. &c. ha * = Meaning 4 mf({A})n. (fr. {han}) killing, destroying, removing (only ifc.; see {arAti-}, {vRtra-},
666

{zatruha} &c.) ha * = Meaning 5 mf({A})n. (fr. 3. {hA}) abandoning, deserting, avoiding (ifc.; see {an-oka-} and {vApI-ha}); ({A}) f. abandonment, desertion L. haituka* = mf({I})n. having a cause or reason, founded on some motive (in {a-h-}) Bhag. BhP.; (ifc.) caused by, dependent on MBh. BhP.; m. a reasoner, rationalist, sceptic, heretic ({I} f.) Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; a follower of the Mmns doctrines W. hala = a plough halaasana = the plough posture halaahala = poison halahala* = mfn. ploughing making furrows L. halahalaa* = ind. an exclamation of applause or approbation MBh. R. halaahala* = m. n. a kind of deadly poison (prodoced at the churning of the ocean by gods and demons) Kv. Pacat.; m. (only L.) a kind of lizard; a kind of snake; a Jaina or Bauddha sage. haalahala* = (Jtakam.) and n. the above poison.
667

haalahaala* = (L.) n. the above poison. haalaahala* = m. a panic. poisonous plant (the seed of which is said to resemble a cow's teat) Bhpr.; a kind of lizard L.; a kind of spider L.; n. (rarely m.), a deadly poison prepared from the roots of the above plant accord. to R. and BhP. produced at she churning of the ocean (cf. {halAhala}) Kv. Sus'r. BhP.; ({A}) f. a kind of small mouse L.; ({I}) f. spirituous liquor L. haalahala* = {hAlAhala}, {hAhala} &c. Sea p. 1293, col. 2. halaayudha * m. `" plough-weaponed "'N. of Bala-rma (see above; also transferred to Vishnu-Kriishna) MBh. Hariv.; (also with {bhatTa}, {mizra} &c.) N. of various writers (esp. of a poet, of the author of the Abhidhnaratnamls, of the author of the Purna-sarvasva &c.) Cat.; {-cchAndogya} (?) and {-stava} m. N. of wks. haMsaH = (m) swan han* = mfn. only f. {-ghnI} q.v.\\* = m. killer of Makha "'N. of Agni or Indra or Rudra TS. han* =1 cl. 2. P. (Dhtup. xxiv, 2) {hanti} (3. du. {hata4H}, 3. pl. {ghnanti}; rarely . {hate}, 3. pl. {ghnate}; and cl. 1. {hanati}, Ved. also {jighnate}, {ti}; Pot. {hanyAt} Br. also {ha4nIta}, {ghnIta}; Impv.
668

{jahi4} Tr. {handhi4}; impf. {a4han}, Ved. and ep. also {ahanat}, {ahanan}, {aghnanta}; p. {jaghnat}, {ghnamAna} MBh.; pf. {jaghA4na}, {jaghnu4H} Br.and ep. also {jaghne}, {-nire} Subj. {jagha4nat} RV.; p. {jaghniva4s}, Ved. also {jaghanvas}; aor. {ahAnIt} JaimBr. [cf. {vadh}]; fut. {hantA} MBh.; {haMsyati} ib.; {haniSya4ti}, {-te} AV. &c.; inf. {ha4ntum}, Ved. also {ha4ntave}, {-tavai4}, {-toH}; ind. p. {hatvA4}, Ved. also {-tvI4}, {-tvAya}, {-hatya}; {-hanya} MBh.; {-ghA4tam} Br. &c.), to strike, beat (also a drum), pound, hammer (acc.), strike &c. upon (loc.) RV. &c. &c.; to smite, slay, hit, kill, mar, destroy ib.; to put to death, cause to be executed Mn. Hit.; to strike off Kaths.; to ward off, avert MBh.; to hurt, wound (the heart) R.; to hurl (a dart) upon (gen.) RV.; (in astron.) to touch, come into contact VarBriS.; to obstruct, hinder Rjat.; to repress, give up, abandon (anger, sorrow &c.) Kv. BhP.; (?) to go, move Naigh. ii, 14: Pass. {hanya4te} (ep. also {-ti}; aor. {avadhi} or {aghAni}), to be struck or killed RV. &c. &c.: Caus. {ghAtayati}, {-te} (properly a Nom. fr. {ghAta} q.v.; aor. {ajIghatat} or {ajIghanat}), to cause to be slain or killed, kill, slay, put to death, punish Mn. MBh. &c.; to notify a persos death ({kaMsaM ghAtayati} = {kaMsavadham AcaSTe}) Pn. 3-1, 26 Vrtt. 6 Pat.; to mar, destroy MBh. Pacat. (v.l.): Desid. {ji4ghAMsati}, {te} (Pot. {jighAMsIyat} MBh.; impf. {ajighAMsIH} S'Br.), to wish to kill or destroy RV. &c. &c.: Intens. {ja4Gghanti} (RV.; p. {jaGghanat}, {ja4Gghnat} or
669

{gha4nighnat}), {jaGghanyate} (with pass. sense MundUp.), {jeghnIyate} (Pn. 7-4, 31), to strike = tread upon (loc. or acc.) RV.; to slay, kill ib.; to dispel (darkness), destroy (evil, harm) ib.; to hurt, injure, wound MundUp. [Cf. Gk. $; Lat. {de-fendere}, &388667[1287, 2] {of-fendere}; Lit. {genu}, {gi4ti}; Slav. {gu8nati}.] han* =2 mf({ghnI})n. killing, a killer, slayer (only ifc.; see {ari-}, {tamo-han} &c.) hana * mf({I})n. id. (see {vIra-haNa}); m. killing, slaughter (see {su-hana}); ({A}) f. (see {dur-ha4NA}). ha.nsa = (masc) swan, goose ha.nsaasana = the swan posture hanana = killing hanishhye = I shall kill hanumatprabhuH = the lord of Hanuman hanumaana = a monkey chief, son of Anjana and Vayu hanumaanaasana = the splits hanta = O !, Alas !* ind. an exclamation or inceptive
670

particle (expressive of an exhortation to do anything or asking attention, and often translatable by `" come on! "' `" here! "' `" look! "' `" see! "' in later language also expressive of grief, joy, pity, haste, benediction &c. and translatable by `" alas! "' `" ah! "' `" oh! "' &c.; often repeated or joined with other particles e.g. {hA hanta}, {hanta hanta}, {hanta tarhi}) RV. &c. &c. hantaaraM = the killer hanti = kills hantuM = to kill hantri = desirous of killing hanyate = is killed hanyamaane = being killed hanyuH = may kill har.h = to steal hara = shankara * = mf(%{A}, rarely %{I})n. (only ifc.; fr. 1. %{hR}) bearing, wearing, taking, conveying, bringing (see %{kavaca-}, %{vArttA-h-}), taking away, carrying off, removing, destroying (see %{bala-}, % {zakti-h-}); receiving, obtaining (see %{aMza-h-});
671

ravishing, captivating (see %{mano-h-}); m. `" Seizer "', `" Destroyer "'N. of S3iva A1s3vGr2. Mn. MBh. &c.; of a Da1nava MBh. Hariv.; of a monkey R.; of various authors &c. Cat.; (in arithm.) a divisor Col.; the denominator of a fraction, division ib.; a stallion (?) L.; an ass L.; fire L. haraH = shiva harati = (1pp) to take (away) haranti = throw harasi = you remove hari = vishnu hariH = the Supreme Personality of Godhead, KRishhNa hariNa = deer harita = green haritam.h = (n) cabbage haridraa = (f) turmeric (haldii) hariiH = VishNu
672

hareH = of Lord KRishhNa hartaa.asi = are the usurper harmya = building harsha = (masc) joy * = m. (ifc. f. %{A}; fr. %{hRS}) bristling, erection (esp. of the hair in a thrill of rapture or delight) MBh. Ka1v. &c.; joy, pleasure, happiness (also personified as a son of Dharma) Kat2hUp. MBh. &c. [1292,3]; erection of the sexual organ, sexual excitement, lustfulness Sus3r.; ardent desire MBh.; N. of an Asura Katha1s.; of a son of Kr2ishn2a BhP.; of various authors &c. (also with %{dIkSita}, %{mizra}, %{sUri} &c.; cf. %{zrI-harSa}); mfn. happy, delighted W. harshha = from happiness harshhaM = cheerfulness harshhashokaanvitaH = subject to joy and sorrow haryaksha * = mfn. yelloweyed VS. MBh.; m. a lion MBh. R.; the zodiacal sign Leo Cat.; a monkey R.; N. of Kubera L.; of a demon causing diseases PrGri.; of an Asura BhP.; of a son of Priithu ib.; of S'iva MW. hary-aksha * = hary-akSa
673

haryaksha * = {hary-aGga} &c. see above, col. i. hasati = (1pp) to laugh hasta = hand hastaM = hand hastaghaTii = (f) wristwatch hasta\-paadangushhThaasana = the hand-to-big-toe posture hastaat.h = from the hand hastaaksharam.h = (n) handwriting hastini = in the elephant hastipakaH = (m) mahout, one who rides the elephant hastairbibhraaNaM = bearing in the hands hata* =mfn. struck by lightning Ka1t2h. [113,1]\\ mfn. struck, heaten (also said of a drum), smitten, killed, slain, destroyed, ended, gone, lost (often ibc. = `" destitute of "', `" bereft of "', `" -less "') RV. &c. &c.; injured, marred, hurt, wounded (lit. and fig.) MBh. Katha1s.; struck off (as a head) R.; knocked out (as an
674

eye) ib.; hit by (instr. or comp.) Ka1v. Katha1s.; whirled up, raised (as dust) S3ak.; visited or afflicted or tormented by, struggling with, suffering from (instr. or comp.) S3Br. ChUp. MBh. &c.; (in astron.) touched, come into contact VarBr2S.; violated (sexually, as a woman) MBh. viii, 2037; ruined, undone, hopeless, miserable, wretched (of persons and things; cf. comp.) Mn. MBh. &c.; worthless, useless ib.; defective Sa1h.; cheated, deceived Kuval.; deprived of, lapsed from (%{tas} or comp.) MBh. R.; (in arithm.) multiplied A1ryabh.; (%{A}) f. a violated woman (see above); a despised girl unfit for marriage L.; (%{am}) n. striking, killing, hurting W.; multiplication ib. [Cf. Gk. $, &388690[1287,2] `" slain. "'] hatha (haTa)* = force, against one's will * =mfn. struck - by lightning, heaten (also said of a drum), smitten, killed, slain, destroyed, ended, gone, lost (often ibc. = `" destitute of "', `" bereft of "', `" -less "') RV. &c. &c.; injured, marred, hurt, wounded (lit. and fig.) MBh. Kaths.; struck off (as a head) R.; knocked out (as an eye) ib.; hit by (instr. or comp.) Kv. Kaths.; whirled up, raised (as dust) S'ak.; visited or afflicted or tormented by, struggling with, suffering from (instr. or comp.) S'Br. ChUp. MBh. &c.; (in astron.) touched, come into contact VarBriS.; violated (sexually, as a woman) MBh. viii, 2037; ruined, undone, hopeless, miserable, wretched (of persons and things; cf. comp.) Mn. MBh. &c.; worthless, useless ib.; defective Sh.;
675

cheated, deceived Kuval.; deprived of, lapsed from ({tas} or comp.) MBh. R.; (in arithm.) multiplied ryabh.; ({A}) f. a violated woman (see above); a despised girl unfit for marriage L.; ({am}) n. striking, killing, hurting W.; multiplication ib.[Cf. Gk. $, &388690[1287, 2] `" slain. "'] hathha *= m. violence , force (ibc. , %{ena} , and % {At} , `" by force , forcibly "') R. Ra1jat. Katha1s. &c. ; obstinacy , pertinacity (ibc. and %{At} , `" obstinately , persistently "') Pan5cat. Katha1s. ; absolute or inevitable necessity (as the cause of all existence and activity ; ibc. , %{At} , and %{ena} , `" necessarily , inevitably , by all means "') MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; = %{haTha-yoga} Cat. ; oppression W. ; rapine ib. ; going in the rear of an enemy L. ; Pistia Stratiotes L. hatha m. a blow , stroke RV. ; killing , slaughter ib. ; a man stricken with despair Un2. ii , 2 Sch. haTayoga = union with the supreme via discipline hataM = killed hataH = being killed hataan.h = already killed hataani = (past.part.)having been killed
676

hataiH = having been killed hatvaa = by killing haviH = butter havirdhaana* = m. N. of the author of RV. x, 11-15 Anukr.; of a son of Antar-dhana (cf. {havir-dhAman}) BhP.; ({I}) f. N. of the mythical cow Surabhi or Kmadhenu ib.; of the wife of Havir-dhna ib.; ({am}) n. `" oblation-receptacle "', the vehicle in which the Soma plants are couveyed to be pressed (generally in du.) AV. VS. S'Br.; a shed for the Soma vehicles ib. KtyS'r.; a place of sacrifice MBh. Hariv.; the earth (as the depository of obloblation) AV.; ({e}), du, (with {prajApateH}) N. of two Smans rshBr. havishhaa = offerings haya = horse hayaiH = horses helana *= n. the act of slighting, disregard, contempt MBh. BhP.; sporting amorously, wanton dalliance (cf. %{hil}) W. heman.h = gold

677

hemanta = (masc) winter hetavaH = causes - see hetu heti * = f. (fr. 1. %{hi}; in later language also m. a missile weapon, any weapon (also personified) RV. &c. &c.; stroke, wound Sa1y.; Agni's weapon, flame, light MBh. Ka1v. &c.; a ray of the sun L.; rapid motion, shot, impact (of a bow-string) RV.; an implement, instrument BhP.; a young shoot or sprout L.; m. N. of the first Ra1kshasa king (represented as occupying the Sun's chariot in the month Caitra or Madhu) R.; of an Asura BhP. hetoH = in exchange hetu = intention * = m. `" impulse "', motive, cause, cause of, reason for (loc., rarely dat. or gen.; {hetunA}, {hetoH}, {hetave}, {hetau}, `" for a cause or reason "', `" by reason of "', `" on account of "' [with gen. or comp. e.g. {mama hetoH} or {mad-dhetoH}, `" on account of me "']; {kaM hetum} or {ko heTuH}, `" wherefore? "' `" why? "' Pn. 2-2, 23 Pat.; {yato hetoH}, `" because "'; {anena hetunA} or {iti hetoH}, `" for this reason "'; {mRtyu-hetave}, `" in order to kill "'; {hetur alaukikaH}, `" a supernatural cause "'; ifc. {hetu} also = `" having as a cause or motive "', `" caused or effected or actuated or attracted or impelled by "' e.g. {karmahetu}, `" caused by the acts [of a former existence] "'
678

Mn. i, 49; {mAMsa-hetu}, `" attracted by [the smell of] flesh "' MBh. x, 496; {karma-phala-hetu}, `" impelled by [the expectation of] the consequences of any act "' BhP. ii, 47; 49) RV. &c. &c.; a logical reason or dedaction or argument, the reason for an inference (esp. applied to the second member or Avayava of the fivemembered syllogism see {nyAya}) Nyyad. IW. 61; logic (in general see {hetuvidyA}); (in gram.) the agent of the causal verb Pn. 1-4, 55 &c.; (with Buddhists) primary cause (as opp. to {pratyaya} q.v.) Sarvad.; (with Pas'upatas) that which causes the bondage of the soul i.e. the external world and the senses ib.; a means ({hetubhiH} ifc. `" by means of "') MBh.; mode, manner ({hetubhiH} ifc. `" according to "') ib. Sus'r. Yj.; price, cost Rjat. v, 71; condition MBh.; (in rhet.) = {kAvya-liGga} (q.v.) Bhar. Kpr. Sh. hetuH = aim (Here: cause) hetunaa = for the reason hetumadbhiH = with cause and effect heya 1 mfn. (for 2. see p. 1297, col. 1) to be gone &c. MW.\\ 2 mfn. (for 1. and 3. see p. 1296 and 1304) to be left or quitted or abandoned or rejected or avoided (%{tva} n.) Ka1v. Katha1s. &c.; to be subtracted L. hi = really
679

hi * =Meaning 1 i (cf. {hay}) cl. 5. P. (Dhtup., xxvii, 11) {hino4ti} (Ved. also {hinute4}, {hi4nvati} and {hinva4ti}, {-te}; p. {hinvAna4} [with aet. and pass. sense] RV.; {ha4yat} RV. TS.; 1: sg. {hiSe} RV.; pf. {jighAya}, {jighyuH} Br. &c.; {jighye} [with pass. sense] Bhathth.; aor. {a4hema} {a4hema}, {ahyan}, {heta} p. {hiyAna4} [with pass. sense] RV.; {ahyam} [?], {a4hait} AV.; {ahaiSIt} Br.; {aheSata} RV.; fut. {hetA} Gr.; {heSyati} MBh. &c.; inf. {-hye4} RV.), to send forth set in motion, impel, urge on, hasten on (. also intrans.) RV. AV. S'Br. KtyS'r.; to stimulate or incite to (dat.) RV.; to assist or help to (dat.) ib.; to discharge, b, hurl, cast, shoot RV.; to convey, bring, procure ib. S'Br.; to forsake, abandon, get rid of Bhathth.; ({hinvati}), to gladden, delight Dhtup. xv, 82: Pass. {hIyate} (aor. {ahAyi}) Gr.: Caus. {hAyuyati} (aor. {ajIhayat}) ib.: Desid. of Caus. {jihApayiSati} ib.: Desid. {jighISati} ib.: Inteus. {jeghIyate}, {jeghayIti}, {jegheti} ib. hi4* =Meaning 2 ind. (used as a particle [cf. {ha} and {gha}] and usually denoting) for, because, on account of (never standing first in a sentence, but generally after the first word and used enclitically, sometimes after pronouns; e.g. {sa4rvo hi4 pR4tanA jigISati}, `" for everybody wishes to win battles "'; {bkavAn hi pramANam}, `" for your honour is the authority "'; {tahA hi}, `" for example "', `" accordingly "'; {na4 hi4} or {nahI4} "', for not "', `" not at all "') RV. &c. &c.;
680

just, pray, do (with an Impv. or Pot. emphatically; sometimes with Indic., e. g. {pasyAmo hi}, `" we will just see "') ib.; indeed, assuredly, surely, of course, certainly ({hi4 vai4}, `" most assuredly "'; {hi-tu} or {hi-punar}, `" indeed-but "'; often a mere expletive, esp. to avoid a hiatus, sometimes repeated in the same sentence; {hi} is also said to be an interjection of `" envy "', `" contempt "', `" hurry "' &c.) ib. hii* = ind. (an exclamation of surprise or astonishment or horror or sorrow or hilarity or satisfaction, usually translatable by) ah! oh! alas l &c.; (also said to be so used in giving a reason or cause, and translatable by) therefore, so, because, for (cf. 2. {hi}) &c.; (it is sometimes repeated cf. {hIhI} Hariv. Bhathth. hi.nsati = kills hi.nsaa = violence hi.nsaaM = and distress to others hi.nsaatmakaH = always envious hita = benefit hitaM = beneficial hitakaamyayaa = for your benefit
681

hite = in welfare work hitaishhin.h = one who wishes good hitaaya * = Nom. . {-yate}, to avail, be of use or advantage Vs. Hit4vat mfn. one who has put away or hidden his property RV. hitvaa = having given up/abandoned hinasti = degrade hima = snow himaalayaH = the Himalayan mountains = * Nom. P. {yati}, to resemble the Hima7laya Dhrtas. hiMsa* = mfn. injuring, injurious, mischievous, hostile RV.; ({A}) f. see below. hiMsA* = f. injury, harm (to life or property), hurt, mischief, wrong (said to be of three kinds, 1. mental as `" bearing malice "'; 2. verbal, as "' abusive language; 3. personal, as `" acts of violence "') Mn. Yj. MBh. &c.; Injury or Mischief personified (as the wife of Adharnia and daughter of Lobha and Nishkriiti) Pur.; Asteracantha Longifolia L. hiraNmaya* = mf({I}) n. (for {hiraNya-maya}) golden,
682

gold-coloured TS.&c, &c.; m. N. of Brahm. (see {hiraNya-garbha}) L.; of a Riishi MBh.; of a son of Agnidhra and ruler of a Varsha BhP.; m.n. one of the 9 Varshas or divisions of the continent (said to be between the mountainous ranges S'veta and S'riinga-vat; see varsha and {zveta}) Pur. hiraNyakashyapu = a demon king, killed by Vishnu hiraNyagarbha = Effulgent, a name of Sun hiraNyagarbhaH = the Golden Embryo of life and form hiinau = bereft, having lost horaa = A Varga. The Division of a sign into Solar and Lunar or Division into halves. Used for determining Wealth amongst other things hraada * = m. sound, noise, roar (of thunder) ChUp. MBh. Kir.; sound (in a phonetical sense) Pat.; N. of a serpent-demon MBh.; of a son of Hiranyakas'ipu Hariv. Pur. hraasa * = m. shortening, diminution, decrease, deterioration, detriment Mn. Ya1jn5. &c.; paucity, scarcity MBh. Hariv. &c.; sound, noise L. hrada * = 1 m. (once n.; ifc. f. {A} rather to be
683

connected with {hlAd}, but cf. {hrAd}; for 2. {hrada} see p. 1307) a large or deep piece of water, lake, pool (rarely applied to the sea; with {gAGga}, `" the water of the Ganges "') RV. &c. &c.; ({A}) f. the incense tree L.; ({I}) f. g. {gaurA7di}. hrada * =2 m. (ifc. f. {A}; for 1. see p. 1306, col. 3) sound, noise L.; a ray of light (see {zata-hr-}); a ram L.; N. of a son of Hrda Hariv. hraasa * = m. shortening , diminution , decrease , deterioration , detriment Mn. Ya1jn5. &c. ; paucity , scarcity MBh. Hariv. &c. ; sound , noise L hrasvaa = (adj) short hriiH = modesty hrii* = 1 cl. 3. P. (Dhtup. xxv, 3) {jihreti} ({ji4hriyat} MaitrS.; pf. {jihrAya} Ragh.; {jihrayAM-cakAra}, {yAm-Asa}, Gr.; aor. {ahraiSIt} ib.; Prec. {hrIyAt} ib.; p. {hrayANa}, see {a-hr-}; fut. {hretA}, {hreSyati} Gr.), to feel shame, blush, be bashful or modest, be ashamed of any one (gen.) or anything (abl.) Kv. Kaths.: Caus. {hrepayati} (aor. {ajihripat}), to make ashamed, cause to blush, confound, put to shame (also fig. = `" surpass, excel "') ib.: Desid. {jihrISati} Gr.: Intens. {jehrIyate} (p. {-yamANa} SaddhP.), {jehrayIti}, {jehreti}, to be greatly ashamed ib. \\2 f.
684

shame, modesty, shyness, timidity (also personified as daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma) VS. &c. & hriiyantraNA * f. torment of shshame, constraint of bashfulness hriyate = is attracted hri = to steal hrit *= mfn. (only ifc.) bringing , carrying , carrying away , seizing &c. (see %{bali-} , %{taila-} , % {pApa} , %{-bhayahRt} &c.) hrita = deprived of hritat.h = heart hritsthaM = situated in the heart hrid.h = heart (neut) hridaya = heart* = n. (ifc. f. {A}) the heart (or region of the heart as the seat of feelings and sensations; {hRdaye-kR}, `" to take to heart "'), soul, mind (as the seat of mental operations; {capala-hRdaya}, `" fickleminded "') RV. &c. &c.; the heart or interior of the body RV. AV. TBr. MBh.; the heart or centre or core or essence or best or dearest or most secret part of anything
685

AV. &c. &c.; true or divine knowledge MW.; the Veda ib.; science ib.; (with {prajApateH}) N. of a Sman IndSt.; m. a partic. Sunday BhavP.; ({A}) f. N. of a mare Hariv.; mfn. going to the heart BhgP. (fr. {hRd} + {aya} Sch.) hridayaM = heart hridayasthaM = heart-stationed hridayaani = hearts hridayii = in my heart hridayeshhu = in the hearts of hridi = in the heart hriddeshe = in the location of the heart hridyaaH = pleasing to the heart hrish* = cl. 1. P. A1. %{ha4rSati}, %{-te} fr. P. only p. %{ha4rSat}), to be excited or impatient, rejoice in the prospect of, be anxious or impatient for (dat.) RV.; to speak or affirm falsely, lie Dha1tup. xvii, 59; cl. 4. P. (Dha1tup. xxvi, 119) %{hRSyati} (ep. and m. c. also % {-te}; pf. %{jaharSa}, %{jahRSuH}; %{jahRSe}, %{Sire} MBh. &c.; aor. %{ahRSat} ib.; fut. %{harSitA},
686

%{harSiSyati} Gr.; inf. %{harSitum} ib.; ind. p. %{hRSya} MBh. &c.), to thrill with rapture, rejoice, exult, be glad or pleased Pa1rGr2. Mn. MBh. &c.; to become sexually excited Sus3r.; to become erect or stiff or rigid, bristle (said of the hairs of the body &c.), become on edge (like the teeth) MBh. BhP.: Pass. %{hRSyate} (aor. %{aharSi}) Gr.: Caus. %{harSa4yati}, %{-te} (aor. %{ajIhRSat}, or %{ajaharSat}), to excite, make impatient or eager for (victory &c.) RV. &c. &c.; to rejoice, be glad Mn. MBh.; to cause to bristle Cat.: Desid. %{jiharSiSati} Gr.: Intens. %{jarIhRSyate}, % {jarharSTi} &c. (Ved. forms %{jarhRSanta}, % {ja4rhRSANa} and %{jAhRSANa4}), to be impatient or excited RV. VS. A1s3vS3r.; to excite violently RV. [Cf. Lat. {horreo} for {horseo}.] hrishhitaH = gladdened hrishhiikesha = O master of all senses hrishiikes'a* = m. (perhaps = {hRSI-keza} cf. {hRSIvat} above) id. ({-tva} n.) MBh. Hariv. &c.; N. of the tenth month VarBriS.; of a Trtha Cat.; of a poet ib.; lord of the senses (said of Manas) BhP.; {-zA7zrama} m. N. of a man Cat. hrishhiikeshaM = unto Lord KRishhNa hrishhiikeshaH = Hrishkes'a (KRishhNa, the Lord who
687

directs the senses of the devotees) hrishhTaromaa = with his bodily hairs standing on end due to his great ecstasy hrishhyati = takes pleasure hrishhyaami = I am enjoying hrishtha * = mfn. thrilling with rapture, rejoiced, pleased, glad, merry Mn. MBh. &c.; bristling, erect, standing on end (said of the hairs of the body) MBh. R. &c.; rigid, stiff Hariv.; blunted (cf. {hRSita}) Pat.; surprised, astonished ib. hrit *= hRt mfn. (only ifc.) bringing, carrying, carrying away, seizing &c. (see %{bali-}, %{taila-}, %{pApa}, %{-bhayahRt} &c.)// 2 in comp. for %{hRd}. hum *= or %{hUm} ind. an exclamation (of remembrance, doubt, interrogation, assent, anger, reproach, fear &c., not translatable); a mystical syllable used in spells and magical texts or sentences; in Vedic ritual used immediately before the singing of the Prasta1va or prelude as well as during the chanting of the Pratiha1ra or response S3rS. MBh. Ka1v. &c. huM *= in comp. for %{hum}.

688

hUm *= ind. an exclamation or interjection &c.; see % {hum} huta = offerings (usually made to a fire) hutaM = offered hutabhuk.h = fire (one who eats offerings) hutaashavaktraM = fire coming out of Your mouth hyaH = yesterday

ichchh.h = to wish ichchha = the will ichchhati = (6 up) to wish icchataa * = f. or desire, wishfulness L. icchatva * = n. desire, wishfulness L.
689

ichchhan.h = present participle of ishh, to wish ichchhantaH = desiring ichchhasi = you wish ichchhaa = desire ichchhaami = do I wish iD * = (fr. 1. %{iS} ; connected with %{i4rA} q.v. ; only in inst. gen. abl. sing. , and acc. pl. %{iDA4} and %{iDa4s} ; or , according to the spelling of the R2igveda , %{iLA4} and %{iLa4s}) , a refreshing draught , refreshment , libation offered to the gods RV. ; the flow of speech , the stream of sacred words and worship , prayer ; (Sa1y.) the earth , food RV. VS. ; (% {iDas} , or %{iLas}) pl. the objects of devotion (a particular form of Agni addressed in the fourth verse of the A1pri1 hymn RV. i , 13) RV. iii , 4 , 3 ; (erroneously also referred to in the Bra1hman2as &c. as if etymologically connected with the words %{IDya} , % {IDita} , %{ILita} , `" the praiseworthy "' , `" the praised "' , which are used in other passages as the designation of the same object of worship) VS. AitBr. S3Br. A1s3vS3r. &c. id * = ind. Ved. (probably the neut. form of the pronom. base %{i} see 3. %{i} ; a particle of affirmation) even ,
690

just , only ; indeed , assuredly (especially , in strengthening an antithesis , e.g. % {ya4thA@va4zanti@devA4s@ta4he74d@asat} , as the gods wish it , thus indeed it will be RV. viii , 28 , 4 ; % {di4psanta@i4d@ripa4vo@nA74ha@debhuH} , the enemies wishing indeed to hurt were in nowise able to hurt RV. i , 147 , 3). %{id} is often added to words expressing excess or exclusion (e.g. %{vizva@it} , every one indeed ; %{zazvad@it} , constantly indeed ; %{eka@it} , one only). At the beginning of sentences it often adds emphasis to pronouns , prepositions , particles (e.g. %{tvam@it} , thou indeed ; %{yadi@it} , if indeed , &c.) %{id} occurs often in the R2ig-veda and Atharva-veda , seldom in the Bra1hman2as , and its place is taken in classical Sanskr2it by %{eva} and other particles. idaM = this* = 1 {aya4m}, {iya4m}, {ida4m} (fr. {id} Un. iv, 156; g. {sarvA7di} Pn. 1-1, 27 Vop.; a kind of neut. of the pronom. base 3. {i} with {am} [cf. Lat. {is}, {ea}, {id}, and {idem}]; the regular forms are partly derived from the pronom. base {a}; see Gr. 224; the Veda exhibits various irregular formations e.g. fr. pronom. base {a}, an inst. {enA4}, {ayA4} [used in general adverbially], and gen. loc. du. {ayo4s}, and perhaps also {avo4s}, in RV. vi, 67, 11; vii, 67, 4; x, 132, 5 [BRD.]; fr. the base {ima}, a gen. sing. {ima4sya}, only RV.; the RV. has in a few instances the irregular accentuation {a4smai}, v, 39, 5, &c.; {a4sya},
691

iv, 15, 5, &c.; {A4bhis}, vi, 25, 2, &c.: the forms derived fr. {a} are used enclitically if they take the place of the third personal pronoun, do not stand at the beginning of a verse or period, and have no peculiar stress laid upon them), this, this here, referring to something near the speaker; known, present; (opposed to {adas} e.g. {ayaM lokaH} or {idaM vizvam} or {idaM sarvam}, this earthly world, this universe; {ayam agniH}, this fire which burns on the earth; but {asAv agniH}, that fire in the sky, i. e. the lightning: so also {idam} or {iyam} alone sometimes signifies `" this earth "'; {ime smaH}, here we are.) {idam} often refers to something immediately following, whereas {etad} points to what precedes (e.g. {zrutvai9tad idam UcuH}, having heard that they said this). {idam} occurs connected with {yad}, {tad}, {etad}, {kim}, and a personal pronoun, partly to point out anything more distinctly and emphatically, partly pleonastically (e.g. {tad idaM vAkyam}, this speech here following [165, 3]; {so 'yaM vidUSakaH}, this Vidshaka here). idam* = 2 ind. [Ved. and in a few instances in classical Sanskriit] here, to this place; now, even, just; there; with these words RV. AV. S'Br. AitBr. ChUp.; in this manner R. ii, 53, 31 S'ak. (v.l. for {iti} in {kim iti joSam Asyate}, 202, 8). idaaniiM = now

692

idrik.h = as it is iDaa = the channel on the left of the spine iDyaM = worshipable iidrishhaM = like thisiiD *= 1 cl. 2. A1. %{I4TTe} (2. sg. pres. %{IDiSe} , Ved. %{ILiSe} pf. %{IDe4} fut. %{IDiSyate} aor. %{aiDiSTa}. inf. %{IDitum} , Ved. %{ILe} , &c.) to implore , request , ask for (with two acc.) ; to praise RV. AV. \\ 2 %{T} f. praise , extolling RV. viii , 39 , 1. iiDya *= mfn. to be invoked or implored ; to be praised or glorified , praiseworthy , laudable RV. AV. VS. S3Br. Ragh. &c. iha = here ihaiva = in the present bodyijyate = is performed iheha *= ind. here and there, now and then, repeatedly; {-mAtR} m. one whose mother is here and there i.e. everywhere RV. vi, 59, 1. iihita * mfn. sought, attempted, striven for; wished, desired; ({am}) n. desire, request, wish, effort Hit. Kaths. Prab. &c.

693

iih.h = to wish iihate = he aspires iihante = they desire iihaa = wish iihatas * = ind. diligently, energetically, by or with labour or exertion. iiksh.h = to see iikshaNa = seeing iikshaNaM = eyes iips* = (Desid. of {Ap} q.v.), to wish to obtain. iipsana* = n. desiring or wishing to obtain L. iipsaa* = f. asking, desire or wish to obtain MBh. R. iipsita* = mfn. wished, desired; ({am}) n. desire, wish MBh. R. Ragh. Kaths. iipsitatama* = mfn. most desired, immediately aimed at (as the object of an action) Pn. 1-4, 49.
694

iipsu* = mfn. striving to obtain; wishing to get or obtain, desirous of (with acc.) Mn. MBh. Ragh. R. &c. iipsuyajJa* = m. a particular Soma sacrifice KtyS'r. iis'itaa *= f. or superiority, supremacy, one of the eight attributes of S3iva MBh. BhP iiksha *= mf(%{I})n. ifc. seeing , looking , visiting (see %{tiryag-IkSa} , %{vadhv-IkSa}) ; (%{A}) f. sight , viewing ; considering BhP. Nya1yad. ; (%{am}) n. anything seen S3Br. vii , 1 , 2 , 23 (merely for the etym. of %{antarikSa}). iikshaka *= m. a spectator , beholder S3Br. A1s3vGr2. Gobh. iikshaNa* = n. a look, view, aspect sight KtyS'r. Lthy. Kaths. Pacat. Ratnv. &c.; regarding, looking after, caring for Mn.; eye MBh. R. Sus'r. S'ak. &c. iikshate = (1 ap) to see iikshaka* = m. a spectator, beholder S'Br. s'vGri. Gobh. iikshaNiiya* = mfn. to be seen or perceived. iikshamaaNa* = mfn. looking at, surveying VS. R.

695

iikshaNika* = {as}, {A} mf. and m. a looker into the future, a fortune-teller VarBriS. iikshaNiika* = m. a looker into the future, a fortuneteller VarBriS. iirma = (m) arm iirsha = jelousy iis' * = 1 cl. 2. A1. %{I4STe} , or Ved. %{I4ze} (2. sg. %{I4ziSe} and %{I4kSe} RV. iv , 20 , 8 ; vi , 19 , 10 ; Pot. 1. sg. %{I4zIya} pf. 3. pl. %{Izire} , %{IziSyati} , %{Izitum}) to own , possess RV. MBh. Bhat2t2. ; to belong to RV. ; to dispose of , be valid or powerful ; to be master of (with gen. , or Ved. with gen. of an inf. , or with a common inf. , or the loc. of an abstract noun) RV. AV. TS. S3Br. MBh. Ragh. &c. ; to command ; to rule , reign RV. AV. S3Br. &c. ; to behave like a master , allow Kat2hUp. ; [cf. Goth. {aigan} , `" to have "' ; Old Germ. {eigan} , `" own "' ; Mod. Germ. {eigen}.]\\2 % {T} m. master , lord , the supreme spirit VS. &c. ; N. of S3iva. iisha = God iis'a4 * = mfn. owning, possessing, sharing; one who is completely master of anything; capable of (with gen.); powerful, supreme; a ruler, master, lord Mn. S'Br. MBh.
696

Kum. &c.; m. a husband L.; a Rudra; the number `" eleven "' (as there are eleven Rudras); N. of S'iva as regent of the north-east quarter MBh. Hariv. R. S'ak. &c.; N. of S'iva; of Kuvera; ({A4}) f. faculty, power, dominion AV. VS. S'Br. iis'a * m. lord in lord in heaven pl. N. of the dityas, Vasu and Rudra Hcat. i, 6. (For other comp. see under {diva4s}, {divA}, 2. {divi4}, {divo} 3. {dyu4}.) iishaa* = f. (said to be fr. 1. {IS}), the pole or shafts of a carriage or plough; ({e}) f. du. the double or forkshaped pole RV. iii, 53, 17; viii, 5, 29 AV. viii, 8, 23; xi, 3, 9 S'Br. KtyS'r. MBh. &c.; a plank, board VarBriS.; a particular measure, S'ulb. iisha* = m. the month s'vina see {iSa}; a son of the third Manu; a servant of S'iva. iishaa* = f. (said to be fr. 1. {IS}), the pole or shafts of a carriage or plough; ({e}) f. du. the double or forkshaped pole RV. iii, 53, 17; viii, 5, 29 AV. viii, 8, 23; xi, 3, 9 S'Br. KtyS'r. MBh. &c.; a plank, board VarBriS.; a particular measure, S'ulb. iis'ana * = n. commanding , reigning S3vetUp.\\ (and \\ IzAna ) mfn. owning , possessing , wealthy ; reigning RV. AV. VS. S3Br. &c. ; m. a ruler , master , one of the older names of S3iva-Rudra AV. VS. S3Br. MBh. Kum. &c. ; one of the Rudras ; the sun as a form of S3iva ; a
697

Sa1dhya ; N. of Vishn2u ; N. of a man ; (%{A}) f. N. of Durga1 ; (%{I}) f. the silk-cotton tree , Bombax Heptaphyllum L. ; (%{am}) n. light , splendour L. iis'itaa * = f. or superiority, supremacy, one of the eight attributes of S3iva MBh. BhP. iis'vara* = mfn. able to do, capable of (with gen. of Vedic inf., or with common inf.), liable, exposed to AV. TS. S3Br. AitBr. Kum. Hit. &c.; (%{as}, %{I}) mf. master, lord, prince, king, mistress, queen AV. S3Br. Ragh. Mn. &c.; m. a husband MBh.; God; the Supreme Being Mn. Sus3r. Ya1jn5. &c.; the supreme soul (% {Atman}); S3iva; one of the Rudras; the god of love; N. of a prince; the number `" eleven "'; (%{A} or %{I}) f. N. of Durga1; of Lakshmi1; of any other of the S3aktis or female energies of the deities; N. of several plants L. iisha* = m. the month s'vina see {iSa}; a son of the third Manu; a servant of S'iva. iishannimayamfn. exchanged for a little L. iishaavaasyaM = inhabited or manifested by the Master iishvara = lord, the capable (here)* * = mfn. able to do, capable of (with gen. of Vedic inf., or with common inf.), liable, exposed to AV. TS. S'Br. AitBr. Kum. Hit. &c.; ({as}, {I}) mf. master, lord, prince, king, mistress,
698

queen AV. S'Br. Ragh. Mn. &c.; m. a husband MBh.; God; the Supreme Being Mn. Sus'r. Yj. &c.; the supreme soul ({Atman}); S'iva; one of the Rudras; the god of love; N. of a prince; the number `" eleven "'; ({A} or {I}) f. N. of Durg; of Lakshm; of any other of the S'aktis or female energies of the deities; N. of several plants L. iishvaraM = the Supersoul iishvaraH = the Supreme Lord iishvarapraaNidhaana = attentiveness to god iis'itaa* = f. or superiority, supremacy, one of the eight attributes of S'iva MBh. BhP. iis'itva* = n. superiority, supremacy, one of the eight attributes of S'iva MBh. BhP. iis'varapraNidhaana* = n. devotion to God, Vedntas iis'vara* = mfn. able to do, capable of (with gen. of Vedic inf., or with common inf.), liable, exposed to AV. TS. S'Br. AitBr. Kum. Hit. &c.; ({as}, {I}) mf. master, lord, prince, king, mistress, queen AV. S'Br. Ragh. Mn. &c.; m. a husband MBh.; God; the Supreme Being Mn. Sus'r. Yj. &c.; the supreme soul ({Atman}); S'iva; one of the Rudras; the god of love; N. of a prince; the
699

number `" eleven "'; ({A} or {I}) f. N. of Durg; of Lakshm; of any other of the S'aktis or female energies of the deities; N. of several plants L. iis'itavya* = mfn. to be reigned or ruled over BhP. iis'itR* = {tA} m. a master, owner, proprietor; a king S'vetUp. Prab. iis'itA* = f. or superiority, supremacy, one of the eight attributes of S'iva MBh. BhP. iis'itva* = n. superiority, supremacy, one of the eight attributes of S'iva MBh. BhP. iiti * = 1 f. (fr. 4. {I}?), plague, distress, any calamity of the season (as drought, excessive rain, swarm of rats, foreign invasion, &c.); infectious disease MBh. R. Sus'r. &c.; an affray L.; travelling in foreign countries, sojourning L. iiyakSamANa * = = {i4yakSamANa} (fr. {iyakS}) q.v. MaitrS. ii, 10, 6. iiya-cakSas * = fn. ({Iya} fr. {i}), of pervading or farreaching sight RV. v, 66, 6. ijyayaa = by worship

700

Iksha * = mf(%{I})n. ifc. seeing, looking, visiting (see %{tiryag-IkSa}, %{vadhv-IkSa}); (%{A}) f. sight, viewing; considering BhP. Nya1yad.; (%{am}) n. anything seen S3Br. vii, 1, 2, 23 (merely for the etym. of %{antarikSa}). ikshuH = sugarcane ikshvaakave = unto King IksvakuimaM = (from idaM) this iLA * = (not to be confounded with the inst. case of % {iD} above), refreshing draught, refreshment, animation, recreation, comfort, vital spirit RV. AV. AitBr.; offering, libation (especially a holy libation, offered between the Pra-ya1ga and Anu-ya1ga, and consisting of four preparations of milk, poured into a vessel containing water, and then partially drunk by the priest and sacrificers; personified in the cow, the symbol of feeding, and nourishment) S3Br. i, 8, 1, 1, &c. AitBr. Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3.; (metaphorically cf. %{id}), stream or flow of praise and worship (personified as the goddess of sacred speech and action, invoked together with Aditi and other deities, but especially in the A1pri1 hymns together with Sarasvati1 and Mahi1 or Bha1rati1) RV. AV. VS. &c. [164,3]; the earth, food Sa1y.; a cow; the goddess %{iDA} or %{iLA} (daughter of Manu or of man thinking on and worshipping the gods; she is the wife of Budha and mother of Puru1-ravas; in another
701

aspect she is called Maitra1varun2i as daughter of Mitra-Varun2a, two gods who were objects of the highest and most spiritual devotion); N. of Durga1; of a daughter of Daksha and wife of Kas3yapa; of a wife of Vasudeva and of the Rudra R2ita-dhvaja; speech BhP.; heaven L.; earth MBh.; a particular artery on the left side of the body; a tubular vessel (one of the principal channels of the vital spirit, that which is on the right side of the body) L.\\= f. (closely connected with %{i4DA} and %{i4rA}, qq.v.) flow; speech; the earth, &c.; see % {iDA}.ila * = %{ilA} see %{iDa}, %{i4DA}, p. 164, col. 2, and %{i4lA} below. ima* = * the base of some cases of the demonstrative pronoun {ida4m} q.v. (acc. sg. m. {ima4m} f. {imA4m} [168, 1]; nom. pl. m. {ime4}, &c.; irregular gen. sg. {ima4sya} RV. viii, 13, 21 [once]). imaaH = all these imaan.h = these ime = these imau = these ingate = waver indiraa = Goddess Lakshmi
702

indiraaramaNa = Vishnu, Husband of Goddess Lakshmi indu = moon indugopa = a centipede commonly seen during rainy season indra m. (for etym. as given by native authorities see Nir. x, 8 Sa1y. on RV. i, 3, 4 Un2. ii, 28; according to BRD. fr. %{in} = %{inv} with suff. %{ra} preceded by inserted %{d}, meaning `" to subdue, conquer "' [166,2]; according to Muir, S. T. v, 119, for %{sindra} fr. %{syand}, `" to drop "'; more probably from %{ind}, `" to drop "' q.v., and connected with %{indu} above), the god of the atmosphere and sky; the Indian Jupiter Pluvius or lord of rain (who in Vedic mythology reigns over the deities of the intermediate region or atmosphere; he fights against and conquers with his thunder-bolt [%{vajra}] the demons of darkness, and is in general a symbol of generous heroism; %{indra} was not originally lord of the gods of the sky, but his deeds were most useful to mankind, and he was therefore addressed in prayers and hymns more than any other deity, and ultimately superseded the more lofty and spiritual Varun2a; in the later mythology %{indra} is subordinated to the triad Brahman, Vishn2u, and S3iva, but remained the chief of all other deities in the popular mind) RV. AV. S3Br. Mn. MBh. R. &c. &c.; (he is also regent of the east quarter, and considered one of the
703

twelve A1dityas) Mn. R. Sus3r. &c.; in the Veda1nta he is identified with the supreme being; a prince; ifc. best, excellent, the first, the chief (of any class of objects; cf. %{sure7ndra}, %{rAje7ndra}, %{parvate7ndra}, &c.) Mn. Hit.; the pupil of the right eye (that of the left being called Indra1n2i1 or Indra's wife) S3Br. Br2A1rUp.; the number fourteen, Su1ryas; N. of a grammarian; of a physician; the plant Wrightia Antidysenterica (see % {kuTaja}) L.; a vegetable poison L.; the twenty-sixth Yoga or division of a circle on the plane of the ecliptic; the Yoga star in the twenty-sixth Nakshatra, $ Pegasi; the human soul, the portion of spirit residing in the body; night L.; one of the nine divisions of Jambudvi1pa or the known continent L.; (%{A}) f. the wife of Indra see %{indrANI}; N. of a plant L.; (%{I}) f. N. of an attendant of Devi1. indraH = the god Indra indrachaapa = (m) rainbow indradhanuH = (m) rainbow indrapramati* = m. a pupil of Paila and author of some verses of the Riig-veda RAnukr. BhP. VP. AgP. indrapramada* = m. N. of a man. indraprasUta* = ({i4ndra-}) mfn. caused or impelled by
704

Indra RV. x, 66, 2. indraprastha* = n. `" Indra's place "'N. of a city (now called Delhi, the residence of the Pndavas) MBh. indrapraharaNa* = n. Indra's weapon, the thunderbolt L. indriya = organ of sense or action* = mfn. fit for or belonging to or agreeable to Indra RV. AV. VS.; m. a companion of Indra(?) RV. i, 107, 2 AV. xix, 27, 1; ({am}) n. power, force, the quality which belongs especially to the mighty Indra RV. AV. VS. TS. AitBr. S'Br.; exhibition of power, powerful act RV. VS.; bodily power, power of the senses; virile power AV. VS. S'Br.; semen virile VS. KtyS'r. MBh. &c.; faculty of sense, sense, organ of sense AV. Sus'r. Mn. Ragh. Kir. &c.; the number five as symbolical of the five senses. (In addition to the five organs of perception, {buddhI7ndriyANi} or {jJAne7ndriyANi}, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, and skin, the Hinds enumerate five organs of action, {karme7ndriyANi} i.e. larynx, hand, foot, anus, and parts of generation; between these ten organs and the soul or {Atman} stands {manas} or mind, considered as an eleventh organ; in the Vednta, {manas}, {buddhi}, {ahaMkAra}, and {citta} form the four inner or internal organs, {antar-indriyANi}, so that according to this reckoning the organs are fourteen in number, each being presided over by its own ruler or {niyantR}; thus, the eye by the Sun, the ear by the
705

Quarters of the world, the nose by the two As'vins, the tongue by Pracetas, the skin by the Wind, the voice by Fire, the hand by Indra, the foot by Vishnu, the anus by Mitra, the parts of generation by Prajpati, manas by the Moon, buddhi by Brahman, ahankra by S'iva, citta by Vishnu as Acyuta; in the Nyya philosophy each organ is connected with its own peculiar element, the nose with the Earth, the tongue with Water, the eye with Light or Fire, the skin with Air, the ear with Ether; the Jainas divide the whole creation into five sections, according to the number of organs attributed to each being.) indriyaH = senses indriyagocharaaH = the objects of the senses indriyagraamaM = the full set of senses indriyajaya = mastery of the senses by controlling the desires indriyasya = of the senses indriyasyaarthe = in the sense objects indriyaaNaaM = of the senses indriyaaNi = the senses
706

indriyaaraamaH = satisfied in sense gratification indriyaarthaan.h = sense objects indriyaarthebhyaH = from the sense objects indriyaartheshhu = in sense gratification indriyebhyaH = more than the senses indriyaiH = by the senses indro = the Lord Indra indra * = m.m. (for etym. as given by native authorities see Nir. x, 8 Sy. on RV. i, 3, 4 Un. ii, 28; according to BRD. fr. {in} = {inv} with suff. {ra} preceded by inserted {d}, meaning `" to subdue, conquer "' [166, 2]; according to Muir, S. T. v, 119, for {sindra} fr. {syand}, `" to drop "'; more probably from {ind}, `" to drop "' q.v., and connected with {indu} above), the god of the atmosphere and sky; the Indian Jupiter Pluvius or lord of rain (who in Vedic mythology reigns over the deities of the intermediate region or atmosphere; he fights against and conquers with his thunder-bolt [{vajra}] the demons of darkness, and is in general a symbol of generous heroism; {indra} was not originally lord of the gods of the sky, but his deeds were most useful to mankind, and he was therefore addressed in prayers and
707

hymns more than any other deity, and ultimately superseded the more lofty and spiritual Varuna; in the later mythology {indra} is subordinated to the triad Brahman, Vishnu, and S'iva, but remained the chief of all other deities in the popular mind) RV. AV. S'Br. Mn. MBh. R. &c. &c.; (he is also regent of the east quarter, and considered one of the twelve dityas) Mn. R. Sus'r. &c.; in the Vednta he is identified with the supreme being; a prince; ifc. best, excellent, the first, the chief (of any class of objects; cf. {sure7ndra}, {rAje7ndra}, {parvate7ndra}, &c.) Mn. Hit.; the pupil of the right eye (that of the left being called Indrn or Indra's wife) S'Br. BrirUp.; the number fourteen, Sryas; N. of a grammarian; of a physician; the plant Wrightia Antidysenterica (see {kuTaja}) L.; a vegetable poison L.; the twenty-sixth Yoga or division of a circle on the plane of the ecliptic; the Yoga star in the twenty-sixth Nakshatra, $ Pegasi; the human soul, the portion of spirit residing in the body; night L.; one of the nine divisions of Jambu-dvpa or the known continent L.; ({A}) f. the wife of Indra see {indrANI}; N. of a plant L.; ({I}) f. N. of an attendant of Dev. indhana = fuel isha* = 1 mfn. seeking (see {gav-iSa}). \\=2 mfn. possessing sap and strength; well-fed, strong; sappy, juicy, fertile RV.; m. N. of the month s'vina, September-October) VS. S'Br. Sus'r. VP.; N. of a Riishi
708

BhP. ishu * = {us} mf. an arrow RV. AV. VS. MBh. Ragh. S'ak. &c.; (in mathematics) a versed sine; N. of a Soma ceremony KtyS'r.; the number five Sh.; N. of a particular constellation VarBri. xii, 7. [According to Daynanda {iSu} may mean `" ray of light "'; cf. Gk. $; &52843[168, 3] Zd. {ishu}.] ishat.h = a little ishhubhiH = with arrows ishtha = of all desirable things ishthaM = leading to heaven ishthaaH = palatable ishthaan.h = desired ishthikaa = (f) brick ishthvaa = worshiping ishtha* = 1 mfn. (for 2. see s.v.), sought S'Br.; wished, desired; liked, beloved; agreeable; cherished RV. S'Br. KtyS'r. Mn. Pacat. S'ak. &c.; reverenced, respected; regarded as good, approved Mn. Snkhyak.; valid; m. a
709

lover, a husband S'ak. 83 c; the plant Ricinus Communis L.; ({A}) f. N. of a plant L.; ({am}) n. wish, desire RV. AV. AitBr. Mn. R.; ({am}) ind. voluntarily.\\2 mfn. (p.p. fr. {yaj}; for 1. {iSTa4} see col. 2) sacrificed, worshipped with sacrifices VS. S'Br. KtyS'r. AitBr. &c.; m. sacrifice MrkP. xiii, 15; ({am}) n. sacrificing, sacrifice; sacred rite, sacrament L. ishthadeva* = m. (L.) or a chosen tutelary deity, favourite god, one particularly worshipped (cf. {abhI7STa-devatA}). ishthadevataa* = f. a chosen tutelary deity, favourite god, one particularly worshipped (cf. {abhI7STadevatA}). ishthayaaman* = ({iSTa4-}) mfn. going according to desire RV. ix, 88, 3. ishthavrata* = mfn. that by which good ({iSTa}) works ({vrata}) succeed [Sy.] RV. iii, 59, 9. ishthArtha* = m. anything desired or agreeable; (mfn.) one who has obtained a desired object MBh. R.; {rtho7dyukta} mfn. zealous or active for a desired object. ishthAvat* = mfn. possessing a desired object (?) AV. xviii, 3, 20 [perhaps and belonging to 2. {iSTa}].

710

ishthakRt* = mfn. performing a sacrifice Comm. on KtyS'r. ishthayajus* = ({iSTa4-}) mfn. one who has spoken the sacrificial verses VS. TS. ishthakaa* = f. a brick in general; a brick used in building the sacrificial altar VS. AitBr. S'Br. KtyS'r. Mriicch. &c. ishthakaavat* = mfn. possessed of bricks Pn. ishthi* =1 f. impulse, acceleration, hurry; invitation; order; despatch RV.\\* =2 f. seeking, going after RV.; endeavouring to obtain; wish, request, desire RV. VS. &c.; any desired object; a desired rule, a desideratum, a N. applied to the statement of grammarians who are considered as authoritative.\\* =3 f. sacrificing, sacrifice; an oblation consisting of butter, fruits, &c., opposed to the sacrifice of an animal or Soma RV. i, 166, 14; x, 169, 2 S3Br. A1s3vS3r. Ya1jn5. Mn. S3ak. Ragh. &c. it * = 1 ifc. going, going towards; cf. %{arthe74t}; (for 2. %{it} see s.v.)\\2 (in Gr.) an indicatory letter or syllable attached to roots &c. (= %{anubandha} q.v.)\\ for the Ved. particle %{id} q.v. itaH = besides this
711

i4tara = Other* == mf({A})n. (the neuter is {ad} in classical Sanskriit, but {am} [{ad} S'Br.] in Ved. Pn. 71, 25, 26; comparative form of pronom. base 3. {i}; cf. Lat. {iterum}; Hib. {iter}), the other (of two), another; (pl, ) the rest; (with abl.) different from RV. AV. S'Br. MBh. R. Mn. Ragh. Hit. &c.; low, vile Kd.; expelled, rejected L.; ({A}) f. said to be a N. of the mother of Aitareya; ({ad}) ind. whereas, whilst Subh.; {itara}, {itara}, the one - the other, this - that. ({itara} connected antithetically with a preceding word often signifies the contrary idea e.g. {vijayAya itarAya vA} [MBh.], to victory or defeat; so in Dvandva compounds, {sukhe7tareSu} [S'vetUp.], in happiness and distress; it sometimes, however, forms a Tat-purusha compound with another word to express the one idea implied in the contrary of that word, e.g. {dakSiNe7tara}, the left hand.) i4tarajana* = m. an ordinary man S'rng.; ({As}) m. pl. `" other men "'; a euphemistic name of certain beings who appear to be considered as spirits of darkness (Kuvera belongs to them) AV. VS. TS. MaitrS. GopBr. i4tarajaatiiya* = mfn. ordinary, common-place. i4taratas* = ind. otherwise than, different from; from or to another direction KtyS'r. S'Br. &c.; ({itazce7taratazca}, hither and thither R.)

712

i4taratra* = ind. elsewhere BhP.; on the other hand, else Yogas. itarathaa* = ind. in another manner, in a contrary manner; perversely; on the other hand, else S'Br. KtyS'r. S'is'. &c. itarapaaNi* = m. the left hand s'vGri. iv, 7, 13. itarAGga* = mfn. being a means to another, ancillary to another Sh. 266. itaraH = common itaretara = mutual, each-other itastataH = (indecl) here and there ith * = cl. 1. P. %{eTati}, %{eTitum} (Dha1tup. ix, 31), to go; to go to or towards; (p. %{iTa4t} RV. x, 171, 1) to make haste; to err [NBD.] iti= like that* =1 f. {ityai4} (dat.) see {i} above; (for 2. {iti} see s. v.) \\ 2 ind. (fr. pronominal base 3. {i}), in this manner, thus (in its original signification {iti} refers to something that has been said or thought, or lays stress on what precedes; in the Brhmanas it is often equivalent to `" as you know "', reminding the hearer or reader of certain customs, conditions, &c. supposed to
713

be known to him). In quotations of every kind {iti} means that the preceding words are the very words which some person has or might have spoken, and placed thus at the end of a speech it serves the purpose of inverted commas ({ity uktvA}, having so said; {iti kRtvA}, having so considered, having so decided). It may often have reference merely to what is passing in the mind e.g. {bAlo 'pi nA7vamantavyo manuSya iti bhUmipaH}, a king, though a child, is not to be despised, saying to one's self, `" he is a mortal "', (Gr. 928.) In dram. {iti tathA karoti} means `" after these words he acts thus. "' Sometimes {iti} is used to include under one head a number of separate objects aggregated together (e.g. {ijyA7dhyayanadAnAni tapaH satyaM kSamA damaH} {alobha iti mArgo 'yam}, `" sacrificing, studying, liberality, penance, truth, patience, self-restraint, absence of desire "', this course of conduct, &c.) {iti} is sometimes followed by {evam}, {iva}, or a demonstrative pronoun pleonastically (e.g. {tAm brUyAd bhavatI7ty evam}, her he may call `" lady "', thus). {iti} may form an adverbial compound with the name of an author (e.g. {iti-pANini}, thus according to Pnini). It may also express the act of calling attention (lo! behold!) It may have some other significations e.g. something additional (as in {ityAdi}, et caetera), order, arrangement specific or distinctive, and identity. It is used by native commentators after quoting a rule to express `" according to such a rule "' (e.g. {anudAttaGita ity Atmanepadam bhavati},
714

according to the rule of Pnini i, 3, 12, the tmane-pada takes place). {kim iti} = {kim}, wherefore, why? (In the S'atapatha-brhmana {ti} occurs for {iti}; cf. Prkriit {ti} and {tti}.) itihaasa = history itihaasa(H) = history; epic ittha *= n. in astron. = $ VarBr2S.itthaa *= ind. Ved. thus ; (often used in the R2ig-veda , and sometimes only to lay stress on a following word ; therefore by native etymologists [Nir.] considered as a particle of affirmation.) %{itthA} is often connected with words expressing devotion to the gods &c. in the sense of thus , truly , really ; especially with %{dhI} as an adjective. Hence %{itthA-dhI} = such , i.e. true (% {satyA}) or real worship. Similarly , %{itthA-dhI4} mfn. so devout , so pious i.e. very devout ; performing such or true works [Sa1y.] RV. AV. Kat2hUp.ityuta = thus it is said ittham *= ind. (fr. %{id} q.v. Pa1n2. 5-3 , 24) , thus , in this manner RV. AV. TS. R. S3ak. &c. ; [cf. Lat. {item}.] itthaM = like that ityetaani = iti+etAni, thus+ these
715

ityevaM = knowing thus iyaM = this iyakS * = (anom. Desid. of {yaj}) P. {i4yakSati} (Subj. 3. pl. {i4yakSAn} RV. x, 50, 3; p. {i4yakSat}) . (p. {i4yakSamANa} RV. i, 123, 10 VS. xvii, 69) to go towards, approach; to request, endeavour to gain; to long for, seek RV. VS. iyakSu4 * = mfn. Ved. longing for, seeking to gain RV. x, 4, 1. i4yat * = mfn. (fr. pronominal base 3. {i}), so large, only so large; so much, only so much; of such extent RV. TS. S'Br. AitBr. Pacat. Ragh. &c.; [cf. the syllable {iens}, or {ies} in such Lat. words as {totiens}, {toties}, {quotiens}, {quoties}, and in numeral adverbs as {quinquies}.] iyate V*: it appears like, is perceived, is seen, is mistaken as, is spent, seems, i4yat--c-ciram * = ({iyacciram}) ind. so long, such a time Kaths. i4yat-taka4 * = ({iyat-}) mf({ikA})n. so small, so little RV. i, 191, 11; 15.

716

iya4m * = f. nom. sg. of the demonstrative pronoun {ida4m}, q.v. iyasya * = aning (anom. Intens. of {yas}) . {iyasyate}, to relax, weaken; to vanish S'Br. iyasaa4 * = * = f. lassitude, shrinking S'Br. iyasita4 * = mfn. shrunk S'Br.; ({a4m}) n. shrinking ib. iyat * = mfn. (fr. pronominal base 3. %{i}), so large, only so large; so much, only so much; of such extent RV. TS. S3Br. AitBr. Pan5cat. Ragh. &c.; [cf. the syllable {iens}, or {ies} in such Lat. words as {totiens}, {toties}, {quotiens}, {quoties}, and in numeral adverbs as {quinquies}.] iyattaa * = f. or the state of being, of such extent, quantity, fixed measure or quantity, so much Ragh. Ka1d. &c iyesha = (SB) attempted, prepared, desired; (Sastri) feeling inclined; being ready iva = just like or as if Jaa
717

jaaDya = laziness, inability to identify/appreciate good qualities (here) jaagarti = is wakeful jaagri = to stay awake * = cl. 2. %{-garti} (cf. Pa1n2. 61 , 192 ; cl. 1. %{-garati} MBh. xii , 7823 ; 1. sg. irr. % {-gRmi} , 6518 ; 3. pl. %{jA4grati} AV. &c. [Pa1n2. 61 , 189 Ka1s3.] ; Impv. %{-gRhi4} , %{-gRtAt} , %{gRtam} , %{-gRta4} ; Subj. %{-garat} ; Pot. %{gRyAt} , or %{-griy-} AitBr. viii , 28 &c. ; impf. % {a4jAgar} [RV. x , 104 , 9] ; p. %{jA4grat} ; rarely A1. %{jAgramANa} MBh. ; pf. Ved. %{jA7gA4ra} [RV. AV.] , 1. sg. %{-ga4ra} [RV. x , 149 , 5] , p. %{gRva4s} [see s.v.] ; pf. class. [Pa1n2. 3-1 , 38 ; vii , 3 , 85 ; but cf. vi , 1 , 8 Va1rtt.1] %{jajAgAra} or % {jAgaraM-cakAra} ; fut. 2nd %{jAgriSya4ti} TS. &c. [A1. R. ii , 86 , 4] ; fut. 1st %{-ritA} Pa1n2. 7-2 , 10 Va1rtt. 1 Pat. ; aor. %{ajAgarIt} , vii , 2 , 5 ; Pass. impers. %{ajagAri} , 3 , 85 ; Prec. %{jAgaryAt} , iii , 4 , 104 Ka1s3.) to be awake or watchful RV. AV. &c. ; to awake Pan5cat. iii , 9 , 0/1 Hit. ii , 3 , 2/3 ; to watch over , be attentive to or intent on , care for , provide , superintend (with loc. or loc. with %{a4dhi}) RV. AV. &c. (with acc. Caurap.) ; (said of fire) to go on burning AV. Pra1yas3c. i , 5 ; to be evident W. ; to look on W.: Caus. (aor. 2. and 3. sg. %{a4jIgar} Impv. %{jigRta4m} , %{-ta4}) to awaken RV. ; %{jAgarayati} , (Pa1n2. 7-3 , 85 ; aor. Pass. impers. %{aJAgari} or %{-gAri} Vop.
718

xviii , 22 ; xxiv , 6 and 13) id. Hit. ii , 3 , 0/1 ; [cf. $ ; Lat. {vi1gilo}.] jaagrita = alert jaagrata = (Vr.Imp.IIP.Pl.PP) Wake up; awake jaagrataavasthaa = complete awareness of the state of the mind jaagrati = are awake jaaha * =n. ifc. (g. 2. {karNadi}) the root or point of issue of certain parts of the body cf. {akSi-}, ({Asya-}), {oSTha-}, {karNa-}, {keza-}, {gulpha-}, {danta-}, {nakha-}, {pAda-}, {priSTha-}, {bhrU-}, {mukha-}. jaahnavii = the River Ganges jaala = net * = 1 mfn. watery MBh. iii, 11967 \\ 2 n. a net (for catching birds, fish &c.) AV. viii, x Ka1tyS3r. Pa1rGr2. &c.; a hairnet A1p.; a net (fig.), snare Ya1jn5. iii, 119 MBh. iii, 25 R. v Bhartr2. &c.; (in anat.) the omentum Bhpr. ii, 310; a cob-web W.; any reticulated or woven texture, wire-net, mail-coat, wire-helmet MBh. vff. Hariv. Kum. vii, 59; a lattice, eyelet. R. iii, 61, 13 VarBr2S. lvi, 22; a lattice-window Mn. viii, 132 Ya1jn5. i, 361 Vikr. &c.; `" the web or membrane on the feet of water-birds "' see %{-pAda} the finger- and toe719

membrane of divine beings and godlike personages S3ak. vii, 16; lion's mane Katha1s. lxxv; a bundle of buds W.; (chiefly ifc.) collection multitude MBh. &c.; deception, illusion magic Das3. viii, 42 Katha1s. xxiv, 199; pride W.; for %{jAta}, kind, species S3vetUp. v, 3 R. ii; m. (g %{jvalA7di}) Nauclea Cadamba L.; a small cucumber. L. Sch.; (%{i}) f. a kind of cucumber L.; cf. %{a4yo- %{indra-}, %{giri-}, %{bRhaj-}. jaalam.h = (n) net jaamadagnyajit.h = he who scored a victory over jAmadagni (ParashurAm, the son jaambavadaashrayaH = he who gave refuge to jhambava(the bear-chieftain of jaa4na * = 1 n. birth, origin, birth place RV. i, 37, 9 and 95, 3; v, x AV. vii, 76, 5 S'Br. iii, 2, 1, 40. [418, 3] \\ * = 2 m. (fr. {ja4na}) patr. of Vriis'a (= {vaijAna}, `" son of Vijn "' Sch.) TndyaBr. xiii, 3 Arsh jaanakaaraaH = knowledgeable jaanakiivallabhaH = the darling of jAnaki (sItA) jaanan.h = even if he knows jaanaati = knows
720

jaaniite = know jaaniimaH = know jaanu = (n) knee jaanu\-shirshhaasana = the head-knee posture jaanunii = knees jaane = I know jaapyasameta = with chanting of the names of the lord jaata = born, become (from jan.h, to be born, or created)*= mfn. ( {jan}; ifc. Pn. 6-2, 171) born, brought into existence by (loc.), engendered by (instr. or abl.) RV. &c.; grown, produced, arisen, caused, appeared ib.; ifc. (Pn. 2-2, 5 Ks'.; 36 Vrtt. 1; vi, 2, 170) see {mAsa-}, {saptA7ha-}, &c.; appearing on or in VarBriS. lii, 5 ff.; destined for (dat.) RV. iv, 20, 6; ix, 94, 4; turning to (dat.) Sh. iii, 58/59; happened, become, present, apparent, manifest TS. VS. &c.; belonging to (gen.) RV. i, 83, 5; viii, 62, 10; ready at hand Pacat. ii, 16; possessed of (instr.) MBh. iv, 379; often ifc. instead of in comp. (Pn. 2-2, 36 Vrtt. 1; vi, 2, 170 f.; g. {AhitA7gny-Adi}) e.g. {kiNa-}, {danta-}, &c., qq.vv.; m. a son RV. ii, 25, 1 AV. xi, 9, 6 S'Br. xiv Pacat.; a living being (said of men, rarely of gods) RV.
721

iv, 2, 2; v, 15, 2; x, 12, 3 AV. xviii VS. viii, 36; N. of a son of Brahm PadmaP. v; n. a living being, creature RV.; birth, origin, i, 156, 2 and 163, 1; iii, 31, 3; race, kind, sort, class, species, viii, 39, 6 AV. &c.; a multitude or collection of things forming a class (chiefly ifc., e.g. {karma-} "', the whole aggregate of actions "' Mn. vii, 61/62 {sukha-}, `" anything or everything included under the name pleasure "' Gt. x, 3) Mn. ix MBh. &c.; individuality, specific condition ({vyakta}) L.; = {karman} NrS.; (impers. with double instr.) it turned out or happened that Rjat. v, 364 [417, 3]; ({A}) f. a daughter W.; [cf. $; Germ. {Kind}; Lith. {gentis}.] jaataM = having become jaataH = of all beings jaataka = Nativity, literally means one who is born jaatasya = of one who has taken his birth jaataa = (part.fem.nom.S)is born jaataaH = born jaati = circumstances of life to which one is born jaati* = f. birth, production AitBr. ii, 39 Mn. MBh. (also {-tI}, xiii f.) &c.; re-birth R. i, 62, 17 Krand. xxiii, 193;
722

the form of existence (as man, animal, &c.) fixed by birth Mn. iv, 148 f. Yogas. ii, 13; (ifc.) Kaths. xviii, 98; position assigned by birth, rank, caste, family, race, lineage KtyS'r. xv Mn. Yj. &c. ({-tI} MBh. xiv, 2549); kind, genus (opposed to species), species (opposed to individual), class Lthy. KtySr. Pn. &c., (once {-tI} ifc. MBh. vi, 456); the generic properties (opposed to the specific ones) Sarvad.; natural disposition to Car. ii, 1; the character of a species, genuine or true state of anything Yj. ii, 246 MBh. xii, 5334; reduction of fractions to a common denominator; a self-confuting reply (founded merely on similarity or dissimilarity) Nyyad. v, 1 ff. Sarvad. xi, 10 and 34 Prab. Sch.; (in rhet.) a particular figure of speech Sarasv. ii, 1; a class of metres R. i, 4, 6 Kvya7d. i, 11; a manner of singing Hariv.; a fire-place L.; (= {-tI}) mace, nutmeg Sus'r.; Jasminum grandiflorum L.; = {-tI-phalA} L.; = {kampilla} L. cf. {antya-}, {eka-}, {dvi-} - [cf. Lat. {gens}; Lith. {pri-gentis}] jaatii * = f. = {-ti} q.v.; Jasminum grandiflorum Hariv. 7891 Bhartri. BhP. x Amar. [418, 2]; mace, nutmeg Sus'r. VarBriS jaatidharmaaH = community projects jaatu = at any time jaayate = (4 ap) to be born
723

jaayante = develop jaayaa = Wife, female companion, spouse, strii ja = Born jabhU* = m. `" being in a lotus "', the god Brahm. jaDa mf({A})n. (cf. {ja4lhu}) cold, frigid Pacat. i, 12, 4 Kvya7d. ii, 34 Rjat. iv, 41; stiff, torpid, motionless, apathetic, senseless, stunned, paralysed Ragh. iii, 68 S'ak. &c.; stupid, dull Mn. viii, 394 (also {a-} neg., 148) Yj. ii MBh. (ifc. `" too stupid for "', iii, 437) &c.; void of life, inanimate, unintelligent KapS. i, 146; vi, 5o NriisUp. Veda7ntas. Sarvad.; dumb "' Mn. ii, 110 Sus'r.; ifc. stunning, stupefying S'ak. iv, 6; m. (g. {azvA7di}) N. of Sumati (who simulated stupidity) cf. MrkP. x, 9; cold, frost W.; idiocy W.; dulness, apathy W.; inanimate "', lifeless, matter (opposed to {cetana}); n. water (= {jala}) S'rngP. (Subh.); lead L.; ({A}) f. N. of a plant ( = {jaTA}, Mucuna pruritus, Flacourtia cataphracta L.) Car. vi, 2 (ifc. f. {A}). jagajaitra = jagaje?+atra, in the world?+here jagat* mfn. ( {gam} redupl. Pn. 3-2, 178 Vrtt. 3) moving, movable, locomotive, living RV. AV. &c.; (= {jA4gata}) composed in the Jagat metre RV. i, 164, 23 ShadvBr. i, 4 Lthy. i, 8, 9; m. air, wind L.; m. pl.
724

people, mankind Rjat. (C) iii, 494; n. that which moves or is alive, men and animals, animals as opposed to men, men (Naigh. ii, 3) RV. AV. &c. ({-to madhye}, `" within everybody's sight "' R. vii, 97, 1; 5 and 10); the world, esp. this world, earth S'Br. Mn. &c.; the Jagati metre RV. i, 164, 25; N. of a Sman see - {sAman}; n. du. heaven and the lower world Kir. v, 20; n. pl. the worlds (= {-gat-traya}) Prab. i, 10; people, mankind Kpr. x, 50/51 (Sh. and Kuval.); ({ja4gatI}) f. a female animal RV. i, 157, 5; vi, 72, 4; a cow Naigh. 11, II; the plants (or flour as coming from plants) VS. i, 21 S'Br. i, 2, 2, 2; the earth s'Up. Pras'nUp. Mn. i, 100 MBh. &c.; the site of a house L. (Kir. i, 7 Sch.); people, mankind L.; the world, universe R. ii, 69, 11 a metre of 4 x 12 syllables RV. x, 130, 5 AV. viii; xix S'Br. AitBr. &c.; any metre of 4 X 12 syllables; the number 48 Lthy. ix Kty. xxii; a sacrificial brick named after the Jagat metre S'Br. viii KtyS'r. xvii; a field planted with Jamb L. jagat.h = universe jagataH = of the world jagataaM = of the Universe jagatpate = O Lord of the entire universe jagan.h = (Nr.nom + acc.sing.)world
725

jagannivaasa = O refuge of the worlds jaghana * = (%{janh}) m. [RV. i, 28, 2; v, 61, 3; vi, 75, 13] n. [AV.xiv, r, 36 TS.ii TBr. ii, &c.] the hinder part, buttock, hip and loins, pudenda, mons veneris (ifc. f. % {A} [Pa1n2. 4-1, 56 Ka1s3.] MBh. xiii, 5324 R. Megh.); the hinder part of an altar Sulbas. iii, 52; rear-guard MBh. iii, v f. ix; (%{ena}) instr. ind. behind (with gen. [ChUp. ii, 24, 3] or acc. [S3Br. i f. vii, xi] following, once [vii, 2, 2, 4] preceding); so as to turn the back towards S3a1n3khGr2. ii, 1; iv, 12 jagrat.h = awakened jagrataH = or one who keeps night watch too much jagraaha V*= took up; caught hold of; caught;took up; kept; assumed the responsibility for; accepted; SB 6.9.7; caught; brought under her control; grasped; SB 8.7.4 took; seized; took; took hold of; He seized; He seized; jaghanya = of abominable jaghni * mfn. (Pn. 3-2, 171) striking (with acc.) RV. ix, 61, 20; m. a weapon L. jaghnivat * mfn. containing an Intens. form of {han} AitBr. i, 25.

726

jaghnu * mfn. striking, killing Un. i, 22. jaha * = mfn. (3. {hA}) see {zardham-}; ({A}) f. N. of a plant L.; ({A4}) ind. see s.v. jahaati = can get rid of jahan jahi = conquer *= see jahan jahiihi = jahi+iha, leave/give up+here(in this world) jahnu = name of an ancient king who adopted the ganga river jahnusutaa = ganga jaiminii = Maharishi Jaimini a sage who wrote an elucidation of sections of Maharishi Parashara's work. This became the basis for another system of Astrology in India jaji* = mfn. ({jan} redupl. Pn. 3-2, 171 and Vrtt. 3) germinating, shooting TS. vii, 5, 20, 1; f. seed (Pn. 3-2, 171 (?) Ks'.) Siddh. jala = Water * = 1 mfn. = %{jaDa} (cf. %{jal}), stupid (cf. %{-lA7dkipa}, %{-lA7zaya}) S3a1rn3gP. xxi (v.l.);
727

m. (g. %{jvalA7di}) a stupid man S3is3. v, 37; N. of a man (with the patr. Ja1tu1karn2ya) S3a1n3khS3r. xvi, 29, 6; n. (also pl.) water, any fluid Naigh. i, 12 Ya1jn5. i, 17 MBh. &c. (ifc. f. %{A}); a kind of Andropogon Bhpr. vii, 10, 52 & 78; 28, 18; the 4th mansion (in astrol.) VarYogay. iv, 26; a cow's embryo (%{gokalaka} or %{-lana}) L.; (= %{jaDa}) frigidity (moral or mental or physical) W.; (%{A}) f. N. of a river MBh. iii, 10556.\\ 2 Nom. %{-lati}, to become water S3atr. xiv "' jalaM = (Nr.non. + acc.S)water jaladhi = sea/ ocean jalandhara = bandha where the chin rests in the notch between the collar bones jalapatanasaham.h = Sensitive point relating to going on a voyage. One of many used in Varshaphal and similar in idea to Arabic parts jalapaataH = (m) waterfall jalabandhaH = (m) dam jalalava = water drop jalaashaya = lake, pond
728

jalp.h = to babble jalpa * m. (g. {uJchA7di}) talk, speech, discourse (also pl.) MBh. xiii, 4322 Pn. 4-4, 97 Das'. BhP.; (pl.) chatter, gossip, x, 47, 13; a kind of disputation (overbearing reply and disputed rejoinder) Nyyad. Car. iii, 8 Sarvad. Madhus. S'Br. xiv Sch.; N. of a Rishi MatsyaP. ix, 16; n. for {-lpya} MBh. i, 5066 (C) R. ii, 60, 14; cf. {citra-}, {bahu-}. jam* = (derived fr. {jama4d-agni}) cl. 1. {ja4mati}, to go Naigh. ii, 14 Nir. iii, 6; to eat Dhtup. xiii, 28: Intens. p. {jAjamat} consuming continually MBh. xiii, 4495. jambaala = (masc) mud jambiiram.h = (n) lemon jambuukaH = fox jana = man: * = mf({I})n. `" generating "' see {puraM-}; m. (g. {vRSA7di}) creature "', living being, man, person, race ({pa4Jca ja4nAs} "', the five races "' = {p kRSTa4yas} RV. iii, viii ff. MBh. iii, 14160), people, subjects (the sg. used collectively e.g. {dai4vya} or {divyA4 j-} "', divine race "', the gods collectively RV.; {mahat j-}, many people R. vi, 101, 2; often ifc. denoting one person or a number of persons collectively, e.g. {preSya-}, {bandhu-}, {sakhI-} &c.,
729

qq. vv. [410, 2]; with names of peoples VarBriS. iv, 22 and v, 74; {ayaM} {janaH}, `" this person, these persons "', I, we MBh. viii, 709 Hariv. 7110 R. ii, 41, 2 S'ak. &c.; {eSa j-}, id. Kvya7d. ii, 75) RV. &c.; the person nearest to the speaker (also with {ayam} or {asau}, this my lover "' Kvya7d. ii, 271 Ratna7v. i, 24/25) Nal.x, 10 S'ak. Mlav.; a common person, one of the people Kir. ii, 42 and 47; the world beyond the Mahar-loka BhP. iii, 11, 29 SkandaP.; ({-na4}) m. (g. {azvA7di}) N. of a man (with the patr. S'rkara7kshya) S'Br. x ChUp.; ({A}) f. `" birth "', {a-jana}, the unborn "', Nryana BhP. x, 3, 1. janaanta* = m. a number of men Sh. vi, 139; a region ({deza}) Sus'r. i, 46, 2, 38; `" man-destroyer "', Yama BhP. vi, 8, 16. janaH = people janaka = father janakaatmajaa = janakA's daughter janakaadayaaH = Janaka and other kings Janaloka * = m. `" world of men "', the 5th Loka or next above Mahar-loka (residence of the sons of Brahm and other godly men), ArunUp. NriisUp. i, 5, 6 BhP. MrkP. SkandaP.; cf. {janas}.
730

janana = birth\ jananaM = birth jananii = mother janapadam.h = (n) district janapadeshhu = in the society (janapada really meaning a village ) janayet.h = causal form from jan.h meaning ``should generate'' janasa.nsadi = to people in general janaaH = persons janaadhipaH = kings janaanaaM = of the persons janaardana = O maintainer of all living entities ja.nghe = ankle jangamaM = moving

731

jan.h = to to be born or produced jaj* = cl. I. P.= {jaj} Dhtup.vii, 69; p. f. {ja4JjatI}, glittering, flashing (Gmn.; = {abhibhavantI} Sy.) RV. i, 168, 7. jantu * = m. a child , offspring RV. Katha1s. iic , 58 ; a creature , living being , man , person (the sg. also used collectively e.g. %{sarva@j-} , everybody "' S3ak. v , 5/6 ; %{ayaM@jantuH} , `" the man "' Kat2hUp. ii , 20 S3vetUp. iii , 20 Mn. xii , 99) RV. Mn. &c. ; a kinsman , servant RV. i , 81 , 9 and 94 , 5 ; x , 140 , 4 ; any animal of the lowest organisation , worms , insects Mn. vi , 68 f. MBh. xiv , 1136 Sus3r. ; (n.) HYog. iii , 53 and Subh. ; a tree Gal. ; N. of a son of Somaka MBh. iii , 10473ff. Hariv. 1793 BhP. ix , 22 , 1 Katha1s. xiii , 58ff ; cf. %{kSiti-} , %{kSudra-} , %{jala-} ja.ntuunaaM = (Nr.Poss.pl.) living beings; insects jantavaH = the living entities jantoH = of living beings janma = birth, incarnation janmaH = (Mas.nom.Sing.)birth.janma:(Nr.) janmakarmaphalapradaaM = resulting in good birth and other fruitive reactions
732

janman.h = birth janmanaaM = repeated births and deaths janmabandha = from the bondage of birth and death janmaraashi = Sign occupied by the Moon at birth janmasu = in births janmaani = births jap * = cl. 1. %{ja4pati} (rarely A1. S3a1n3khS3r. iii, 6, 4 MBh. iii, xiii; pf. %{jajApa}; 3. du. %{jepatur} R. i; inf. %{japitum} MBh. xii, 7336; ind. p. %{-ptvA} Mn. xi R. i; %{-pitvA} Mn. xi Vet.) to utter in a low voice, whisper, mutter (esp. prayers or incantations) AitBr. ii, 38 S3Br. La1t2y. Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. Mn. &c.; to pray to any one (acc.) in a low voice MBh. xiii, 750; to invoke or call upon in a low voice BhP. iv, 7, 29 BhavP. i: Intens. %{jaJjapyate}, %{-pIti} (Pa1n2. 7-4, 86 [412,1]; p. %{pya4mAna}) to whisper repeatedly (implying blame, iii, 1, 24) S3Br. xi, 5, 5, 10. japa = Recitation1 \\ * = mfn. `" muttering, whispering "' see %{karNeku-}; m. (Pa1n2. 3-3, 61; oxyt. g. % {uJchA7di}) muttering prayers, repeating in a murmuring tone passages from scripture or charms or names of a deity, &c., muttered prayer or spell AitBr. ii,
733

38 S3Br. ii S3a1n3khS3r. Nir. &c.\\ japA = f. (= % {javA}) the China rose VarBr2S. xxviii, 14\\jApa * = m. ( %{jap}) `" whispering "' see %{karNa-}; muttering prayers L. a muttered prayer L. (R. i, 51, 27 for % {japa}; see also %{jApya}). japati = (1 pp) to mutter, mumble japannityaM = japan+nityaM, chanting+ever japayaGYaH = chanting japtvaa = having chanted jaraa = old age jarjara = old/digested (by disease etc) jasha* m. N. of an aquatic animal (cf. {jhaSa4}) AV. xi, 2, 25 TS. v, 5 GopBr. ii, 2, 5. jatha *= mfn. wearing twisted locks of hair g. {arzaAdi}; m. metrically for {-TA} Hariv. 9551; ({A}) f. the hair twisted together (as worn by ascetics, by Siva, and persons in mourning) PrGri. ii, 6 Mn. vi, 6 MBh. (ifc. f. {A}, iii, 16137) &c.; a fibrous root, root (in general) Bhpr. v, 111 S'ngS. i, 46 and 58; N. of several plants (= {TA-vatI} L.; Mucuna pruritus L.; Flacourtia cataphracta L.; = {-TA-mUlA} L.; = {rudra-jaTA} L.)
734

Sus'r. v f.; N. of a Pthha or arrangement of the Vedic text (still more artificial than the Krama, each pair of words being repeated thrice and one repetition being in inverted order) Caran.; ({I}) f. Nardostachys Jathmns L.; (= {-Ti}) the waved-leaf fig-tree L.; cf. {tri-}, {mahA-}, {vi-}; {kRSNa-jaTA} "' jathaamukuTama.nDitam.h = adorned by locks of hair forming a crown jathilaH = with knotted hair jathi* =m f. twisted hair L.; a mass, multitude L.; Ficus infectoria L. jaThara = Intestine jaThara\-parivartanaasana = the belly-turning posture jaThare = in the stomach java * = mfn. ( {ju}, or {jU}) swift AV. xix, 7, 1; m. (parox. Pn. 3-3, 56, Vartt. 4 and 57) speed, velocity, swiftness RV. i, 112, 21; x, 111, 9 VS. AV. S'Br. &c.; pl. impulse (of the mind) RV. x, 71, 8; ({At}) abl. ind. speedily, at once Kaths. lxiii, 188 Vcar. xii, 15. javaa* = f. = {japA} MBh. Hariv. R. Megh. 36; saffron L
735

javanikaa = (f) towel javishthha* = mfn. quickest, fleetest RV. iv, 2, 3; vi, 9, 5 VS. xxxiv, 3 S'Br. xi AitBr. i, 5 BhP. xi jaya = victory jayaH = victory jayate = becomes victorious; wins jayama.ngalam.h = victory that is auspicious jayaajayau = both victory and defeat jayema = we may conquer jayeyuH = they conquer jaGYire = (Verb, Past IIIP pl.PP) took birth; were born jetaasi = you will conquer jhashhaaNaaM = of all fish jhrimbaNam.h = (n) yawning jigishhataaM = of those who seek victory
736

jighaamsaa * = wish or intention to strike or slay or destroy; malice, revenge jighra * = mfn. ( %{ghrA}) smelling Pa1n2. 3-1, 137; ifc. observing, conjecturing Sa1h. iii, 66/6 jighrati = (1 pp) to smell jighran.h = smelling jijiivishhaamaH = we would want to live jijIviSu * = mfn. desirous of life Mn. MBh. &c. jiGYaasuH = inquisitive jii = to live jiirNa = very old, dilapidated, torn jiirNaani = old and useless jiiv.h = to live jiiva* = mf({A4})n. living, existing, alive RV. &c.; healthy (blood) Car. viii, 6, 74; ifc. living by (see {jalacara-}, {rUpa-}); causing to live, vivifying (see, {putra-}, {-jala}); m. n. any living being, anything living RV. &c.; life, existence MBh. iv, vi Hariv. &c. (ifc. f. {A} Kaths.); m. the principle of life, vital
737

breath, the living or personal soul (as distinguished from the universal soul see {jIvA7tman}) RV. i, 164, 30 ChUp. S'vetUp. Pras'nUp. Mn. &c.; N. of a plant L.; Briihaspati (regent of Jupiter) VarBriS. Laghuj. Sryas. Ks'Kh.; the 3rd lustrum in the 60 years "' Briihaspati cycle VarBriS. viii, 26; N. of one of the 8 Maruts Yj. ii, 102/103 39; Karna L.; n. N. of a metre RPrt. xvii, 4 [422,3]; ({A}) f. life L.; the earth L.; a bow-string L.; (in geom. = {jyA}) the chord of an arc; the sine of an arc Sryas. ii, 57 (cf. {tri-}, {tri-bha} "', {dRg-gati-}, {lamba-} and {zaGku-jIvA}); N. of a plant ({jIvantI} or {vacA} L.) VarBriS. iii, 39; the tinkling of ornaments L.; pl. N. of a particular formula Kaus'. Vait.; cf. {ati-}, {upa-} and {saM-jIva4}; {a-}, {kumAra-}, {ciraM-}, {jagaj-}, {dur-}, {nir-}, {pApa-}, {bandhu-}, {sa-}, {su-}; {khSudra-jivA}, {yAvaj-jIvam}; [cf. {bi4os}; Lat. {vivus}; Lith. {gIvas}; Goth. {qvius}; Eng. {quick}; Hib. {beo}.] jiivada* = m. `" life-cutter "', an enemy L. jiivadeva* = m. N. of a man, jiivaja* = mfn. born-alive ChUp. vi, 3, 1. jiivakoza* = m. a case (or sheath) enveloping the personal soul BhP. iv, 22 f.; x. jiivaMjIva* = m. = {-j-} L.; the Greek partridge L.; a
738

mythical bird with two heads Buddh.; N. of a tree L. jiivaMjIvaka* = m. = {-jIva} MBh. iii Hariv. 6957 Lalit. Sus'r. Kd. MrkP. jiivanas'* = mfn. (nom. {-na4T}; also {-nak} [= {jivasya nAza}] Pn. 8-2, 63, Kas'.) [a sacrifice] in which living beings are killed MaitrS. i, 4, 13. jiivanetrii* = f. a kind of pepper L. jiivatva* = n. the state of life RmatUp. i, 14; the state of the individual soul KapS. vi, 63. - 1. {-da} m. `" lifegiver "', a physician L.; ({A}) f. = {-vantI} L. -2. jiivapati* = m. a living husband, vi, 19, 24. = jiiva = life jiiva-loka = the mortal world jiivaH = life jiivati = while living(without earning) jiivana = life jiivanaM = life
739

jiivanmuktiH = salvation+freedom from bondage of birth jiivabhuutaH = the conditioned living entity jiivamaana = one who lives jiivaloke = in the world of conditional life jiivaatman* = m. the living or personal or individual soul (as distinct from the %{paramA7t-} q.v.), the vital principle Tarkas. BhP. vi, viii Sarvad. iv; vii, 57. jiivatva * = n. the state of life Ra1matUp. i, 14; the state of the individual soul KapS. vi, 63. - 1. %{-da} m. `" life-giver "', a physician L.; (%{A}) f. = %{-vantI} L. -2. jiivasya = (masc.poss.S) of life jiivaatman.h = Also spelt Jeevatman. Is the soul within the human sphere jiivaatmaa = the individual soul jiivita = life jiivitena = living

740

jiivemaH = may we live jijaasaka* = mfn. ( {jJA} Desid.) {-su} W. jijIviishaa * = f. ( %{jIv} Desid.) desire to live MBh. viii , 1790. jijaasanIya* = mfn. = {-sitavya} W. jijaasaa* = f. = {-sana} MBh. ii f. xiii Hariv. R. Pn. 13, 21 Vrtt. 3, &c. ({kRta-jijJAsa} mfn. having put to the proof any one [gen.] Kaths. cxiii, 78). jijaasaaprastaava* = m. N. of wk., Pratpar. Sch. jijaasita* = mfn. investigated, inquired BhP. i, 5, 3f.; tested MBh. xiii, 932. jijaasitavya* = mfn. to be investigated Sarvad. jijaasu* = mfn. desirous of knowing, inquiring into, examining, testing MBh. R. BhP. &c. jijaasya* = mfn. = {-sitavya} BhP. ii, 9 Sarvad. ji.nvhaa = tongue jita = having conquered
741

jitaH = conquered jitaatmanaH = of one who has conquered his mind jitaatmaa = having control of the mind jitendriyaM = the conqueror of senses jitendriyaH = having conquered the senses jitvaa = by conquering jivadhaaraNakaari = responsible for life's existence jivabhuutaaM = comprising the living entities jivyate = remain alive jivhaa = (f) tongue jivhaaM = tongue jaa* = 1 cl. 9. P. . {jAnA4ti}, {-nite4} (cf. Pn. 1-3, 76; Subj. {-nat}; Impv. {-nItat}, 2. sg. {-nIhi4}, once irr. {jJa} BhP. x, 89, 46; [fr. cl. 3.] {jijAhi} MBh. xiii, 4493; 2. pl. irr. {-nata}. ii, 2397; 2. sg. . irr. {-nase} DivyA7v. xviii; p. {-na4t}, {-nAna4} irr. {-namAna} [MBh.]; pf. {jajJau}, {-jJe} [Pass. Rjat. v, 481], 3. pl. {-jJu4r} RV. vii, 79, 4 S'Br. xi; p. {-jJAna4} RV. x, 14,
742

2; fut. {jJAsyati}, {-te}; aor. {ajJAsIt}, {-sta} Pass. {a4jJAyi}, vi, 65, 1 &c.; Pot. {jJAyAt} or {jJey-} Pn. 6-4, 68 [425,3]; 2. sg. {jJeyas} = {$} RV. ii, 10, 6; inf. {jJAtum}) to know, have knowledge, become acquainted with (acc.; rarely gen. MBh. iii, 2154 Hariv. 7095), perceive, apprehend, understand (also with inf. [Pn. 3-4, 65] MBh. ii, v Das'.), experience, recognise, ascertain, investigate RV. &c.; to know as, know or perceive that, regard or consider as (with double acc. e.g. {tasya mAM tanayAM jAnIta} "', know me to be his daughter "' MBh. iii, 2476; with {mRSA}, `" to consider as untrue "' Ratna7v. ii, 18) Mn. &c.; `" to acknowledge, approve, allow VS. xviii, 59 f. AV. ix, 5, 19 S'Br. i, xi, xiv; to recognise as one's own, take possession of SaddhP.; to visit as a friend AV. x, 1, 25; to remember (with gen.) MBh. xii, 5169; . to engage in (gen. e.g. {sarpiSo}, `" to make an oblation with clarified butter "') Pn. 1-3, 45; ii, 3, 51: Caus. {jJapayati}, to teach any one (acc.) SnkhS'r.xv; {jJAp-} (Pass. {jJApyate}) to make known, announce, teach anything MBh. ii, xii Kty. and Pat.; to inform any one (gen.) that (double acc.) MBh. i, 5864; . to request, ask ChUp. ii, 13, 1 ({jJap-}) MBh. iii, 8762 ({jJAp-}): Desid. {jijJAsate} (Pn. 1-3, 57; ep. also P.) to wish to know or become acquainted with or learn, investigate, examine Mn. ii, 13 MBh. &c.; to wish for information about (acc.) Kaths. xxii, 84; to conjecture AV. xiv, 1, 56: Caus. Desid. {jijJapayiSati} (also {jJAp-} Siddh.) and {jJIpsati} (cf. {-psyamAna}), to
743

wish to make known or inform Pn. 7-2, 49 & 4, 5; [cf. $ &c.] ja * = 2 mf({A})n. (iii, 1, 135) knowing, familiar with (chiefly in comp.; rarely gen. or loc. MBh. xii, 12028 R. vii, 91, 25) S'Br. xiv, 7, 2, 3 Mn. &c.; intelligent, having a soul, wise, (m.) a wise and learned man S'vetUp. Pras'nUp. Bdar. VarBri. BhP. vii; having J as deity Pn. 6-4, 163 Pat.; m. the thinking soul (= {puruSa}) Snkhyak. Nyyad.iii, 2, 20 Sch.; the planet Mercury VarBriS. VarBri. Laghuj. Sryas.; the planet Mars L.; Brahm L.; ({A}) f. N. of a woman Pn. 6-4, 163 Pat.; [cf. Lat. {mali-} and {beni-gnu-s}.] jJaa* =3 f. for {A-j-} (by irr. Sandhi after {e} and {o}) MBh. i, 3168; iii, 16308. jaa4* = mfn. ifc. `" knowing, familiar with "' see {Rta-}, {pada} and {pra-jiJA4}, {a4-saM-}. jatva*= n. intelligence Nyyad. Sch. jazakti*= f. the intellectual faculty Bdar. ii, 2, 9. jaka*= mf({akA} or {ikA})n. dimin, fr. 2. {jJa4} Pn. 7-3, 47. japta*= mfn. (2, 27) instructed S'Br. xi, 5, 3, 8ff.

744

jaati*= m. `" intimately acquainted "' (cf. Goth. {kno1di}), a near relation (`" paternal relation "' L. and Sch.; cf. {sam-bandhin}), kinsman RV. AV. xii, 5, 44 TBr. i &c. jaateya*= n. (Pn. 5-1, 127) affinity, kindred sentiments Hcar. i, 534. jaanakIrti*= m. N. of a Buddh. teacher. jaanaketu*= m. `" having marks of intelligence "'N. of a man Lalit. xiii, 156; {-dhvaja} m. N. of a Devaputra, iii, 160. jaanagamya*= mfn. attainable by the understanding (S'iva). jaanagUha*= mf({A})n. concealing the understanding BhP. iii, 26, 5. jaana-ghana*= m. pure or mere knowledge or intellect, viii, 3, 12; ix, 8, 23; {-nA7cArya}, m.N. of a teacher W. jaana = * n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge, (esp.) the higher knowledge (derived from meditation on the one Universal Spirit) S'nkhS'r.xiii Gobh. Mn. &c.; knowledge about anything cognizance "' see {-tas} and {a-jJAnAd} {a-jJAnAd} {vA}, knowingly or ignorantly, xi, 233); conscience MBh.; =
745

{-ne7ndriya} KathhUp. vi, 10; engaging in (gen. e.g. {sarpiSas} "', in sacrifice with clarified butter "') Pn. 22, 10 Vrtt. Pat.; N. of a S'akti Rasik.xiv, 36 RmatUp. i, 90 Sch.; ({A}) f. id. Pacar. iii, 2, 30 Rmapjs'. jaa4na * mf({I})n. prudent, wise L. [659, 2]; easily known AV.; n. knowledge, wisdom, intelligence, discrimination AV. &c. &c.; a distinctive mark, token of recognition, any mark or sign or characteristic AV. MBh. R. &c.; a monument, memorial S'Br.; {-kumudacandrikA} f. N. of wk.; {-ghana4} m. nothing but knowledge S'Br. (cf. under {ghana4}); {-tRpta} mfn. satiated with i.e. full of knknowledge MBh.; {saMtati} f. a train of thought Tattvas.; {-nA7nanda}, {nA7zrama}, and {-ne7ndra} m. N. of authors Cat. jaanakIrti * =N. of a Buddh. teacher. jaana-ketu*= `" having marks of intelligence "'N. of a man Lalit. xiii, 156; {-dhvaja} m. N. of a Devaputra, iii, 160. jaana-khaNDa * N. of part of S'ivaP. jaana-gamya *=mfn. attainable by the understanding (S'iva). jaana-garbha * `" filled with knowledge "'N. of a Bodhi-sattva Buddh. L.; of a scholar ib.
746

jaana-gUha *= mf({A})n. concealing the understanding BhP. iii, 26, 5. jaana-ghana * m. pure or mere knowledge or intellect, viii, 3, 12; ix, 8, 23; {-nA7cArya}, m.N. of a tea jnendrya*= n. `" knowledge-organ "', an organ of sensation BhP. Sy. on S'Br. ix. japayata `V*: communicate, tell, announce jaati * =`" intimately acquainted "' (cf. Goth. {kno1di}), a near relation (`" paternal relation "' L. and Sch.; cf. {sam-bandhin}), kinsman RV. AV. xii, 5, 44 TBr. i &c. japta * (2, 27) instructed jatva *=intelligence joshhayet.h = he should dovetail jrimbhate = to yawn jyaayasaH = gen. sing. of jyaayas, greater jyaayasi = better jyaayaaH = better
747

jyaishthha* = m. N. of a month (May-June, the full moon standing in the constellation Jyeshthh) Lthy. x, 5, 18 Mn. viii, 245 Hariv. 7828 KtyS'r. Sch.; ({I}) f. the full moon in month Jyaishthha VarBriS. xxiii, 1 (cf. {mahA-jyaiSThI}); see {jyeSThI}. jyeshhThaa = Eighteenth nakshatra jyotiH = light jyotirdhyaana = luminous contemplation jyotishha = The study of Illuminated bodies. The study of Astrology and Astronomy which were one science in the past jyotishhii = An Astrologer jyotii = inner light jyotiishhaaM = of all luminaries jyotsna = moonlight jyotsnaa = (f) moonlight jugupsita* =mfn. abhorring anything (abl.) Vop. v, 21; disliked, detested, disgusting MBh. R. &c.; censured W.; n. a disgusting or horrible deed BhP. i, 5, 15; (also
748

{karma-} id., i, 7, 42); = {-psA} Sarvad. iii, 270. jushhTaM = practiced by jushtha * = mfn. (%{-STa4} RV. ix, 42, 2 AV. and in later language Pa1n2. 6-1, 209f.) pleased, propitious RV. ix, 42, 2; liked, wished, loved, welcome, agreeable, usual (cf. Pa1n2. 3-2, 188 Ka1r.; with dat. or gen., rarely instr.) RV. AV. S3Br. &c.; frequented, visited, inhabited MBh. R. BhP.; swept over (by the wind) Hariv. 6984; afflicted by (instr. or in comp.) Sus3r.; served, obliged, worshipped W.; practised W.; furnished with, possessed of (instr. or in comp.) R. iii BhP.; n. the remnants of a meal L.; cf. %{a4-}. juhosi = you offer juhvati = offer jush * = 1 cl. 6. . {-Sa4te} (also P. RV. [{-Sa4t}, {a4juSat}] MBh. &c.; Subj. {-SAte}; Pot. {-Se4ta}; 3. pl. {-Serata} RV.; Impv. {-Sa4tAm}; impf. {ajuSata}, ii, 37, 4; 1. sg. {a4juSe} AV. vi, 61, 3; p. {-Sa4mANa}) cl. 3. P. irr. {ju4joSati} (Subj. and p. {ju4joSat}; cf. Pn. 7-3, 87 Vrtt. 2; Impv. 2. pl. {-juSTana} RV.), rarely cl. i. P. {joSati} (Subj. {jo4Sat}; - aor. p. {juSANa4}; 3. pl. {ajuSran}, i, 71, 1; 2. sg. {jo4Si}, ii, iv; 3. sg. {jo4SiSat}, ii, 35, 1 [cf. Ks'. on Pn. 3-1, 34 and 4, 7; 94 and 97]; pf. {jujo4Sa}, {-juSe4}; p. {749

juSva4s}, generally {-SANa4}; ind. p. {juSTvI4} RV.) to be pleased or satisfied or favourable RV. AV. &c.; to like, be fond of delight in (acc. or gen.), enjoy RV. (with {tanvAm} or {-va4s}, `" to be delighted "', iii, 1, 1; x, 8, 3) AV. &c.; to have pleasure in granting anything (acc.) to (loc.) RV. vi, 14, 1; to have pleasure in (dat.), resolve to (Ved. Inf.), i, 167, 5; iv, 24, 5 S'Br. iii, 6, 4, 7; to give pleasure to (loc.) RV. x, 105, 8; to choose for (dat.) VS. v, 42 TS. vi S'Br. iii, 6, 4, 8; to devote one's self to (acc.), practise, undergo, suffer BhP. ii, 2, 7; viii, 7, 20 Bhathth. xvii, 112; to delight in visiting, frequent, visit, inhabit, enter (a carriage &c.) MBh. iii, v, xiv Bhathth. xiv, 95; to afflict MBh. iii: Caus. . (Subj. 2. sg. {joSa4yAse}) to like, love, behave kindly towards (acc.), cherish RV.; to delight in, approve of(acc.), choose S'Br. iii MBh. xiv, 1289; (P. cf. Dhtup. xxxiv, 28) Bhag. iii, 26; [cf. $; Zd. {zaoSa}; Hib. {gus}; Goth. {kiusu}; Lat. {gus-tus}.] jush * = 2 mfn. ifc. liking, fond of, devoted to (once with acc. BhP. vii, 6, 25; cf. {nikRtiM-}) BhP. Bhartri. Sntis'. Kaths.; dwelling in Hcar. vii; visiting, approaching BhP. ii, 7, 25 Madhus.; having, showing Blar. iv, 17; ix, 25 Sinha7s. Introd. 5l; xv, 4 Kuval. 169; similar Hcar. i, 44; cf. {sa-}. jusha=jushkaka jvara = fever
750

jvala = flame jvalati = (1 pp) to glow jvaladbhiH = blazing jvalanaM = a fire

ka* = 1 the first consonant of the alphabet, and the first guttural letter (corresponding in sound to {k} in {keep} or {king}). ka* = 2 {kas}, {kA}, {kim}, interrog. pron. (see {kim} and 2. {kad}, and cf. the following words in which the interrogative base {ka} appears, {katama}, {katara}, {kati}, {katham}, {kadA}, {karhi}, {kA}, &c.), who? which? what? In its declension {ka} follows the pronoun {tad} except in nom. acc. sing. neut., where {kim} has taken the place of {kad} or {kat} in classical Sanskriit; but the old form {kad} is found in the Veda (see Gram. 227); [cf. Zd. {ka}, {ko7}, {kA7}, {kat}; Gk. $, $, (Ion. $, $,) $, $; Lat. {quis}, &75137[240,2] {quid}; Lith. {kas} {ka4}; Goth. {hvas}, {hvo7},
751

{hva}, Angl. Sax. {hw}, {hwaet}; Eng. {who}, {what}.] The interrogative sentence introduced by {ka} is often terminated by {iti} (e.g. {kasya sa putra iti kathyatAm}, let it be said, `" whose son is he? "'), but {iti} may be omitted and the sentence lose its direct interrogative character (e.g. {kasya sa putro na jJAyate}, it is not known whose son he is). {ka} with or without 1. {as} may express `" how is it possible that? "' `" what power have I, you, they, &c.? "' (e.g. {ke mama dhanvino'nye}, what can the other archers do against me? {ke AvAm paritrAtum}, what power have we to rescue you?) {ka} is often connected with a demonstrative pron. (e.g. {ko 'yam AyAti}, who comes here?) or with the potential (e.g. {ko hariM nindet}, who will blame Hari?) {ka} is sometimes repeated (e.g. {kaH ko 'tra}, who is there? {kAn kAn}, whom? whom? i.e. which of them? cf. Gram. 54), and the repetition is often due to a kind of attraction (e.g. {keSAM kiM zAstram adhyayanIyam}, which book is to be read by whom? Gram. 836. {a}). When {kim} is connected with the inst. c. of a noun or with the indecl. participle it may express `" what is gained by doing so, &c.? "' (= {ko'rthas}) [240,3]; (e.g. {kiM vilambena}, what is gained by delay? {kim bahunA}, what is the use of more words? {dhanena kiM yo na dadAti}, what is the use of wealth to him who does not give? with inst. and gen., {nIrujaH kim auSadhaiH}, what is the use of medicine to the healthy?) {ka} is often followed by the particles {iva}, {u}, {nAma}, {nu}, {vA}, {svid}, some
752

of which serve merely to generalize the interrogation (e.g. {kim iva etad}, what can this be? {ka u zravat}, who can possibly hear? {ko nAma jAnAti}, who indeed knows? {ko nv ayam}, who, pray, is this? {kiM nu kAryam}, what is to be done? {ko vA devAd anyaH}, who possibly other than a god? {kasya svid hRdayaM nA7sti}, of what person is there no heart?) {ka} is occasionally used alone as an indefinite pronoun, especially in negative sentences (e.g. {na kasya ko vallabhaH}, no one is a favourite of any one; {nA7nyo jAnAti kaH}, no one else knows; {kathaM sa ghAtayati kam}, how does he kill any one?) Generally, however, {ka} is only made indefinite when connected with the particles {ca}, {cana4}, {cid}, {vA}, and {a4pi}, in which case {ka} may sometimes be preceded by the relative {ya} (e.g. {ye ke ca}, any persons whatsoever; {yasyai kasyai ca devatAyai}, to any deity whatsoever; {yAni kAni ca mitrANi}, any friends whatsoever; {yat kiMca}, whatever). The particle {cana}, being composed of {ca} and {na}, properly gives a negative force to the pronoun (e.g. {yasmAd indrAd Rte kiMcana}, without which Indra there is nothing), but the negative sense is generally dropped (e.g. {kazcana}, any one; {na kazcana}, no one), and a relative is sometimes connected with it (e.g. {yat kiMcana}, anything whatsoever). Examples of {cid} with the interrogative are common; {vA} and {api} are not so common, but the latter is often found in classical Sanskriit (e.g. {kazcid}, any one; {kecid}, some; {na kazcid}, no one;
753

{na kiMcid api}, nothing whatsoever; {yaH kazcid}, any one whatsoever; {kecit} - {kecit}, some - others; {yasmin kasmin vA deze}, in any country whatsoever; {na ko 'pi}, no one; {na kimapi}, nothing whatever). {ka} may sometimes be used, like 2. {kad}, at the beginning of a compound. see {ka-pUya}, &c. ka* = 3 m. (according to native authorities) N. of Prajpati or of a Prajpati VS. xx, 4; xxii, 20 TS. i S'Br. &c.; of Brahman MBh. i, 32 BhP. iii, 12, 51; xii, 13, 19; 20; of Daksha BhP. ix, 10, 10; of Vishnu L.; of Yama L.; of Garuda; the soul Tattvas.; a particular comet VarBriS.; the sun L.; fire L.; splendour, light L.; air L.; a peacock L.; the body L.; time L.; wealth L.; sound L.; a king L.; = {kAma-granthi} (?); ({am}) n. happiness, joy, pleasure ChUp. iv, 10, 5 Nir. &c.; water MaitrS. i, 10, 10 S'Br. x Yj. &c.; the head; hair, a head of hair L.; (also regarded as ind.; cf. 1. {kam}.) ka* = 4 a Taddhita affix (much used in forming adjectives; it may also be added to nouns to express diminution, deterioration, or similarity e.g. {putraka}, a little son; {azvaka}, a bad horse or like a horse). kaa* = 1 onomat. imitation of the cry of the ass BhP. x, 15, 30. \\2 = 2. {ka4d} and 1. {ku} in comp. to express depreciation e.g. {kA7kSa}, {kA-patha}, {kApuruSa}, {ko7SNa}, qq. vv. Pn. 6-3, 104 Vop. vi, 93. \\3 = {kan} (perf. {cake}, {cakAna4}; see {kA4yamAna}
754

s.v.), to seek, desire, yearn, love (with acc. and dat.) RV.; to like, enjoy, be satisfied with (loc. gen. or inst.) RV.: Intens. (p. {cAka4t}) to please, be sought after, be wished for, satisfy RV. x, 29, 1 (cf. {anu-}, {A-}, {saM-} 3. {kA}, {kAti}.) kaa = who kaaJNchana = gold kaaJNchanaH = gold kaagadam.h = (n) paper kaaka = crow kaakaasana = the crow posture kaakiNii = the goddess in anaahata chakra kaaksha * = 1 mfn. (fr. 2. %{kA} + %{akSa}) frowning, looking scornfully or in displeasure Siddh. on Pa1n2. 6-3, 104 Sch. on Bhat2t2. v, 24; (%{as}, % {am}) m. n. a glance, wink, leer Pa1n2. 6-3, 104 Bhat2t2. v, 24 Vop. vi, 93 (cf. %{kaTA7kSa}.)\\ 2 m. a kind of plant g. %{plakSA7di} in the Ka1s3.; (%{am}) n. the fruit of the same ib.; (%{I}) f. the plant Cytisus Cajan L.; a kind of fragrant earth, perfume (%{kacchI}, %{saurASTra-mRttikA}) L.
755

kaakutsthaM = kAkutsthaH is another family name for rAma(kakutstha's kaakutsthaH = descendant of `kakutstha' kaala *= 1 mf(%{I} Pa1n2. 4-1, 42)n. (fr. 3. %{kal}?), black, of a dark colour, dark-blue MBh. R. &c.; m. a black or dark-blue colour L.; the black part of the eye Sus3r.; the Indian cuckoo L.; the poisonous serpent Coluber Na1ga (= %{kAlasarpa}) Vet.; the plant Cassia Sophora L.; a red kind of Plumbago L.; the resin of the plant Shorea robusta L.; the planet Saturn; N. of S3iva; of Rudra BhP. iii, 12, 12; of a son of Hrada Hariv. 189; of the prince Ka1la-yavana BhP. iii, 3, 10; of a brother of king Prasena-jit Buddh.; of a future Buddha; of an author of Mantras (= As3va-ghosha) Buddh.; of a Na1ga-ra1ja Buddh.; of a Rakshas R. vi, 69, 12; of an enemy of S3iva L.; of a mountain R. iv, 44, 21 Ka1ran2d2.; of one of the nine treasures Jain.; a mystical N. of the letter %{m}; (%{A}) f. N. of several plants (Indigofera tinctoria L.; Piper longum L.; (perhaps) Ipomoea atropurpurea Sus3r.; Nigella indica L.; Rubia Munjista L.; Ruellia longifolia L.; Physalis flexuosa L.; Bignonia suaveolens Bhpr.); the fruit of the Ka1la1 g. %{harItaky-Adi}; N. of a %{zakti} Hcat.; of a daughter of Daksha (the mother of the Ka1leyas or Ka1lakeyas, a family of Asuras) MBh. i, 2520 Hariv.; N. of Durga1 L.; (%{I}) f. black colour, ink or blacking L.; abuse, censure, defamation L.; a row or succession
756

of black clouds L.; night L.; a worm or animalcule generated in the acetous fermentation of milk (= % {kSIra-kITa} or %{kSAra-kITa}) L.; the plant Ka1la7n5jani1 L.; Ipomoea Turpethum L.; a kind of clay L.; Bignonia suaveolens L.; one of the seven tongues or flames of fire Mun2d2Up. i, 2, 4; a form of Durga1 MBh. iv, 195 Hariv. Kum.; one of the Ma1tr2is or divine mothers L.; N. of a female evil spirit (mother of the Ka1lakeyas) Hariv. 11552; one of the sixteen Vidya1-devi1s L.; N. of Satyavati1, wife of king S3a1ntanu and mother of Vya1sa or Kr2ishn2advaipa1yana (after her marriage she had a son Vicitravi1rya, whose widows were married by Kr2ishn2advaipa1yana, and bore to him Dhr2ita-ra1sht2ra and Pa1n2d2u MBh. Hariv.; according to other legends Ka1li1 is the wife of Bhi1masena and mother of Sarvagata BhP.); (with or without %{gaGgA}) N. of a river; (%{am}) n. a black kind of Agallochum L.; a kind of perfume (%{kakkolaka}) L.; iron L. kaala *= 2 m. (3. %{kal}, `" to calculate or enumerate "'), [ifc. f. %{A} RPra1t.], a fixed or right point of time, a space of time, time (in general) AV. xix, 53 & 54 S3Br. &c.; the proper time or season for (gen. dat. loc., in comp., inf., or Pot. with %{yad} e.g. % {kAlaH@prasthAnasya} or %{-nAya} or %{-ne}, time for departure; %{kriyA-kAla}, time for action Sus3r.; % {nA7yaM@kAlo@vilambitum}, this is not the time to delay Nal.; %{kAlo@yad@bhuJjIta@bhavAn}, it is
757

time for you to eat Pa1n2. 3-3, 168 Ka1s3.) S3Br. MBh. &c.; occasion, circumstance MBh. xii, 2950 Mr2icch.; season R. &c.; meal-time (twice a day, hence % {ubhau@kAlau}, `" in the morning and in the evening "' MBh. i, 4623; %{SaSThe@kAle}, `" in the evening of the third day "' MBh.; %{SaSThA7nna-kAla}, `" one who eats only at the sixth meal-time, i.e. who passes five meals without eating and has no meal till the evening of the third day "' Mn. xi, 200; or without % {anna} e.g. %{caturtha-kAlam}, `" at the fourth mealtime i.e. at the evening of the second day "' Mn. xi, 109); hour (hence %{SaSThe@kAle@'hnaH}, `" at the sixth hour of the day, i.e. at noon "' Vikr.); a period of time, time of the world (= %{yuga}) Ra1jat.; measure of time, prosody Pra1t. Pa1n2.; a section, part VPra1t.; the end ChUp.; death by age Sus3r.; time (as leading to events, the causes of which are imperceptible to the mind of man), destiny, fate MBh. R. &c.; time (as destroying all things), death, time of death (often personified and represented with the attributes of Yama, regent of the dead, or even identified with him: hence % {kAlam-i} or %{kAlaM-kR}, `" to die "' MBh. &c.; % {kAla} in this sense is frequently connected with % {antaka}, %{mRtyu} e.g. %{abhyadhAvata@prajAH@kAla@ivA7ntakaH}, `" he attacked the people like Time the destroyer "' R. iii, 7, 9; cf. %{kAlA7ntaka}; %{kAla} personified is also a Devarshi in Indra's court, and a son of Dhruva MBh. i, 2585 Hariv. VP.); (%{am}) acc. ind. for a certain time
758

(e.g. %{mahAntaM@kAlam}, for a long time Pan5cat.) [278,2]; %{nitya-k-}, constantly, always Mn. ii, 58 and 73; %{dIrgha-k-}, during a long time Mn. viii, 145; (% {ena}) instr. ind. in the course of time Mn. ix, 246 MBh. &c.; with %{gacchatA} id. VP.; % {dIrgheNa@kAlena}, during a long time MBh.; after a long time R. i, 45, 40; %{kAlena@mahatA} or % {bahunA} id.; (%{At}) abl. ind. in the course of time Mn. viii, 251; %{kAlasya@dIrghasya} or %{mahataH} id. Mn. MBh. &c.; %{kasya-cit@kAlasya}, after some time MBh. i, 5299 Hariv.; (%{e4}) loc. ind. in time, seasonably RV. x, 42, 9 S3Br. (cf. %{a-kAle}); % {kAle@gacchati}, in the course of time; % {kAle@yAte}, after some time; %{kAle@kAle}, always in time MBh. i, 1680 Ragh. iv, 6; [cf. $; Lat. {calen-doe}: Hib. {ceal}, `" death and everything terrible. "'] kaalakuutha* = m. (n. L.) a poison (contained in a bulbous root or tube) MBh. iii, 540 Pacat.; a poison (produced at the churning of the ocean, swallowed by S'iva and causing the blueness of his neck) MBh. i, 1152 BhP. &c. [277,2]; poison (in general) BhP. iii, 2, 23.\\* = m. id. L.; (for 1. and 3. see p. 277, col. 1, and p. 279, col. 2.)\\ 3 {As} m. pl. (1. fr. {kalak-})N. of a country near the Hima7laya and of the people inhabiting it MBh.; mfn. relating to that country g. {palady-Adi}. kaalika* =1 m. a species of heron (Ardea jaculator) L. (v.l. {kAlIka}); N. of a king of the Ngas Lalit.; of a
759

prince Pacad. kaalikaa* =1 (f. of 1. {kAlaka} q.v.) kaalika* =2 mf({I} Pn. 5-1, 108)n. relating to or connected with or depending on time Bhshp.; fit for any particular season, seasonable MBh. iii, 868; lasting a long time Pn. 5-1, 108; (often ifc. e.g. {Asanna-k-}, relating to a time near at hand, impending Pn. 5-4, 20 Sch.; {mAsa-k-}, monthly MBh. ii, 2080). kaaM = which kaamya * = Nom. P. {-yati}, to have a desire for (only ifc. e.g. {putra-kAmyati}, to have a desire for children) Pn. 3-1, 9 Comm. on Pn. 8-3, 38 and 39 Vop. xxi, 1 S'ntis'. Bhathth. ix, 59. kaamya * = 2 mf({A})n. desirable, beautiful, amiable, lovely, agreeable RV. VS. R. ii, 25, 9; v, 43, 13 Ragh. vi, 30 S'ntis'. ii, 7 Bhartri. iii, 40; to one's liking, agreeable to one's wish KtyS'r. iv, 5, 1 S'nkhS'r. iii, 11, 5 s'vGri. iv, 7; optional (opposed to {nitya} or indispensable observance), performed through the desire of some object or personal advantage (as a religious ceremony &c.), done from desire of benefit or from interested motives KtyS'r. xii, 6, 15 s'vS'r. ii, 10 s'vGri. iii, 6 Kaus'. 5 ChUp. v, 2, 9 Mn. ii, 2 MBh. &c.; ({A}) f. N. of an Apsasas MBh. i, 4820 Hariv.; of
760

several women VP. kaamyaa * = f. wish, desire, longing for or striving after (gen. or in comp. e.g. {putra-kAmyayA}, through desire for a son R. i, 13, 36 Ragh. i, 35); will, purpose, intention (e.g. {yat-kAmyA4}, irreg. instr. `" with which intention "' S'Br. iii, 9, 3, 4) Mn. MBh. R. Ragh. &c.; [cf. Zd. {khshathro1-kmya}, `" wish for dominion. "'] kaankshati = desires kaankshantaH = desiring kaankshitaM = is desired kaankshe = do I desire kaa.nchanamaashraya.nti = take refuge in gold or money kaate = kA+te, who+your kaadaMbarii = name of a girl or title of a novel kaadambaH = (m) duck kaala = Time, providence = * 2 m. (3. %{kal}, `" to calculate or enumerate "'), [ifc. f. %{A} RPra1t.], a fixed or right point of time, a space of time, time (in general) AV. xix, 53 & 54 S3Br. &c.; the proper time or
761

season for (gen. dat. loc., in comp., inf., or Pot. with % {yad} e.g. %{kAlaH@prasthAnasya} or %{-nAya} or %{-ne}, time for departure; %{kriyA-kAla}, time for action Sus3r.; %{nA7yaM@kAlo@vilambitum}, this is not the time to delay Nal.; % {kAlo@yad@bhuJjIta@bhavAn}, it is time for you to eat Pa1n2. 3-3, 168 Ka1s3.) S3Br. MBh. &c.; occasion, circumstance MBh. xii, 2950 Mr2icch.; season R. &c.; meal-time (twice a day, hence %{ubhau@kAlau}, `" in the morning and in the evening "' MBh. i, 4623; % {SaSThe@kAle}, `" in the evening of the third day "' MBh.; %{SaSThA7nna-kAla}, `" one who eats only at the sixth meal-time, i.e. who passes five meals without eating and has no meal till the evening of the third day "' Mn. xi, 200; or without %{anna} e.g. %{caturthakAlam}, `" at the fourth meal-time i.e. at the evening of the second day "' Mn. xi, 109); hour (hence % {SaSThe@kAle@'hnaH}, `" at the sixth hour of the day, i.e. at noon "' Vikr.); a period of time, time of the world (= %{yuga}) Ra1jat.; measure of time, prosody Pra1t. Pa1n2.; a section, part VPra1t.; the end ChUp.; death by age Sus3r.; time (as leading to events, the causes of which are imperceptible to the mind of man), destiny, fate MBh. R. &c.; time (as destroying all things), death, time of death (often personified and represented with the attributes of Yama, regent of the dead, or even identified with him: hence %{kAlam-i} or %{kAlaM-kR}, `" to die "' MBh. &c.; %{kAla} in this sense is frequently connected with %{antaka}, %{mRtyu} e.g. %{abhy762

adhAvata@prajAH@kAla@ivA7ntakaH}, `" he attacked the people like Time the destroyer "' R. iii, 7, 9; cf. %{kAlA7ntaka}; %{kAla} personified is also a Devarshi in Indra's court, and a son of Dhruva MBh. i, 2585 Hariv. VP.); (%{am}) acc. ind. for a certain time (e.g. %{mahAntaM@kAlam}, for a long time Pan5cat.) [278,2]; %{nitya-k-}, constantly, always Mn. ii, 58 and 73; %{dIrgha-k-}, during a long time Mn. viii, 145; (% {ena}) instr. ind. in the course of time Mn. ix, 246 MBh. &c.; with %{gacchatA} id. VP.; % {dIrgheNa@kAlena}, during a long time MBh.; after a long time R. i, 45, 40; %{kAlena@mahatA} or % {bahunA} id.; (%{At}) abl. ind. in the course of time Mn. viii, 251; %{kAlasya@dIrghasya} or %{mahataH} id. Mn. MBh. &c.; %{kasya-cit@kAlasya}, after some time MBh. i, 5299 Hariv.; (%{e4}) loc. ind. in time, seasonably RV. x, 42, 9 S3Br. (cf. %{a-kAle}); % {kAle@gacchati}, in the course of time; % {kAle@yAte}, after some time; %{kAle@kAle}, always in time MBh. i, 1680 Ragh. iv, 6; [cf. $; Lat. {calen-doe}: Hib. {ceal}, `" death and everything terrible. "'] //* 2 1 mf(%{I} Pa1n2. 4-1, 42)n. (fr. 3. % {kal}?), black, of a dark colour, dark-blue MBh. R. &c.; m. a black or dark-blue colour L.; the black part of the eye Sus3r.; the Indian cuckoo L.; the poisonous serpent Coluber Na1ga (= %{kAlasarpa}) Vet.; the plant Cassia Sophora L.; a red kind of Plumbago L.; the resin of the plant Shorea robusta L.; the planet Saturn; N. of S3iva; of Rudra BhP. iii, 12, 12; of a son of Hrada Hariv. 189;
763

of the prince Ka1la-yavana BhP. iii, 3, 10; of a brother of king Prasena-jit Buddh.; of a future Buddha; of an author of Mantras (= As3va-ghosha) Buddh.; of a Na1ga-ra1ja Buddh.; of a Rakshas R. vi, 69, 12; of an enemy of S3iva L.; of a mountain R. iv, 44, 21 Ka1ran2d2.; of one of the nine treasures Jain.; a mystical N. of the letter %{m}; (%{A}) f. N. of several plants (Indigofera tinctoria L.; Piper longum L.; (perhaps) Ipomoea atropurpurea Sus3r.; Nigella indica L.; Rubia Munjista L.; Ruellia longifolia L.; Physalis flexuosa L.; Bignonia suaveolens Bhpr.); the fruit of the Ka1la1 g. %{harItaky-Adi}; N. of a %{zakti} Hcat.; of a daughter of Daksha (the mother of the Ka1leyas or Ka1lakeyas, a family of Asuras) MBh. i, 2520 Hariv.; N. of Durga1 L.; (%{I}) f. black colour, ink or blacking L.; abuse, censure, defamation L.; a row or succession of black clouds L.; night L.; a worm or animalcule generated in the acetous fermentation of milk (= % {kSIra-kITa} or %{kSAra-kITa}) L.; the plant Ka1la7n5jani1 L.; Ipomoea Turpethum L.; a kind of clay L.; Bignonia suaveolens L.; one of the seven tongues or flames of fire Mun2d2Up. i, 2, 4; a form of Durga1 MBh. iv, 195 Hariv. Kum.; one of the Ma1tr2is or divine mothers L.; N. of a female evil spirit (mother of the Ka1lakeyas) Hariv. 11552; one of the sixteen Vidya1-devi1s L.; N. of Satyavati1, wife of king S3a1ntanu and mother of Vya1sa or Kr2ishn2advaipa1yana (after her marriage she had a son Vicitravi1rya, whose widows were married by Kr2ishn2a764

dvaipa1yana, and bore to him Dhr2ita-ra1sht2ra and Pa1n2d2u MBh. Hariv.; according to other legends Ka1li1 is the wife of Bhi1masena and mother of Sarvagata BhP.); (with or without %{gaGgA}) N. of a river; (%{am}) n. a black kind of Agallochum L.; a kind of perfume (%{kakkolaka}) L.; iron L. kaalaM = time kaalaanala = the fire of death kaalaapa * = m. (fr. %{kalA7pa}), a serpent's hood L.; a demon, imp or goblin L.; a student of the Kala1pa grammar L.; (fr. %{kalApin}) a pupil of Kala1pin Pa1n2. MBh. ii, 113; N. of A1ra1d2a (a teacher of S3a1kya-muni) Buddh. (v.l. %{kAlAma}); (%{As}) m. pl. the school of Kala1pin (often named together with the Kat2has q.v.) kaalaaya = (masc.dat.S)to the (Lord of) Time kaalaH = Master Time kaalatraya = three states of time(present, past and future) kaalapurushha = Universal Prototypal Human. Spirit of Time

765

kaalabala = Temporal strength of planets used in Shad bala kaalabaahyam.h = (adj) outdated, obsolete kaalabhairavaasana = Lord Kalabhairava's posture kaalasarpayoga = Planets on one side of the Nodal Axis of Rahu-Ketu kaalaya * = Nom. P. {-yati}, to show or announce the time Dhtup. xxxv, 28 (v.l.) kaaliimaatuH = Mother Kali's kaale = time kaalena = in the course of time kaaleshhu = times kaalii* = (f. of 1. {kAla} q.v.) kaalpa* = mfn. (fr. %{ka4lpa}), preceptive, ritual W.; relating to a period called Kalpa W.; m. the plant Curcuma Zerumbet L. kaalya * = mf(%{A})n. timely, seasonable Pa1n2. 5-1, 107; being in a particular period g. %{aig-Adi}; ifc. g.
766

%{vargyA7di}; pleasant, agreeable, auspicious (as discourse cf. %{kalya}) L.; (%{A}) f. (with % {prajane}) a cow fit for the bull Pa1n2. 3-1, 104: (% {am}) n. `" day-break "', (%{am}, %{e}) acc. loc. ind. at day-break R. Sus3r. [279,2]3 kAlya see 2. % {kAla}. kaam * = ind. an interjection used in calling out to another L. kaama = lust* = m. (fr. 2. {kam}; once {kAma4} VS. xx, 60), wish, desire, longing ({kAmo me bhuJjIta bhavAn}, my wish is that you should eat Pn. 3-3, 153), desire for, longing after (gen. dat., or loc.), love, affection, object of desire or of love or of pleasure RV. VS. TS. AV. S'Br. MBh. R. &c.; pleasure, enjoyment; love, especially sexual love or sensuality; Love or Desire personified AV. ix; xii; xix (cf. RV. x, 129, 4) VS. PrGri.; N. of the god of love AV. iii. 25, 1 MBh. Lalit.; (represented as son of Dharma and husband of Rati [MBh. i, 2596 ff. Hariv. VP.]; or as a son of Brahm VP.; or sometimes of Sankalpa BhP. vi, 6, 10; cf. {kAma-deva}); N. of Agni SV. ii, 8, 2, 19, 3 AV. TS. KtyS'r. S'nkhS'r.; of Vishnu Gal.; of Baladeva (cf. {kAma-pAla}) L.; a stake in gambling Nr. xvi, 9; a species of mango tree (= {mahA-rAja-cUta}) L.; N. of a metre consisting of four lines of two long syllables each; a kind of bean L.; a particular form of temple Hcat.; N. of several men; ({A}) f. `" wish, desire "' (only instr.
767

{kAmayA} q.v.); N. of a daughter of Priithus'ravas and wife of Ayuta-nyin MBh. i, 3774; ({am}) n. object of desire L.; semen virile L.; N. of a Trtha MBh. iii, 5047; ({am}) ind. see s.v.; ({ena}) ind. out of affection or love for; ({Aya}, or {e}) ind. according to desire, agreeably to the wishes of, out of love for (gen. or dat.) RV. AV. TS. S'Br. ChUp.; ({At}) ind. for one's own pleasure, of one's own free will, of one's own accord, willingly, intentionally Mn. R.; ({kAma4}) mfn. wishing, desiring RV. ix, 113, 11; (ifc.) desirous of, desiring, having a desire or intention (cf. {go-k-}, {dharma-k-}; frequently with inf. in {tu} cf. {tyaktu-k-}.) kaamaaH = desires kaamaat.h = from desire kaamaatmaanaH = desirous of sense gratification kaamaan.h = desiring kaamaatura* = mfn. love-sick, affected by love or desire; m. N. of a man Pacat. kaamaatman* = mfn. `" whose very essence is desire "', consisting of desire, indulging one's desires, given to lust, sensual, licentious MBh. Mn. vii, 27 [273, 1]; desiring, wishing for W.; {-tma-tA} f. passion, lust Mn. ii, 2 R. ii, 21, 57.
768

kaamabhogeshhu = to sense gratification kaamadhenu = the heavenly cow kaamadaam.h = (the hymn which) gives (grants) all desires kaamadeva* = m. the god of love (see {kAma} above; according to some, son of Sahishnu and Yas'o-dhar VP.); N. of Vishnu (as the god who creates, preserves, or destroys at will) Vishn. xcviii, 10 (cf. BhP. v, 18, 15); of S'iva L.; of a poet; of a king of Jayant-pur; N. of the author of the Pryas'citta-paddhati; {-tva} n. the being the god of love Kaths.; {-maya} mfn. representing the god of love AgP. kaamadhuk.h = kaamadhenu: the cow who can milk out anything you wish kaamaH = desire kaamahaitukaM = it is due to lust only kaamakaama = desirer of desires (kaamaan kaamayati iti aN) kaamakaamaaH = desiring sense enjoyments kaamakaamii = one who desires to fulfill desires
769

kaamakaarataH = acting whimsically in lust kaamakaareNa = for enjoying the result of work kaamaM = desire kaamamadhiite = desire, reads kaamapri = son of kaamapra kaamaruupaM = in the form of lust kaamaruupeNa = in the form of lust kaamatIrtha* = n. N. of a Trtha. kaamaThaka* = m. N. of a Nga MBh. i, 2157. kaamaTha* = mfn. (fr. {kamaTha}), peculiar or belonging to the tortoise R. i, 45, 30. kaamaye = (Vr.Pr.IP.S.AP)desire; wish for kaamavikaaraH = sensual/sexual attraction kaamaiH = by desires kaamepsunaa = by one with desires for fruitive results
770

kaamebhyaH = material sense gratification kaameshvara = lord of desires kaamakAmin* = mfn. `" wishing wishes "', having various desires or wishes, following the dictates of passion TA1r. i, 31, 1 MBh. iii, 11256 Bhag. kaamin * = mfn. desirous, longing after (acc. or in comp.); loving, fond, impassioned, wanton; amorous, enamoured, in love with (acc. or with %{saha} or % {sA7rdham}) RV. AV. S3a1n3khS3r. MBh. R. S3ak. &c.; (%{I}) m. a lover, gallant, anxious husband; the ruddy goose (%{cakra-vAka}) L.; a pigeon L.; Ardea Sibirica L.; a sparrow L.; N. of S3iva L.; (%{inI}) f. a loving or affectionate woman Mn. viii, 112 R. Megh. Hariv. Ragh. &c.; a timid woman L.; a woman in general L.; a form of Devi1 Hcat.; the plant Vanda Roxburghii L.; the plant Curcuma aromatica L.; a spirituous liquor L. kaamIna* = or m. the plant Areca Triandra L. kaaminI * = (f. of %{kAmin} q.v.) kaamita = something one has wished for kaamopabhoga = sense gratification

771

kaaMsa * = mf({I})n. born in Kansa g. {takSazilA7di}. kaamyaanaaM = with desire kaaNa* = mf({A})n. (etym. doubtful; g. {kaDArA7di}) one-eyed, monoculous ({akSNA kANaH}, blind of one eye Comm. on Pn. 2-1, 30 and 3, 20) RV. x, 155, 1 AV. xii, 4, 3 TS. ii, 5, 1, 7 Mn. MBh.; pierced, perforated (as a cowrie perforated or broken by insects) Comm. on Pn. 2-3, 20 Hit. Pacat. Bhartri. iii, 5; `" having only one loop or ring "' and `" one-eyed "' Pacat.; m. a crow L. kaanana * = a forest, grove (sometimes in connection with {vana}) R. Nal. Ragh. Pacat. Sus'r.; (ifc. f. {A} R. Ragh.); a house L. kaanana = forest kaac* = cl. 1. A1. %{kAJcate}, to shine Dha1tup. vi, 10; to bind ib. (cf. %{kac}, %{kaJc}.) kaaJc * = cl. 1. A1. %{kAJcate} , to shine Dha1tup. vi , 10 ; to bind ib. (cf. %{kac} , %{kaJc}.) {kaJc cl. 1. A1. %{kaJcate} , %{cakaJce} , %{kaJcitA} , &c. , to bind ; to shine Dha1tup. vi , 9 ; [cf. %{kac} and %{kAJc} , % {kakSa} ; Lat. {cingere}.} kaaJcana * = n. gold Naigh. i, 2 Mn. Ya1jn5. Nal. Sus3r. Hit. [268,3]; money, wealth, property W.; the filament
772

of the lotus L.; (mf(%{I})n.) golden, made or consisting of gold MBh. R. Mn. Megh. S3ak. BhP.; m. N. of several edible plants (Mesua ferrea L.; Michelia Champaca L.; Ficus glomerata L.; Bauhinia variegata L.; Datura fastuosa L.; Rottleria tinctoria L.); a covenant binding for the whole life Ka1m. (= Hit.); a particular form of temple Hcat.; N. of the fifth Buddha L.; N. of a son of Na1ra1yan2a (author of the play Dhanan5jayavijaya); N. of a prince (cf. %{kAJcanaprabha}); (%{I}) f. turmeric L.; a kind of Asclepias (% {svarNakSIrI}) L.; a plant akin to the Premna spinosa L.; a kind af yellow pigment. kaaNDa* = [or {kANDa4} TS. vii], {as}, {am} m. n. (ifc. f. {A}, or {I}) [cf. {khaNDa}, with which in some of its senses {kANDa} is confounded] a single joint of the stalk or stem of a plant, such as a bamboo or reed or cane (i.e. the portion from one knot to another cf. {trik-}), any part or portion, section, chapter, division of a work or book (cf. {tri-k-}), any distinct portion or division of an action or of a sacrificial rite (as that belonging to the gods or to the manes) AV. TS. VS.; a separate department or subject (e.g. {karma-kANDa}, the department of the Veda treating of sacrificial rites Ks'. on Pn. 4-2, 51) AV. TS. S'Br. R.; a stalk, stem, branch, switch MBh. R. Mn. i, 46, 48 Kaus'. Sus'r.; the part of the trunk of a tree whence the branches proceed W.; a cluster, bundle W.; a multitude, heap, quantity (ifc.) Pn. 4-2, 51 Ks'.; an arrow MBh. xiii, 265 Hit.; a
773

bone of the arms or legs, long bone (cf. {kANDabhagna} and {pucchakANDa4}) Sus'r.; a rudder (?) R. ii, 89, 19; a kind of square measure Pn. 4-1, 23 Vop. vii, 55; a cane, reed, Saccharum Sara ({zara}) L.; water L.; opportunity, occasion (cf. {a-kANDa}) L.; a private place, privacy L.; praise, flattery L.; (ifc. implying depreciation) vile, low Pn. 6-2, 126; = {kANDasyA7vayavo vikAro vA7} g. {bilvA7di}; ({I}) f. a little stalk or stem Rjat. vii, 117. kaandarpa*= m. descended from or relating to Kandarpa g. {bidA7di}. kaanta * 1 mf({A})n. (fr. 2. {kam}), desired, loved, dear, pleasing, agreeable, lovely, beautiful; m. any one beloved, a lover, husband; the moon L.; the spring L.; the plant Barringtonia Acutangula L.; iron L.; a stone (cf. {sUrya-k-}, &c.) L.; N. of Kriishna L.; of Skanda MBh. iii, 14631; of a son of Dharma-netra Hariv. i, 33, 3; ({A}) f. a beloved or lovely woman, wife, mistress Kaths.; a charming wife L.; the earth L.; N. of certain plants L.; large cardamoms L.; a kind of perfume ({reNukA}, Piper aurantiacum) L.; N. of a metre of four lines of seventeen syllables each; a kind of S'ruti; ({am}) n. saffron L.; a kind of iron L.; a magnet Buddh.; a kind of hou kaantaM = lovely, glowing * = mf({A})n. (fr. 2. {kam}), desired, loved, dear, pleasing, agreeable,
774

lovely, beautiful; m. any one beloved, a lover, husband; the moon L.; the spring L.; the plant Barringtonia Acutangula L.; iron L.; a stone (cf. {sUrya-k-}, &c.) L.; N. of Kriishna L.; of Skanda MBh. iii, 14631; of a son of Dharma-netra Hariv. i, 33, 3; ({A}) f. a beloved or lovely woman, wife, mistress Kaths.; a charming wife L.; the earth L.; N. of certain plants L.; large cardamoms L.; a kind of perfume ({reNukA}, Piper aurantiacum) L.; N. of a metre of four lines of seventeen syllables each; a kind of S'ruti; ({am}) n. saffron L.; a kind of iron L.; a magnet Buddh.; a kind of house L. kaantaa = wife kaanti = splendourkaa-purushha = contemptible fellow* = f. desire, wish L.; loveliness, beauty, splendour, female beauty, personal decoration or embellishment Nal. S'ak. Megh. Pacat. Sus'r. Kaths.; a lovely colour, brightness (especially of the moon) Kaths.; (ifc. f. {I}) Caurap.; (in rhetoric) beauty enhanced by love Vm. iii, 1, 22; xxii, 14 Sh.; a lovely or desirable woman personified as wife of the moon Hariv. 5419; N. of Lakshm BhP. x, 65, 29; of Durg DevP. kaara * =1 mf({I})n. (1. {kR} Pn. 3-2, 23), making, doing, working, a maker, doer (ifc. see {kumbha-k-}, {yajJa k-}, {suvarNa-k-}); an author (e.g. {vArttikak-}); m. (ifc.) an act, action (see {kAma-k-}, {puruSak-}); the term used in designating a letter or sound or
775

indeclinable word (e.g. {a-k-}, {ka-k-}, qq. vv.; {evak-}, the word {eva}; {phUt-k-} q.v.) Prt. Mn. &c.; effort, exertion L.; determination L.; religious austerity L.; a husband, master, lord L.; ({as} or {A}) m. or f. act of worship, song of praise Divyv.; ({I}) f. N. of a plant (= {kArikA}, {kAryA} &c.) L. kaara *= 2 m. (= 2. {kara}) tax, toll, royal revenue Pn. 6-3, 10; a heap of snow or a mountain covered with it L.; (mfn.) produced by hail Sus'r. kaara * =3 m. (2. {kR}), a song or hymn of praise RV.; a battle song RV. kaara * = 4 m. (2. {kRR}), killing, slaughter L. kaaraa * =f. (1. {kR}?), a prison Vikr. Das'.; binding, confinement g. {bhidA7di}; the part of a lute below the neck (for deadening the sound) L.; pain, affliction L.; a female messenger L.; a female worker in gold L.; a kind of bird L. -kaara * = m. bringing down, humiliation, wrong, offence, injury MBh. Kv. &c.; wickedness, malice W.; opposition, contradiction W.; = next Gal. kaaraka = Planetary Significator which remain the same for all houses \ * = 1 mf(%{ikA})n. (generally ifc.) making, doing, acting, who or what does or produces or
776

creates MBh. &c. (cf. %{siMha-k-}, %{kRtsna-k-}, % {zilpa-k}); intending to act or do Pa1n2. 2-3, 70 Sch.; (%{am}) n. `" instrumental in bringing about the action denoted by a verb (= %{kriyA-hetu} or %{-nimitta}) "', the notion of a case (but not co-extensive with the term case; there are six such relations accord. to Pa1n2., viz. %{karman}, %{karaNa}, %{kartR}, %{sampradAna}, %{apA7dAna}, %{adhikaraNa}, qq. vv. The idea of the genitive case is not considered a %{kAraka}, because it ordinarily expresses the relation of two nouns to each other, but not the relation of a noun and verb).\ 2 n. hail-water L. \5 mf(%{ikA})n. panting, gasping L. kaarakaiH = which are causes kaaraNa = reason kaaraNa * = * = 1 n. cause, reason, the cause of anything (gen., also often loc.) KtyS'r. MBh. Mn. &c.; instrument, means; motive origin, principle; a cause (in phil. i.e. that which is invariably antecedent to some product cf. {samavA7yi-k-}, {asamavA7yi-k-}, {nimitta-k-}); an element, elementary matter Yj. iii, 148 Bhag. xviii, 13; the origin or plot of a play or poem Sh.; that on which an opinion or judgment is founded (a sign, mark; a proof; a legal instrument, document) Mn. MBh. &c.; an organ of sense Ragh. xvi, 22 &c.; an action MBh. xii, 12070; agency, instrumentality, condition Kaths. cxii, 178; `" the cause of being "', a
777

father W.; `" cause of creation "', a deity W.; the body L.; a kind of musical instrument L.; a sort of song L.; a number of scribes or Kyasthas W.; ({A}) f. pain, agony Das'.; an astronomical period W. [{kAraNAt}, from some cause or reason, Rprt. iii, 13 Mn. viii, 355; {kasmAt kAraNAt}, from what cause? {mamakAraNAt}, for my sake R. &c.; {a-kAraNena}, without a reason Yj. ii, 234; {yena kAraNena}, because; {yasmin kAraNe}, from which motive, wherefore.] \\ 2 n. killing, injury L. kaaraNa n. killing, slaughter L. kaaaraNa* = n. killing, slaughter L. kaaraNaM = the means kaaraNam.h = reason kaaraNaani = causes kaarayan.h = causing to be done kaaraagriham.h = (n) prison, jail kaardama * = mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{kardama}), made of mud, muddy, filled or covered with mud R. v, 27, 16 Pa1n2. 4-2, 2 Ka1s3.; belonging to Praja1pati Kardama BhP. iii, 24, 6.
778

kaari = causing *= 1 %{is} mf. an artist , artificer , mechanic Pa1n2. 4-1 , 152 ; (%{is}) f. action , act , work (only used in questions) Pa1n2. 3-3 , 110.\\2 mfn. raising hymns of praise VS. xxx , 6 and 20. kaarin *= 1 mfn. (Pa1n2. 5-2 , 72) doing , making , effecting , producing , acting , an actor Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. (mostly ifc. S3Br. Mn. &c.) ; (%{I}) m. a mechanic , tradesman L.\\ 2 mfn. rejoicing , praising \\ m. injurer , oppressor VS. kaarmana* = mf({I})n. relating to or proceeding from a work or action W.; finishing a work W.; performing anything by means of magic; ({am}) n. magic, sorcery, witchcraft Pn. 5-4, 36 Rjat. kaarpaNya = of miserliness1 * = n. (fr. %{kRpaNa}), poverty, pitiful circumstances MBh. &c. R.; poorness of spirit, weakness ib.; parsimony, niggardliness Hit. &c.: compassion, pity BhP. v, 8, 10. kaarpaNyavaadii = adj. wrechedness incarnate kaaruNyaruupaM = the personification of compassion kaartikeya = the god of war, was reared by the Pleiades kaarttikeya* = m. N. of a son of S'iva and Prvat (popularly regarded as god of war, because he leads the
779

Ganas or hosts of S'iva against the demon hosts see RTL. p. 213; accord. to one legend he was son of S'iva without the intervention of Prvat, the generative energy of S'iva being cast into the fire and then received by the Ganges, whence he is sometimes described as son of Agni and Gang; when born he was fostered by the six Kriittiks q.v., and these offering their six breasts to the child he became six-headed; he is also called Kumra, Skanda, and Subrahmanya; his N. Krttikeya may be derived from his foster mothers or from the month Krttika as the best for warfare: in the Mriicch. and elsewhere he is regarded as presiding over thieves) MBh. &c. kaarya = work kaaryaM = work kaaryakartaa = worker, active participant in an organization kaaryate = is forced to do kaaryaalayaH = (m) office, place of work kaarye = work kaars'a* = m. Curcuma Zedoaria L.

780

kaashate = (1 ap) to shine kaazaya* = m. N. of a son of Ks'a or Ks'i Hariv. 1734; of the country of the Ks'is Comm. on Un. iv, 117. kaas'a* =1 m. `" the becoming visible, appearance "', only in {sa-k-} q.v.; N. of a man g. {azvA7di}; of a prince (the son of Suhotra and father of Ksi-rja) Hariv. VP.; a species of grass (Saccharum spontaneum, used for mats, roofs, &c.; also personified, together with the Kus'a grass, as one of Yama's attendants) Kaus'. R. Kum. &c.; ({A}, {I}) f. id. L. ({am}) n. id. L.\\kaas'a* =2 wrongly spelt for {kAsa} q.v. kaas'ishNu * = mfn. shining, brilliant BhP. iv, 30, 6. kaashiraajaH = Kasiraja kaashyaH = the King of Kasi (Varanasi) kaashhaaya = saffron cloth kaashhTa = wood, branch kaashthha m. N. of one of Kubera's attendants MBh. ii, 415; (%{a4m}) n. a piece of wood or timber, stick S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Mn. &c.; wood or timber in general; an instrument for measuring lengths; a kind of measure SaddhP.; [%{kASTha-}, in comp., or %{kASTham}
781

ind. with a verb expresses excellence or superiority Pa1n2. 8-1, 67 and 68.] kaashthhaa f. a place for running, raceground, course (also the course, path or track of the wind and clouds in the atmosphere) RV.; the mark, goal, limit VS. TS. S3Br. &c.; the highest limit, top, summit, pitch Kum. Das3. &c.; a quarter or region of the world, cardinal point Naigh. Nir. MBh. &c.; the sixteenth part of the disk of the moon BhP. i, 12, 31; a measure of time (= 1/30 Kala1 Mn. i, 64 Sus3r.; = 1/12 Kala1 Jyot.; = 1/15 Laghu, = 1/225 Na1d2ika1, = 1/450 Muhu1rta BhP. iii, 11, 7) MBh. i, 1292 &c.; form, form of appearance BhP. iii, 28, 12; vii, 4, 22; the sun Nir. ii, 15; water ib.; the plant Curcuma xanthorrhiza L.; N. of a daughter of Daksha and wife of Kas3yapa (mother of the solidungulous quadrupeds). BhP. vi, 6, 25 ff.; N. of a town. kaashhTha = (neut) piece of wood kaashthhabhakSaNa * = n. `" devouring of wood (of the funeral pile) "', %{--SThA7dhirohaNa} Pan5cad. khabhAra * = m. a particular weight of wood Hariv. 4356 R. i, 4, 21. kaashthhabhArika * = mfn. a wood-carrier, bearer of wood Katha1s. vi, 42.
782

kaashthhabheda * = m. cleaving of wood Pa1n2. 6-2, 144 Ka1s3. kaashthhabhid * = mfn. cleaving wood Pa1n2. 3-2, 61 Ka1s3. kaashthhabhRt * = see s.v. %{kA4SThA}. kaashthhabhRt * = mfn. leading to a mark or aim S3Br. xi. kaashthhabhUta * = mfn. one who has become wood or stands stock still (as an ascetic) R. i, 65, 3; m. N. of a demon who causes diseases Hariv. 9559. kaasate = to cough kaasaaraH = lake kaatara * = (etym. doubtful,, `" uncertain as to which of the two "' BRD.), cowardly, faint-hearted, timid, despairing, discouraged, disheartened, confused, agitated, perplexed, embarrassed, shrinking, frightened, afraid of, timidity, despair, agitation. " kaat * =ind. a prefix implying contempt (cf. 2. {kad}), only in comp. with kaati * = mfn. (fr. 3. {kA}), `" wishing, desiring "' (only
783

in comp. see {RNa4-kAti} and {kA4ma-kAti} cf. {RNa-ci4t}); ({ayas}) m. pl.N. of a school. kaavya = poetr kaaya * =1 mf({I})n. (fr. 3. {ka} Pn. 4-2, 25), relating or devoted to the god Ka (Praj-pati RV. x, 121) VS. TS. S'Br.; &c.; m. one of the eight modes of marriage (= Prjpatya see {vivAha}) Mn. iii, 38 Yj. i, 60; ({am}) n. part of the hand sacred to Praj-pati, the root of the little finger Mn. ii, 58 and 59. \\ 2 m. ({ci} Pn. 3-3, 41), the body KtyS'r. Mn. &c.; the trunk of a tree R.; the body of a lute (the whole except the wires) L.; assemblage, collection, multitude SaddhP.; principal, capital Nr. Briih.; a house, habitation L.; a butt, mark L.; any object to be attained L.; natural temperament L. kaayaM = the body kaaya * = 1 mf(%{I})n. (fr. 3. %{ka} Pa1n2. 4-2, 25), relating or devoted to the god Ka (Praja1-pati RV. x, 121) VS. TS. S3Br.; &c.; m. one of the eight modes of marriage (= Pra1ja1patya see %{vivAha}) Mn. iii, 38 Ya1jn5. i, 60; (%{am}) n. part of the hand sacred to Praja1-pati, the root of the little finger Mn. ii, 58 and 59.\\ 2 m. (%{ci} Pa1n2. 3-3, 41), the body Ka1tyS3r. Mn. &c.; the trunk of a tree R.; the body of a lute (the whole except the wires) L.; assemblage, collection, multitude SaddhP.; principal, capital Na1r. Br2ih.; a house, habitation L.; a butt, mark L.; any object to be
784

attained L.; natural temperament L. kaayikaa = pertaining to the body kaayena = with the body ka = what( use) is the kachchit.h = whether kachchhapa = (masc) tortoise kadaliphalam.h = (n) banana kadaachan.h = never kadaachana = at any time kadaachit.h = at any time (past, present or future) kadaapi = at any time kahalayoga = Stubborness (Ranjan says laziness). Lords of 4th and 9th houses should be in Kendras from each other and the lord of Lagna should be strongly disposed kadana * = n. destruction , killing , slaughter MBh. R. Pan5cat. &c.
785

kaiH = by whom kailaasa = a Himalayan mountain, home of Shiva kaitava * = mf({I})n. (fr. {kit-}), deceitful Hariv. 7095; m. patr. of Ulka MBh. i, 7002; ({I}) f. fraud, deceit Blar.; ({am}) n. the stake in a game MBh. ii, 2163 Nal. xxvi, 10; gambling L.; deceit, fraud, cheating, roguery R. v, 86, 19 Kum. Bhartri. &c.; beryl L. kaivalya = spiritual independence and freedom * = n. (fr. {ke4vala}), isolation Vm.; absolute unity Veda7ntas. BhP.; perfect isolation, abstraction, detachment from all other connections, detachment of the soul from matter or further transmigrations, beatitude MBh. KapS. Snkhyak. &c.; for {vaikalya} Rjat. vii, 1149; (mf({A})n.) leading to eternal happiness or emancipation MBh. xiii, 1101. kajjala = lamp black kaJNchukaH = blouse kaH = who kakudi = hump of an ox kaksha * = m. (%{kaS} Un2. iii, 62; cf. %{kac}), lurking-place, hiding-place RV. x, 28, 4 VS. xi, 79; a
786

wood, large wood (?) RV. vi, 45, 31; a forest of dead trees, a dry wood, underwood (often the lair of wild beasts) VS. TS. Ta1n2d2yaBr. Mn. &c.; an inner recess, the interior of a forest; grass, dry grass; a spreading creeper, climbing plant L.; side or flank L.; sin L.; a gate W.; a buffalo L.; Terminalia Bellerica W.; (%{as}, % {A}) mf. the armpit (as the most concealed part of the human body), region of the girth AV. vi, 127, 2 Sus3r. Mr2icch. &c.; [cf. Lat. {coxa}, `" hip "'; O. H. G. {hahsa}; Zd. {kasha}; cf. Sk. {kaccha}]; a girdle, zone, belt, girth MBh. BhP. &c.; the end of the lower garment (which, after the cloth is carried round the body, is brought up behind and tucked into the waistband); hem, border, lace BhP. ix, 10, 37; the scale of a balance Ka1vya7d. Vcar.; (%{A}) f. painful boils in the armpit Sus3r.; a surrounding wall, a wall, any place surrounded by walls (as a court-yard, a secluded portion of a building, a private chamber or room in general) MBh. BhP. Mn. &c.; the orbit of a planet VarBr2S. Su1ryas. &c.; the periphery, circumference Su1ryas. xii, 65; balance, equality, similarity, resemblance MBh. xii, 7269 VarBr2S. 26, 6; emulation, rivalry, object of emulation Naish.; the jeweller's weight called Retti L.; objection or reply in argument L.; a particular part of a carriage L.; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of a people MBh. VP. kala=* mf(%{A})n. (etym. doubtful) indistinct, dumb Br2A1rUp. ChUp.; (ifc., %{bASpa}, or %{azru} preceding) indistinct or inarticulate (on account of tears)
787

MBh. R. &c. [260,2]; low, soft (as a tone), emitting a soft tone, melodious (as a voice or throat) R. BhP. Vikr. &c.; a kind of faulty pronunciation of vowels Pat.; weak, crude, undigested L.; m. (scil. %{svara}) a low or soft and inarticulate tone (as humming, buzzing &c.) L.; Shorea robusta L.; (in poetry) time equal to four Ma1tras or instants W.; (%{As}) m. pl. a class of manes MBh.; (%{am}) n. semen virile L.; Zizyphus Jujuba; (% {A}) f. see %{kalA} below. kalaa = Art= *f. (etym. doubtful) a small part of anything, any single part or portion of a whole, esp. a sixteenth part RV. viii, 47, 17 TS. S3Br. Mn. &c.; a digit or one-sixteenth of the moon's diameter Hit. Katha1s.; (personified as a daughter of Kardama and wife of Mari1ci BhP.); a symbolical expression for the number sixteen Hcat.; interest on a capital (considered as a certain part of it) S3is3. ix, 32; a division of time (said to be 1/900 of a day or 1-6 minutes Mn. i, 64 Hariv.; or 1/1800 of a day or 0-8 minutes Comm. on VP.; or 2 minutes and 26 54/201 seconds Sus3r.; or 1 minute and 35 205/301, seconds, or 8 seconds BhavP.); the sixtieth part of one-thirtieth of a zodiacal sign, a minute of a degree Su1ryas.; (in prosody) a syllabic instant; a term for the seven substrata of the elements or Dha1tus of the human body (viz. flesh, blood, fat, phlegm, urine, bile, and semen; but according to Hemacandra, %{rasa}, `" chyle "', %{asthi}, `" bone "', and %{majjan}, `" marrow "', take the place of phlegm,
788

urine, and bile) Sus3r.; an atom (there are 3015 Kala1s or atoms in every one of the six Dha1tus, not counting the %{rasa}, therefore in all 18090); (with Pa1s3upatas) the elements of the gross or material world Sarvad.; an embryo shortly after conception (cf. %{kalana}); a designation of the three constituent parts of a sacrifice (viz. %{mantra}, %{dravya}, and %{zraddhA} Ni1lak. on MBh. [ed. Bomb.] xiv, 89, 3); the menstrual discharge L.; any practical art, any mechanical or fine art (sixty-four are enumerated in the S3aivatantra [T.]; the following is a list of them: %{gItam}, %{vAdyam}, %{nRtyam}, %{nAtyam}, %{Alekhyam}, %{vizeSakacchedyam}, %{taNDula-kusuma-balivikArAH}, % {puSpA7staranam}, %{dazana-vasanA7GgarAgAH}, %{maNi-bhUmikA-karma}, %{zayana-racanam}, % {udaka-vAdyam}, %{udaka-ghAtaH}, % {citrA@yogAH}, %{mAlya-granthana-vikalpAH}, % {keza-zekharA7pIDayojanam}, %{nepathya-yogAH}, %{karNa-pattra-bhaGgAH}, %{gandha-yuktiH}, % {bhUSaNa-yojanam}, %{indrajAlam}, %{kaucumArayogAH}, %{hasta-lAghavam}, %{citrazAkA7pUpabhakSya-vikAra-kriyA}, %{pAnaka-rasarAgA7savayojanam}, %{sUcIvApa-karma}, %{vINA-Dama-rukasUtra-krIDA}, %{prahelikA}, %{pratimA}, % {durvacakayogAH}, %{pustaka-vAcanam}, % {nATakA7khyAyikA-darzanam}, %{kAvya-samasyApUraNam}, %{paTTikA-vetrabANa-vikalpAH}, % {tarkU-karmANi}, %{takSaNam}, %{vAstu-vidyA}, % {rUpya-ratna-parIkSA}, %{dhAtu-vAdaH}, %{maNi789

rAga-jJAnam}, %{Akara-jJAnam}, %{vRkSA7yurveda-yogAH}, %{meSa-kukkuTa-lAvaka-yuddhavidhiH}, %{zuka-sArikA-pralApanam}, % {utsAdanam}, %{keza-mArjana-kauzalam}, %{akSaramuSTikA-kathanam}, %{mlechitaka-vikalpAH}, % {deza-bhASA-jJAnam}, %{puSpa-zakaTikA-nimittajJAnam}, %{yantra-mAtRkA}, %{dhAraNa-mAtRkA}, %{saMpATyam}, %{mAnasI@kAvya-kriyA}, % {kriyA-vikalpAH}, %{chalitakayogAH}, % {abhidhAna-koSa-cchando-jJAnam}, %{vastragopanAni}, %{dyUta-vizeSaH}, %{AkarSaNa-krIDA}, %{bAlaka-krIDanakAni}, % {vainAyikInAM@vidyANAM@jJAnam}, % {vaijayikInAM@vidyAnAM@jJAnam} [261,2]; see also Va1tsy. i, 3, 17) R. Pan5cat. Bhartr2. &c.; skill, ingenuity; ignorance; a low and sweet tone Ba1lar.; a boat L.; a N. given to Da1ksha1yan2i1 in the region near the river Candrabha1ga1 MatsyaP.; N. of a grammatical commentary. kalaapa* = (%{kalA7pa}, fr. %{Ap}) m. `" that which holds single parts together "', a bundle, band (cf. % {jaTA-k-}, %{muktA-k-}, %{razanA-k-}) MBh. Kum. &c.; a bundle of arrows, a quiver with arrows, quiver MBh. R. &c.; (once n. MBh. iii, 11454); a peacock's tail MBh. Pan5cat. &c.; an ornament in general Ma1lav.; a zone, a string of bells (worn by women round the waist) L.; the rope round an elephant's neck L.; totality, whole body or collection of a number of separate things (esp.
790

ifc.; cf. %{kriyA-k-}, &c.); the moon L.; a clever and intelligent man L.; N. of a grammar also called Ka1tantra (supposed to be revealed by Ka1rttikeya to S3arvavarman); N. of a village (cf. %{kalApa-grAma}) VP.; a poem written in one metre W.; (%{I}) f. a bundle of grass Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vS3r.; %{-khaJja} m. a particular disease (said to be St. Vitus's dance; v.l. % {kalAyakhaJja}) Bhpr.; %{-grAma} m. N. of a village Hariv. BhP. VP.; %{-cchanda} m. an ornament of pearls consisting of twenty-four strings L.; %{-tattvA7rNava} m. N. of a commentary on the grammar called Kala1pa; %{-dvIpa} m. v.l. for %{kalApa-grAma} above; %{varman} m. N. of a man Ka1d.; %{-zas} ind. in bundles, bundle by bundle MBh. xiii; %{-ziras} m. N. of a man (v.l. %{kapAla-ziras}) R.//2 &c. see %{kalA}. kalakala* = m. any confused noise (as a tinkling or rattling sound, the murmuring of a crowd &c.) Mriicch. S'is'. Ratnv. &c.; the resinous exudation of Shorea robusta L.; a N. of S'iva MBh. xii, 10378; {-rava} m. a confused noise Bhartri.; {-vat} mfn. tinkling, rattling Amar.; {-lA7rava} m. a confused noise Pacat.; {le7zvaratIrtha} n. N. of a Trtha, S'ivP. kalaja* = m. a cock Bhpr. kala-tva* = n. melody, music W. kala-rava* = m. a low sweet tone Bhartri.; `" having a
791

sweet voice "', the Indian cuckoo L.; a pigeon L. kalaGka* = m. (etym. doubtful) a stain, spot, mark, soil; defamation, blame Kaths. Mriicch. &c. kalatra* = n. a wife, consort MBh. Bhartri. Hit. &c.; the female of an animal Vikr.; the hip and loins L.; pudendum muliebre L.; a royal citadel, a stronghold or fastness W.; (in astron.) the seventh lunar mansion VarBri. kalaanaatha = moon (??? I may be wrong here) kalaayaH = (m) groundnut kalaaya * m. a sort of pea or pulse MBh. Sus'r. &c.; a kind of plant with darkcoloured flowers S'is'. xiii, 21; ({A}) f. a species of Drv-grass L. kalakattaanagaraM = Calcutta kalakala = a sort of sound imitation (dhvnyanukaraNa) like a river flow kalakuutha* = {As} m. pl.N. of a warrior-tribe Pn. 4-1, 173.; the poison: see kaalakuutha kalatrakaaraka = Significator of marriage partner which is Venus:
792

kalatra *= a wife, consort MBh. Bhartri. Hit. &c.; the female of an animal Vikr.; the hip and loins L.; pudendum muliebre L.; a royal citadel, a stronghold or fastness W.; (in astron.) the seventh lunar mansion VarBri. kalaya * = 1 Nom. P. (fr. {kali}) {kalayati}, to take hold of the die called Kali Ks'. on Pn. 3-1, 21. kalaaya * = m. a sort of pea or pulse MBh. Sus'r. &c.; a kind of plant with darkcoloured flowers S'is'. xiii, 21; ({A}) f. a species of Drv-grass L. kalayataaM = of subduers kalaha = fight/discord/argument kalatra n. a wife, consort MBh. Bhartr2. Hit. &c.; the female of an animal Vikr.; the hip and loins L.; pudendum muliebre L.; a royal citadel, a stronghold or fastness W.; (in astron.) the seventh lunar mansion VarBr2. kalau = during the kali age kaldaspaagheti = (m) left-overs kalevara = (neut) body

793

kalevaraM = the body kali = Budkali * = m. (1. {kal} Comm. on Un. iv, 117)N. of the die or side of a die marked with one dot, the losing die AV. vii, 109, 1 S'Br. &c. (personified as an evil genius in the episode of Nala); symbolical expression for the number 1; Terminalia Bellerica (the nuts of which in older times were used as dice) L.; N. of the last and worst of the four Yugas or ages, the present age, age of vice AitBr. Mn. i, 86; ix, 301 f. MBh. &c. (the Kali age contains, inclusive of the two dawns, 1.200 years of the gods or 432, 000 years of men, and begins the eighteenth of February, 3102 B.C.; at the end of this Yuga the world is to be destroyed; see {yuga}); strife, discord, quarrel, contention (personified as the son of {krodha}, `" Anger "', and {hiMsA}, `" Injury "', and as generating with his sister {durukti}, `" Calumny. "' two children, viz. {bhaya}, `" Fear "', and {mRtyu}, `" Death "' BhP. iv, 8, 3; 4) MBh. Hit. &c. [262, 1]; the worst of a class or number of objects MBh. xii, 361; 363; a hero (or an arrow, {zUra}, or {zara}) L.; N. of S'iva MBh. xiii, 1192; N. of an Upanishad (= {kalisaMtaraNa}); ({i4s}) m. N. of a class of mythic beings (related to the Gandharvas, and supposed by some to be fond of gambling; in epic poetry Kali is held to be the fifteenth of the Deva-Gandharvas or children of the Munis) AV. x, 10, 13 MBh. Hariv.; N. of a man RV.; ({is}, {I}) f. an unblown flower, bud L.

794

kaliyuga = the current, pleasure-loving age kalilaM = dense forest kalita * mfn. impelled, driven &c. (cf. 3. {kal}); made, formed S'is'. iii, 81; furnished or provided with Vikr. Bhpr. &c.; divided, separated L.; sounded indistinctly, murmured W. \\ * = m. (n. L.), (3. {kal} Un. iii, 40), a viscous sediment deposited by oily substances when ground, a kind of tenacious paste Sus'r. Yj. &c.; dirt, filth; the wax of the ear; ordure, faeces L.; impurity, meanness, falsehood, hypocrisy, deceit, sin MBh. BhP. &c.; Terminalia Bellerica L.; Olibanum L.; (mfn.) sinful, wicked L. (cf. {kaluSa}, {kalmaSa}, {ki4lbiSa}.) kalikaa* = f. the sixteenth part of the moon Bhartri.; a division of time (= {kalA} q.v.); an unblown flower, bud S'ak. Ragh. &c.; the bottom or peg of the Indian lute (made of cane) L.; N. of several metres; a kind of artificial verse (cf. {kAnta-k-}); N. of wk. on medicine. kalika* = m. a curlew W. kalkaphala * = m. the pomegranate kalkiikR * to knead, render doughy kalkana * = n. meanness, wickedness

795

kalkin * mfn. foul, turbid, having sediment, dirty W.; wicked W.; ({I}) m. = {kalki} abov kalkuSI * = f. or n. du. wrist and elbow kalmashhaH = all material contamination kalmasha * = n. ({as} m. BhP. viii, 7, 43 = {karmaSa} fr. {karma} + {so}, `" destroying virtuous action "' Ks'. on Pn. 8-2, 18) stain, dirt; dregs, settlings (cf. {jalak-}); darkness; moral stain, sin MBh. R. BhP. Mn. iv, 260; xii, 18, 22; ifc. f. {A} Bhag. iv, 30 &c.; mf({A})n. dirty, stained L.; impure, sinful L.; ({am}) n. the hand below the wrist L.; m. or ({am}) n. a particular hell L. kalmaa4sha * =mf({I})n. (Pn. 4-1, 40 g. {gaurA7di} Pn. 4-1, 41) variegated, spotted, speckled with black VS. TS. S'Br. s'vGri. MBh.; black L.; m. a variegated colour (partly black, partly white) L.; a Rakshas L.; a species of fragrant rice L.; N. of a Nga MBh.; a form of Agni Hariv.; N. of an attendant on the Sun (identified with Yama) L.; a kind of deer T.; N. of S'kya-muni in a former birth; ({I}) f. the speckled cow (of Jamad-agni, granting all desires) MBh. R.; N. of a river (the Yamun) MBh. i, 6360; ({am}) n. a stain S'Br. vi, 3, 1, 31 [263, 2]; N. of a Sman. kalmashhaaH = of sinful reactions

796

kalpa (see also kaalpa) * = 1 mf(%{A})n. (%{klRp}), practicable, feasible, possible S3Br. ii, 4, 3, 3; proper, fit, able, competent, equal to (with gen. loc., inf., or ifc.; e.g. %{dharmasya@kalpaH}, competent for duty; % {svakarmaNi@na@kalpaH}, not competent for his own work; %{yadA@na@zAsituM@kalpaH}, if he is not able to rule) BhP.; m. a sacred precept, law, rule, ordinance (= %{vidhi}, %{nyAya}), manner of acting, proceeding, practice (esp. that prescribed by the Vedas) RV. ix, 9, 7 AV. viii, 9, 10; xx, 128, 6-11 MBh.; (% {prathamaH@kalpaH}, a rule to be observed before any other rule, first duty Mn. iii, 147 MBh. &c.; % {etena@kalpena}, in this way; cf. %{pazu-k-}, &c.); the most complete of the six Veda1n3gas (that which prescribes the ritual and gives rules for ceremonial or sacrificial acts) Mun2d2Up. Pa1n2. &c.; one of two cases, one side of an argument, an alternative (= % {pakSa}; cf. %{vikalpa}) Sarvad.; investigation, research Comm. on Sa1m2khyak.; resolve, determination MW.; (in medic.) treatment of the sick, manner of curing Sus3r. ii; the art of preparing medicine, pharmacy Car.; the doctrine of poisons and antidotes Sus3r. i; (ifc.) having the manner or form of anything, similar to, resembling, like but with a degree of inferiority, almost (e.g. %{abhedya-kalpa}, almost impenetrable; cf. %{prabhAta-k-}, %{mRta-k-}, &c.; according to native grammarians, %{kalpa} so used is an accentless affix [Pa1n2. 5-3, 67], before which a final %{s} is left unchanged, and final %{I} and %{U}
797

shortened Pa1n2. Vop.; %{kalpam} ind., may be also connected with a verb e.g. %{pacati-kalpam}, he cooks pretty well Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 8-1, 57) [262,3]; a fabulous period of time (a day of Brahma1 or one thousand Yugas, a period of four thousand, three hundred and twenty millions of years of mortals, measuring the duration of the world; a month of Brahma1 is supposed to contain thirty such Kalpas; according to the MBh., twelve months of Brahma1 constitute his year, and one hundred such years his lifetime; fifty years of Brahma1's are supposed to have elapsed, and we are now in the %{zvetavArAha-kalpa} of the fifty-first; at the end of a Kalpa the world is annihilated; hence %{kalpa} is said to be equal to % {kalpA7nta} below L.; with Buddhists the Kalpas are not of equal duration) VP. BhP. Ra1jat. &c.; N. of Mantras which contain a form of %{klRp} TS. v S3Br. ix; a kind of dance; N. of the first astrological mansion VarBr2S.; N. of a son of Dhruva and Bhrami BhP. iv, 10, 1; of S3iva MBh. xii, 10368; the tree of paradise; = %{-taru} below L.; (with Jainas) a particular abode of deities (cf. %{-bhava} and %{kalpA7tIta} below); (% {am}) n. a kind of intoxicating liquor (incorrect for % {kalya}) L. kalpaadau = in the beginning of the millennium kalpaanta* = m. the end of a Kalpa, dissolution of all things L. (cf. {pralaya}); {-vAsin} mfn. living at the end
798

of a Kalpa R. iii, 10, 4 [263,1]; {-sthAyin} mfn. lasting to the end of time Hit. i, 50 BhP. kalpaantara* = n. another Kalpa. kalpaatiita* ={As} m. pl.N. of a class of deities among the Jaina kalpa-druma = kalpa-vRiksha: the tree that will give you anything you can kalpaka* = mfn. conforming to a settled rule or standard BhP. i, 8, 6; ix, 11, 1; adopting Hariv.; m. a rite, ceremony MBh. [TBr. ii, 7, 18, 4 of doubtful meaning Comm. %{kaplaka}]; a barber (cf. %{kalpanI}; Lith. {kerpikas}) L.; a kind of Curcuma (commonly % {karcUra}) L. kalpana * = n. forming, fashioning, making, performing L.; `" forming in the imagination, inventing "', composition of a poem Prab.; cutting, clipping, working with edge-tools VarBr2S.; N. of a religious ceremony; anything put on for ornament MBh. xiii, 2784; (%{A}) f. making, manufacturing, preparing Sus3r. BhP.; practice Car.; fixing, settling, arranging Mn. ix, 116 Ya1jn5.; creating in the mind, feigning, assuming anything to be real, fiction KapS. &c.; hypothesis Nya1yam.; caparisoning an elephant Das3.; form, shape, image; a deed, work, act Mr2icch.; (%{I}) f. a pair of
799

scissors or shears L. kalpataru = (m) The heavenly tree giving whatever one desires * = m. one of the five trees (cf. {paJca-vRkSa}) of Svarga or Indra's paradise fabled to fulfil all desires (cf. {saMkalpa-viSaya}), the wishing tree, tree of plenty Hit. Pacat. Ragh. i, 75, xvii, 26; any productive or bountiful source BhP. i, 1, 3; (fig.) a generous person MW.; N. of various works; {-parimala} m. N. of wk.; {rasa} m. a particular kind of mixture Bhpr. kalpataa* = f. fitness, ability, competency BhP. xi. kalpate = is considered eligible kalpavrikshaaNaaM = the kalpa(imagined) vR^iksha trees (wish-yielding) kalpakshaye = at the end of the millennium kalpita = imagined * = mfn. made, fabricated, artificial; composed, invented; performed, prepared; assumed, supposed; inferred; regulated, well arranged Yj.; having a particular rank or order MBh. Mn. ix, 166; caparisoned (as an elephant) L.; m. an elephant armed or caparisoned for war W.; ({A}) f. a kind of allegory Vm. iv, 2, 2. kalpena* = he imagines
800

kalpetara * = mf({A})n. having or requiring a different kind of treatment kalpita * = mfn. made, fabricated, artificial; composed, invented; performed, prepared; assumed, supposed; inferred; regulated, well arranged Ya1jn5.; having a particular rank or order MBh. Mn. ix, 166; caparisoned (as an elephant) L.; m. an elephant armed or caparisoned for war W.; (%{A}) f. a kind of allegory Va1m. iv, 2, 2. kalpya* = mfn. (Pn. 3-1, 110 Vop. xxvi, 17, 18) to be formed from (inst.) Naish. viii, 21; to be performed, to be prescribed; to be settled or arranged VarBriS.; to be conceived or imagined VarBriS.; to be substituted W.; relating to ritual W. kalya * = mf(%{A})n. (3. %{kal} T.) well, healthy, free from sickness (cf. %{a-k-} Gaut. ix, 28); hale, vigorous MBh. ii, 347 Naish. Ya1jn5. i, 28; sound, perfect, strong MBh.; clever, dexterous L.; ready or prepared for (loc. or inf.) MBh.; agreeable, auspicious (as speech) L.; instructive, admonitory L.; deaf and dumb (cf. %{kala} and %{kalla}) L.; (%{am}) n. health L.; dawn, morning L.; yesterday L.; (%{am}, %{e}) ind. at day-break, in the morning, tomorrow MBh. Nal. xxiv, 14 R. BhP.; (% {am}, %{A}) n. f. spirituous liquor L. (cf. % {kadambarI}); (%{A}) f. praise, eulogy T.; good wishes, good tidings L.; Emblic Myrobalan (% {harItakI} q.v.), [cf. Gk. $.] &81904[263,2].
801

kalyaaNa = well being (of others) *= mf(%{I4})n. (g. %{bahv-Adi}) beautiful , agreeable RV. S3Br. &c. ; illustrious , noble , generous ; excellent , virtuous , good (%{kalyANa} voc. `" good sir "' ; %{kalyANi} , `" good lady "') ; beneficial , salutary , auspicious ; happy , prosperous , fortunate , lucky , well , right RV. i , 31 , 9 ; iii , 53 , 6 TS. AV. S3Br. Nir. ii , 3 MBh. R. ; m. a particular Ra1ga (sung at night) ; N. of a Gandharva ; of a prince (also called Bhat2t2a-s3ri1-kalya1n2a) ; of the author of the poem Gi1ta1-gan3ga1-dhara ; (%{I}) f. a cow L. ; the plant Glycine Debilis L. ; red arsenic L. ; a particular Ra1gin2i1 ; N. of Da1ksha1yan2i1 in Malaya ; N. of one of the mothers attending on Skanda MBh. ix , 2625 ; N. of a city in the Dekhan and of one in Ceylon ; a river in Ceylon ; (%{am}) n. good fortune , happiness , prosperity ; good conduct , virtue (opposed to %{pApa}) S3Br. Bhag. R. Ragh. Pan5cat. Mn. iii , 60 , 65 Sus3r. ; a festival Mn. viii , 292 ; gold L. ; heaven L. ; N. of the eleventh of the fourteen Pu1rvas or most ancient writings of the Jainas L. ; a form of salutation (`" Hail! "' `" May luck attend you! "') , S3a1ntis3. kalyaaNakrit.h = one who is engaged in auspicious activities kaM = whom kam * = 1 ind. (Gk. $) well (opposed to {a-kam}, &78525[251, 3] ill "') TS. S'Br. &c.; a particle placed
802

after the word to which it belongs with an affirmative sense, `" yes "', `" well "' (but this sense is generally so weak that Indian grammarians are perhaps right in enumerating {kam} among the expletives Nir.; it is often found attached to a dat. case, giving to that case a stronger meaning, and is generally placed at the end of the Pda, e.g. {a4jIjana o4SadhIr bho4janAya ka4m}, thou didst create the plants for actual food RV. v, 83, 10) RV. AV. TS. v; {kam} is also used as an enclitic with the particles {nu}, {su}, and {hi} (but is treated in the Pada-pthha as a separate word; in this connection {kam} has no accent but once AV. vi, 110, 1) RV. AV.; a particle of interrogation (like {kad} and {kim}) RV. x, 52, 3; (sometimes, like {kim} and {kad}, at the beginning of compounds) marking the strange or unusual character of anything or expressing reproach L. [252, 1]; head L.; food Nir.; water Nir. Nigh.; happiness, bliss L. \\ * = 2 cl. 1. . (not used in the conjugational tenses) {cakame}, {kamitA}, {kamiSyate}, {acakamata} Dhtup. xii, 10 to wish, desire, long for RV. v, 36, 1; x, 117, 2 AV. xix, 52, 3 S'Br. Ragh. &c.; to love, be in love with, have sexual intercourse with S'Br. xi BhP.: Caus. . (ep. also P.) {kAmayate}, {-ti}, {kAmayAM-cakre}, {acIkamata}, &c.; to wish, desire, long for (with acc. or inf. or Pot. Pn. 3-3, 157; e.g. {kAmaye bhuJjIta bhavAn}, I wish your worship may eat; {kAmaye dAtum}, I wish to give Ks'.) RV. AV. TS. MBh. &c.; to love, be in love with, have sexual intercourse with RV. x, 124, 5; 125, 5 S'Br. MBh. &c.;
803

to cause any one to love Riitus. (in that sense P. Vop.); (with {bahu} or {aty-artham}) to rate or value highly R.: Desid. {cikamiSate} and {cikAmayiSate}: Intens. {caMkamyate}; [cf. Lat. {comis}; also {amo}, with the loss of the initial, for {camo}; {cA7-rus} for {cam-rus}: Hib. {caemh} "', love, desire; fine, handsome, pleasant "'; {caomhach}, `" a friend, companion "'; {caomhaim}, `" I save, spare, protect "'; Armen. {kamim}.] kamaniiyakaraM = desired hands kamala = Lotus kamalapatra = Lotus leaf kamalapatraaksha = O lotus-eyed one kamalaa = saraswati kamalaasanasthaM = sitting on the lotus flower kamaTha* = m. (Un. i, 102) a tortoise BhP. Pacat. &c.; a porcupine L.; a bamboo L.; N. of a king MBh.; of a Muni; of a Daitya; ({as} or {am}) m. or n. a water-jar (esp. one made of a hollow gourd or cocoa-nut, and used by ascetics) L.; ({I}) f. a female tortoise, a small one S'ntis'. kampa * = m. trembling, tremor, trembling motion,
804

shaking MBh. Sus'r. &c.; earthquake (cf. {bhUmikampa}, {mahI-k-}, &c.); tremulous or thrilling pronunciation (a modification of the Svarita accent which may take place if the Svarita syllable is followed by an Udtta syllable) Nir. &c.; a kind of time (in mus.); N. of a man. kampate = (1 ap) to shake kampayati = to shake kampiutaH = (m) Sanskrit hi-tech kaMsa * = {as}, {am} m. n. ({kam} Un. iii, 62), a vessel made of metal, drinking vessel, cup, goblet AV. x, 10, 5 AitBr. S'Br. &c.; (a noun ending in {as} followed by {kaMsa} in a compound does not change its final cf. {ayas-kaMsa}, &c. Pn. 8-, 3, 46); a particular measure (= two dhakas Car.; = one dhaka L.); a metal, tutanag or white copper, brass, bell-metal; m. N. of a king of Mathur (son of Ugra-sena and cousin of the Devak who was mother of Kriishna [Ugra-sena being brother of Devaka, who was father of Devak]; he is usually called the uncle, but was really a cousin of Kriishna, and became his implacable enemy because it had been prophesied to Kansa that he would be killed by a child of Devak; as the foe of the deity he is identified with the Asura

805

nemi; and, as he was ultimately slain by Kriishna, the latter receives epithets like {kaMsa-jit}, conqueror of Kansa, &c.) MBh. VP. BhP. &c.; N. of a place g. {takSazilA7di} Pn. 4-3, 93; ({A}) f. N. of a sister of Kansa Hariv. BhP. VP. kaNa = small bit* = m. (Nir. vi, 30; related to {kanA}, {kaniSTha}, {kanIyas}, {kanyA}, in all of which smallness is implied BRD.), a grain, grain of corn, single seed AV. x, 9, 26; xi, 3, 5 KtyS'r. Mn. &c.; a grain or particle (of dust) Ragh. i, 85 Vikr.; flake (of snow) Amar.; a drop (of water) S'ak. 60 a Megh. BhP. &c.; a spark (of fire) Pacat.; the spark or facet of a gem; any minute particle, atom Prab. S'ntis'.; ({A}) f. a minute particle, atom, drop; long pepper Sus'r.; cummin seed L.; a kind of fly (= {kumbhIra-makSikA}) L.; ({I}) f. = {kaNikA} below L.; ({am}) n. a grain, single seed Kaths. (cf. {kaniSTha}.) kana* = mfn. (substituted for {alpa}, `" little, small "', in forming its comparative and superlative see below; cf. {kaNa}; according to Gmn. fr. {kan}, `" to shine, be bright or merry "', originally meaning `" young, youthful "'). kanaa* = f. a girl, maid RV. x, 61, 5; 10; 11; 21. kanaa* = see p. 248, col. 3.

806

kanaka = gold kacit VB = for a few days; SB 1.13.14//someone; SB 6.1.58-60//SB 10.41.32// a certain; SB 10.52.26//a certain; SB 11.7.25// any; SB 11.18.30// for some; SB 12.1.20//yam kacit &emdash; some kac * = cl. 1. A1. %{kaJcate}, %{cakaJce}, % {kaJcitA}, &c., to bind; to shine Dha1tup. vi, 9; [cf. % {kac} and %{kAJc}, %{kakSa}; Lat. {cingere}.] kacana *V = any, someone, anyone, by all means, whatever you like. kanda* - {as}, {am} m. n. ({kan} Comm. on Un. iv, 98), a bulbous or tuberous root, a bulb MBh. BhP. Sus'r. &c.; the bulbous root of Amorphophallus Campanulatus L.; garlic L.; a lump, swelling, knot Sus'r. i, 258, 9 [249,3]; [cf. Gk. $, $; O. H. G. &77847[249,3] {hnUtr}, {hnUta}]; an affection of the female organ (considered as a fleshy excrescence, but apparently prolapsus uteri W.); N. of a metre (of four lines of thirteen syllables each); (in mus.) a kind of time; ({I}) f. see {mAMsak-}. kaNDolaH = (m) a wooden basket kaNDuuyati = to scratch

807

kanda = a knot, the place where the three main nadis join kandaH = (m) root kanda* = {as}, {am} m. n. ({kan} Comm. on Un. iv, 98), a bulbous or tuberous root, a bulb MBh. BhP. Sus'r. &c.; the bulbous root of Amorphophallus Campanulatus L.; garlic L.; a lump, swelling, knot Sus'r. i, 258, 9 [249,3]; [cf. Gk. $, $; O. H. G. &77847[249,3] {hnUtr}, {hnUta}]; an affection of the female organ (considered as a fleshy excrescence, but apparently prolapsus uteri W.); N. of a metre (of four lines of thirteen syllables each); (in mus.) a kind of time; ({I}) f. see {mAMsak-}. kandarpaH = Cupid kandarpa* = m. (etym. doubtful; according to some fr. {kaM-darpa}, `" inflamer even of a god "' see 3. {ka}, or `" of great wantonness "')N. of Kma (q.v.), love, lust MBh. Bhag. Sus'r. &c.; (in mus.) a particular Rga (q.v.); a kind of time; membrum virile L.; N. of a man Kaths.; ({A}) f. one of the divine women attending on the fifteenth Arhat (Jain.) kandaasana = the upward ankle-twist posture kanduka = (m) a ball
808

kandha = neck kanishhThikaa = (f) little finger kaniinikaa = (f) eyeball ka.nkana = bracelet ka.nchna = anyone (or someone) kanta * mfn. (fr. 1. {kam} ind.), happy Pn. 5-2, 138. kanTha = throat kanti = brightness, lustre kanthaH = throated man ka.nThaM = neck ka.nThe = in yhe neck ka.nthaa = rags? ka.nsya = bronze kaNikaapiitaa = a little droplet, drunk

809

kaNTa * = m. (thought by some to be for original {karnta}, fr. 2. {kRt}) a thorn BhP. ix, 3, 7 (cf. {trikaNTa}, {bahu-kaNTa}, &c.); the boundary of a village L.; [cf. Gk. $ $ $?] kaNTakam.h = (n) thorns kaNTha = throat kaNThaH = (m) throat, neck kaNThabhuushhaa = (f) necklace kaNThasthiikaraNiiya = (adj) that which must be memorized, learned by heart kaNThahaaraH = (m) necklace kuNapa * = n. [{as} m. g. {ardharcA7di}] a dead body, corpse AV. TS. S'Br. Mn. &c.; (said contemptuously of) the living body BhP.; dung; m. a spear MBh. R.; ({As}) m. pl.N. of a people VarBriS.; ({I}) f. a small bird (Maina or Salik cf. {viT-sArikA}); ({kuNa4pa}) mfn. mouldering, smelling like a carcase S'Br. Sus'r. ku4Napa-gandha4 * = m. the smell of a dead body S'Br. iv. kuNapANDya * = m. `" having dead testicles "'N. of a
810

man. kuNapA7zana * = mfn. eating dead bodies S'ak. kanya * mf({A})n. the smallest (opposed to {uttama} and {madhyama}) Hcat. i, 302, 8 ff.; ({A4}) f. see {kanyA4} below; [cf. Zd. {kainin}; Hib. {cain}, `" chaste, undefiled. "'] kanyaa4 * = f. ( {kan} Un. iv, 111), a girl, virgin, daughter RV. AV. &c. MBh. &c. ({kanyAM} {dA} or {pra-dA} or {pra-yam} or {upa-pad}, Caus. to give one's daughter in marriage Mn. viii, ix; {kanyAM pratigrah} or {hR} or {vah}, to receive a girl in marriage, marry Mn. ix); the sign of the zodiac Virgo VarBri. and BriS. &c.; the female of any animal Mriicch.; N. of Durg MBh. iii, 8115; N. of a tuberous plant growing in Kas'mra Sus'r.; Aloe Perfoliata L.; several other plants L.; N. of a metre (of four lines, each of them containing four long syllables). kapaTika = cunning, scheming kapaala = forehead kapaalaH = (m) human skull kapaalabhati = a process to clear the sinuses

811

kapaalnala = fire in the forehead (??? again perhaps wrong) kapi = monkey kapiH = (m) monkey kapidhvajaH = he whose flag was marked with Hanuman kapota = pigeon, dove kapotaasana = the dove posture kapolaH = (m) cheek kara = Hand* * = 1 (for 2. see p. 254, col. 3) mf({I}, rarely {A})n. (1. {kR}), a doer, maker, causer, doing, making, causing, producing (esp. ifc.; cf. {duHkhakara}, {bhayaM-k-}, {sampat-k-}, &c.; cf. Lat. {cerus}, `" creator "') AV. xii, 2, 2 Mn. Pacat. &c.; helping, promoting RV. i, 116, 13; m. the act of doing, making &c. (ifc.; cf. {ISatkara}, {su-k-}, {duS-k-}, &c.); `" the doer "', the hand RV. x, 67, 6 MBh. Mn. &c.; a measure (the breadth of twenty-four thumbs); an elephant's trunk MBh. Pacat. &c.; the claws of a crab Hit.; symbolical expression for the number two; the lunar mansion Hasta VarBriS.

812

kara = * 2 (for 1. see p. 253, col. 1) m. ({kRR}), a ray of light, sunbeam, moonbeam R. Megh. Pacat. &c.; hail L.; royal revenue, toll, tax, tribute, duty Mn. Yj. MBh. &c. karaM = the cause of karakushalavastuu = (n) handicraft, hand-made objects of art karaNaM = the means karaNa * = (once {karaNa4} RV. i, 119, 7) mf({I})n doing, making, effecting, causing (esp. ifc.; cf. {antakaraNa}, {uSNaM-k-}, &c.) R. &c.; clever, skilful RV. i, 119, 7; m. a helper, companion AV. vi, 46, 2; xv, 5, 1-6; xix, 57, 3; a man of a mixed class (the son of an outcast Kshatriya Mn. x, 22; or the son of a S'dra woman by a Vais'ya Yj. i, 92; or the son of a Vais'ya woman by a Kshatriya MBh. i, 2446; 4521; the occupation of this class is writing, accounts &c.) a writer, scribe W.; (in Gr.) a sound or word as an independent part of speech (or as separated from the context; in this sense usually n.) Ks'. on Pn. 3-1, 41 Pat. Comm. on RPrt.; (in mus.) a kind of time Kum. vi, 40; ({I}) f. a woman of the above mixed tribe Yj. i, 95; (with {sutA}) an adopted daughter R. (ed. Gorr.) i, 19, 9; (in arithm.) a surd or irrational number, surd root; the side of a square S'ulbas. Comm. on VS.; a particular
813

measure Comm. on KtyS'r.; a particular position of the fingers; ({am}) n. the act of making, doing, producing, effecting S'Br. MBh. &c. (very often ifc. e.g. {muSTik-}, {virUpa-k-}); an act, deed RV.; an action (esp. a religious one) Yj. i, 250 R.; the special business of any tribe or caste L.; a calculation (esp. an astronomical one) VarBriS.; an astrological division of the day (these Karanas are eleven, viz. {vava}, {valava}, {kaulava}, {taitila}, {gara}, {vaNija}, {viSTi}, {zakuni}, {catuSpada}, {kintughna}, and {nAga}, two being equal to a lunar day; the first seven are called {a-dhruvANi} or movable, and fill, eight times repeated, the space from the second half of the first day in the moos increase to the first half of the fourteenth day in its wane; the four others are {dhruvANi} or fixed, and occupy the four half-days from the second half of the fourteenth day in the wane of the moon to the first half of the first day in its increase) VarBriS. Sus'r. &c.; pronunciation, articulation, APrt.; (in Gr.) a sound or word as an independent part of speech, separated from its context Pn. Ks'. &c., ({karaNa} may be used in this way like {kAra} e.g. {iti-karaNa} S'nkhS'r.); the posture of an ascetic; a posture in sexual intercourse; instrument, means of action S'vetUp. Yj. Megh.; an organ of sense or of speech VPrt. PrGri.; (in law) an instrument, document, bond Mn. viii, 51; 52; 154; (in Gr.) the means or instrument by which an action is effected, the idea expressed by the instrumental case, instrumentality Pn. 1-4, 42; ii, 3, 18; iii, 2, 45; cause (=
814

{kAraNa}); a spell, charm Kaths. (cf. {karaNaprayoga}); rhythm, time Kum.; body Megh. Kum. Kd.; N. of a treatise of Varha-mihira on the motion of the planets; of a work belonging to the S'iva-dars'ana; a field L.; the mind, heart W. (cf. {antaH-karaNa}); grain W. karaNaaya = to do karaNiiyaM = to be done karatalabhikshaa = alms in the palms karatalam.h = (n) palm karadiipaH = (m) torch, flashlight karabhoru = fair-limbed karaka * = 1 (for 2. see col. 3), %{as} m. a watervessel (esp. one used by students or ascetics) MBh. R.; a species of bird L.; hand (?) L.; N. of several plants (the pomegranate tree, Pongamia Glabra, Butea Frondosa, Bauhinia Variegata, Mimusops Elengi, Capparis Aphylla) L.; a cocoa-nut shell L.; (%{as}, %{am}) m. n. a cocoa-nut shell hollowed to form a vessel; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of a people MBh. VP.; (%{am}) n. fungus, mushroom L.; (%{ikA}) f. a wound caused by a fingernail S3is3. iv, 29.\ karaka (for 1. see col. 1) m. hail;
815

toll, tax, tribute. karalaM = terrible karavaala = sword karavaavahai = may we do karasthaaH = obtaining(literally standing) in his very hands karaaMshukam.h = (n) full-sleeved shirt karaala = dreadful karaalaM = horrible karaalaani = terrible kardama * = m. (Un2. iv, 84) mud, slime, mire, clay, dirt, filth MBh. Ya1jn5. Ragh. &c.; sin Comm. on Un2.; shade, shadow (in Veda according to BrahmaP.); N. of a Praja1pati (born from the shadow of Brahma1, husband of Devahu1ti and father of Kapila) MBh.; a kind of rice Sus3r.; a kind of poisonous bulb; N. of Pulaka (a son of Praja1pati) VP.; of a Na1ga MBh. i, 1561; (%{I}) f. a species of jasmine; (%{am}) n. flesh L.; Civet L.; (mfn.) covered with mud or mire or dirt, dirty, filthy Sus3r.

816

karhi *= ind. (fr. 2. %{ka}) , when ? at what time ? Pa1n2. 5-3 , 21 ; (with %{svid} , or %{cid} or %{api} [BhP. v , 17 , 24]) at any time RV. MBh. BhP. &c. ; (with %{cid} and a particle of negation) never , at no time Mn. Pan5cat. &c. ; [cf. Goth. {hvar} , `" where ? "' Eng. {where} ?] kari *= 1 mfn. (ifc.) causing , accomplishing (cf. % {zakRt-k-}) ; (%{is}) m. the hand L.\\2 (in comp. for % {karin} col. 3).\\&c. see p. 254 , col. 2. karin *= mfn. doing , effecting &c. Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 2-3 , 70 ; (%{I}) m. `" having a trunk "' , an elephant MBh. BhP. Pan5cat. &c. ; (%{iNI}) f. see above. kariyaadaH = (m) hippopotamus karishhyati = can do karishhyasi = perform karishhye = I shall execute karoti = does karomi = I do karosi = you do

817

karau = hands (lower arms) karka = The Zodiacal sign Cancer karkaTi = (f) cucumber karma = Action or activity (see karman) karma-bhaava = The 10th house of Careers and Work karmajaM = due to fruitive activities karmajaa = from fruitive work karmajaan.h = born of work karman * = %{a} n. (%{A} m. L.), (%{kR} Un2. iv, 144), act, action, performance, business RV. AV. S3Br. MBh. &c.; office, special duty, occupation, obligation (frequently ifc., the first member of the compound being either the person who performs the action [e.g. % {vaNik-k-}] or the person or thing for or towards whom the action is performed [e.g. %{rAja-k-}, %{pazu-k-}] or a specification of the action [e.g. %{zaurya-k-}, % {prIti-k-}]) S3Br. Mn. Bhartr2. &c.; any religious act or rite (as sacrifice, oblation &c., esp. as originating in the hope of future recompense and as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of spirit) RV. AV. VS. Ragh. &c.; work, labour, activity (as opposed to
818

rest, %{prazAnti}) Hit. RPra1t. &c.; physicking, medical attendance Car.; action consisting in motion (as the third among the seven categories of the Nya1ya philosophy; of these motions there are five, viz. %{utkSepaNa}, %{ava-kSepaNa}, %{A-kuJcana}, % {prasAraNa}, and %{gamana}, qq. vv.) Bha1sha1p. Tarkas.; calculation Su1ryas.; product, result, effect Mn. xii, 98 Sus3r.; organ of sense S3Br. xiv (or of action see %{karme7ndriya}); (in Gr.) the object (it stands either in the acc. [in active construction], or in the nom. [in passive construction], or in the gen. [in connection with a noun of action]; opposed to %{kartR} the subject) Pa1n2. 1-4, 49 ff. (it is of four kinds, viz. a. % {nirvartya}, when anything new is produced e.g. % {kaTaM@karoti}, `" he makes a mat "' [258,3]; % {putraM@prasUte}, `" she bears a son "'; b. % {vikArya}, when change is implied either of the substance and form e.g. % {kASThaM@bhasma@karoti}, `" he reduces fuel to ashes "'; or of the form only e.g. % {suvarNaM@kuNDalaM@karoti}, `" he fashions gold into an ear-ring "'; c. %{prApya}, when any desired object is attained e.g. %{grAmaM@gacchati}, `" he goes to the village "'; %{candraM@pazyati}, `" he sees the moon "'; d. %{anIpsita}, when an undesired object is abandoned e.g. %{pApaM@tyajati}, `" he leaves the wicked "'); former act as leading to inevitable results, fate (as the certain consequence of acts in a previous life) Pan5cat. Hit. Buddh., (cf. %{karma-pAka} and %
819

{-vipAka}); the tenth lunar mansion VarBr2S. &c. karmaNaH = than fruitive action karmaNaa = by work karmaNaaM = of prescribed duties karmaNi = in action karman.h = work karmaphala = the result of an action karmaphalaM = the results of all activities karmaphalatyaagaH = renunciation of the results of fruitive action karmaphalaasangaM = attachment for fruitive results karmaphale = in fruitive action karmabandhaM = bondage of reaction karmabandhanaH = bondage by work karmabhiH = from the bondage of the law of fruitive
820

actions karma * = (in comp. for %{ka4rman} above). karman * = n. Kus3a grass (as essential part in many religious acts) L.71 karman %{a} n. (%{A} m. L.) , (%{kR} Un2. iv , 144) , act , action , performance , business RV. AV. S3Br. MBh. &c. ; office , special duty , occupation , obligation (frequently ifc. , the first member of the compound being either the person who performs the action [e.g. %{vaNik-k-}] or the person or thing for or towards whom the action is performed [e.g. %{rAja-k-} , %{pazu-k-}] or a specification of the action [e.g. %{zaurya-k-} , %{prIti-k-}]) S3Br. Mn. Bhartr2. &c. ; any religious act or rite (as sacrifice , oblation &c. , esp. as originating in the hope of future recompense and as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of spirit) RV. AV. VS. Ragh. &c. ; work , labour , activity (as opposed to rest , %{prazAnti}) Hit. RPra1t. &c. ; physicking , medical attendance Car. ; action consisting in motion (as the third among the seven categories of the Nya1ya philosophy ; of these motions there are five , viz. %{ut-kSepaNa} , %{avakSepaNa} , %{A-kuJcana} , %{prasAraNa} , and % {gamana} , qq. vv.) Bha1sha1p. Tarkas. ; calculation Su1ryas. ; product , result , effect Mn. xii , 98 Sus3r. ; organ of sense S3Br. xiv (or of action see % {karme7ndriya}) ; (in Gr.) the object (it stands either in the acc. [in active construction] , or in the nom. [in
821

passive construction] , or in the gen. [in connection with a noun of action] ; opposed to %{kartR} the subject) Pa1n2. 1-4 , 49 ff. (it is of four kinds , viz. a. % {nirvartya} , when anything new is produced e.g. % {kaTaM@karoti} , `" he makes a mat "' [258,3] ; % {putraM@prasUte} , `" she bears a son "' ; b. % {vikArya} , when change is implied either of the substance and form e.g. % {kASThaM@bhasma@karoti} , `" he reduces fuel to ashes "' ; or of the form only e.g. % {suvarNaM@kuNDalaM@karoti} , `" he fashions gold into an ear-ring "' ; c. %{prApya} , when any desired object is attained e.g. %{grAmaM@gacchati} , `" he goes to the village "' ; %{candraM@pazyati} , `" he sees the moon "' ; d. %{anIpsita} , when an undesired object is abandoned e.g. %{pApaM@tyajati} , `" he leaves the wicked "') ; former act as leading to inevitable results , fate (as the certain consequence of acts in a previous life) Pan5cat. Hit. Buddh. , (cf. %{karma-pAka} and % {-vipAka}) ; the tenth lunar mansion VarBr2S. &c. karmayoga = unselfish actions karmayogaM = devotion karmayogaH = work in devotion karmayogeNa = by the linking process of devotion

822

karmasa.nnyaasaat.h = in comparison to the renunciation of fruitive work karmasanginaaM = who are attached to fruitive work karmasangishhu = in the association of those engaged in fruitive activities karmasangena = by association with fruitive activity karmasu = in all activities karmaaNaM = the fruits of actions karmaaNaaM = whose work karmaaNi = deeds karmibhyaH = than the fruitive workers karmendriya = an action organ, e.g. the hands or feet karmendriyaaNi = the five working sense organs karmendriyaiH = by the active sense organs karNa = ear, also KarNa from Mahabharata

823

karNaM = Karna karNaH = Karna karNapiDaasana = the ear-press posture karNikaara = Himalayan tree karNebhiH = through the ears karpura = camphor karshha = attracted, contacted karsha * =m. ({kRS}), the act of drawing, dragging Pn.; (with and without {halasya}) ploughing, agriculture p. Yj. ii, 217; `" anything scratched off "' see {kSAma-karSa-mizra4}; ({as}, {am}) m. n. a weight of gold or silver (= 16 Mshas = 80 Rettis = 1/4 Pala = 1/400 of a Tul = about 176 grains troy; in common use 8 Rettis are given to the Msha, and the Karsha is then about 280 grains troy) Sus'r. VarBriS. &c. [260, 1]; Terminalia Bellerica (also called {akSa} q.v.) L.; a boat L. kaarsha * = m. ({kRS}; g. {chattrA7di}), `" one who ploughs "', a peasant, husbandman DivyA7v.; ({I}) f. see {gomaya-k-}.

824

karshhaka = farmer karshhati = (1 pp) to draw, to pull karshhayantaH = tormenting karzita* = mfn. emaciated, thin R. Sus'r. Ragh. Kum. &c. karzana* = mfn. ({kRz}), rendering lean, attenuating, causing emaciation Sus'r.; troubling, hurting MBh. xiii, 6307 (cf. {karSaNa}); ({am}) n. the act of rendering lean, causing emaciation Car. karzya* = m. turmeric plant L. kartayati = to cut kartarii = (f) scissors kartavya = should be done kartavyaM = prescribed duty kartavyaani = should be done as duty kartaa = doer, also attributed to main person in a household
825

kartaa.asi = are the doer kartaaraM = the father kartuM = to perform kartritva =* n. id. Ka1s3.; the state of being the performer or author of anything MBh. BhP. &c. kartritvaM = proprietorship kartritve = in the matter of creation kartumarhasi = kartuM + arhasi:to do + deserve (You are entitled or you should)karuNaH = kindly karuNaa = the sentiment of sorrow karuNa * mf({A})n. (1. {kRR} Un. iii, 53; but in some of its meanings fr. 1. {kR}), mournful, miserable, lamenting MBh. Das'. &c.; compassionate BhP. [255, 3]; ({am}) ind. mournfully, wofully, pitifully, in distress MBh. Pacat. Vet. &c.; m. `" causing pity or compassion "', one of the Rasas or sentiments of a poem, the pathetic sentiment Sh. &c.; Citrus Decumana L.; a Buddha L.; N. of an Asura Hariv.; ({A}) f. pity, compassion BhP. Ragh. Pacat. &c.; one of the four Brahma-vihras (Buddh.); the sentiment of compassion (cf. above) L.; a particular tone (in mus.); ({I}) f. a
826

particular plant L.; ({am}) n. an action, holy work RV. i, 100, 7 AV. xii, 3, 47 TS. i. karuNaakara.n = the one induces compassion karuNaarNavaM = the ocean of `karuna' (compassion) kashaa = (f) a whip kas'a* = m. a species of rodent animal VS. TS. (cf. {kazIkA4}); a whip, thong MBh. (cf. {prakaza4}); ({As}) m. pl.N. of a people BhP. (ed. Bomb.) kas'aa* = f. (Naigh. i, 11 Nir. ix, 19) a whip RV. AV. S'Br. MBh. R. &c. (also written {kaSA} R. BhP.); a rein, bridle S'is'.; whipping, flogging W.; a string, rope, thong L.; face, mouth L.; quality L.\\kas'aa* = &c. see {kaz}. kas'aaya* = m. N. of a preceptor Ks'. on Pn. 4-3, 106 (v.l. {kaSAya}). kashaaya * = mfn. astringent MBh. xiv, 1280 and 1411 R. Sus3r. Pan5cat. BhP.; fragrant Megh. 31; red, dull red, yellowish red (as the garment of a Buddhist Bhikshu) MBh. Hariv. Mr2icch. Ya1jn5.; (%{as}, % {am}) m. n. (g. %{ardharcA7di}) an astringent flavour or taste Sus3r.; a yellowish red colour Ya1jn5. i, 272 Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 4-2, 1; an astringent juice, extract of
827

juice S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Mn. xi, 153; a decoction or infusion Sus3r. (the result of boiling down a mixture consisting of one part of a drug and four or, according to some, eight or sixteen parts of water until only one quarter is left Sus3r.); any healing or medicinal potion Bhpr.; exudation from a tree, juice, gum, resin L.; ointment, smearing, anointing L.; colouring or perfuming or anointing the person with cosmetics MBh.; dirt, filth; stain or impurity or sin cleaving to the soul ChUp. BhP.; dulness, stupidity Veda1ntas.; defect, decay, degeneracy (of which, according to Buddhists, there are five marks, viz. %{Ayus-k-}, %{dRSTi-k-}, % {kleza-k-}, %{sattva-k-}, %{kalpa-k-}); attachment to worldly objects W.; m. red, redness; a kind of snake Sus3r. ii, 265, 14; emotion, passion (%{rAga}, of which the Jainas reckon four kinds HYog. iv, 6 and 77); the Kali-yuga L.; the tree Bignonia Indica R. ii, 28, 21; N. of a teacher (v.l. %{kazAya}) g. %{zaunakA7di}; (% {as}, %{A}, %{am}) mf. n. the tree Grislea tomentosa L.; (%{A}) f. a thorny shrub, a species of small Hedysarum L.; (%{am}) n. a dull or yellowish red garment or robe MBh. ii, 675 (cf. %{kASAya}, % {paJca-kaSAya}; %{a-niSkaSAya}, full of impure passions MBh. xii, 568.) kasheruH = (m) spine, spinal chord kashchana = cerain

828

kashchit.h = someone kashmalaM = dirtiness kashhaaya = (m) astringent kaste = kaH+te, who+yourkasmaat.h = why kasmala* = for {kazmala} q.v. kasmaat* = ind. (abl. fr. 2. {ka4} AV. &c.) where from? whence? why? wherefore? MBh. R. S'ak. Pacat. &c. (cf. {a-kasmAt}.) kas'mala * =mf({A}, or {I})n. foul, dirty, impure Dhrtas.; timid, pusillanimous; ({am}) n. dirt, filth Subh.; impurity, sin L.; ({as}, {am}) m. n. (ifc. f. {A}) consternation, stupefaction, faintheartedness, pusillanimity MBh.; dejection of mind, weakness, despair MBh. BhP. kasmai = to `Ka' kashtha* = mfn. (perhaps p.p. of {kaS} Pn. 7-2, 22 Vop. 26, 111 Ks'. on Pn. 6-2, 47), bad R. [266,1]; ill, evil, wrong Mn. MBh. R. Sus'r. &c.; painful Sus'r.; grievous, severe, miserable Mn. xii, 78 Yj. iii, 29 Bhartri.; difficult, troublesome Mn. vii, 186 and 210; worst Mn. vii, 50 and 51; pernicious, noxious, injurious
829

Sus'r.; dangerous (= {kRcchra}) Pn. 7-2, 22 Nal. xiii, 16; inaccessible (= {gahana}) Pn. 7-2, 22; boding evil Comm. on Pn. 3-2, 188; m. `" N. of a man "' see {kASTAyana}; (in rhetoric) offending the ear Vm. ii, 1, 6; forced, unnatural; ({am}) n. a bad state of things, evil, wrong; pain, suffering, misery, wretchedness; trouble, difficulty; bodily exertion, strain, labour, toil, fatigue, weariness, hardship, uneasiness, inquietude (mental or bodily) R. Kaths. Pacat. S'ak. Hit.; {kaSTAt-kaSTam}, or {kaSTataram}, worse than the worst; {kaSTena} or {kaSTAt}, with great difficulty Pacat.; ({am}) ind. an exclamation of grief or sorrow; ah! woe! aIas! MBh. R. Mriicch. kasya = whose kasyachit.h = anyone's kat * =(in comp. for 2. {kad} above). katama * = %{as}, %{A}, %{at} mfn. (superlative of 2. %{ka}; declined as a pronom., Gram. 236), who or which of many? (e.g. % {katamena@pathA@yAtAs@te}, by which road have they gone?); it is often a mere strengthened substitute for %{ka}, the superlative affix imparting emphasis; hence it may occasionally be used for `" who or which of two? "' (e.g. %{tayoH@katamasmai}, to which of these two?); it may optionally be compounded with the
830

word to which it refers (e.g. %{katamaH@kaThaH}, or %{katama-kaThaH}, which Kat2ha out of many?); when followed by %{ca} and preceded %{yatama} an indefinite expression is formed equivalent to `" any whosoever "', `" any whatsoever "', &c. (e.g. % {yatamad@eva@katamac@ca@vidyAt} he may know anything whatsoever). In negative sentences %{katama} with %{cana} or %{katama} with %{api} = not even one, none at all (e.g. %{na@katamaccanA7haH}, not even on a single day, on no day at all) [246,3]; in addition to the above uses %{katama} is said to mean `" best "', `" excessively good-looking "' (cf. 3. %{ka}) RV. &c. katara* = who or which of many kaatara = uncertain as to which of the two, cowardly, faint-hearted, timid, despairing, discouraged, disheartened, confused, agitated, perplexed, embarrassed, shrinking, frightened, afraid o kataara* = libidinous man, lecher katarat.h = which kath* = 1 cl. 1. P. {kaTati} or {kaNTati}, to go Dhtup. ix, 33. \\2 cl. 1. P. {kaTati}, {cakATa}, {kaTitA}, &c. to rain; to surround; to encompass, cover, screen; to divide Dhtup. ix, 6 (cf. {cat}.)
831

kathaH = (m) carpet kathaaksha = glance kathi = hip kathiH = waist kathikaasana = the front-stretching posture kathivastram.h = (n) underwear kathii = waist kathi * = * {is}, {I} f. the hip, buttock kati * = 1 (fr. 2. {ka} declined in pl. only, Gram. 227 {a}; all the cases except the nom. voc. and acc. taking terminations, whereas the correlative {iti} has become fixed as an indeclinable adverb), how many? {quot}? several (e.g. {kati devAH}, how many gods? {kati vyApAdayati kati vA tADayati}, some he kills and some he strikes). In the sense of `" several "', `" some "', {kati} is generally followed by {cid} or {api} (e.g. {katicid ahAni}, for several or some days); it may be used as an adverb with {cid} in the sense of `" oftentimes "', `" much "', in many ways "' (e.g. {katicit stutaH}, much or often praised) RV. &c.; [cf. Zd. {caiti}; Gk. $; Lat. {quot}; cf. Sk. {tati} and
832

&76993[246, 3] Lat. {tot}.] \\kati * 2 (for 1. see above) m. N. of a sage (son of Vis'v-mitra and ancestor of Ktyyana) Hariv. kathu = (m) pungent, hot kathhina = tough katipaya = Some kath.h = to tell kathaM = tell kathana * mfn. telling, talkative W.; ({am}) n. the act of telling, narration, relating, informing Sus'r. Bhartri. Pacat. &c kathanta = howness kathaya = describe kathayataH = speaking kathayati = (10 up) to narrate, to tell kathayate = (10 up) to narrate, to tell kathayantaH = talking
833

kathayishhyanti = will speak kathayishhyaami = I shall speak kathaa = story kathha* = 1 (for 2. see s.v.), {am} n. distress (?). kathha* = 2 m. N. of a sage (a pupil of Vais'ampyana and founder of a branch of the Yajur-veda, called after him) MBh. &c.; m. a pupil or follower of Kathha (esp. pl.); a Brhman L.; ({I}) f. a female pupil or follower of Kathha Comm. on Pn.; the wife of a Brhman L. kathaa* = (for 2. see col. 3) f. conversation, speech, talking together s'vGri. MBh. Mn. &c.; talk, mention; ({kA kathA} [with gen. or more commonly with loc. and sometimes with {prati}), what should one say of? how should one speak of? e.g. {eko 'pi kRcchrAd varteta bhUyasAM tu kathai9va kA}, even one person would live with difficulty, what should one say of many? i.e. how much more many? Kaths. iv, 123; {kA kathA bANa-saMdhAne}, what mention of fitting the arrow? i.e. what necessity for fitting the arrow? S'ak. 53 a); story, tale, fable MBh. R. Hit. &c.; a feigned story, tale (as one, of the species of poetical composition) Sh. 567 Kvya7d.; Story (personified) Kaths.; (in log.) discussion, disputation Sarvad.\\2 (for 1. see col. 1) ind. (Ved. for {katha4m} Pn. 5-3, 26) how? whence? why?
834

RV. AV. viii, 1, 16 TS. &c.; ({yathA4 kathA4 ca}, in any way whatsoever S'Br. iv); sometimes merely a particle of interrogation (e.g. {kathA4 zRNoti}.. {i4ndraH}, does Indra hear? RV. iv, 23, 3; {kathA4kathA4}, whether-or? TS. ii, 6, 1, 7). kaaththha* = mf({I})n. proceeding from or composed by Kathha Pn. 4-3, 107 Ks'.; m. a rock, stone L. kathaamrita = Gospel kathaamritaM = Gospel kathita = told katthana * = mfn. boasting, praising MBh. R.; ({am}) n. the act of boasting MBh. R. Sus'r.; ({A}) f. id. Comm. on Bhathth. kautuka = (neut) curiosity, eagerness kautuuhala * = n. (fr. %{kut-}; g. %{yuvA7di}), curiosity, interest in anything, vehement desire for (loc., or acc. with %{prati}, or inf.) MBh. R. &c.; anything causing curiosity, any unusual phenomenon Megh. 48; a festival MBh. i, 7918 DivyA7v. i. kauNapa * =, coming from corpses; m. `" feeding upon corpses "', a Rkshasa or goblin,; N. of a Nga (these
835

beings are supposed to eat human flesh) kaunteya = O son of Kunti kaunteyaH = the son of Kunti kaupiina = slenderloin cloth that covers genitals kaumaaraM = boyhood kaumaarya = childhood kaumudii = (f) moonlight kaushalaM = art kausalyeyo = kausalyA's (son) kaustubha = one of Vishnu's jewels* = {as}, {am} m. n. (cf. {kust-})N. of a celebrated jewel (obtained with thirteen other precious things at the churning of the ocean and suspended on the breast of Kriishna or Vishnu) MBh. Hariv. R. &c.; m. a manner of joining the fingers Tantras.; = {kiMtughna} AV. Jyot.; ({am}) n. a kind of oil ({sarSapo7dbhava}) KtyS'r. i, 8, 37 Sch.; N. of wk. kautUhala * = n. (fr. %{kut-}; g. %{yuvA7di}), curiosity, interest in anything, vehement desire for (loc.,
836

or acc. with %{prati}, or inf.) MBh. R. &c.; anything causing curiosity, any unusual phenomenon Megh. 48; a festival MBh. i, 7918 DivyA7v. i. kautuka * n. (fr. {kut-}; g. {yuvA7di}), curiosity, interest in anything, vehement desire for (loc. or in comp.), eagerness, vehemence impatience Pacat. Kaths. (ifc. f. {A}) &c.; anything causing curiosity or admiration or interest, any singular or surprising object, wonder Pacat. Kaths. Vet.; festivity, gaiety, festival, show, solemn ceremony (esp. the ceremony with the marriage-thread or necklace preceding a marriage) Kum. Das'. Bhartri. BhP. &c.; the marriage-thread or necklace Kaths. li, 223; pleasure, happiness, prosperity BhP. i, 17, 26; N. of nine particular substances Hcat. i, 110, 19; ii, 49, 10; sport, pastime L.; public diversion L.; song, dance, show, spectacle L.; season of enjoyment L.; kind or friendly greeting, civility L.; ({At}) abl. ind. out of curiosity or interest Kaths. Hit.; for amusement, as a relaxation W. kavayaH = the intelligent kavayitrii = (f) poetess kavala: ) a mouthful (as of water &c.); a morsel MBh. R. Ragh. Mn. Bhartri.; a wash for cleansing the mouth, gargle Sus'r.; a kind of fish (commonly Baliya) L.

837

kavaliikrita = (adj) swallowed kavara * = mf.({A})n. (3. {ku} Un. iv, 154) mixed, intermingled, variegated S'is'. v, 19; m. a lecturer L.; ({as}, {I}) m. f. (Pn. 4-1, 42 Vop. iv, 26; also n. according to a Sch.) a braid, fillet of hair BhP. Gt. Sh. S'is'.; ({am}) n. salt L.; sourness, acidity L.; ({A}) f. (Sch. on Pn. 4-1, 42) the plant Ocimum gratissimum L.; ({I}) f. id. L.; Acacia arabica or another plant Npr. kavi = poet * = kavi mfn. (1. %{kU} cf. 2. %{kava}, %{A4kUta}, %{A4kUti}, %{kAvya} Naigh. iii, 15 Nir. xii, 13 Un2. iv, 138) gifted with insight, intelligent, knowing, enlightened, wise, sensible, prudent, skilful, cunning; (%{is}) m. a thinker, intelligent man, man of understanding, leader; a wise man, sage, seer, prophet; a singer, bard, poet (but in this sense without any technical application in the Veda) RV. VS. TS. AV. S3Br. i, 4, 2, 8 Kat2hUp. iii, 14 MBh. Bhag. Bha1gP. Mn. vii, 49 R. Ragh.; N. of several gods, (esp.) of Agni RV. ii, 23, 1; x, 5, 4, 3; iii, 5, 1; i, 31, 2; 76, 5; of Varun2a, Indra, the As3vins, Maruts, A1dityas; of the Soma; of the Soma priest and other sacrificers; (probably) N. of a particular poet; cf. %{a4Ggiras} (Mn. ii, 151) and %{uza4nas} (Bhag. x, 37); of the ancient sages or patriarchs (as spirits now surrounding the sun); of the R2ibhus (as skilful in contrivance); of Pu1shan (as leader or guider); N. of a son of Brahma1 MBh. xiii, 4123, 4142-4150; of Brahma1 W.; of a son of Bhr2igu
838

and father of S3ukra MBh. i, 2606 (cf. 3204 Bha1gP. iv, 1, 45 and Kull. on Mn. iii, 198); that of S3ukra (regent of the planet Venus and preceptor of the demons) Ra1jat. iv, 495; of the planet Venus NBD.; of the sons of several Manus Hariv. Bha1gP. VP.; of a son of Kaus3ika and pupil of Garga Hariv.; of a son of R2ishabha Bha1gP.; of Va1lmi1ki L.; a keeper or herd RV. vii, 18, 8; (fig.) N. of the gates of the sacrificial enclosure TS. v, 11, 1, 2 (cf. %{kava4S}); the sun W.; of various men; the soul in the Sa1m2khya philosophy Comm.; a cunning fighter L.; an owl L.; (%{is}, or % {I} W.) f. the bit of a bridle L.; the reins (cf. % {kavikA}) W.; a ladle (cf. %{kambi}) L. kaviM = the one who knows everything kaviH = poet kavitaa = poetry kavitaashaakhaaM = the poetry-branch (of a tree) kaviinaaM = of all great thinkers kavya = poetry kaya *= only gen. sg. with, every one, bow well down the haughtiness of everyone [cf. Zd. {kaya}; Armen. {ui}.] \\
839

ka4ya* = (Ved. for 2. {ka}; only gen. sg. with {cid}), every one (e.g. {ni4 SU4 namA74timatiM ka4yasya cit}, bow well down the haughtiness of everyone RV. i, 129, 5) RV. i, 27, 8; viii, 25, 15; [cf. Zd. {kaya}; Armen. {ui}.] kayaa *=in what manner? ke = who kechit.h = some of them kedara * = mfn. = {kekara} L.; m. N. of a plant L. kedaara * = m. (n. L.) a field or meadow, especially one under water Mn. ix, 38 & 44 MBh. R. &c.; {kapilasya k-}, `" Kapila's field "'N. of a Trtha MBh. iii, 6042 ff.; {mataGgasya k-}, `" Matanga's field "', another Trtha, 8159; a basin for water round the root of a tree L.; a bed in a garden or field W.; plain, area KtyS'r. xviii, 5, 4 Sch.; N. of a particular constellation VarBri.; of a Rga (in music); of a mountain country (the modern Kedr, part of the Hima7laya mountains W.) MBh. vi, 427 NandiP.; N. of S'iva as worshipped in the Hima7laya; of the author of a work entitled Abdhi; ({I}) f. N. of a Rgin; ({am}) n. N. of a Trtha MatsyaP.; of a Linga ib.; (in the Hima7laya) S'ivaP. keli * = play, sport, amorous sport, pastime, amusement
840

Mn. viii, 357 Mriicch. &c.; disguise, concealment Gal.; ({is}) f. the earth L. kena = by what kenachit.h = by somebody kendre = (adv) at the centre kemadruma = No planet flanking the Moon sign. Traditionally a sign of great misery and mental instability kes'a = hair kes'aghna * = n. `" destroying the hair "', morbid baldness, falling of the hair L. kes'a-caNa * =mfn. known by his hair, having fine hair Pn. 5-2, 26. kes'a-cUDa * =mfn. one who has dressed his hair in a top-knot Pn. 2-2, 24 Vrtt. 13 Pat. kes'acaitya * =n. N. of a Caitya W. kes'a-jAha * =n. the root of the hair g. {karNA7di}. [310, 2]

841

kes'adhara * ={As} m. pl.N. of a people VarBriS. xiv, 26. kes'apaas'a * = m. much or ornamented hair, tuft MBh. Kum. Vikr. Riitus. (ifc. f. {A}), &c.; ({I}) f. a lock of hair hanging down from the top of the head L. kes'abhU* =f. `" hairground "', head L. kes'abhUmi * =f. the skull on which hair grows Jain. Sus' kes'ava * mfn. (Pn. 5-2, 109) having long or much or handsome hair AV. viii, 6, 23 S'Br. KtyS'r.; m. N. of Vishnu or Kriishna MBh. Hariv. R. &c.; (hence) of the month Mrgas'rsha VarBriS. cv, 14; Rottleria tinctoria L.; N. of the author of a lexicon called Kalpa-dru; of the author of the Dvaita-paris'ishtha; of the father of Govinda and Rucikara; of the father of Brhma and uncle of Mahes'vara; of the son of Vis'va-dhara and brother of Kari-ntha; of the father of Vopa-deva. kes'avasya = of KRishhNa keshinishuudana = O killer of the Kesi demon keshhu = in which kesara* = n. the hair (of the brow) VS. xix, 91; (in
842

classical literature usually {kezara}) m. or n. (?), the mane (of a horse or lion) R. S'ak. Pacat. &c.; ({A}) f. id. KtyS'r. ({kes-}); ({am}) n. the tail of the Bos grunniens (used as a fan for driving away flies) L.; ({as} L.; {am}) m. n. the filament of a lotus or of any vegetable R. Sus'r. S'ak. &c.; a fibre (as of a Mango fruit) Sus'r.; m. the plants Rottleria tinctoria, Mimusops Elengi, and Mesua ferrea MBh. xiii, 5042 R. Lalit. Kum. Megh. [311, 1]; ({am}) n. the flower of those plants L.; ({as}, {A}, {am}) mf. n. Asa foetida L.; ({am}) n. gold L.; sulphate of iron L.; N. of a metre (of 4 x 18 syllables); m. N. of a mountain MBh. vi, 11, 23; [cf. Lat. {eoesaries}; Angl. Sax. {haer}; Eng. {hair}; Germ. {Haar}.] ke4sara-grAma * = m. N. of a village Kshiti7s'. ke4sara-pura * = n. N. of a town Vsant. kesaravat * = ({ke4s-}) mfn. having a mane S'Br. vi. ke4sara-vara * = n. saffron L. kesaravarNaH = orange colour kesarin * = mfn. having a mane MBh. i, iii; ({I}) m. a lion MBh. Sus'r. Bhartri. &c.; a horse TBr. Sch.; N. of an aquatic bird Car. i, 27; the plant Rottleria tinctoria L.; the plant Mesua ferrea L.; a citron tree L.; a variety of
843

Moringa with red flowers (= {rakta-zigru}) L.; N. of a monkey (husband of the mother of Hanumat) MBh. iii, 11193 R. Das'.; N. of a prince Lalit.; of a mountain VP.; ({iNI}) f. a lioness Kaths. lxx, 102. kesava = O killer of the demon Kesi (KRishhNa) ketakii = a fragrant flower ketuu = The south Lunar Node also known as Cauda Draconis in latin. The Dragos tail in English ketu * = m. (fr. 4. {cit}), bright appearance, clearness, brightness (often pl., `" rays of light "') RV. VS. AV.; lamp, flame, torch ib.; day-time S'nkhBr.; (Naigh. iii, 9) apparition, form, shape RV. PrGri.; sign, mark, ensign, flag, banner RV. AV. MBh. &c.; a chief, leader, eminent person RV. R. iv, 28, 18 Ragh. ii, 33 BhP.; intellect, judgment, discernment (?) RV. v, 66, 4 AV. x, 2, 12; any unusual or striking phenomenon, comet, meteor, falling star AdbhBr. Mn. i, 38 VarBriS. BhP. &c.; the dragos tail or descending node (considered in astron. as the 9th planet, and in mythol. as the body of the demon Sainhikeya [son of Sinhik] which was severed from the head or Rhu by Vishnu at the churning of the ocean, but was rendered immortal by having tasted the Amriita) Hariv. 4259 R. VP.; `" a pigmy race "' see {-gaNa} below; disease L.; an enemy L.; N. of a son of Agni (author of RV. x, 156) RAnukr.;
844

(with the patr. Vjya) VBr.; N. of a Dnava Hariv. 198; of a son (of Riishabha BhP. v, 4, 10; of the 4th Manu, viii, 1, 27); {aruNA4H keta4vaH}, `" red apparitions "', a class of spirits (a kind of sacrificial fire is called after them {AruNaketuka} q.v.) AV. xi, 10, 1 f. and 7 Tr. MBh. xii, 26, 7. kevala = whole, pure * = m. (nom. pl. {e} RV. x, 51, 9) f. ({I} RV. x, 73, 6 AV. S'Br.; {A} Mn. &c. see Pn. 41, 30)n. (in comp. Pn. 2-1, 49) exclusively one's own (not common to others) RV. AV.; alone, only, mere, sole, one, excluding others RV. AV. TS. &c.; not connected with anything else, isolated, abstract, absolute [310,1]; simple, pure, uncompounded, unmingled S'Br. &c.; entire, whole, all Mn. MBh. &c.; selfish, envious L.; ({am}) ind. only, merely, solely ({na kevalam} {api}, not only-but also Ragh. VP. Rjat.; {kevalam-na tu}, only - but not, S'riingr.) Mn. MBh. &c.; entirely, wholly, absolutely R. ii, 87, 23; but Kd. Hcar.; (= {nirNItam}) certainly, decidedly L.; m. (= {kelaka}) a dancer, tumbler Gal.; N. of a prince BhP. ix, 2, 30; ({A}) f. N. of a locality MBh. iii, 254, 10 (v.l. {-lI}); ({I}) f. `" the whole of a philosophical system "' see {pAzaka-k-}; N. of a locality (v.l. for {-lA} q.v.); ({am}) n. the doctrine of the absolute unity of spirit; the highest possible knowledge (= {kevala-jJAna}) Jain.; N. of a country (v.l. {kerala}) MBh. vi, 9, 34. kevalaM = (adv) merely
845

kevalaiH = purified kevalin *= mfn. alone , o