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IMPACT

of

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY


on

ORGANISATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY OF RDC

2004

Surya Bahadur Magar

IMPACT
of

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY


on

ORGANISATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY OF RDC

By:

Surya Bahadur Magar


Prithwi Narayan Campus T. U. Registration Number: 14020-90

A thesis Submitted to:

Faculty of Management Prithwi Narayan Campus Tribhuvan University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master's of Business Administration (M.B.A.)

Bhimkali Patan, Pokhara

March, 2004

Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

RECOMENDATION
This is to certify that the thesis: Submitted by Mr. Surya Bahadur Magar entitled
IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY ON ORGANISATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY OF RDC

has been prepared as approved by this Department in the prescribe format of Faculty of Management . This is forwarded for examination. Supervisor Name: Surendra B. harijoo Signature: Date:

Head of Department Signature: Date:

Campus Chief Signature: Date:

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

VIVA-VOCE SHEET
We have conducted the viva-voce examination of the thesis presented by Mr. Surya Bahadur Magar entitled
IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY ON ORGANISATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY OF RDC

and found the thesis to be the original work of the student and written according to the prescribed format. We recommend the thesis to be accepted as fulfillment of the requirement for Master's Degree in Business Administration (M.B.A.)

Viva-voce Committee Chairperson (Research Committee) : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Keshar Jung Bara Member (Thesis supervisor) Member (Eternal Expert) : Mr. Surendra B. Bharijoo, Reaader : Prof. Sushil Pantha

Date: 08 /07 /2004

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Throughout this research, many individuals and institutions were associated. Without their assistance and kind cooperation from these personnel, this study would not have been possible. I wish to express my sincere gratitude and deep aspiration to those who directly or indirectly contributed a valuable support to this study. Indeed, I am greatly indebted to my research Advisor Mr. Surendra Bahadur Bharijoo, Reader, Faculty of management, Prthwi Narayan Campus, Tribhuvan University for his comments, suggestions, advice, criticism, guidance and encouragement for the duration of the whole study period. His untiring help, guidance and practical suggestions re-energized and inspired me to accomplish this thesis. I am equally indebted to Associate Pro. Dr. Keshar Jung Baral, Chairperson of research for his valuable comments, suggestions, guidance and framing this thesis according to the prescribed format of Tribhuvan University. I would like to express my special gratitude to Mr. Arogya Bajimaya, RDC director; Mr. Bharat Devkota, RDC former Director; Ms. Roswita Schmidt, RDC former Director, Mr. Artur Dillman, RDC former IGA Advisor for their kind cooperation, suggestion, advice and provide me permission to study in RDC. My thanks are due to the RDC/UMN for providing me an opportunity and assistance to complete this research work. I would also like to express my gratitude to Ms. Manamaya Gurung, Administrative Officer; Mrs. Meera Gurung, Business Manager; Mrs. Uma Gurung, Sr. Business Assistant; Mr. James Taylor, Training Advisor for their kind support to providing me valuable information and report of RDC as per required. Similarly, Mr. Rabin Shrestha, Mr. Prem Shrestha, Mrs. Janakee Kiran Shrestha, Mr. Chhiring Sherpa, Mr. Ganesh Man Pun, Mr. Top Bahadur Adhikari are also thankful for their support on the designing of questionnaire and pretest of it. My acknowledgement goes to RDC librarian Mr. Krishna Giri, librarians of PN Campus, Bagar; Kanya Campus, Nadipur and IOF, Hariyokharka for their kind support to providing literature and references for this study. My thanks are also to Mrs. Pabitra Pariyar for her service on photocopy and telephone management. I would also like to thank to all those respondents, informants and the members of RDC for their valuable information and co-operation despite of their busy working schedule in the field. My special thanks goes to my wife Mrs. Mamta and son Mr. Samarpan for their moral and practical support throughout the study. Most importantly, I express my great respect to my parents and mother-in- law for being the source of inspiration and encouragement for the initiation and continuation of study. S. B. Magar PN Campus, Pokhara July 11, 2004 sbm_228@yahoo.com

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Abstract
The success or failure of any organisation largely depends on the management of human resource. An organisational activity will be stopped and productivity will be zero without it. However, human resources must be appropriate, effective and efficient. In fact human resources are the total knowledge skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes amongst the population. Management of human resource is concerned with the management of people dimension i.e. acquiring their service, developing their skills, motivating them to high level of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organisation. The human resource development (HRD) approach is essential in order to have the optimum utilisation of manpower for the benefit of both the employees and organisation. Increased job satisfaction, improved individual productivity and overall organisational performance are the objectives of human resource development. HRD is purported to bring forth necessary changes in skills, capabilities and attitudes of people who are required to cope with the emerging changes. It is a continuous process to ensure the development of employee dynamism, effectiveness, competencies, and motivation in a systematic and planned manner. It can be done by training, management development, career planning and development employee development, performance appraisal, organisational development, etc. Due to a suitable HRD strategy in RDC, performance orientation, staff motivation, decentralized decision, quality and quantity of training, decreasing staff turnover ratio, qualification, cooperation, self worth of staff are some of the positive influences. The HRD credit system is heartily accepted and appreciated within RDC on all level. The impact of HRD strategy is found in the organisational development, personnel improvement and ultimately in the productivity of organisation that enhances the organisational effectiveness and efficiency. This research recommends continuing the present HRD strategy with recommended changes in the policy.

Key Words: Rural Development Center, Human resources, Human resource development, Human resource development strategy, Organisational productivity, Work performance, Skills, Knowledge and attitude

Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

TABLE OF CONTENT
Page TITLE PAGE................................................................................................................ RECOMENDAION...................................................................................................... VIVA-VOCE SHEET ........................................... ACKNOWLEDGEMENT................. ABSTRACT . .................... TABLE OF CONTENT .................... LIST OF TABLES..................... LIST OF FIGURES................... ACRONYMS..................... Chapter one: INTRODUCTION........................... i ii iii iv v vi xii xiv xv 1-8

1.1 Background............................................ 1.1.1 Introduction of RDC .................... 1.1.2 HRD in RDC................................. 1.1.2.1 HRD Credit System or New HRD system... 1.1.2.2 Center Based or Old HRD system............... 1.2 Focus of the Study ................................. 1.3 Problem Statement................................. 1.4 Research Objectives............................... 1.5 Rational of the Study.............................. 1.6 Limitations of the Study......................... Chapter two: LITERATURE REVIEW............................... 2.1 Human Resource (HR) ......................... 2.2 Human Resource Management (HRM) ....... 2.3 Human Resource Development (HRD) ....... 2.3.1 Components of HRD ................... 2.3.1.1 Development of Leadership ................... 2.3.1.2 Organisational Commitment .. 2.3.1.3 Employee Values .................... 2.3.1.3.1 Materialistic Values .......

1 2 2 3 4 4 6 7 7 8 9-67 9 13 16 18 18 18 19 19

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

2.3.1.3.2 Moonlighting .......... 2.3.1.3.3 Professional Values ....... 2.3.1.3.4 Dualism in Career........... 2.3.1.3.5 Flexitime and Flexiwork.. 2.3.1.3.6 Employees' Proxy ........... 2.3.1.4 Behaviour Modification .................. 2.3.1.4.1 Basic Steps in Behaviour Modification....................... 2.3.1.5 Career Planning and Development ............................................. 2.3.1.6 Performance Appraisal ................... 2.3.1.7 Compensation and Reward System.............................................. 2.3.1.7.1 Rewards........................... 2.3.1.8 Potential Appraisal .......................... 2.3.1.9 Effective Counselling ..................... 2.3.1.10 Human Resource Information System (HRIS) .......................... 2.3.1.11 Grievance Handling ...................... 2.3.1.12 Management Development ........... 2.3.1.13 Technical Development ................. 2.3.1.14 Supervisory Development.............. 2.3.1.15 Resistance to Change ..................... 2.3.1.16 Organisation Development............. 2.3.1.17 Training and Educating................... 2.3.1.18 Feedback......................................... 2.3.2 Factors affecting to HRD ............................. 2.3.2.1 Globalization..................................... 2.3.2.2 Changing Organisational Structures/Work................................... 2.3.2.3 Rapid Knowledge Obsolescence................................................... 2.3.2.4 Skills required by organisation..................................................... 2.3.2.5 Organisational Value/ Culture...................................................... 2.3.2.6 Employee Value and Behaviour................................................... 2.3.2.7 Political Instability............................ 2.3.2 HRD Activities........................................... 2.3.3.1 Training............................................. 2.3.3.1.1 Training Efforts for HRD.......

20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 33 34 35 38 39 39 39 39 39

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2.3.3.1.2 Types of Training............... 2.3.3.1.2.1 Orientation Training........................................... 2.3.3.1.2.2 On-the-Job Training........................................... 2.3.3.1.2.3 On-the-Job Coaching......................................... 2.3.3.1.2.4 Job Rotation....................................................... 2.3.3.1.2.5 Multiple Management........................................ 2.3.3.1.2.6 Promotional Training......................................... 2.3.3.1.2.7 Refresher Training............................................. 2.3.3.1.2.8 Corrective Training ........................................... 2.3.3.1.2.9 Off-the Job Training......................................... 2.3.3.1.2.9.1 Training Methods for Operatives........... 2.3.3.1.2.9.1.1 Vestibule Training...................... 2.3.3.1.2.9.1.2 Apprenticeship Training............ 2.3.3.1.2.9.1.3 Internship Training..................... 2.3.3.1.9.2 Training Method for Managers..............

40 40 41 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 50 50 52 52 53 53 54 54

2.3.3.1.9.2.1 Observation Assignment............... 2.3.3.1.9.2.2 Position Rotation........................... 2.3.3.1.9.2.3 Serving on Committees................. 2.3.3.1.9.2.4 Assignment of Special Projects..... 2.3.3.1.2.10 Conferences and Seminars................................ 2.3.3.1.2.11 Case Study........................................................ 2.3.3.1.2.12 Incident Method................................................ 2.3.3.1.2.13 Role Playing..................................................... 2.3.3.1.2.14 Sensitivity Training (or Laboratory Training).......... 2.3.3.1.2.15 Autonomy Training.......................................... 2.3.3.1.3 Training Cycle....................................... ................................... 2.3.3.1.3.1 Assessment Phase.................................................... 2.3.3.1.3.1.1 Organisational Analysis........................ 2.3.3.1.3.1.2 Job and Task Analysis.......................... 2.3.3.1.3.1.3 Individual Analysis .............................. 2.3.3.1.3.2 Designing Phase....................................................... 2.3.3.1.3.3 Deliver Phase........................................................... 2.3.3.1.3.4 Evaluation Phase . ...................................................

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2.3.3.2 Demonstration .............................................................................. 2.3.3.3 Study Tour ....................................... ............................................ 2.3.3.4 Further Study ....................................... ........................................ 2.4 Human Resource Development Strategy (HRDS) ............................................ 2.5 The degree of integration between organisational strategy and HRD strategy.. 2.6 Human Resource Development Strategic Themes............................................. 2.7 Productivity ....................................... ............................................................... 2.7.1 Factors of Organisational Productivity ................................................. 2.7.1.1 General Factors....................................... .................................. 2.7.1.2 Specific Factors....................................... .................................. 2.7.1.3 Ability Factors....................................... .................................... 2.7.1.4 Motivational Factors....................................... .......................... 2.7.1.5 Situational Factors....................................... .............................. Chapter three: METHODOLOGY............................... 3.1 Research Design....................................... ............................................. 3.2 Population....................................... ...................................................... 3.3 Sampling....................................... ....................................................... 3.3.1 Sample Selection....................................... ............................................ 3.4 Source of Data....................................... ............................................................ 3.4.1 Primary Source of Data....................................... ................................. 3.4.2 Secondary Source of Data....................................... .............................. 3.5 Research Instrument....................................... ................................................... 3.6 Data Collection....................................... .......................................................... 3.6.1 Questionnaire Survey....................................... ..................................... 3.6.2 Interview with Checklist...................................... ................................. 3.6.3 Document Review....................................... .......................................... 3.6.4 General Observation....................................... ...................................... 3.7 Data Analysis...................................... .............................................................. 3.7.1 Analysis of Multiple Choices Type Responses.................................... 3.7.2 Analysis of Single Choice Responses................................................... 3.7.3 Rating or Ranking................................... .............................................. 3.7.4 Comparative Analysis .................................. ........................................ 3.7.5 Trend Analysis................................... ..................................................

55 55 55 55 57 60 61 63 64 65 65 66 67 68-76 68 68 69 69 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 72 73 74 75 76

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Chapter Four: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS .................................. 4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis.................................. ....................................... 4.1.1 Respondent Analysis................................... .......................................... 4.1.1.1 Category Description and Sample Intensity.......................... 4.1.1.2 Age Group................................... ......................................... 4.1.1.3 Sex Representation................................... ........................... 4.1.1.4 Education Status.................................................................... 4.1.1.5 Working Experience.............................................................. 4.1.1.6 Roles and Responsibilities of Respondents........................... 4.1.2 Products of RDC................................... ................................................ 4.1.2.1 Training................................... ............................................ 4.1.2.2 Training Materials................................... ............................ 4.1.2.3 Consultancies and Resource Person..................................... 4.1.3 RDC Consumer/Client Analysis..................................................... 4.1.4 Statistical Inferences................................... ......................................... 4.1.4.1 4.1.4.2 4.1.4.3 4.1.4.4 4.1.4.5 4.1.4.6 4.1.4.7 4.1.4.8 4.1.4.9 HRD Purposes................................... .......................... Types of HRD................................... .......................... Relation of HRD with Job Nature............................ Integration of HRD Strategy with Organisational Strategy Selection Basis for HRD..................................................... Effect of HRD on RDC Products................................... Cause to Participate HRD.................................................. Standard of Participated HRD.................................. Learning Process...................................................

78-115 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 82 83 83 83 83 84 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 93 93 94 94 95 96

4.1.4.10 Attitude Change........................................................... 4.1.4.11 Opinion on Overall Assessment of HRD ................... 4.1.4.12 Helpfulness of HRD on Day to Day Job Performance 4.1.4.13 HRD an Opportunity...................................................... 4.1.4.14 Extent of Organisational Recognition .......................... 4.1.4.15 Opportunity to Apply Learnt Skills and Knowledge ......... 4.1.4.16 Production of New Training......................................... 4.1.4.17 Problems Faced on Applying Learnt Skills and Knowledge. 4.1.1.18 Increase the Number of Training.......................................

Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

4.1.4.19 Increase Quality of Training and Other Activities ............ 4.1.4.20 Familiar with HRD Credit System................................. 4.1.4.21 Distribution of HRD Credit............................................ 4.1.4.22 Focus of HRD ................................... .......................... 4.1.4.23 Emphasis of HRD Credit System .................................. 4.1.4.24 Role of HRD to Achieve RDC Goal .......................... 4.1.5 Overall Impact of HRD Credit System............................................. 4.1.6 Overall Impact of Centre Based HRD System .................................. 4.1.7 Comparison between HRD Credit and Old HRD................................. 4.1.7.1 Comparison in the View of Training Staff............................ 4.1.7.2 Comparison in the View of Programme Head...................... 4.1.8 Some Remarks from Programme Head Regarding HRD Impact.......... 4.1.9 Factors Affecting on the Organizational Production of RDC............... 4.1.9.1 Internal Factors............................................................... 4.1.9.2 External Factors ............................................................. 4.1.10 Trend Analysis of RDC ..................................................... 4.1.10.1 Mandays Trend over Last Five Years........................... 4.1.10.2 Income and Expenditure over Last Five Years............. 4.1.10.3 Activity Offered and Received..................................... 4.1.10.4 Staff Turnover Ratio ..................................................... 4.2 Major Findings of the Study..................................................................... Chapter Five: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..... 5.1 Summary.......................................................................................................... 5.2 Conclusions........................................................................................................ 5.3 Recommendations.............................................................................................. REFERENCES ................ APPENDICES..............

97 97 98 98 99 99 100 101 102 102 103 104 105 105 106 107 107 108 109 109 110 116-123 116 118 121 124 129

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List of Table T. N. 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 Table Description Organisational strategy, associated employee role behavior and HRD policies..... Estimated sample intensity of study........................................................................ Actual sample intensity of study............................................................................. Sample example of multiple choice type questions................................................ Sample example for single choice type question.................................................... Example of rating or ranking............................................ .................................... Sample intensity of study............................................ .......................................... Age description............................................ .......................................................... Sex representation ............................................ ..................................................... Educational descriptions ............................................ ........................................... Working Experience............................................ .................................................. Roles and Responsibilities of respondents.............................................................. Purpose of HRD in RDC ............................................ ........................................... HRD types conducting in RDC ............................................ ................................. Relation of HRD with job nature............................................................................ Integration of HRD strategy with organisational strategy..................................... Selection basis for HRD............................................ ............................................. Effect of HRD on RDC products ........................................................................... Cause to participate in HRD activities ................................................................... Standard of HRD ............................................ ....................................................... Learning process on HRD...................................................................................... Change in attitude by HRD ............................................ ....................................... Opinion on overall assessment of HRD ................................................................. Helpfulness of HRD ............................................ .................................................. HRD an opportunity ............................................ .................................................. Organisational recognition ............................................ ........................................ Opportunity to apply acquired skills and knowledge ............................................. Help on production of new training ....................................................................... Problems faced on applying learnt skills and knowledge ...................................... Increase the number of training............................................ ................................. Increase the quality of training ............................................ .................................. Page 56 69 70 73 74 75 78 79 79 80 80 82 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 92 93 93 94 95 95 97 97

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4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.34 4.35 4.36

Familiarity with credit system ............................................ ................................... Distribution of HRD credit ............................................ ....................................... Focus of HRD............................................ ............................................................ Emphasis of HRD credit system ............................................ .............................. Significance of HRD to achieve organisational goal............................................ Overall impact of HRD credit............................................ .................................... Overall impact of center based HRD system.......................................................... Comparison between old HRD and credit system (training staff).......................... Comparison between old HRD and credit system (programme head).................... Remarks on HRD impact made by programme head.............................................. Income and expenditure figure over last five year..................................................

98 98 99 99 100 101 101 102 103 105 108

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List of Figure F. N. Figure Description 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Human resource management model............................................................................. The training cycle.......................................................................................................... Potential relationships between organisational strategy and HR strategy..................... Sutermeiser's productivity wheel.................................................................................. Schematic diagram for population................................................................................. Schematic diagram of sample unit selection.............................................................. Conceptual research frame work............................................................................. Sex pie chart................................................................................................................. Academic qualification................................................................................................. Ogive curve of working experience ............................................................................ Client percentile bar...................................................................................................... Selection process for HRD........................................................................................... Problem bar for applying learnt skills and knowledge ................................................. Frequency chart on significant role of HRD to achieve organisational goal................ Comparison between old HRD and HRD credit made by training staff....................... Comparison between old HRD and credit system in the view of programme head...... Page 15 51 59 62 68 76 77 79 80 81 84 88 95 100 103 104 105 107 108 109 109

4.10 HRD impact web chart................................................................................................. 4.11 Mandays trend line over last five years............................................................... 4.12 Income and expenditure trend chart over last five years............................................... 4.13 Activity received and delivered trend bar............................................................... 4.14 Doughnut chart for turn over ratio...........................................................................

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

ACRONYMS
Admin AHITP ASTD's CBOs cf CHIR CNC E f GOs HATSP HR HRD HRDE HRDS HRIS HRM I INGOs IT KSA LT cf MT cf MU f NGOs OP OS R RDC t TNA = Administration Programme = Animal Health Improvement Training Programme = American Society for Training and development = Community Based Organisations = Cumulative frequency = Computerized Human Resource Information System = Computer Numerically Controlled = Expenditure = F = Frequency = Government Organisation = Horticulture and Agronomy Training Support Porgramme = Human Resources = Human Resource Development = Expenditure only in human resource development activities = Human Resource Development Strategy = Human Resource Information System = Human Resource Management = Income = International Non-Government Organisations = Income only from training, selling of training materials, consultancy = Knowledge, Skills and Attitude = Less Than cumulative frequency = More Than cumulative frequency = Mid Value frequency = Non-Government Organisations = Organisational Productivity = Organisational Strategy = Rank = Rural Development Center = T = Total = Training Needs Assessment
Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

xv

TOT/OD Trees Trg. UMN VMGOS WSSTP x

= Training of Trainers /Organisation Development = Forestry Development Training programme = Training = United Mission to Nepal = Vision, Mission, Goals, Objectives and Strategies = Water System Support Training Programme = X = Mean or Average

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Chapter One

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background

Different types of I/N/GOs are in existence in our country. All these organisations are actively involving in the different sectors of development i.e. infrastructure development, rural development, industrial development, health and sanitation and so forth. These organisations have either profit or non-profit motives. Each organisation has its own goals and objectives that must be fulfilled within the bounded time by utilizing the scarce and available resources. The failure or success of an organisation largely depends on the management system that is widely known as the process of efficiently getting the activities completed with people. The human resources management involves the task of handling human resources of an organisation and is devoted to acquire develop, utilize, and maintain an efficient work force. It plays a vital role on staffs work satisfaction, bringing them an equitable, just and human treatment and adequate security of employment. It seeks to provide fair terms and conditions of employment and satisfying work for those employed to attempt at getting the willing cooperation of the people for the attainment of the desired goals. Human resource development is concerned with the "people'' dimension in management. Since every organisation is made up of people, acquiring their service, developing their skills, motivating them to high level of performance, and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organisation are essential to achieving organisational objectives. Once the individuals have been recruited and selected for the organisation the next important step is to help them on converting their abilities into skills that contribute to the organisation's goals. Thus, training and other set of human resource development activities are required to enable individuals to develop their skills, knowledge and positive attitude, which are most effective for the particular organisation on accomplishing the goals. In the present time, there is rapid change in technology, which directly affects the job behavior. The old skills and knowledge will be unproductive, less efficient, time consumable, irrelevant and out of fashion. Hence, the job requirements of a person are continuously changing in the succession of the business ecology. To achieve the

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

organisational goals in the changing environment, new methods and processes must be transferred to the concerned staff. All information must be updated for efficient and effective performance. A suitable HRD strategy and policy in an organisation plays a vital role to acquire the effective and efficient HR development, which ultimately has an impact on the productivity of an organisation that may be goods or services. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the overall effectiveness of HRD strategy on the productivity of RDC. 1.1.1 Introduction of RDC Rural Development Center (RDC), Pokhara is a project of UMN, working under the rural development department, established in 1981. It started as a consultancy provider to other UMN projects and developed as training in the early 90s center. It has since then been providing practical performance-based skill training in both technical and social aspects to the poor and disadvantaged people who are trapped in a cycle of deprivation and suffer from isolation, poverty, physical weakness, and vulnerability. The poor farming families of rural Nepal have lack of information and skills to break their cycle of deprivation and secure their basic needs. RDC training helps them to be enabled and well equipped to overcome the problems, which they have identified as being most critical to them. This organisation is mainly providing different training courses, which are based on the need assessment and follow up in different sectors i.e. Agronomy and Horticulture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry Improvement, Drinking Water System, Training of Trainer and Organisational Development, Community Development, etc. RDC seeks to work in partnership with organisations that work for the empowerment of poor and marginalized groups throughout Nepal. RDC provides training for community groups and staff of organisations. Apart from these training courses, it also provides consultancy services and publications. It is utilizing its own training cycle, which is unique, most useful and practicable to see the performance of the trainees. To conduct such training and consultancy services it has about 59 human resources, which includes technical as well as administrative staff. 1.1.2 HRD in RDC HRD strategy is essential in order to have the optimum utilization of the work force for the benefit of both the employees and organisation (Rao, 1998). Human Resource is one of the most important factors for every organisation. HRD activities help the organisation

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

develop leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitude, towards organisation, management, and in between staff themselves. It assists to improve job knowledge and the skills at all levels of organisation and improve the morale of work force, develop transparent communication, and trust among the management and staff members. Directly or indirectly, it sharpen the individual in better decision making, problem solving, encourage them to be self confident and smoothly handling stress, tension, frustration, conflict management which ultimately benefit the organisation. The quality of service as well as the reputation of training institute highly depends on professional performance of staff. Methodological aspects such as different training delivery methods as well as organisational aspects, such as efficient administration are crucial, but by far the most important aspect for efficient performance of a training institution is qualified and motivated human resources. As a training organisation, RDC considers HRD as a major activity. RDC strategic plan 19982003 emphasis the HR development and mentioned "RDC will have sufficient number of effective staff". There has been a long practice of human resource development system in RDC. The main aim of the human resource development strategy of RDC is to improve staff's performance and qualification in order to complete the assigned job better and increase the quantity and quality of training. Presently, in RDC two types of HRD activities have been carried out. The first one is HRD Credit System or New HRD system and another is Center Based or Old HRD system. 1.1.2.1 HRD Credit System or New HRD System

HRD credit system or New HRD system has been introduced in 1999 by management and implemented from FY 2000/2001 to 2001/2002 as a pilot project and is still in existence. This programme is evolved from past experience to make proportionate allocation and systematic expenses of the resources for HRD for the better performance of an organisation considering individual development. This programme links individual performance of training and team performance of administration staff to more individualistic utilization of human resources but the RDC mid term evaluation final report (2001) clearly mentioned that this system does not work well for administration staff and they are not currently part of this system. This system implies only for training or technical staff.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

The new HRD policy (1999) of RDC stated that new HRD programme is not meant to be a substitution of the old system, but just a supplementation of it. The programme is intended to improve staff's performance and qualification in order to do the assigned job better. They are equally of interest for the staff as well as for RDC. The guiding principles of the new HRD credit system are performance oriented, personal benefit, decentralization of decision, and separation between the training staff and administration and long term perspective. In quality performance evaluation of RDC's structure, programmes and policies, Varey (2001) written that the HRD credit system is fairer because previously some trainers had few trainings and did a lot of HRD, others had so many trainings they did not have time to take courses. The HRD programme under HRD credit system is divided in the three positions. They are individual HRD, net working and extended programme. The amount of Human Resource Development budget on this system depend on the quantity of training delivered and or number of trainer days spent on the different steps of the training process. 1.1.2.2 Center Based or Old HRD System

This HRD system has been operating in RDC since its establishment. Basically, this system operates from the center budget of RDC and applies only for the administration and management staff and also, in some cases for training staff. The process of HRD credit is completely waived from this system. The HRD budget is annually allocated and HRD activities are conducted based on programme need assessment and recommendation of supervisor coinciding with the staff interest and opportunity available. 1.2 Focus of the Study

The basic assumption underlying HRD is that most people joining organisations have inherent desires to continuously improve the quality of their lives, to learn more, and to give better performance in future. To meet the expectations, the organisation needs to adopt positive practices to identify the development needs and to bridge the possible gaps on a continuous basis. To get the best out of this process, in a non-threatening manner, the organisation should be able to evolve a conductive, positive culture. Only a suitable HRD strategy can enhance the organisational capacity. Therefore, HRD must be viewed as a dynamic process, which needs to be kept, aligned with the changing realities in the environment.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

People are the most important and valuable resources of any organisation. Dynamic people can build up progressive and growth oriented organisations. Effective employees can contribute to the effectiveness of the organisation competent and motivated people can make things happen and enable an organisation to achieve its goal. Therefore, organisations should continuously ensure that dynamism, effectiveness, competency and motivation of its people to remain at a high level. HRD has multiple goals which include employees' competency and motivation development and organisational climate development. Employee need to have variety of competencies knowledge, skills and attitude in technical areas, human relation areas and conceptual areas to perform different tasks or functions. HRD aims to identify competency gaps of employees and train them to perform present roles effectively and create conditions to help employees bridge these gaps through development. The nature of job is constantly changing due to change in environment organisational goal, priorities, strategies, customer expectation, technology, new opportunities, new challenges, and new knowledge base. Such a change in the nature of jobs requires continuous development of employees' competencies to perform well. Thus competency development is needed on a continuing basis for effective job

performance. HRD aims at constantly assessing the competency requirements of different individual to effectively perform the assigned jobs, and provide opportunities for development of these competencies. HRD also aims at preparing people for performing roles, tasks or function, which may be, required to perform in the future as they go up on the organisational hierarchy or as the organisation takes up new tasks through diversification, expansion, and modernization. HRD tries to develop the potentials of employees for likely future jobs/roles in the organisations. Motivation development is also an aim of HRD. Motivation means the desire to work or to put effort. It is an involvement to the job and commitment to the organisation. It is the desire to make things happen. Without motivation employees are not likely to give their best. Having technical, human relations, and conceptual competencies is not enough for effective performance on the job. A passion for working the organisation is required to be developed; a fire in belly is to be kindled. HRD also promotes team building and collaborative climate. This requires building and enabling organisational

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

culture one in which employees use their initiatives, take risks, experiment, innovate, and make things happen. In context of RDC many HRD activities have been launched with the definite HRD strategy having the purposes as described earlier. Now, it is felt necessary to examine the overall impact of adopted HRD strategy on the productivity of RDC. Basically, this study is focused on the functioning of present practiced HRD strategy, learnt skills and knowledge, change in attitude and job behavior of employee after HRD and the improvement in the quality as well as quantity of products or services of RDC. 1.3 Problem Statement

As mentioned previously, human resource development programme in RDC has been practiced from the very beginning. The quality of services as well as the recognition of a training institute is highly governed by staffs professional performance that is affected by qualified and aggravated workforce. The quality of work and creative working environment largely depends on well-designed human resource development strategy of any organisation. The aim of human resource development strategy of RDC is to improve staff's efficiency and prerequisite in order to complete assigned job in better standard and increase the quantity and quality of training. Therefore, this study focuses on the impact of human resource development strategy on the organisational productivity of RDC. RDC has been investing a large amount of staff time (about 25% of staff working time in 1995/95) and money (about 20% of the total budget in 1996/97) in HRD activities. The investment especially goes to the area of improving the managerial skills of managers and supervisors, and improving the working environment of RDC (Silwal, 1998). Despite the fact that RDC has been providing different types of HRD to its staff, the impact assessment has never been done. By investing a large amount of resources for HRD, does it really positively change skills, knowledge and attitude of the staff or not? How do staffs perceive the HRD strategy? Do both the management and staff have any problems and concerns regarding HRD programme? How is this system functioning and affecting the productivity of the organisation? What are the factors effecting the system? etc should be carefully investigated and analyzed. This study is intended to evaluate the impact of the RDC's HRD strategy on the production of training, materials and other consultancies services which are offered by RDC to the clients.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

1.4

Research Objectives

This research was focused on the overall impact of HRD strategy that has been carried out by RDC. The specific objectives of this study are as follows: i ii iii To explore the HRD practices and activities conducted in RDC. To review the products or service offered by RDC to its clients To examine the relation of HRD activities with job nature of individual employee and integration of HRD strategy with organisational strategy. iv To measure the effect of HRD activities on the products of RDC and day to day job performance of employee. v To assess the overall impact of HRD on change in attitude of RDC Human Resources, production of new training, increasing the quantity and quality of training and other activities offered by RDC vi To assess the problems faced by RDC employ regarding the application of learnt skills and knowledge in the job situation. vii To obtain the comparative view of RDC human resources between HRD credit system and old HRD system. 1.5 Rational of the Study

Human resources, unlike other resources, think for themselves, assess by themselves and design or choose suitable activities for own development (Ramashia, 2002). The specific contribution of the HRDS is to ensure that we have the people with the requisite knowledge and skills to do the particular work. It is vital that we sustain and grow the employment we already have by ensuring that workers and employers, wherever they are engaged in learning new ways of doing things in order to build their capacity to protect the gains already made and advance them continuously. This is captured under another of the HRDS objective namely; increasing employee and employer participation in lifelong learning. The HRDS includes a strategic objective on improving the supply of high-quality skills which can be more responsive to societal and economic need. In other words, as workplaces become better at articulating their skill needs there should be provider institutions that are able to provide courses in these areas. This is not meant to imply that there should be a linear flat footed relationship between the two indeed in our everchanging world this is extremely unlikely anyway.
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However, before any of these partnerships are struck, it is vital that all are provided with a foundation that makes it all possible a foundation of general education and a value system that underpins this whole approach. Therefore, the HRDS includes a strategic objective that relates to Improving the foundations for human resource development. This addresses the need for all to be provided with good quality, where this was denied, basic education and training. The final strategic objective provides that we must ensure that all strategic objectives of the HRD strategy work together. We are aiming to align education and training to employment growth strategies in ways that we have never done before. How do we get education and training institutions to work more coherently together? Human resources development strategy should be integrated because it is not a stand alone strategy it is integrated with broader growth and development strategies in general and to initiatives aimed at employment creation in particular and if it is to succeed it must remain so. This study is concerned with the impact of existing HRD strategy of UMN/RDC on the productivity of the organisation. It will evaluate the effectiveness of the HRD process on the product or service of RDC. The study includes the analysis of past and existing practices of HRD systems for future prospects. The study will be helpful to RDC, related institutions, other organisation as well as individuals who are working in the broader field of human resource development. It is also expected to be helpful to the various interested donor and investment agencies. The significant importance of the study is to know the effectiveness of a particular human resource development strategy on the quality and the quantity of output of any organisation. 1. 6 Limitations

The limitations of this study are as follows: * Related documents of received training and other HRD activities are not found sufficiently. * Difficult to meet RDC's human resources due to their busy schedule in the field training for a long duration. * Limited resources to conduct the research.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Chapter Two

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Human Resource (HR)

The success or failure of any organisation largely depends on the management system in place. "Management is the process of efficiently getting activities completed with and through other people" (Senge, 1992). The management process includes the planning, organizing, leading and controlling activities that take place to accomplish objectives. Management must include three common factors: goals, limited resources and people. Goals are necessary because all activities must be directed forwards some end. There is considerable truth in the observation that "if you don't know where you are going, any road will take you". The established goals may not be explicit, but where there are no goals, there may be need for new managers or no need of managers at all. Economic resources are scares; therefore management is responsible for their allocation. This requires not only that management be effective in achieving the goals that are established but that they are efficient in relating output to input. Management must seek for a given input to achieve for a greater output. The management body then is concerned with the best allocation of scares resources, with a high level of efficient. The needs of people are the last but most important requisite for management to accomplish organisational goals. Without people, activities for an organisation will be stopped. Productivity will be zero. It is with and through people that management performs works to fulfill goals by mobilizing limited resources. What is the worth of any organisation without its employee? Suppose an organisation has a lot of factories, expensive equipments and an impressive bank balance. But if employees are removed from such an organisations what would be left? Not so much." (DeCenzo, 1998). Human resource is the most important factor for every organisation because an organisation is dynamic due to its presence. Resources are the means which can be drawn on. They are collective means for production, support and defense as well as sources of strength and aid. Similarly, human resources are human wealth or means that can be drawn on. The human capital, assets or manpower resources of an organisation can be treated as its most important and vital
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resource. It can otherwise be understood as the resourcefulness of human beings available to an organisation (Michael 1998). The human resource approach takes into consideration the potentiality and vitality of the people available for the organisation. Even in on age or automation as of today, manpower is the most essential and indispensable resources of any organisation. Resourcefulness of various categories of people such as, scientific and research people, executives, supervisors, workers (skilled, semiskilled or unskilled) and all such people available for the organisation can be treated as human resources. In fact, without appropriate human resources, no organisation or organisation can exist and grow. This is perhaps, the reason why human resources have become the form for attention of progressive organisations today. Human resources can be defined as the total knowledge skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes amongst the population. From the view point of the individual organisation, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talent and aptitudes of its employee (Meggison, 1967). Human resources have also been defined as human factors. The human factors refer to a whole consisting of interrelated, interdependent, and interacting physiological, psychological, sociological and ethical components"(Jucius, 1975). As regards physiological components, it requires several inputs like food, rest, and environmental condition to satisfy physiological needs. It also requires the protection against harmful and destructive conditions and attempts to avoid loss of income as a measure to have physiological security. Psychologically, it is characterized by emotion and impulses. It likes and dislikes certain things and some things make one happy while others unhappy. It is impaired as well as depressed by certain situations. It has numerous psychological needs such as autonomy, achievement, power, acquisitiveness etc. It tends to satisfy its needs for certain affiliation, status, approval, prestige etc. through interaction with others. Again as an ethical creature, it has concepts of right and wrong. It tends to do what it thinks is right. "Obviously the human factor is dynamic in nature as it's revealed in motivation and defense mechanism" (Dwivedi, 1985). It is an ongoing process involving the above four sub-process. Human resources are assuming increasing significance in modern organisation. The

majority of problems in organisational settings are human and social rather than physical, technical or economics (Duvedi, 1985). The failure to recognize this fact causes immense
Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

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loss to the nation, organisation and the individual. "It is a truism that productivity is associated markedly with the nature of human resources and their total environment consisting of interrelated, inter-dependent and inter-acting economic and non-economic i.e. political, religious, cultural, sociological and psychological factors (Megginson, 1967). Thus, the significance of human resources can be examined from at least two standpoints economic and non-economic. Firstly, the human resources assume importance from economic standpoint at national, organisation and individual levels of analysis. They have been viewed as a form capital and as the product of investment where by production is acquired. Human resources are the key to economic development, (Ginzberg, 1962). However, they are being wanted through unemployment, disguised unemployment, obsolescence of skills, and lack of work opportunity, poor personnel practices and hurdles of adjusting to change. These resources account for a large part of national output and there exists wide scope for enhancing productivity through their proper development. The development of physical resources will not give results unless the human resources are applied appropriately. In addition to providing value to physical resources these factors provide a dynamic characteristic to the economy. "However, the human resources have also negative aspects. Indeed, an over abundant population or a poorly trained workforce, as is obtained in developing region, may prove disastrous to the national economy (Duvedi, 1973). If the national output does not increase faster than its population, the standard of living will decrease. More over at the organisation level, there is also an urgent need for effective utilisation of human resources to attain organisational goals. This can be accomplished by an understanding of the nature, potentialities and limitations of the resources, developing them to actualize their full potentials, utilizing them to the optimal ability of the organisation, maintaining their quality and amalgamating them with other resources. This necessitates that each individual is viewed as processing creative potential and attempts are made to provide him/her with a climate conductive to his/her creative ability in organisational settings. Indeed, there is a need to provide them with opportunities to participate in organisational activities. Furthermore human resources are also importance at the individual level of analysis. Obviously, their development as a source of economic advantages improves their economic status and such people tend to have higher standards of living.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Secondly, the importance of human resources arises from non-economic factors. In this era of democracy, agriculture, industry and even government are the only service organisations which provide goods and service to the people so long as they are willing to produce for themselves. Again, the concept of freedom of organisation and equality of persons indicate that individuals should have maximum freedom of opportunity to avail their full development and utilize their potential. Thus, from the political stand point, human resources have a very prominent place in organisations. Moreover, human

resources are also of significance from the religious view point. We find abundance of spiritual literature on the dignity of human beings which has influenced management thought considerably. Humans are considered "spiritual" creatures, quite different from other resources. The popular slogan, "Service of man kind is the service of God", exemplifies the significance of human resources in this context.

Again, they also became important from cultural and social view points. Cultural values and social systems immensely influence human behavior in work settings and provide a destined value to them as compared to physical resources. Last but not the least, human resources are of significance from the psychological stand point. Humans require a particular psychological environment to work. The essence of psychological environment is motivation which provides dynamism to those unique resources. It is in this regard that two plus two equals to five when adequately motivated, but two plus two equals to three when carelessly handled. The individuals may device motivation from the job itself though a sense of achievement and allied measure. They can also be motivated through external incentive schemes. There is an urgent need to assess the nature and magnitude of needs prevailing among human resources at a point in time and then to provide incentives accordingly. It has almost become imperative that management provides a psychological environmental for work where the participants find opportunity for fuller selfactualization, richer creativity and a more meaningful life. The above discussion points out the significance of human resources and an urgent need to develop them. The potential for the development of human resources is unlimited as it has been indicated that most individuals use only 10 percent of his capacity (Mead, 1963) and "that the average employee's application of his mental powers on his job is only about 15 to 20 percent of capabilities available to him" (Athan, 1964).

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

The organisation can not make any progress unless it has a well trained, an efficient and an adequately motivated work - team. Similarly, individuals can not drive job satisfaction and lead a higher standard of living unless they are well trained and highly developed. It may be noted that the management of human resource can assist in the attainment of these national, organisation and individual goals through effective utilization and proper development of human resources. At last, HR is a most valuable asset of an organisation, and not the money or physical equipment. It is in fact an important economic resources, covering all human resources organized or unorganized, employed or capable of employment, working at all levels supervisor, executives, government employees, blue and white color worker, managerial, scientific, technical, skilled or unskilled person, who are employed in creating, designing, developing managing and operating productive and service organisation, and other economic activities (Mamoria, 1998). Human resources are utilized to the maximum possible extent in order to achieve individual and organisational goals, an organisations performance and resulting productivity are directly proportional to the quantity and quality of its human resources and enhance the importance of human resource. 2.2 Human Resource Management (HRM)

Human resource management is concerned with the people dimension in management. Since every organisation is made up of people, acquiring their service, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organisation are essential to achieving organisational objectives. This is true regardless of the type of organisation, government, organisation, education, health, recreating or social action. Getting and keeping good people is critical to the success of every organisation where profit or non profit, public or private (DeCenzo et al., 1998). Koontz et al. (1988) stated those organisations that are able to acquire, develop, stimulated ad keep outstanding workers will be both effective (able to achieve their goals) and efficient (expending the least amount of resources necessary). Those organisations that are ineffective or inefficient risk the hazards of stagnating or going out of organisation. Survival of an organisation requires competent managers and workers coordinating their efforts towards an ultimate goal.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Management of human resource is a new field of study embodying behavioral science knowledge relating to the working of line and staff officials and union leaders to motivate and develop employees to attain organisation goals. The human resources approach to the management of employees represents significant measures of utilizing human resource to accomplish organisation goals through the application of behavioral sciences (Strauss et al., 1985). The interaction of social, psychological and cultural factors in organisations has assumed significance from this standpoint. It is a highly comprehensive field

involving the use of numerous concepts such as personnel management, personnel administration, labour relation, industrial relations and manpower management and employee retraining. HRM is quite different than the other concept mentioned above. As Flippo (1976) said, "personnel management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to organisational, individual and social goals". This high lights that various managerial functions relating to procurement and maintenance of people in an organisation come under personnel management. It includes developing people in a way the organisation wants for attaining competitive advantages for the organisation. So the sole purpose of personnel management is to attain competitive advantage and best results for the organisation according to the interest of organisation and individual interests, desires and aspirations, when submerged into organisational objectives and goals, (Michael 1995). The development of individuals in accordance with their individual needs and aspirations, so that the individuals would be motivated to make their best contribution towards the accomplishment of common goals, is therefore important. HRM involves all management decisions and practice that directly effect or influence the people or human resources who work for the organisation (Fisher et al., 1997). In recent years increased attention has been devoted to how organisations manage human resources. This increased attention comes from the realization that organisations employees enable an organisation to achieve its goals, and the management of these human resources is critical to an organisation's success (Shuler, 1998). Randall S. Schuler (1992) mentioned the following specific earmarks of world class HRM in "World class HR departments: Six critical issues". Having an HR vision oriented to the strategic needs of the organisation.
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Having a philosophy and values consistent with those of the organisation. Being seen as an organisation unit within the firm and operating in the same way as other units: having customers and quality management and so forth. Being organized in a way that brings maximum service to the customer and maximum motivation to the HR staff. Having the best HR products available for the customers. Championing HR programs to fulfill agendas of the HR group and the customer. Having an HR vision that is actively shared by the entire group. Being a proactive, not reactive, group. Being involved in the key organisation issue discussion. Being seen as successfully creating a great plan to work.

Figure 2.1 Human Resource Management Model

Human Resource Management Model


EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS


Planning for Organisational, Jobs and People Strategic Planning Human Resource Planning Job Analysis Acquiring Human Resource Equal Employment Opportunity Recruiting Selection Building Performance Human Resource Development Human Resource Approaches to improving competitiveness Rewarding Employees Performance appraisal Compensation and benefits Maintaining Human Resources Safety Health Labour relation Selection out Making the change to strategic HRM

ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Goal and value Culture Strategy Technology Structure Size

EMPLOYEES
Motivation Abilities Interests Personality Attitudes

JOBS
Requirements Rewards

JOB OUTCOMES
Performance Productivity Quality Satisfaction Retention

ORGANISATIONAL OUTCOMES
Survival Competitiveness Growth Profitability

Source: Human Resource Strategy; J.W. Walker; 1992; McGraw-Hill International Edition.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

2.3

Human Resource Development (HRD)

Peter Druker (1978) addressed the need for developing human beings in an organisation. He forced management to make substantial capital investment in human resources to develop the human beings in the organisation through training, organizing and developing the people at work, so that they will be able to make the organisation productive with the help of the best contribution of their people at work. Presently, not only Peter Druker, but also every management practitioner seriously thinks in terms of developing human resource though various HRD programmes and HRD policies have been adopted by many organisations. The Human Resource Development approach is essential in order to have the optimum utilisation of manpower for the benefit of both the employees and organisation (Rao, 1988). Increased job satisfaction, improved individual productivity and overall organisational performance are the objectives of human resource development (Kerzers, 1997). HRD is supported to bring forth necessary changes in skills, capabilities and attitudes of people who are required to cope with emerging changes. Thus, HRD has become an integral part of human resource management. HRD approach that stress the need for developing the organisation's own people to suit the updated technology modernization of machinery and equipments and changing trends in attitudes and approaches necessitates to develop individual employees in accordance with his/her aspirations and potentialities on the one hand, and the organisation's requirements on the other (Michael, 1998). HRD Interventionists primarily seek to know what the individuals seek to have, and then try to match it with the organisational needs. HRD deals with a more comprehensive scope of organisational awareness, its activities are designed to increase an individual's overall ability to do a specific job as it integrates with the greater organisation and aims to increase employees' general organisational knowledge, understanding of human relations, or management ability. Noel M. Tichey (1980) expressed that in an organisation, human beings should be developed in following three aspects. Firstly, leadership development to make capable of working in multicultural environments both within and out of the organisation. Secondly, development of new organisational culture because global organisations and the resultant demand for strong operational management necessitates a greater reinforcement in the HR

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

system. It is important to make the implicit explicit to continually examine the culture through a variety of feedback mechanism, mapping out of the culture, assessing where the organisation is, where it wants to go, and carefully identifying strategies for change which contently deal with the cultural gaps. Thirdly, development of new organisational forms to take the shape of viable global organisations. New concepts regarding the definition of work, redistributing tasks, redefining rules, authority, relationships and aspects of power, must be based on new models emerging globally. Human resource development must be able to develop the overall capability of the individual employees of an organisation, and discover and exploit their own potentials for the common goals and for the betterment of themselves. For this, appropriate job design and succession plans must be integrated with any human resource development programme (Parrek, 1995). In fact HRD approaches may take into account the principle of, "form-storm norm-perform". HRD enables executives to gain a job that provides variety and challenge to ones ability and competence, opportunity to learn and develop skills and competence, social support and recognition of work plan, opportunity to relate one's performance and produce to one's social life, and a feeling that work will lead to a desirable future (Pandey, 2000). Finally, there are several benefits of human resource development for both the organisation as well as the individual. The HRD activities help the organisation develop leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, and better attitude towards the organisation and relations between management and the staff members themselves. HRD activities also help improve job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organsiation and these activities also improve the morale of the work force, develop open communication and trust among the management and staff members. Similarly, HRD activities also help the individual in making better decisions and in effective problem solving. These activities encourage the individual to be self-confident and improve his or her leadership knowledge, communication skill and attitudes. It will also help people in handling stress, tension, frustration and conflict smoothly (Silwal, 1998). Such benefits to the individual will be to the benefit of the organisation, in terms of effectiveness and efficiently and ultimately helps in increasing the organisation's productivity, both quantitatively and qualitatively, by fulfilling the goals through optimum use of scarce resource.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

2.3.1 Components of HRD HRD is a continuous process, which matches organisational needs for human resources and the individuals need for a career development. It enables the individual to gain their best human potential by attaining a total all-round development. It promotes dignity of employment in an organisation and provides opportunities for teamwork and personal development. Hence a well-planned HRD system must be a central part of human

resource management in every organisation. A Human Resource Development system has the following components. 2.3.1.1 Development of Leadership

Every organisation needs effective leaders. Leadership styles and traits coupled with leadership roles go a long way in team building, which is an essential aspect of today's managerial effectiveness. This is the reason why leadership development is considered to be an integral part of human resource development. A good manager and leader provide not only leadership to his subordinates, but he makes leaders from his/her subordinates. He/she is not the one who rushes with an answer to every question or a right answer for a wrong question, but he is the one who discovers the right question or the right problem and its right solution. Rather he/she is the one who identifies correct alternative solutions and then chooses the best option from among the alternatives. It is he/she who gets the best solution implemented through his/her followers or subordinates. HRD must be able to create such leaders in the organisation. 2.3.1.2 Organisational Commitment

Organisational commitment is an important variable influencing employee behavior toward his/her organisation. It is the employees' identification with the organisation and its goals, objectives, methods, values and philosophy. When an individual executive or worker fosters organisational commitment, he/she identifies themselves with the value systems of the organisation. It may also mean that the individual's value systems are either identical to the organisation's value systems or the individual makes adjustments in his/her value system in such a way that he/she commits himself to the organisational goals and objectives, compromising his ideas and values with the organisational values, ideas, standards, objectives, patterns, methods and views. Organisational commitment goes a

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

long way in motivation, morale, job satisfaction and productivity since the employee maintains a oneness with the organisation. Factors like job satisfaction, growth prospects, facilities for development, compensation package and other perks, possibility for satisfaction of various needs, organisation's attitudes and approaches to its people, corporate image, grievance handling methods, security and safety of employment, group cohesiveness, welfare facilities, and so on may substantially influence the organisational commitment of people. Organisational culture and work culture may also influence the organisational commitment. In addition to all such factors, employee values have tremendous impact on organisational commitment and hence HRD programmes must aim at establishing and developing conducive employee values as well. 2.3.1.3 Employee Values

In the rapidly changing organisational environment, substantial changes in employee values are brought about by factors like desire for equity and justice, diversity and pluralism, changes in attitudes and approaches, quality of life, personal convictions, and human values. Increasing materialistic values, moonlighting, professional values which replace societal values, dualism in career, flexi time and flexi work, proxy, and so on influence employee values, which affect the employee's behavior in the organisation. Hence, on many occasions behavior modification becomes necessary in order to gain organisational commitment of employees. Various organisational development and training programmes in the past did not succeed in inculcating organisational commitment in the minds of people. Some of these employee values are examined here below: 2.3.1.3.1 Materialistic Values

People are more influenced by materialistic values than spiritual values. Materialism has become the guiding principle of the present generation, as material riches and accumulation of wealth and means for luxury have become the motives for many people. Behavior of people in the organisation is substantially influenced by such materialistic values. HRD programmes must, therefore, educate the people about a proper perspective of life and the futility of excessive importance given to materialistic values.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

2.3.1.3.2

Moonlighting

As a result of such materialistic values, and of many other reasons, people happen to go in search of additional income though their main job provides wages, other allowances, and perks. In search of additional income, they go in for moonlighting, i.e., part time

employment, additional jobs or earning devices. Moonlighting is double employment which very often affects efficiency of the main assignment. It may stand in the way of organisational commitment. There is a possibility that the employee's devotion and dependence on the main job deteriorates due to moonlighting. Hence, HRD programmes must enlighten people to avoid moonlighting. However, it largely depends on how the main employer is able to satisfy the needs of his employees. 2.3.1.3.3 Professional Values

Professionalisation of management and an increasing desire to foster and uphold professional prejudices, prides and a professional career among managers and employees have established a new work culture. People have become more self-centered and selfish. Employees are more concerned about their own profession, of the development of which they strive hard day and night. In the process, they use many methods like strikes, direct agitations, gheraos, intimidations, work stoppages, and so on for the sake of their own interests in countries like India. They reveal no concern for the interests of the customers, prospects or the society. They even neglect social values, interests of the society, and their own social integration. Traditionally strong social bondages give way for social disintegration resulting in a sort of social reorganisation. People increasingly turn to liqueur, drugs and other intoxicants. Even a liqueur based corporate culture begins to be widely accepted. For the sake of professional growth some people sacrifice even human values or family relations, norms and values. Executive stresses increase, and many broken families emerge. In the process, the organisational commitment of people disappears. HRD responsibility backed by counseling is a Herculean task here. 2.3.1.3.4 Dualism in Career

The present generation is made up of families of wives and husbands, both career conscious. Particularly there is an increasing trend of women being more career conscious. Increased encouragement and motivation for women to undertake even odd jobs,

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especially due to a feeling of economic freedom, better social status, superiority feelings, and so on, has resulted in women getting more attached to their jobs, work place, work environment and work philosophy. In the course of time fatigue, misunderstanding with their spouse, some special relationship in the workplace, etc., may divert their attention to the family on the one hand, and reduce the organisational commitment on the other. In the meantime, the small family norm has resulted in families with one or two children who are deprived of parental care and attention resulting in problem such as drug addiction. This may further aggravate the situation, and the economic cushion gained through dual employment may not only be neutralized but reversed. Many such employees turn themselves to be disgruntled and problem employees. Counseling, career guidance and behavior modification efforts may play a very vital role in such situations. 2.3.1.3.5 Flexitime and Flexiwork

Flexitime represents flexible working hours for employees, while flexiwork is a programme that allows flexibility in tasks and the nature of work. The former provides a freedom for workers to choose their working time in his/her organisation, and the latter to choose their work. Though some people advocate for flexitime and flexiwork, the effect of both would be detrimental to maximisation of performance and orderly management of people. Hence, HRD programmes must educate the people and make career counseling in accordance with the situations and organisational needs. 2.3.1.3.6 Employees' Proxy

There are occasions when employees attend their job in proxy. Some people attend their work place, make their attendance, keep their coats hanging on their chairs, and disappear when there is ineffective supervision. In many bureaucratic organisations this occurs often. However, proxy represents the process by which a person belonging to one position gets his work done by somebody else in his place; for example; if a person having higher social status happens to take up a job of lower position, he may have some dislike of doing a disagreeable job himself. In such cases he may engage someone else to complete the task on his behalf. Though such a situation may be very rare in the organisational world, there are other situations of proxy. Some incapable, lethargic or lazy superiors get their work done by some of their subordinates, while they take credit for it themselves. Obviously, such people may have no organisational commitment or reduced organisational

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commitment. HRD programmes have a considerable role to play in ensuring behavior modification in such situations. 2.3.1.4 Behaviour Modification

The Assumption is that behaviour is a function of its consequences. The proposition, therefore, is that a behaviour modification is possible by modifying the consequences. It means that behaviour can be improved, changed, suppressed or modified by what may happen as a result of behaviour. Organisational commitment is a specific employee's behaviour toward his organisation, its values, objectives and methods. On account of various reasons or differences in values, certain individuals may reveal behaviour inappropriate for organisational commitment. In such situations human resource development programmes must go a long way to attain behaviour modification of employees. Every behaviour produces consequences. Hence, the nature of these consequences determines or modifies the behaviour. The behaviour that yields positive outcomes is strengthened, and that which results in negative outcomes tends to be avoided. Then actions which produce positive results are repeated and those that result in negative results are abandoned. If the consequences produced by a particular behaviour can be controlled in some manner, the behaviour can be shaped or altered. It is assumed that the tendency of people to perform certain actions increase when they are provided with positive feedback for engaging in such actions. On the other hand, negative feedback prevents people from doing certain things. When these feedbacks, or principles based on these assumptions take shape, mould, change or modify behaviour, it is known as behaviour modification. Thus, the basic premise of the behaviour modification theory is that behaviour is controlled or modified by its immediate consequences. Important determinants of behaviour modification are positive reinforcement, punishment, negative reinforcement, extinction and schedule of reinforcement, which substantially helps in modifying overt actions or behaviours. Grasha (1988) highlighted the possibility of using the concept to help individuals cope with many of their personal problems like excessive smoking, obesity, shyness, etc. Thinkers like Walter Nord (1969) have indicated the success of behaviour modification in
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an organisational setting. He suggested that behaviour modification techniques and other such operant conditioning are of immense use in organisational situations like effective job design, better programmes for employee compensation, and improvements in organisational climate. According to him "a strategy for attaining such organisational goals would involve the establishment of appropriate reinforcement contingencies. It means that the establishment of conditions for desired behaviours of employees would yield positive results. In a nutshell, it can be observed that operant behaviour conditioning or behaviour modification techniques are effective tools for shaping individual behaviour in organisations. 2.3.1.4.1 Basic Steps in Behaviour Modification

Luthans et al. (1975) outlined a systematic approach to organisational behaviour modification. They have outlined following five basic steps in organisational behaviour modification. 1. Identification of Critical Behaviours, which strongly influence the key aspects of job performance. 2. Measurement of the rate at which these behaviours take place. This helps to determine whether behaviour modification has actually influenced the changes in job related behaviours. 3. Functional analysis of behaviour to understand the conditions which result in given actions being demonstrated by employees, and the consequences of each such action. 4. Development of specific intervention strategy to specify steps to modify the behaviour in question. The intervention strategy includes determination of stimuli or events which reinforce. 5. System evaluation of outcomes to determine change by comparing the prebehaviour with the post-behaviour. 2.3.1.5 Career Planning and Development

No human resource development can be acceptable to the people of any organisation, if it fails to provide opportunities for individual employees to have bright career prospects. It is for the purpose of human resource development integrating career planning and development with it. Proper career planning also leads to career development. It develops the career of every individual executive, which results in adequate growth of the career of
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every employee. Hence, successful planning is closely linked with career planning and development. 2.3.1.6 Performance Appraisal

Performance appraisal is an indispensable aspect of human resource development, which enables management to understand where their people stand, what is expected from them, what they actually do, where they lack capacity, how they can be updated, and so on. Appraisal systems must, on the contrary, be in-built as a sub-system of the whole HRD system. Appraisal must be a normal aspect of human resources management, and appraisal interviews must be held at regular intervals, not to find faults of the employees, but to understand the strengths, weaknesses, need for further development, potential, performance, contribution to the organisational goals, capabilities, organisational commitment, knowledge levels, expectations, aspirations, drawbacks, needs as a human being, abilities, and so on. Both positive and negative aspects concerning each individual must be communicated to the respective person confidentially, and the individual's weaknesses and drawbacks must never be given publicity. Programmes must be planned for developing every individual in terms of his/her capabilities, updating technical, human and behavioral capabilities, overcoming weaknesses, improving productivity of his/her strengths, and so on. It is the appraisal that determines the worth of every employee. One who is capable of taking up challenges and responsibilities can be given greater responsibility. One who has the potential to accept challenges and responsibilities can be trained to be effective. Thus, effective delegation must be based on proper appraisal.

2.3.1.7

Compensation and Reward System

Every individual offers their services to an organisation primarily for a compensation to satisfy their needs. Hence, any compensation plan must take into account the individuals needs. 2.3.1.7.1 Rewards

By the term rewards, we mean recompense in return for a specific service rendered by a person to the organisation. It is a reward or a return in addition to wages, allowances, remuneration, bonus, etc., which are considered to be a part of compensation. It can be a prize, which represents a merit or talent revealed, expressed or achieved. Reward follows achievement.
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Any valuable contribution, suggestion, behaviour, skills, achievement, service, innovation, invention, capability, etc., deserve recognition, appreciation and rewards. Certificates of appreciation, advance increments, medals, prizes in kinds, monetary awards, public recognition, appreciation by the top boss, admission to top management clubs, recognition at the overall organisation level, merit certificate, special privileges or even promotion be used as rewards to motivate employees to make extra ordinary contributions to the organisation. Awards and rewards not only recognize and motivate people, but communicate organisational values to its people. They also convince the members of the organisation about their worth and value in their organisation, and hence they will make greater efforts to achieve. Acquisition of superior knowledge and capability, application of positive attitudes and skills, etc., must be specially rewarded and recognized. Sufficient publicity and media coverage may also be given for such awards. Reward system in the armed forces is a pertinent example, which can be emulated in civil organisations and business establishments also. Business organisations may take the cue from the armed forces, and incorporate a well defined reward system with their HRD system. It can work as a good motivator. A reward system may consist of giving merit certificates, increments, cash awards, recognition, promotion, outside tour programmes, foreign travel, etc, in accordance with the importance of the contribution. Due recognition and publicity must also be given for such awards. Their names and photographs could be published in the organisation's house journal and in extra ordinary cases even in the national newspapers. Once or twice a year public meetings may be arranged in which the awards could be given. National organisations, industry organisations, productivity councils, etc., may start awards for all categories of employees at the national level. They may select people from a panel prepared on the basis of recommendations from various business establishments in the country. 2.3.1.8 Potential Appraisal

Appraisal is one of the most important aspects of human resource development and management. Every such appraisal must have a component of potential appraisal. It evaluates the potentialities of the members of the organisation, particularly potentials of
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executives and people to take up critical jobs, and potentialities of key executives to accept greater challenges. In view of the dynamic nature of business, development of new technology, expansion and modernization, diversification, market penetration, line expansion, new market development, and such other situations, potential people must be located in advance, trained and prepared to take up greater responsibilities and challenges in future. Potential appraisal is needed in such situations. In the dynamic business environment of today, changes of great magnitude occur very often, and key positions fall vacant frequently. Business philosophy, policy and strategy no more remain static, resulting in new challenges. In fact the potential for career advancement of every executive, skilled employee and technocrat must be periodically assessed. Their aptitude for a particular kind of work, their vision, motivation, organisational commitment, loyalty, technical capability, and their willingness and mental preparation to accept specific type of task, must be ascertained periodically so that the capabilities and preparedness of people to perform new roles and handle different sets of responsibilities can be determined. People with aptitude, willingness and commitment can be trained and developed for new roles on the basis of potential appraisal. Hence, potential appraisal must be incorporated with every HRD programme. Very often individual executives who have potentialities to take up new sets of responsibilities can be placed under the existing incumbent and be trained and prepared for new challenges. This helps in three ways: firstly, the individuals' capabilities can be assessed on the job, secondly, he/she can be trained under an experienced superior; and thirdly he/she receives exposure to real work situations and gets advised whether he/she is capable for the job. In case practical job exposure is impossible, simulation programmes can be planned for the respective individual to develop themselves for new challenges. During the course of their exposure, they can take a decision as to whether they fit the position. Career counseling also helps the individual at this stage to choose what is appropriate for them. 2.3.1.9 Effective Counseling

Counseling is an indispensable function of human resource development and management. Career planning, which is closely associated with human resource planning and development, is preceded by career selection. Very often individual executives and

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employees are in a dilemma to choose between various options and alternatives. This is particularly so when more than one career option is available to an individual. In such situations, career counseling has a great role to play. Once a proper career is chosen, development is easier. Many individuals, who failed to make proper choice, became unsuccessful in their lives. It is here that counseling helps in HRD. There are occasions where the individual reaches a crossroads where he needs proper guidance to opt for a proper path. All HRD programmes are bound to fail in such situations, if the individual looses sight of the correct path. Proper counseling alone will be able to help there. There are other situations which involve emotions and provocations in every individual's work life. On all such occasions, counseling has a very great role to play. Hence, counseling must be closely linked with HRD. 2.3.1.10 Human Resource Information System (HRIS)

A well formulated information system must form part of any human resource development system. All the necessary information about all employees and executive of the organisation (backed up by a data bank) must be included in such a system. Basic information about each and every employee, including training needs, training programmes attended, potential appraisal records, performance records, records of accomplishments and rewards, should be updated and stored. Such information can be retrieved whenever required for training and development purposes, career development needs, promotions, rewards or punishments, special projects, and so on. With the help of HRIS, decisions can be made upon who to for a particular job. Hence, human resource development must be backed by human resources information system.

In the context of the recent developments in business, particularly dynamic technological development, human resource information systems have a special significance. In large organisations Computerized Human Resources System (CHRIS) can play a very vital role. It not only stores and retrieves information regarding training and development needs, but training details and information about those who have undergone the various types of training which will be helpful both in potential appraisal and performance appraisal. Effective communication is an essential aspect of human resources management. Human resource information system helps the communication process in an organisation. CHRIS

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is thus an effective tool in the tool kit of human resource managers for HRD in particular, and HRM in general. 2.3.1.11 Grievance Handling

Individuals may have grievances against the organisation for which they work. Certain needs or demands of organisation's own members, which they feel legitimate to be satisfied by the organisation, but have not been provided for by the organisation, become their grievances. It may lead to discontentment and a grudge on the part of the respective individual. In order to gain cooperation of the organisation's own people their grievances need to be settled. Moreover, without settlement of their grievances, HRD programmes may not be effective. Hence, a proper grievance handling machinery should be established in conjunction with the HRD intervention. While genuine grievances must be settled and redressed judiciously, unrealistic and false grievances can be tackled with the help of effective counseling. Covert grievances breed disappointment, discontentment, a feeling of grudge and problem emotions, resulting in low moral, low organisational commitment, and even weak temperament. A person who is subjected to such weak emotions may not be able to positively react to the efforts made by his/her organisation for human resource development. Hence, an organisation's HRD system must have a grievance handling mechanism within it. Such a mechanism acts as a safety valve since it helps to unearth and surface problems in an organisation. It helps the management to convince its people about its sincere

intentions to address their grievances. Even if the grievances are not sometimes settled in favor of the concerned employee, it will help to convince the employee of the concern of the management about his/her grievances. They are more likely to be satisfied when management gives a patient hearing to their grievances. Employees get a sense of solace when they are convinced that the management recognizes their problems. The term "Grievance" denotes a claim or a right, which is due; a ground for complaint, which may generate disputes. According to the International Labour Conference (1967), "the grounds for a grievance may measure of situation which concerns the relations between employer and worker or which affects or may affect the conditions of employment of one or several workers in the undertaking when that measure or situation appears contrary to provisions or an applicable collective agreement of an individual

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contract of employment, to work rules, to laws or regulation or to the custom or usage of the occupation, branch or economic activity or country, regarded being faith". 2.3.1.12 Management Development

Human resource development must have effective programmes for management developments, technical development, supervisory development, worker development and organisation development. It is an important responsibility of the human resources manager to develop managerial talents in the organisation. Every organisation of today must have a training centre attached to it, which may take up management development as well as other types of training. In management development and executive development programme, various aspects like leadership skills, team building and team work skills, interpersonal skills, motivation skills, counseling skills, time management skills, must be incorporated. Various types of training programmes may be helpful for the executive to gain exposure. These are: 1. In-house training programmes according to the needs of the respective organisation. 2. Organisation's executives may be deputed to special training programmes designed and conducted by professional institutions. 3. Top level managers may be deputed for top-level management seminars and international short term training abroad. 4. Executives, who have revealed substantial talents, organisational commitment aptitude and capacities to hold managerial position, may be sponsored to reputed management institutes for academic programme to acquire higher management qualifications. 5. Lower and middle level executives may be supported for short-term training. 6. In organisation annual conferences may be arranged. 2.3.1.13 Technical Development

Development of technical skills forms a part of HRD. Particularly in the context of dynamic technological development, the development of technically capable manpower and the updating of technologic capabilities must be a priority for every organisation. No organisation is able to go ahead with absolute technology and redundant manpower. In place of skilled workers technicians are to be developed and the existing technicians are to be replaced by technocrats. For meeting tomorrow's needs of technical and technological
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needs Human Resource must be developed, and every modernization programme must be backed by technical upgradation, which is the job of HRD. During the last decade there has been tremendous technological development. Electronic industries have reached dizzy heights, and computerization and automation came in a big way. Microprocessor, Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machine, high level of sophistication in technical operations, satellite application and technological revolution in communication technology, and such other emerging technological issues have brought with it an extensive need for technically capable human resources. Revolutionary changes are expected in the realm of technology in the next decade. Development of technically capable manpower to face the emerging challenges is bound to be needed. It is here that the HRD planning must incorporate a well formulated plan for the development of technical manpower. 2.3.1.14 Supervisory Development

The supervisor plays a very pivotal role in the actuating process of any organisation. Supervisory development must, therefore, be one of the important areas of human resource development. A supervisor is the one who has to satisfy many conditions. Actually speaking, he/she must be a multi-dimension and multi-faced personality. They must be technically and behaviorally capable, while they must be an effective leader who has the skill to work with people. While they must be highly achievement motivated, they must be a motivator themselves. They must be a good counselor who fosters a high human value. While they remain workers, they act as representatives of management. In fact, tomorrow's supervisor will be technocrats with a lot of skills and knowledge. 2.3.1.15 Resistance to Change

An effective human resource development enables the organisation to overcome the resistance to change. Obviously resistant to change generally takes place at in the worker's level first. It is here that the supervisory has a great role to play in respect of changes, which take place in an organisation. Every organisation is a sub-system of the whole social system. Hence, every change that takes place in the society has an impact on the organisation also. This is the reason why a social change or an environment change has a corresponding change effect in the organisation.

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There are various types of changes like social change, economic change, political change, technological change, and so on, which result in changes in the organisations also. The changes which occur in organisations, particularly business organisation, may include, technological changes, process changes, technical changes, policy changes, structural changes, and so on. All such changes can invite resistance from the organisation's own people. 2.3.1.16 Organisation Development

Not only individual employees or group, which must be responsive to the changes that take place in the business environment and business, but the whole organisation, must be responsive to changes. This is the reason why organisation development deserves to be taken care of in response to the demands of the changes in the business environment. Actually speaking an organisation responsive to the development alone will be able to face the challenges from time to time. Such an organisation with ability to provide management with methods and techniques for systematically diagnosing, planning, implementing, and sustaining change in order to increase the organisational effectiveness as Mescon et al. (1985) observed. Organisation development is a long range effort to improve an organisations problem solving and renewal process, particularly through a more effective and collaborative management of organisational culture.

2.3.1.17

Training and Educating

Management writers have stressed the need for training and developing organisation own people so as to equip them to accept challenges. It is not sufficient only to train the people, but to educate them, if the organisations human resources are to be properly developed. Training is the act of increasing knowledge and the skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Its concerned with imparting specific skills for particular purpose. On the other hand education is a boarder term concerned with increasing the general knowledge and understanding of the employees total environment (Reddy, 1992). Thus, when a person is taught how to assemble the two objects and tighten a nut means giving training him and if an engineering course is given to him is an education. 2.3.1.18 Feedback

Every HRD system must have a built in sub-system for feedback. Feedback from the employees, who are subject to the HRD intervention of the organisation, enables the
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organisation to determine whether the intervention is effective. It also provides information about the performance of the people who work for the organisation. When feedback is linked with goal setting, the result is bound to be positive as Nemeroff et al. (1979) have observed. This is in consonance with the basic psychological principle that knowledge of results is a necessary condition for effective learning. One may not improve his performance if he does not hope for a positive result. It means that HRD intervention facilitates the process of linking goal setting and feedback. As a good result is expected, positive efforts are imminent; and then feedback is bound to be realistic. Thus, the feedback system makes the HRM and HRD activities function effectively. While the HRD manager gets a periodical awareness of what is going on in the organisation through his feedback system, it not only keeps the management informed about the functioning of the HRD system, if not the whole organisation. On the other hand, it motivates the executives to strive hard to accomplish the goals effectively. Similarly, the whole evaluation and appraisal process has its main input through feedback. Feedback must, therefore, be an integral part of human resources development and management. 2.3.2 Factors Affecting HRD

The factors affecting on HRD have great influence on the productivity of an organisation. Therefore, the affecting factors to HRD are as mentioned below: 2.3.2.1 Globalization

One major trend with implications for HRD is globalization. It is fostered not only by technological change, the continually falling costs of communication and transport but also by the decisions of developing countries to embrace market oriented development strategies and to open their countries increasingly to the world economy. The world is thus fast becoming one interdependent global market place. Competitiveness of both nations and organisation will be on an international basis. Worldwide competition has increased, the pace of economic change has accelerated and the process of development has become less predictable. Competitiveness will be decided on a countrys or an organisations capacity to add value to global economic products services and process (Reich, 1991). A key contributor in this regard is the knowledge and skills of the workforce. In fact the education and skills of the workforce will be the key competitive weapon for the rest of the 1990s as well as for the 21st century (Reich 1991
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and Lester, 1994). Globalization impacts on HRD in various ways. Thus, compared to the past, organisation will need to update much more regularly the skills mix of their employees to respond to the opportunities or threats created by globalization and rapid technological change. Indeed intense global competition is reconfiguring the market place. Organisation increasingly has to compete by differentiating themselves from their competitors by the quality of the human systems and processes behind their products and services (Meister, 1994). The attitudes, knowledge and skills of the workforce of the organisation have great influence on its products and services. Competition will be less and less in terms of how the features and benefits of ones product/services compare with those of another as more products are perceived to be at parity by customers (product convergences). 2.3.2.2 Changing Organisational Structures/Work

Patterns changing organisational structures and work patterns are another trend. The organisation of the future, according to Charles Handy (1990), will be a shamrock organisation. The shamrock organisations will have the following three elements: 1. A small and essential core group of professional, technicians and managers. 2. A group of sub-contractors who produce goods and services which the core group does not have to: and 3. A growing group of temporary and part time workers who are hired to provide specialized services or to help at peak workloads. The small core or professionals, technicians and managers will need to be the focus for human resource management. More investment in the management and training of parttime and temporary workers will also be required. Technological changes, especially information technology and telecommunications, and competition in the fast moving competitive global marketplace have changed work organisations and working patterns. The productions of goods and services have become flexible and customized instead of being mass-produced in long production lines. Fixed automation involving repetitive tasks is being replaced by flexible automation. On-line quality control has replaced end of line checking. Instead of fragmentation of tasks, increasing use is made of terms and multiskilled workers. Decision-making is being decentralized to points of productions and sale. The organisational hierarchy is flatter with middle layers of management eliminated. The gap between those in control of institutional leadership and those responsible for
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production and delivery of products or services is narrowed. As a result of these changes in working patterns, the role of workers has broadened with a consequent need for a wider range of skills. Employees now need a much wider complement of skills than was case in the previous traditional slower moving hierarchal organisation with clear of command and thinkers at the top and does at the bottom. Information technology and the advances in and the falling costs of telecommunications mean that it is no longer critical to site office or organisations near the customers. The workforce has become more mobile. One impact on work patterns that is emerging is relationship organisations or virtual corporations. A virtual corporation, suppliers, customers and even completers in a temporary organisation to share skills and costs and access to one anothers markets. The virtual organisation has a very small core with many resources supported from the outside but without a physical set up. Virtual offices are emerging as organisations are leveraging cyberspace and electronic technology to cut costs like rentals and to boost productivity. In such virtual offices workers stay out of the office but retain contact through high technology gadgets, which could be handheld devices that can receive, and send e-mail and faxes. Telecommuting is one form of the virtual office where workers work from the home or just about anywhere outside the office. Richard Nolan, a professor of business administration from Harvard University predicts that the virtual office will be mainstream rather than an experiment with in three years time (Asia Newsweek 1995). The development of virtual organisations has HRD implications. Virtual corporations need workers who are highly skirted, reliable and educated, able to understand the new forms of information, adaptable and can work efficiently with others, employees need not just technical skills but also the skill of learning how to learn to cope with continuous and radical changes of virtual businesses. New forms of training, which are flexible, on demand and interactive, will have to be devised for employees of virtual organisation. Human resource development policies and programmes will have to change in response to these changes. 2.3.2.3 Rapid Knowledge Obsolescence

The exponential growth of knowledge and the rapid change of science and technology is another global trend. Knowledge is doubling every 7-10 years. The resultant relatively raid
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obsolescence of knowledge and skills have implications for HRD. The rapid rate of accumulation of new knowledge and the fast pace of technological change will mean a need for regular knowledge updating and skills upgrading. More frequent job changes will become the norm. Schools and other education and training institutions will have to teach the ability to learn and inoculate the acceptance of life-long education and training. Continuing education and training programmes will have to be developed by not only education and training institutions but also professional bodies. 2.3.2.4 Skills Required by Organisation

The American Society for Training and Development (ASTDs) 1990 report lists seven groups of skills wanted by employers. They are: i Knowing How to Learn: This is the most basic of all skills. With this skill employees can more easily acquire other skills. The skill involves the capacity to collect, analyze, organize and apply information. It covers techniques, attitudes and knowledge that facilitate processing of information. It is also the ability to use appropriate technology as well as the capability to apply it in a new context at work. This skill therefore enables workers to adapt quickly to new demands at work. Learning is a part of working life with competitive pressures and changing technology. Furthermore the availability, amount and complexity of information have increased. Employers see the skill of knowing how to learn as the key to retraining efforts and continuing education. Most importantly the skills enable more efficient application of new knowledge to work thus greatly assisting the organisation to meet its strategic goals and competitive challenges. ii Reading, Writing and Computation: For traditional jobs working often involves going through a regularized process or repetitive interaction with machines. Illiteracy and innumeracy could be hidden of ignored. But todays workplace involves increasingly interaction with sophisticated computerized equipment, which requires good reading and computation skills. Higher mathematical skills are required first step in communicating with customers, documenting competitive transactions or successfully moving new ideas into the workplace. Workers spend daily an average one and one-half to two hours reading forms, charts, graphs, manuals, computer terminals, etc., writing remains the primary form of communicating policies,

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procedures and concepts, computation is used daily to conduct inventories, report, on production levels, measure machine parts or specifications, etc. Deficiencies in these skills will result in productivity decline, increased accident rates and costly production errors. It will also be difficult to effect necessary job retraining. An employers ability to meet strategic goal and to be competitive will be impaired. iii Communication Skills; Speaking and Listening Effectively: Communication is central is the smooth operation of an organisation. These skills are at the heart of winning and keeping customers. Pitching innovation, contribution to quality circles, resolving conflicts and providing meaningful feedback all hinge on effective communication skills. Workers spend most of their in some form of communication. Success on the job is linked to good communication skills. In fact recent studies have shown that only job knowledge ranks above communication skills as a factor for workplace success. Business leaders estimate that deficiencies in these skills cost employers millions each year in lost productivity and errors. iv Adaptability Skills; Solving Problems and Thinking Creatively: Organisations are increasingly placing a premium on a worker who is both a problem solver and a creative thinker. As decision-making is decentralized to the point of actual production or service delivery, an organistions competitive positions may hinge on its workers' ability to solve problems quickly. A competitive advantage is frequently tied to a organisations capacity to innovate from linear thinking in order to make the creative leap. Successful problem solving involves firstly skill in individual problem solving; secondly skill in-group problem solving and thirdly practical ability in combining individual and group skills. Cognitive skills, group interaction skills and problem-processing skills are crucial to successful problem solving. Creative thinking is the ability to use different modes of thought, to come up with something new, to visualize, foresee or form new combinations of ideas to fulfill a need. In the workplace creative thinking is generally manifested as creative problem solving or creative innovation. Often group activity, creative problem solving is characterized by effective teamwork, the examination of problems in a new way and the invention of new solutions to existing problems. On the other hand creative innovation is either an individual or group activity. It is the development of new activities that expand markets and improve such elements as productivity. An organisations ability to
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achieve its strategic objectives often depends on the problem solving and creative thinking skills of its workforce. Unresolved problems create dysfunctional relationships in the workplace, which can become impediments to dealing with strategic change in an open-ended and creative way. Creative solutions help the organisation to move towards its strategic goals. v Developmental Skills; Managing Personal and Professional-Growth: Personal management skills are the building blocks for good morale, a focused work life and even organisational productivity. A strong foundation of skill self-esteem, motivation, and goal setting and employability/career development influences the behavior, attitudes and desires of worker and ultimately contributes to an organisation's ability to carry out its mission and strategies. Today workers are increasingly called upon to make decisions at the point of production or at the point of sale and to display good interpersonal skills when they work in teams or with customers. A positive sense of self-worth is important to success in these areas. For an employer to succeed in the market place, employees must be motivated. They must posses the ability to set and meet reasonable goals. Individual employees lack of motivation or goal setting skills can produce repeated errors, absenteeism and quality problems or it can hinder change. vi Group Effectiveness; Interpersonal Skills, Teamwork and Negotiation Skills: At work an employee constantly interacts with other people to perform work roles effectively requires good interpersonal, teamwork and negotiation skills. Interpersonal skills include the ability to judge and balance appropriate behavior, cope with undesirable behavior in others, absorb stress, deal with ambiguity, listen, inspire confidence in others, structure social interaction, share responsibility and interact easily with others. These skills are essential to successful negotiation of conflicts, which are a fact of work life. Negotiating skills include the ability to separate people from the problem, to focus on interests not positions, to work out compromises for mutual gain, to use objective criteria and an understanding of the approach by the circumstance. Interpersonal and negotiation skills are the cornerstone of successful teamwork. Teams, which are increasingly being used, are organized in the workplace so that appropriate talents and skills can be pooled to accomplish vital tasks and goals. This pooling of resources requires team members
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to have an array of skills that individual or routine jobs do not demand. Quality teamwork results when team members know how to recognize and cope with the various unique personalities and when each has a sense of the cultures and approaches those other team members represent. Team members also need an understanding of group dynamics, which evolve and change as the team approaches its goal. Finally team members must be aware of the technical skills of fellow members and how these skills can be applied. vii Influencing skills; Organized Effectiveness and Leadership: Organisation is a maze of explicit and implicit structures that make up their culture. Good performance can only occur when employees know the culture of their workplace; both organisational effectiveness and leadership skills are required. Organisational effectiveness skills include the behaviors, attitudes and knowledge an employee needs to achieve success on the job both as an individual and as a member of an organisation. Each employee uses these skills to adapt to organsational expectations, rules and regulations including expected job performance levels. They provide guidelines for establishing appropriate and effective interrelationships.

Organisational effectiveness skills are the building blocks for leadership. Without them, leadership can be misplaced or even be counterproductive. At its most elementary level, leadership means that a person can influence others to act in a certain way. The employee may need at times to influence his work group and to provide a vision of what the organisation as a whole or the specific task at hand requires. Leadership skills are necessary at every level of the organisation from chief executive to the line worker. 2.3.2.5 Organisational Value/ Culture

The organisation's view of the importance of people and how they should be treated is inevitably an important factor in personal involvement. The organisational culture plays a vital role for the effectiveness of the HRD programme. The organisation must have learning culture, which means it should continuously examine and improve the existing system and procedure as the internal and external environment changes. The organisation should develop a mechanism for the regular follow up and evaluation of the different training and provide additional time and resources, it required, to fulfill HRD the goals. The organisation needs to develop a learning culture in order for any HRD to be effective.
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2.3.2.6

Employee Value and Behaviour

The employees need to have desire to learn and benefit from the programme (Monappa et al., 1994). If the employees are not motivated then the HRD programme itself will not help the person to learn and to bring changes in their attitude and behavior. Therefore, employee must feel the need of learning (Silwal, 1998). There is vital role of the personal value on building the learning environment. Positive attitude is required. Similarly, the organisation also should develop a policy to motivate the employees by providing financial and non-financial rewards after the successful completion of the new KSA learned from any HRD. 2.3.2.7 Political Instability

To bust up the HRD activities political environment of a country also plays an important role. The political body governs most of the policy level performance. Formulation of the policy and its implementation is affected by the political situation. If the political situation is in good condition, every human welfare achievements can be flourished. So, for the higher productivity of an organisation, there a stable but dynamic political situation of a country is required. 2.3.3 HRD Activities

To develop the capacity of the staff or employee of any organisation there are many activities. The activities to be carried out are based on the need of the people and the nature of the information required. There are some HRD activities described below. 2.3.3.1 Training

Training is a means for helping members of an organisation to acquire the knowledge, skills, abilities and positive attitude that is required by an organisation (Robinson, 1990). Chaudhary (1994) states the training as the process of assisting a person for enhancing his efficiency and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his professional knowledge, by developing skills relevant to his work, and cultivating appropriate behaviour and attitude towards work and the people he works with. 2.3.3.1.1 Training efforts for HRD

Management mostly has relied on training the people as a part of developing their organisations. For an effective human resource development, there must be a constant effort to develop people on the part of management. Training is an instrument of
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developing the employees or workforce by enriching the skills and improving the human behaviour, which result in organisation development adequate enough for the accomplishment of objectives from time to time. It helps organisations and individuals to develop themselves in consonance with the changing needs of the environment in which they survive, operate and progress. Training in technology, profession, organisational behaviour, and management development are common. 2.3.3.1.2 Types of Training

Training is the main activity in the HRD. There are many types of training that can be categorized on the basis of duration, nature, purpose, subject matter, activity or methods applied. The most common types of training are as mentioned below. 2.3.3.1.2.1 Orientation Training

It is a training programme used to induct a new employee into the new social of his work. The new employee is introduced to his job co-employee. He is also informed about the rules, working conditions, privileges and activities of the organisation, what the organisation does, how it serves the community and other particulars pertaining to the organisation (Reddy, 1992). Most of the information is likely to be embodied in an employee handbook, which is distributed to all employees, and in the case of a rank and file worker, the orientation may consist only of a brief explanation by a member of the personnel department or the supervisor under whom the employee will work. Induction training can, however, be more elaborate, particularly in the case of supervisory and management employees. Some organisations show movies explaining organisation activities, others arrange for a lecture or a series of lectures on the organisation and its practices. In some cases, the new employee spends anywhere from a day an overall view of how the activities of one department affect those of other departments. If the new employee is an unskilled or a semi-skilled worker, for example a machine operator, he may be asked to spend some time on the shop floor in order to familiarize himself with the machines, equipment and working conditions. In some organisation the complete induction programme is divided into phases (Reddy et al., 1992), in the first phase, induction is done by the personnel department, which supplies to the new employee all sorts of information relating to the organisation. In the second phase, the supervisor
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does induction. He has the responsibility of seeing that both the newcomer and the work team accept each other. The supervisor should follow a set induction procedure. A ten step programme provide for: Greeting the newcomer cordially; Displaying personal interest in the newcomer; Reviewing his terms of employment; Giving additional information; Showing the newcomer around; Explaining the importance of his job in relation to other jobs; Introducing the newcomer to the rest of the work team; Telling the newcomer his duties; Selecting a person who can assist the newcomer on the job; and Follow up frequently. The induction training not only helps personal adjustment of the employee to his job and work group but also promotes good morale in the organisation. In view of these advantages, many large organisations give much importance to induction training. 2.3.3.1.2.2 On-the-Job Training

The object of on-the-job training is to increase the knowledge of workers about the jobs with which they are concerned, so that their efficiency and skill of performance are improved. In on-the-job training, workers are enabled to learn correct methods of handling machines and equipment, avoiding accidents, removing bottlenecks, minimizing waste, etc. This is one most effective method of developing manpower by gaining experience and learning by doing. Learning by doing implies that one should participate in doing by involving oneself. An executive may not be able to develop himself by doing certain things repetitively just like a robot. But if he involves himself, with his full heart and mind in an active and formative manner, he develops himself on the job. Sometimes working as an assistant to key executives, taking up responsibilities and challenges on the actual operational jobs, accepting special assignments, etc. Provide opportunities for executive to effectively learn by doing. It helps in many ways: a) b) c) d) e) f) Development of skill by doing, group thinking and cooperative action. Learning from what others do, leading to self-development. Development through teamwork, interrelationship and involvement. Development in interpersonal skills, ability to adapt, and behaviour modification. Gaining accommodative skills and adjustability. Development of human values, and ability to control emotions.

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g) Gaining maturity: the ability to accept other peoples ideas, opinions and interests, and to accept varying viewpoints. h) Development of leadership and follower-ship by involving oneself in various groups. i) Development of managerial capability. Thus, on-the-job training helps individual to be efficient and effective by doing the tings themselves on the job situation. 2.3.3.1.2.3 On-the-Job Coaching

Coaching is instructing or tutoring while and individual is personally on the job in action. The term coaching is commonly used in sports or games. Coaching an employee is the process of developing him on-the-job by enabling him to undertake and carry out tasks or critical tasks under the direct supervision, instruction and guidance of a superior. This is a way in which a person prepares to perform jobs and tasks in future. This method is also effective on the management development. The superior helps in this process; his subordinates develop the judgment required, the competence needed and the commitment essential for effectively holding the responsibility and carrying out the tasks. A superior knows the strengths and weaknesses of his subordinate is in better a position to be his coach provided the subordinate accepts him. Being a superior, he is in a position to assign tasks to his subordinates. If the subordinate accepts the superiors role as a coach, he will involve himself in the work and put his heart and mind in it to develop himself on the job. If he does not recognize the role of a coach in his superior he may still perform the task in a mechanical way. In the former case the development process is effective. Under any condition, the learning process is related to a concrete working situation. A manager or a superior who supervises effectively the work of his subordinate practically coaches. Teaches and vouches the development process in his subordinates. There are at least ten elements in this coaching process viz. entrusting the responsibility, creating a team. Delegating authority, directing, instilling confidence, setting standards, motivating to accomplish in accordance with standard, and counseling, encouraging, and correcting and keeping the proper track wherever the trainee happens to go wrong. The coaching process is fulfilling for the superior who is committed in developing his people, particularly when the subordinates are talented, potential and committed. But when the superior lacks faith and confidence in his subordinates, the superior has to make

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

efforts in changing the performance of the subordinates. Thus, the superiors job as a coach is very important. 2.3.3.1.2.4 Job Rotation

Job rotation is another method of used to develop employee in organisation. It is a systematic programme of moving and interchanging employees from one job to another, throughout the organisation for suitable periods of time. Job rotation has many advantages. In this process the organisation gets to know the men who are really versatile, outstanding, competent, and capable so that they can be entrusted with responsibilities and challenges. 2.3.3.1.2.5 Multiple Management

Multiple management is used by many organisations to develop the skills and knowledge of the employee in the job situation. Especially this was developed by Charles P. McCormack (1932) for selecting, evaluation, training, and developing lower and middle management people. It was first experimented at McCormick & Organisation. Multiple management devises implies the appointment of management boards to function independently in all functions. An organisation with a profit center philosophy can have separate management board in each profit center. Thus, every organisation may have multiple management boards functioning under the top management or the top management board. Multiple management technique has been introduced in many organisatios, for training managers on the job situations. It provides the strongest kind of social motivation to gain adequate management culture and capability. Every individuals desire to win approval enables him to involve himself in such development programmes. 2.3.3.1.2.6 Promotional Training

Many concerns follow a policy of filling some of the vacancies at higher levels by promoting existing employee. This policy increases the morale of workers. They try to put up maximum efficiency so that they may be considered for promotion. When the existing employees are promoted to superior positions in the organisation, they are required to shoulder new responsibilities. For this, training has to be given to them so that they may not experience any difficulty to shoulder the responsibilities of the new position to which they have been promoted.

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2.3.3.1.2.7

Refresher Training

At the time of initial appointment, employees are formally trained for their jobs. But with the passage of time, they may forget some of the methods, which were taught to them, or they may have become outdated because of technological development and improved techniques of management and production. Hence, refresher training is arranged for existing employees in order to provide them an opportunity to revive and also to improve their knowledge. According to Dale Yoder, refresher-training programmes are designed to avoid Personnel Obsolescence. 2.3.3.1.2.8 Corrective Training

When an employee violates organisation rules or policies, such as by being absent often of by smoking in a No Smoking area or zone, the manager needs to find a way to deal with the problem. Sometimes he thinks that the solution to the problem is discipline, but the trouble with the word discipline is that it implies punishment. His aim should be not to get even with the employee, but rather to reform the employee. In other word, he should handle the problem with treatment that corrects rather than punishes. By its very nature, corrective training implies criticism. The manager should criticize his employees in private soon after the mistake but not before his own anger has cooled off. He should criticize the act and not the individual and should explain to the employee why it is important to both the organisation and the employee that he should change his behaviour. 2.3.3.1.2.9 Off-the-Job Training

Off-the-job training is conducted in location specially designated for training. It may be near the work place or away from work, at special training center or a resort. Conducting the training away from the work place minimizes distraction and allows trainees to devote their attention to the material being taught (Fisher, 1997) Off-the-job training programmes can be effective if they are drawn on actual organisation problems. Trainers may, therefore, conduct surveys to determine actual needs for training. Development programmes planned on the basis of actual needs to be effective. Resource persons from within the organisation should be developed to be trainers, and there must be a permanent training system in an organisation. However, in order to supplement the internal resources, professional trainers may also be used from outside the organisation. Various methods can be used for developing executives in an organisation. Training

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

methods can be grouped into two categories: Training Methods for operatives and for Managers. 2.3.3.1.2.9.1 Training Methods for Operatives

One-the-job training methods are by far the most important method used for training the rank and file workers in a factory. Under these methods the new employee is assigned to a specific job at a machine, or workshop or laboratory. He is instructed by an experienced employee or by a special supervisor who explains to his the method of handling tools, operating the machines, etc. Under this method, the worker not only learns the work under the guidance of a supervisor but also produces goods in that process. As this method does not require any special arrangement such as having a training school, it is inexpensive and has become a very popular method of training for the employees. Further, it enables the workers to learn in the environment of the job. Another feature of this method is that it takes less time to provide training to the worker and also directly adds for the productions. Further, this method has the advantages of simplicity because there is no division of responsibility between a staff training department and line supervision. However, the effectiveness of this training method depends primarily on the experience and competence of the supervisor and his interest in giving proper training to the worker. In the words of Betty (1974),on-the-job training, for its success needs a properly trained instructor; otherwise an inefficient instructor can produce a number of inefficient offspring. There are several methods in vogue, which make use of the on-the-job training concept. 2.3.3.1.2.9.1.1 Vestibule Training

This method involves the creation of a separate training center within the plant itself for the purpose of proving training to the new employees. An experienced instructor is put in charge of this training. Machines and tools are also arranged in the center so as to create working conditions similar to those in the workshop. This method has several advantages. As the trainee remains free from the confusion and the pressure of the work situation, he is able to concentrate on learning. Further, while training is being imparted, there is no interference with regular production. The method also saves costly machines from being damaged by mishandling of untrained workers. The disadvantages of this training are that it is relatively costly, it adds nothing to the production during the training period and the artificial atmosphere usually associated with this type of training does sometimes create adjustment problems for trainees.
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2.3.3.1.2.9.1.2

Apprenticeship Training

This method of training is meant to give the trainee sufficient knowledge and skill in those trades and crafts in which a long period of training is required for gaining complete proficiency. Generally, the trainees work as apprentices under the direct supervision of experts for long periods of say, two to seven years. This programme consists of providing actual work experience in the actual job as well as imparting theoretical knowledge through classroom lectures which may be arranged either in the plant or in the institution attached to the concern. Before accepting a person as an apprentice, an agreement is entered into by the employer with the trainee or his guardian, stating the terms and conditions of training. This method of training enables the trainees to become all round craftsmen. But his method is very expensive and also there is no guarantee that a trained worker will continue to work in the same concern after the training is completed. 2.3.3.1.2.9.1.3 Internship Training

This method of training is generally provided to the skilled and technical personnel. This method involves a joint programme of training in which enterprises and the vocational and the training institutions cooperate. The object of this type of training is to bring about a balance between theoretical and practical knowledge. Under this method, students from a technical institution possessing only theoretical knowledge are sent to some business enterprise to gain practical work experience. Similarly, the employees of business enterprise are sent to technical institutions to gain the latest theoretical knowledge on a subject. 2.3.3.1.2.9.2 Training Method for Managers

Executive talent is the most important asset, which an organisation can posses. Although it does not appear on the organisations balance sheet, it produces more important affects on the organisations progress, its profit and the price of its stock than any other asset in its possession. Research, experimentation, testing, and experience have yielded a great variety of training methods, which are used in executive development programmes. Some of these methods are meant for newly recruited executives only, their aim being to generate in these trainees a deeper understanding of managerial functions. Some other training methods aim at increasing the problem solving skills of managers. Still others aim at changing their attitudes. Brief descriptions of these methods are given below.

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2.3.3.1.2.9.2.1

Observation Assignment

Under this method, the newly recruited executive called understudy is made an assistant to the current jobholder. He learns by experience, observation and imitation. If decisions are discussed with him, he is informed on the policies and theories involved. But if the current jobholder neglects him, the understudy does not learn much by this method. Moreover, the method tends to perpetuate mistake and other deficiencies characteristic of existing managerial practice. 2.3.3.1.2.9.2.2 Position Rotation

Under this method, the trainee executive is rotated among different managerial jobs. This not only broadens and enriches his experience as a manager but also enables him to understand interdepartmental relations and the need for coordination and cooperation among various departments. 2.3.3.1.2.9.2.3 Serving on Committees

Another important method of training an executive is to make him serve on a committee. While serving on a committee, the executive comes to learn not only various organisational problems and views of several senior and experienced members but also learns how a manager should adjust himself to the overall needs of the enterprise. 2.3.3.1.2.9.2.4 Assignment of Special Projects

Sometimes, as a method of training, some special project is assigned to a trainee executive. For example, he may be asked to develop a system of cost allocation in the production of certain goods for which an order has been received by the organisation. While working on such projects, the trainee not only acquires knowledge about them but also learns how to work with relate to other people holding different views. 2.3.3.1.2.10 Conferences and Seminars

Often an executive is deputed to attend a conference, seminar or workshop to receive a quick orientation in various areas of management with which he might be unfamiliar. One advantage of this type of training is that all the participants coming from different organisations get an opportunity to pool their ideas and experience in attempting to solve mutual problems. The attitude is one of joint exploration. These encourage crossfertilization of ideas.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

2.3.3.1.2.10

Case Study

A case is a written account seeking to describe an actual situation. A good case is the vehicle by which a chunk of reality is brought into the classroom to be discussed over by the class and the instructor. Discussion on a case requires a capable instructor who can evoke and guide intelligent discussion and analysis, so those meaningful learning experiences occur. There is no right answer or simple explanation in the comprehensive case. The advantages of this method are more depth of thinking, more perception in a situation, greater respect for and consideration for the opinion of others. 2.3.3.1.2.12 Incident Method

Developed at the Massachusetts Institutes of Technology, this method is an outgrowth of dissatisfaction felt by Paul and Pigors with the case method. In the usual case method the entire problem is presented to the students, whereas in the incident method only a brief incident is presented to provoke discussion in the class. The group then puts questions to the instructor to draw out of him the salient facts and additional information needed to arrive at a reasonable solution, or resolution of the case. This method draws the participants into discussion with greater emotional involvement. A unique advantage of this method over the case method is the procedure of obtaining information by question, one that often must take in actual business situation. 2.3.3.1.2.13 Role Playing

In this method, the instructor assigns parts taken from case material to group members. The situation is usually one involving conflict between people. The role players attempt to act the parts, as they would behave in a real life situation, working without a script or memorized lines and improvising as they play the parts. The development of empathy and sensitivity is one of the primary objectives of role-playing. 2.3.3.1.2.14 Sensitivity Training (or Laboratory Training)

This type of training is designed to increase the managers understanding of his own impact on others. The training takes the form of a group discussion, and though a leader trained in the technique is present, the group may decide on the subject of discussion or suggest changes in procedure. In the course of the discussion, conflict, hostility, stress and frustration may be purposely generated for they later on become motivations for growth as well as food for learning. As these experiences are worked through and the leanings

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

internalized, participants soon begin to experience a deeper sense of self-awareness and acceptance. These, in turn, lead to an increased awareness and acceptance of others. For example, one of the participants may become disturbed at the apparent lack of purpose in the discussion and may remark that he is sick of wasting his time. His remark may generate a number of questions from other participants, which may be difficult for him to answer, e.g. What do you mean by saying this? What are you really mad at? This may make him realize gradually that a large part of the group disagrees with him. In this way, he is learning something about people he has not known before. He is induced to examine his behaviour, values, needs, knowledge and feelings constituting his inner world and to integrate it with the expectations of his social environment. In short, the laboratory training aims at achieving behavioral effectiveness in transactions with ones environment. According to Katz, this method depends for its success on the following conditions: 1. The trainee must sincerely want to improve his human relation skill. 2. He must be willing to face up squarely to his own inadequacies, without rationalizing or minimizing them. 3. He must be provided with a permissive atmosphere which shields out censure or ridicule when he exposes his weakness. 4. He must have someone who he trusts, who is interested in helping him improve his performance, and who is himself sufficiently skilled so that he is able to help without imposing his values on the trainee. 5. He must be provided with direct experience in working with others, where he can learn and practice the new skills he acquires. 2.3.3.1.2.15 Autonomy Training

One of the latest approaches to management training called autonomy training is aimed at developing the individuals ability to manage his own training. It involves leaving the trainee almost entirely on his own. He has first to work out what he would like to learn, and then teach him. The concept on which this method rests is that with the tremendous speed at which new knowledge is replacing the old, it is impossible for a standardized course to cater to the mass of individual training needs. So managers must be trained to teach themselves new skills as they go along. In this training, also as in the sensitivity training, the situation is kept unstructured. There is no programme and the trainer refuses to direct toe programme or give lectures. Instead, he merely indicates a vast array of
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resources such as books, films, articles, management games, psychological tests, etc., from which the participant must choose in order to build his own programme. Often consultants are available for discussion or counseling, but only if the participant seeks them out. Participants can also consult with each other. 2.3.3.1.3 Training Cycle

Because of the objective of HRD is to contribute to the organisations overall goals, training programmes should be developed systematically and with the organisations true needs in mind. However, often they are not. Instead of training objectives may be undetermined or hazy and the programme may not be evaluated rigorously or at all. In fact, it sometimes seems that what is important is that the training programme is attention getting, dramatic, contemporary fun. Whether or not the programme changes behaviour becomes secondary (Hinrichs, 1976). The training cycle can be shown in the three phases: a. The Assessment Phase b. The Designing Phase c. The Delivery Phase d. The Evaluation Phases (Goldstein, 1986) 2.3.3.1.3.1 Assessment Phase

Successful training begins with a thorough needs assessment to determine which employees need to be trained and what they need to be trained to do. In context of the revolutionary changes in technology, society, economy, human behaviour, political system and so on, no organisation can offer to remain static. In order to keep an organisation vibrate and responsive to the needs of environment, constant training and development programme must be conducted by every organisation (Rossett and Arwady, 1987), a training need is a condition where there is a difference can be in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and skills, that trainees need to perform more effectively and efficiently (Wentling, 1993).

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Figure 2.2 the Training Cycle Assessment Phase TNA Org. Analysis Task Analysis Ind. Analysis Identification of Skills and Knowledge (Have & Lack)

Designing Phase Identify Training Objectives Delivery Phase Select training Methods and Apply Learning Principle Conduct Training Evaluation Phase REFLECTION AND REVIEW Measure and Compare Training Outcomes against Criteria

Develop Criteria Develop Training Course and Material

Gap Analysis

Follow-up Feedback
Source: Training Needs Assessments of CFUGS for Active Forest Mgt. (SB Magar, 2003)

A need analysis helps to identify the gap, which helps to inform the planning of training; it guides the formulation of training objectives and assists in the identification of training content. The term analysis refers to the process of breaking up a complex whole in to its component parts. This concept is not unique to the training context. It can be used to simplify and understanding anything that has component part. The need analysis process involves breaking down the training problem or need into its parts so that training content can be identified understood. The need analysis can be done in these three major levels: the organisation analysis, the job and task analysis and individual analysis.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

2.3.3.1.3.1.1

Organisational Analysis

Organisation consists of a group or groups of individuals having common aim and objectives for certain goals to be fulfilled in the fixed time of period by utilizing the limited resources. It has its own mission, vision, and objectives, set up rules and regulation, own culture norms and values. All thee factors affect on all the activities that are to be performed. Along these there must be problems, errors, or mistakes which obstacles to achieve to objectives. All these things must be analyzed in organisational level. TNA in this level gives the clear picture about the desire and achieved, which ultimately leads towards to what should be done (Magar, 1998). It looks at the proposed training within the context of the rest of the organisation. A prime consideration is whether or not the proposed training will be compatible with the organisations strategy. Goals and culture, and whether the employees will be likely to transfer the skills they learn in training to their actual jobs. Corporate culture compatibility is especially important for management training and executives development. Efforts to train managers to lead, make decisions or communicate in ways that are most valued or expected to launched the programme in effective and efficient way. The impact that training of one unit has on other related units also is considered in an organisational analysis. For instant if the accounting group is trained to use new procedures, and then the other groups that either provides impart to the accounting group or utilize the report produced by this group may also need some orientation. If training is to be provided to a large number of employees throughout the organisation, the organisation need to analyse and may ask which unite should begin receiving the training first. The answer may be the units that need it most. Alternatively, one may decide to begin with units known to be specially receptive to training in order to develop a record of success and made a positive image for the training programme among others in the organisation. The organisations future plan must also be considered. 2.3.3.1.3.1.2 Job and Task Analysis

A job analysis is a systematic explanation of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job (Robbins, 1998). This analysis involves completing a detail description of tasks, determining the relationship of job to technology and to other jobs on

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

examining knowledge, qualification or employment standards accountabilities and other incumbent requirements (Hendorson, 1982). Job analysis indicates what activities and accountabilities the entails. Three is no mystery to a job analysis; it is a just an accurate recording of the activities involved. Job analysis involves the dissecting of a job or major work event into its component parts. In other words job analysis is what is involved in the job? End product of the job analysis is a list of tasks that workers complete in the course of their work. Job consists of series of tasks. So analysis; it is the identification of task Task is the smallest part of work. Task analysis involves breaking down the job tasks into their consecutive steps on component parts. After identification of task in job analysis, each identified task is again. Task is distinct work activity carried out for a distinct purpose (DeCenzo, 1995). Analysis to determine its relative importance and criticalness in terms of accomplishing the job task plays a vital role on the designing the training. Task inventories can pin point specific task performed on the job, and the critical incidents method helps identify tasks that are not being performed correctly. (Schoenfeld, 1997) 2.3.3.1.3.1.3 Individual Analysis

Final level analysis looks at the individuals to be trained. This attempt to determine which employees should receive training and what their current level of skills and knowledge are. The trainer may single out individual on the basis of the past performance or select an entire work group or all incumbents with a specific job title. Then the trainer assesses or at least estimates, the skill and knowledge levels of the chooser trainees, so that the training is neither too simple nor too complex. Attention must focus on prerequisite basic skills, as well as existing job related skills and knowledge. The final step in the assessment phase is to translate the needs identified by the organisation, task and individual analysis into measurable objectives that can guide the training effort. Training needs assessment helps to develop the training course,

curriculum, methods, materials, resource person and budget. 2.3.3.1.3.2 Designing Phase

Training involves meeting the instructional needs of people. Training which fails to meet learning needs of trainees is a waste of time, effort and resources (Wentling, 1993). On the basis of finding of Training Need Assessment it is necessary to state exactly what the trainees are to accomplish and also what to accept as proof that they have met these goals.
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All these come within designing phase. Training objectives are the foundation of effective training. Unless training objectives are developed, a lesson can not be systematically designed to achieve particular outcomes. Trainees expect their training to be useful to them. The objectives of the training should be mentioned according to the trainees' need because actual objectives are the statement of what a trainee will be able to do at the end of session. The content of the training also designed according to the objectives of the training and the outcomes from the job and task analysis. Development of training criteria is another aspect of effective training designed. The specific criteria of the training are necessary for effective output. Similarly, selection of training methods and materials also play a key role on learning process of trainees. The use of variety of training methods and technique not only increase the interest of trainees but also the program effectiveness. It also encourages active participation by the audience 2.3.3.1.3.3 Deliver Phase

Once the training needs have been identified, objectives have been set up, course has been developed then the training is delivered according to planned methods and materials to achieve the set objectives. Training delivery is the implementation of the previous plan. This is accomplished by selecting training methods and developing training materials. During delivery it must address the required skills and knowledge by the participants then it will be more effective. There are many factors that affect the learning outcome, such as, the training methodology, language, communication skills, experience and the attitude of the trainers. Similarly the training environment and the interaction between the trainer and the trainees are other important factors in affecting training effectiveness. Each of these factors must be considered very care fully in order to increase the learning of the trainees (Silwal, 1998). 2.3.3.1.3.4 Evaluation Phase

This is the final phase in the training cycle. Evaluation is the determination of the extent to which the training activities have met the goals. The basic approach to evaluation should be to determine of the extent to which the training programme has met the objectives identified prior to the training. Planning for the evaluation should start at the same time that planning for the training programme begins. If the goals of the programme are clearly stated as the specific objectives, the appropriate evaluation method can be implemented at the same time as the programme.
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2.3.3.2

Demonstration

Demonstration is another most important HRD activity. Through it people can learn about how to perform any activity. Demonstration can be categorized as two types such as result demonstration and methods demonstration. The result demonstration is a method of teaching designed to show by example the practical application of an established facts or group of related facts. In other words, it is a way of showing people the value or worth of an improved practice where success has already been established on the research station, followed by different trails or observation. In this method the new practice is compared with the old practice and is demonstrated what actually happens when a particular practice is followed. Methods demonstration is a relatively short time demonstration given before a group to show how to carry out an entirely new practice or an old practice in a better way. It is designed to demonstration how to do things properly than to prove the worth of the practice. The combination of both hearing and seeing makes a strong impression. 2.3.3.3 Study Tour

Study tour is another HRD activity in which employees can learn their required KSA through visiting different places, industries or any organisation that may be locally, nationally and/or internationally. Study tour makes the employee expose with the external environment. It helps to understand the problem and analyses the situation. It stimulates the interest, conviction and action respect of specific practice. It also impress the people about the feasibility and utility of a series of relate practice and help to recognize the problem. 2.3.3.4 Further Study

Through further study people can develop their career so it is an important HRD activity. Further study upgrade and update employees KSA. It broadens the employee is

knowledge by getting further education. Further study should be included in policy of human resource management. 2.4 Human Resource Development Strategy (HRDS)

HRD strategy involved a central philosophy of the way that people in the organisation are managed, and the translation of this into personnel policies and practices. It requires personnel polices and practices to be integrated so that they make a coherent whole and also that this whole is integrated with the organisation or organisational strategy (Hendry et al., 1986). Baird et al. as early as (1983) argued that there can be no organisational

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

strategy without the inclusion of human resources. As identified by Handy et al. (1989) is that the above demands a strategic view of the role of personnel management in the organisation. HRD strategy is generally behaviour based. In the traditional ideal model there would be analysis of the types of employee behaviour required to fulfill organisation objectives, and then and identification of personnel policies and practices which would bring about and reinforce this behaviours (Scholar et al., 1987). They used the three generic organisation strategies defined by Porter (1974) and for each identified employee role behaviour and HRD policies required their conclusions are shown in table below.

Table 2.1 Organisation strategies and associated employee role behaviour and HRD policies

Strategy 1. Innovation

Employee role behaviour A high degree of creative behaviour Longer term focus

Relatively high level of cooperative, interdependent behaviour

A moderate degree of concern for quality

2. Quality enhancement

A moderate concern for quality, an equal degree of concern for process and results A greater degree of risk taking a higher tolerance of ambiguity and unpredictability Relatively repetitive and predictable behaviours A more long term or intermediate focus

HRD policies Jobs that require close interaction and coordination among groups of individuals Performance appraisal that are move likely to reflect longer term and group based achievements Jobs that allow employees to develop skills that can be used in other position in the firm Compensation systems that emphasize internal equity rather than external or market based equity Pay rates that tend to be low, bet that allow employees to be stockholders and have more freedom to choose the mix of components that make up their pay package Broad career paths to reinforce the development of a broad range of skills

Relativity fixed and explicit job descriptions High levels of employee participation in decisions relevant to immediate work conditions and the job itself A mix of individual and group criteria for performance appraisal that is mostly short term and results orientated A relatively egalitarian treatment of employees and some guarantees of employment security Extensive and continuous training and development of employees

A moderate amount of cooperative, intermediate behaviour A high concern for quality

3. Cost reduction

A modest concern for quality of output high concern for process low risk taking activities commitment to the goals of the organisation Relatively repetitive and predictable behaviour A rather short term focus

Relatively fixed and explicit job descriptions that allow little room for ambiguity Narrowly designed jobs and narrowly defined career paths that encourage specialisation expertise and efficiency
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Primarily autonomous or quality of individual activity Moderate concern for quality High concern for quality of out put primary concern for results; low risk taking activity; relatively high degree of comfort with stability

Short term results orientated performance appraisals Close monitoring of market pays levels for use in making compensation decisions Minimal levels of employee training and development

Source: Shuler and Jackson (1987) Some human resource development strategies describe the behavior of all employees, but others have concentrated on the behaviour of chief executives and senior managers (Purcell 1992). Miles et al. (1978), align appropriate managerial characteristics to three generic strategies of prospector, defender and analyser. The rational behind this matching process is that if managerial attributes and skills are aligned to the organisational strategy, then a higher level of organisational performance will result. Many human resource development strategies aim to target not just behaviour but through behaviour change to effect a change in the culture of the organisation. The target is, therefore, to change the common view of the way we do things around here and the attempt to change the beliefs and value of employees. There are particularly important different in terms of process and purpose. In human resource planning the manager is connect with motivating people of process in which costs, numbers, control and systems interact to play of part. In

manpower planning the manager concerned with the numerical element of forecasting supply demand matching and control in which people are a part (Bramham 1989). The emphasis in Bramham's view is on motivating employees to achieve organisational objectives by defining plans and targets that enable the personnel function to manage the culture of the organisation.

2.5

The degree of integration between organisational strategy and HRD strategy

The degree of integration between organisational strategy and HRD strategies varies considerably between different organisations according to nature of the organisation. Degree of integration between organisational strategy and HRD strategies and range of possible relationships can be described in following five models. i Separation model: In the separation model there is disjoint relationship, if indeed organisational and HRD strategy did exist in an explicit form in the organisation.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

This is a typical picture of twenty years ago, but it still exists today, particularly in smaller organisations. ii Fit model: The fit model represents a growing recognition of the importance of people in the achievement of organisational strategy. Employees are seen as key in the implementation of the declared organisational strategy, and HRD strategy is designed to fit the requirements of the organisation's strategy. Some of the early formal models of HRD strategy, particularly that proposed by Fombrun et al. (1984) concentrate on how the HRD strategy can be designed to ensure a close fit. This whole approach depends on a view of strategy formulation as a logical rational process, which remains the view in many organisations. The relationship in the fit model is exemplified by organisations which flow their business objectives down from the senior management team through functions, through departments, through teams, and so on. Functions, for example, have to propose a functional strategy, which enables the organisational strategy to be achieved. Departments have to propose a strategy, which enables the functional strategy to be achieved and so in. In this way the personnel function is required to respond to organisational strategy by defining a strategy, which meets organisational demands. iii Dialogue model: The dialogue model takes the relationship one step further, as it recognises the need for two way communications and some debate. What is demanded in the organisation's strategy may not be viewed as feasible and alternative possibilities need to be reviewed. iv Holistic model: The holistic model shows a much closer involvement between organisational and human resource strategy. The holistic model represents the people of the organsiation being recognized as the key to completive advantage rather than just the way of implementing organisational strategy. In other words HR strategy is not just the means for achieving business strategy (the ends), but an end in itself. HRD strategy therefore becomes critical and as Bird argued, there can be no strategy with out HRD strategy. Boxall (1996) develops this idea in relation to the resource based firm and argues convincingly that business strategy can usefully be interpreted as more broad than a competitive strategy. In which
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case business strategy can encompass a variety of other strategies including HRM, and he describes these strategies as the piece of a jigsaw. This suggests mutual development and some form of integration it appears that the personnel function has finally made it. v HRD driven model: HRD driven model also shows a much closer involvement between organisational and human resource strategy. The HR driven model offers a more extreme form, which places HRD strategy in prime position. The argument here is that if people are the key to competitive advantage then it is a must to build on people strength. Logically, then as the potential of employees will undoubtedly affect the achievement of goals and planned strategy, it would be sensible to make account of this in developing organisational strategic direction. Dulter (1988) identifies this model as a shift from HRD as the implementers of strategy to HRD as driving force in the formulation of the strategy. Diagrammatic Presentation of HRDS Model OS
SEPARATION MODEL

HR

OS
FIT MODEL

HR

OS
DIALOGUE MODEL

HRD

OS

HRD

HOLISTIC MODEL

OS
HR DRIVEN MODEL
Note: HR OS HRDS

HRD

= Human Resource = Organisational Strategy = Human Resource Development Strategy

Figure2.3: Potential Relationships between Organisational Strategy and HR Strategy

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

2.6

Human Resource Development Strategic Themes

The range of current human resource strategic themes includes flexibility, quality, customer orientation, empowerment, commitment, team working, leadership and continuous learning. Many of these learning themes are interlinked and typically each organisation will combine a range of themes appropriate to its needs. Flexibility is commonly identified as an organisational goal, although Blyton and Morris (1992) argue that there is only limited evidence of its being used strategically as opposed to short-term 'fix'. Flexibility can be defined in a wide variety of different ways: Blyton and Morris concentrate on four key type of flexibility: a) Task or functional Flexibility: Where employees may be multi-skilled and involved in a wide range of tasks, with fewer boundaries between jobs. This type of flexibility encourages team working practices, and in its ultimate form destroys the distinction between craft and operator jobs and tasks. b) Numerical flexibility: Where the labour supply is made flexible by the use of different types of employment contracts and subcontracting. core/periphery strategies. c) Temporal flexibility: Where the number and timing of hour worked can be varied to meet organisational needs in annual hour's contractors. d) Wage flexibility: Where wages offered are individualised rather then standarised, by the use of performance related pay or pay to skills offered rather than tasks allocated. Although flexibility is high on the agenda, there are some potential contradictions with other some strategic themes. The use of functional flexibility, which is, decreases the use of special skills and the use of subcontractors for the achievements of a quality strategy. Quality is another key theme. The achievement of a quality service or a quality product demands a culture of quality where everyone in the organisation feels responsible for seeking out and solving problems in the production process and where everyone desires and takes part in continuous improvement. In this way quality is built into the process rather than being checked at the end. To achieve this, responsibility needs to be delegated to the lowest possible level in the organisation, and full participation and involvement of all employees is expected. Individuals are "empowered" by being given the resources and support to take on this responsibility. Team based environments are usually operated where the team is given a target and it is up to them to decide how they control themselves Hakim (1990) found some

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

and achieve the task. One of the platforms of a quality culture is often the requirement to "get it right first time". Very closely tied up with quality is the notion of customer orientation. Quality is often defined in term of the product being fit for the purpose intended, understanding customer needs and meeting customer expectation (Dale et al., 1992). This brings with it and emphasis on getting to know the customer and their needs and responding appropriately. In human resource terms these require a culture, which always puts the customer first in everything that is done. This customer orientation does not only apply to external

customer or the organisation but internal ones too. In this way one department or team will be the customer for the work that is produced by another department or team. Also closely tied up with the achievement of quality is a strategic emphasis on employee commitment. Given this commitment employees can be trusted to take responsibility and make the right decisions. This commitment removes the need for a high level of control. Commitment is seen to flow from involvement and empowerment and also appropriate leadership. This increased emphasis leadership underlines the value of vision and the ability to inspire employee rather that traditional management skills. Continuous learning is a strategic theme which is increasingly apparent, at which we would argue is perhaps the most critical. A learning culture is based on the idea that it's okay to say. "I don't know the answer ... but I'm going to find out"/ and where it is okay to get things wrong as long as we learn something from that. 2.8 Productivity

Productivity is the "quantity or volume of the major products or service that an organisation provides (Robbins, 1980). In other words, it is the amount of work that is being produced in the organisation, in terns of how much and how well high productivity is what makes an organisation thrive without a good product or service to sell, problems in an organisation are sure to arise (DeCenzo et al., 1998). The term "productivity" and "efficiency" are used interchangeably. Thus, productivity relates to the efficiency with which the labour inputs and capital inputs are utilised. Efficiency has been defined as the ratio of energic output or production to energic input or cost (Katz et al., 1970). It relates to the extent to which the inputs of an organisation emerge as product and the extent to which it is absorbed by the organisational system. Indeed, efficiency is concerned not

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

only with labour input and materials or direct costs but also with plant and equipment or indirect costs. The efficiency may be of two types - potential efficiency and actual efficiency. The potential efficiency relates to the extent to which energic investment in several forms such as supplies, power, etc., is required for each unit of output while the actual efficiency relates to the extent to which the organisation utilises the energy at its disposal. Efficiency differs from effectiveness. Explicitly, efficiency relates to the

maximisation of return by economic and technical measures in the organisation where as effectiveness involves maximisation of return by all measures including economic, technical and non-economic or political measures. According to another viewpoint,

efficiency involves only economic factors while effectiveness involves not only economic factors but also social and mental factors. In another way, efficiency is concerned with the economy and speed of efforts and the effectiveness relates to the attainment of established objectives in organisational settings. Thus, as Bloom et al. (1969) point out, efficiency or productivity refers to ratio between output measure in specific units and any input factor, also measured in specific units.
Figure 2.4: Sutermeiser's Productivity Wheel

Source: Management of Human Resources: a Behavioral Approach to personnel, 1985; RS Dwivedi; India
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Frequently, statistic series dealing with productivity are based upon a comparison over time of output in relation to labour input. However, as Bloom and Northrup point out, an index relating labour input and output such as output per man hour, reflects the combined impact of several factors including changes in leadership, capital investment, rate of plant utilisation, managerial efficiency and scale of operation as well as skill, quality and effort of the human resources. There are two types of statistics on productivity. The first type of statistics measure productivity in terms of output per hour paid and the other in terms of output per hour worked. Usually, hours worked is considered as the proper statistic for analysing productivity. From a practical standpoint, statistics or productivity is based upon production data obtained in two ways, one by construction or an index of output and the other by deflation of a value series. It should be recognised that productivity

calculations are merely estimates involving imputation and guesswork. Explicitly, the productivity is measured by engineers or administrators. Sometimes, they need assistance in devising a standardised system for identification and calculation of every unit of production. This can frequently be found in government departments, schools and offices where services are the major products. There are several other criteria to assess productivity or efficiency such as absences, turnover, accidents, and grievances, requests for transfers, strikes, scrap losses and allied factors. productivity can be computed by the formula as follow: Productivity = (Standard production time/Actual production time)*100 2.7.1 Factors of Organisational Productivity Frequently, employee

Productivity improvement programmes are becoming more popular with organisations. Many components constitute the productivity factor; we can condense these components into four categories - capital investment, innovation, learning and motivation (Stein, 1983). Capital investment includes having the best possible machinery available that will help improve the efficiency of the workers. This machinery or equipment can be in many forms - from robots to word processors. The concept behind capital investment is to provide the latest technologically advanced equipments that will help the workers to work smarter not harder.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Innovation is process where by new and creative ideas are welcomed, studied feasibility and if feasible, implemented. Some better selling products/services or larger cost saving have come from ideas submitted by employees. Success of the programme rests on innovations, such as finding more expedient means of delivering raw materials in order to reduce the idle time associated with waiting for materials to be delivered. Learning looks at training issues. It is desired individuals work not only effectively (doing the right things) but they also be efficient (doing the things right) as well. To be effective and efficient in their work, employees must have the proper skills, and in many cases, these skills have to be taught especially if we consider the skills needed to use a new piece of equipment.

Finally, productivity is contingent on an employee's motivation.

The best trained

employee, one who not only has the ability but has access to the most - advanced piece of equipment, will not be productive if he or she is willing to be so. Attitude plays an important role as to whether an individual has the propensity to work. Accordingly, to increase productivity we must, in part, change an employee's attitude - or, in academic terms, increase his or her morale. Dunn and Stephens (1972) describe general and specific factors in productivity based on classifications provided by Reynolds et al. (1969), respectively. 2.7.1.1 General Factors

The general factors classified by Reynolds (1964) include factor proportions, rate of technical progress, managerial ability and performance of workers. Firstly, the basic factors of production such as land, labour and capital are required in suitable proportion to increase productivity. However, in developing countries labour is abundance and its ratio to land is high causing low average yield per worker. Likewise, in developing countries, there is also shortage of capital hampering employee productivity. Thus, in developing countries productivity is much lower than that in developed countries in view of factor disproportions. Secondly, rate of technical progress, which relates to rate of development of new products, new processes and new equipment, is associated with high productivity. In advance countries, productivity is high because of their high rates of technical progress while in developing countries it is low in view of their low rate of technical progress. Thirdly, managerial ability and performance are of utmost significance from the standpoint of productivity. The employee productivity in an organisation increases or decreases are
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depending upon the managerial ability and performance, although the workforce remains the same. Finally, capacity and performance of workers form a factor in productivity. The workers in different nations differ in terms of productivity because of their divergent knowledge, training, attitudes, skills, health and physical strength and allied factors. It may be noted that potentiality of human resources for performance remains largely unutilised because of failure on the part of management to sustain their high level of motivation. 2.7.1.2 Specific Factors

There are numerous technical and human factors, which determine employee productivity on the job. Sutermeiseter (1969) lucidly describes these specific factors involved in productivity. These factors have been shown in Sutermeister's productivity wheel (Figure 2.2). As the figure shows, productivity is the function of technical and employee's job performance factors. The technical factors include technological development, raw materials, job layout and methods while the employee's job performance factors are ability and motivation. Ability involves knowledge and skill while motivation is influenced by individual's needs, physical and social conditions. A further perusal of the wheel reveals utmost complexity of factors involved in productivity. Explicitly, knowledge involves education, experience, training and interest while skill relates to aptitude and personality. Individual needs include physiological, social and egoistic needs embracing several variables. Physical conditions include lighting, temperature, ventilation, rest pauses, safety and music whereas social conditions include union, leaders, informal groups and formal organisation which, in turn, involve several factors. In another way, as Dunn and Stephen point out, there are three categories of specific factors in productivity including employee ability, employee motivation and situational factors. 2.7.1.3 Ability Factors

As indicated above, productivity is markedly determined by ability factors including knowledge and skill. Training and development is needed to increase the ability of human resources to enhance their productivity. In developing countries, ability factors are of utmost significance because of prevalence of labour intensive industries. While in capital intensive industries, productivity can be increased by improving machines, redesigning the product or making allied engineering or product oriented changes, in labour intensive industries, the ability of human resources must be increased through several measures to
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enhance productivity as much as possible. In addition to training and development, ability factors should be taken into account by the management in selection and placement programmes. Several psychological tests for the measurement of ability factors can be effectively used to match the human resources and jobs to make the best possible applications of ability factors in organisational settings. 2.7.1.4 Motivational Factors

Effective training and placement of individuals to make the best possible use of human ability are still inadequate to obtain the highest performance. The individuals must have the will to work and be motivated to accomplish it. Indeed, employee productivity is also markedly influenced by motivational factors. Motivation has been defined as an internal factor which energizes, directs and integrates an individual's behaviour (Murry, 1964). Motivation cannot be observed directly but is inferred from behaviour. It is an internal drive which propels an individual to action and which starts from a lack or deficit of some thing and ceases with the attainment of goals or a reward or satisfaction of the need. Obviously, the goal or reward satisfies individual and his drive no longer operates after the satisfaction of his needs. Motives have been classified by Murray in five categories including homeostatic motives such as hunger and thirst, sexual motives, emotional motives such as fear, anger, anxiety, love, etc., intrinsic motives such a curiosity and cognition and social motives such as achievement and affiliation. As Dunn et al. (1972) point out, the basic problem of motivation to work relates to the decision to join an organisation, decision to make the maximum use of abilities and the decision to desert an organisation. Obviously, these decisions are markedly determined by the hierarchy of needs of individuals, although situational factors obtained in the enterprise and the alternative job opportunities elsewhere also exert impact in these respects. Maslow's hierarchy of needs asserts that the higher needs remain inoperative so long as the lower order needs are not satisfied. The hierarchy of needs in order of strength consists of physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego needs and self-fulfillment needs. However, this hierarchy is considered flexible. In fact, some individuals may have the satisfaction of prestige or ego needs as the sole goal in their life while other categories of needs i.e., self-fulfillment may be hampered in the early part of life of the individuals, which may be hampered in the early part of life of the individuals, which may never appear. Thus, Maslow's hierarchy of needs is not a rigid concept. In addition, situational
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factors such as non-availability of job elsewhere may exert influence on the motivation level of the individual and thus, production is likely to increase. 2.8.1.5 Situational Factors

Situational factors involve impact of supervision and leadership, reward, penalties and discipline, performance appraisal and job evaluation. In this context, we shall concentrate on supervision. The supervisor plays a key role in organisational settings. Indeed, he is a link pin between higher management and the workforce of operatives. A supervisor is one who supervises non-supervisory employees and forms the last link in the managerial hierarchy. He requires managerial and technical skill along with leadership style to

accomplish the results through his group of operatives. At this stage of knowledge it is not possible to generalise supervisory characteristics, which consistently influence workforce to be more productive. The supervisor may select suitable supervisory style on the basis of his experience with the group and its past performance record. However, there are some characters, which have been found frequently among effective supervisors. According to Dunn and Stephen, these characteristics includes setting high standards or goals enforcing these standards through reward or punishments influences on higher managers to get things done for subordinates, supports for subordinates, consistencies between action and values and attitude, behavourial flexibilities and predictability and technical knowledge and managerial skills. It may be noted that productivity itself may influences his supervisory style. supervisory style is highly complex. While productivity improvements can be achieved through a series of events - proper equipment, increased motivation - one common thread exists. That thread is workers' ability to accept and implement. On building such capacity, latency and attitude proper HRD strategy of an organisation is a must. Indeed the relationship between productivity and

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Chapter three

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design

The method applied for assessing the impact of HRD strategy on organisational productivity is based on the evaluation of perceptions of the different level of RDC personnel and the appraisal of the available documents. The knowledge about their

perceptions is based on the staff's responses to a set of questions constituting different factors associated with HRD strategy. Annual reports, previous research and other

available documents were also reviewed. The responses are then statistically analyzed to assess the impact of HRD strategy on organisational productivity. It is, therefore, field study and descriptive analytical approach is adopted for the study. It is field study because attempt is being made to explore the facts related to RDC HRD strategy and organisational productivity. So, it is also analytical for all the responses of the respondents are rated on the basis of Likert Five Point scale and other related statistical tools consulting with statisticians. 3.2 Population

This study was carried out at the Rural Development Centre (RDC) of United Mission to Nepal. The population of this study was the whole number of RDC personnel i.e. 55 and 4
Fig. 3.1 Schematic diagram for population

Administrative staff = 19

Universe = 59

Former Staff = 4

Progamme Head = 5 Training staff = 31

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

former RDC staff who had worked in RDC as a programme head and sufficiently practiced the HRD system of RDC. To make this study effective, whole population was stratified into three sub population or categories. The first type sub population was training staff that included trainer and training officer. Second type of sub population was present training programme head and former staff of RDC and the last was administrative staff. Figure 3.1 illustrated that the training staff belonged 31, administrative staff belonged to 19, training programme heads belonged to 5 and the former head were 4. 3.3 Sampling

Due to the limited time and resources for this research, it was not possible to collect data from each and every individual of each and every category of population. However, maximum care is taken to ensure the representative of population as far as possible and to avoid any sort of irregularity thereby. Stratified Random sampling technique was applied for sample selection. The purpose of sampling in this research is to obtain the optimum results and the best possible estimates of the population parameters within the available time and resources. 3.4.1 Sample Selection

For selecting samples, at first the population was classified into three categories. The classification of the population was based on their HRD character. There were two types of HRD practices one is for training staff and other is for administrative staff. Within the training staff there is also two type of HRD credit allocation system. Therefore, whole population was stratified into three categories according to their HRD characteristics. After stratification of population, every individuals of category were assigned the number and randomly selected to avoid the biasness.
Table N. 3.1 Estimated sample intensity of study SN 1 2 3 Category Training staff (trainer and training officer) Programme heads (Training coordinators) Former training coordinators Administrative staff Total Total 31 5 4 19 59 Number Sample 22 5 3 12 42 Intensity 71.0 100.0 75.0 63.2 71.2

As shown in the tables 3.1, 22 (71%) training staff were selected as sample unite out of 30. Similarly, all programme heads out of five, 3 (75%) former programme heads out of 4,

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

and 12 (63.3%) administrative staffs out of 19 were selected as sample units. In total 42 out of 59 were selected as samples that calculates the sample intensity of 71.2% and questionnaire were distributed to them, but out 42 only 34 (81%) questionnaires were collected. The main causes behind collection of only 81% of questionnaires were as follows: 1. Respondents went to field training for a long duration. 2. Some respondents resigned from RDC after getting this questionnaire. 3. Some did not fill and returned the questionnaire. On the basis of collected questionnaires, data were presented, analyzed and decisions were taken. Table 3.2 shows the actual sample intensity of this research on the basis of collected questionnaire. In total, 57.6% staffs were sampled for the study. Among them, training staff were 61.3%, programme head were 77.8% and the administrative staffs were 42.1%.
Table N. 3.2 Actual sample intensity of study Category Total Respondents Training staff 31 19 Training programme head 9 7 Administration staff 19 8 Total 59 34

SN 1 2 3

Sample intensity 61.3 77.8 42.1 57.6

3.4

Source of Data

Source of data provides required information and facts which are necessary to analyze, conclude and finally come to a decision. In this research mostly primary and secondary sources of data were used. 3.4.1 Primary Data

Primary data are those data which are collected fresh and for the first time. Therefore, they are in the original character. In this research data collected through questionnaire survey, observation, informal discussion with checklist from the personnel in the different level of RDC are primary data. 3.4.2 Secondary Data

These data are already collected, passed through the statistical process and presented in different forms. In this study different reports of RDC, research thesis, journal, training list, brochure, evaluation reports, financial statement etc., were observed and anlysed as a secondary source of data.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

3.5

Research Instrument

The study as stated earlier is a task of assessing the impact of HRD strategy on organisational productivity. Continuous observation, recording and comparative study of the performance of personnel before and after receiving the HRD activities will provide real and relevant information. Therefore, considering the identified constraints, questionnaire technique and selected interviews with checklist was adopted as a research instrument for the collection of primary data on which the study depends much. Apart from this general observation, document review etc., were also applied as a tools of data collection. Collected data were edited, processed and statistically analyzed. 3.6 Data Collection

For the research work both primary and secondary data were used. Basically, this study is totally based on primary data and limited secondary data. All the statistical analysis, interpretation and presentation were mainly derived from the data of primary source. Therefore, due to the prime requirement of such nature of data, questionnaire survey method was applied as a tool of data collection. Apart from this interview with checklist, general observation and document review were adopted for primary data collection and the available documents were reviewed for the collection of secondary data. 3.6.1 Questionnaire Survey

In this context a set of well thought questionnaires (see appendix -1) was constructed. Mainly concerning to the question, all the questions were composed of different style. Some questions were multiple choice type, some were alternate choice or closed type, some were ranking with point scale, but some questions were open type. Before distributing the questionnaire to the respondents pretest was done to test the relevancy of it, then it was reviewed with feedback and finalized for distribution to collect the data. The questionnaire forms were distributed among the sampled individuals of the three groups. After the distribution of the forms, a month of time was given to the respondents to fill up the questionnaires. Respondents were frequently met, discussed and conducted regular follow-up which helped to collect the form in time. People felt it easy to remove all confusions related to questions. This helped the researcher a little bit more to acquire a free and frank response than would otherwise be expected.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

3.6.2

Interview with Checklist

Interview with checklist (see appendix - 2) was the methods of data collection for this research. Selected key informants, one from each category were interviewed and discussed in the practicing approach of HRD in RDC. Generally, factors affecting HRD and the problems and related issues were discussed during the interview. Purposive sampling was applied for interview. Two people from each category were selected. 3.6.3 Document Review

Document review was another major method used in this study. Documents available in RDC were sufficiently reviewed. The documents like annual report, HRD policy of RDC, personnel policy of UMN, strategic plan of RDC, annual financial report, occasional papers, research report and different thesis related to the HRD of RDC were reviewed. Basically, secondary data for the research related to HRD of RDC were cited and derived. 3.6.4 General Observation

Generally observation was used to scrutinize the change in behavior after application of a treatment to the individual. Within short period of time it is difficult to get the significant change in behavior but some remarkable things i.e. management system, material production, office management, guideline and training session plan, individual goal set, daily performed activity plan etc., were observed and indirectly discussed. 3.7 Data Analysis

Various statistical tools are used for making the study more realistic and easily understandable. Simple means are frequently used. All the interpretations and analysis are specially based on the mode and mean values of the responses of respondents. The rating of response (opinion) is done with the help of Likert Five Points Scale. And all the frequencies rated converted into mean value assuming the representative figure. The data are analysed statistically working with the mean value of the response and frequencies by means of applicable tools. Similarly, all the tabulations chart, graphs are demonstrated with the help of statistical procedures. On the basis of quantitative and qualitative result the inferences were drawn, conclusions and recommendations were made. 3.7.1 Analysis of Multiple Choice Type Responses

Some questions in the questionnaire were provided to respondents with the multiplechoice type of question. They had many options and they can choose more than one option
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which were most close to their job behavior. In such type of question a frequency table

Table 3.3 Sample example of multiple choice type questions Training Programme Head Administration Roles and Responsibility f % f % f % Training design and delivery 19 100 5 71.4 1 12.5 Coordination and Networking 4 21.1 7 100 3 37.5 Training support service 8 42.1 6 85.7 6 75 Administration work 2 10.5 7 100 4 50 Training material production 18 94.7 5 71.4 5 62.5 Decision making 1 5.3 7 100 2 25 Supervisory role 2 10.5 7 100 4 50 Consultancy and resource person 16 84.2 3 42.9 1 12.5

Total 25 14 20 13 28 10 13 20

% 73.5 41.2 58.8 38.2 82.4 29.4 38.2 58.8

was prepared on the basis of how many people chose a particular character, then percentage was calculated in reference to total number of respondents and decision were made by reason of high to low frequency percentage. An example for "roles and

responsibilities of respondents" was shown below. A question with eight choices was given to respondents. They were well instructed to give tick mark () in the most suitable options that may be more than one. A frequency table was prepared for individual category. In example a character "training design and delivery" was ticked by 19 training staff out of 19 people, 5 programme head out of 7 people, 1 administration staff out of 8. In total 25 RDC staff gave the tick mark on this character out of 34. The figure was expressed in percentage by (1919)*100 for only training staff, (57)*100 for only programme head, (18)*100 for administration staff and (2534)*100 for total respectively. Similarly all the numerical figure of other character was calculated by this process. The format and color of above table was applied to all the table of this type of analysis in the upcoming chapter to make easy recognition and understand the table information. 3.7.2 Analysis of Single Choice Responses

In this type of question many options for a question were provided to the respondents. In many options respondents were instructed to choose only one option which was most suitable in their opinion. Then data were presented in the frequency table and calculated in the percentage. Table 3.3 below is an example of this type analysis. In this example five options were provided to the respondents. Each respondent were well informed to give one choice among the provided options. "Equally on work related and private interest" is one character out of five. For this character 12 training staff out of 19 people, 2 programme

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

head out of 7 people, 6 administrative out of 8 people and 20 staff in total of 34 people gave their response. Within the category wise the percentage of frequency was calculated by (1219)*100=63.2% for only training staff, (27)*100=28.6% for only programme head, (68)*100=75% for administration staff and (2034)*100=58.8 for total respectively. To make easy recognition and understand the table information, the format and color of below table was applied to all table of this type of analysis in the upcoming chapter.
Table 3.4 Sample example for single choice type question Training Pro Head Admin Focus of HRD f % f % f % Only work related 1 5.3 1 14.3 0 0 Only private interest 1 5.3 0 0 0 0 Equally on work related and private interest 12 63.2 2 28.6 6 75 More work related than private interest 5 26.3 4 57.1 2 25 More private interest than work related 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 19 100 7 100 8 100

Total F % 2 5.9 1 2.9 20 58.8 11 32.4 0 0 34 100

3.7.3

Rating or Ranking

Likert Five Point scale is used in order to collect the primary data required for the study. The majority of the question was designed in this model. The five point scale ranging from minimum 1 to maximum 5 is used for measuring and quantifying the opinion of each respondent about impact of HRD strategy on organisational productivity. The five points 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were assigned with certain values. 1 and 2 of the scale was for the below average value; 3 for average and 4 and 5 for above average. Respondents were instructed to put the tick mark in the box from 1 to 5 as they ranked or rated based on their own perception. In the same way, the points were assigned a range of percentage to make it easy for the respondent in answering the questionnaire and also analyzing the data. In this context, the percentage was divided into five equal parts and range having a liking for the points in order. The range of 1 to 0% was assigned for the rank 1. The range of 21 to 40% was for the rank 2. Similarly, 41% to 60%, 61% to 80%, and more than 81% were assigned for rank 3, 4 and 5 respectively. In this way, the categorization of Five-Points was set to make the respondents easy on ranking or quantifying their feelings which ultimately results in more realistic and exact. After the collection of the questionnaires distributed, the raw datas were at first edited, tabulated, processed and statistically analyzed. In order to get a total and comparative picture of responses, mode and mean values are calculated. At the same time frequency and frequency percentage were also figured out. For example table 3.4 was shown for illustrating the rank or rate of "Relation
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of HRD with job nature". In total out of 34 respondents, 0 respondents were mentioned rank 1, 3 respondents rank 2, 5 ranked 3, 19 ranked 4 and 7 ranked 5. In this way the percentage was calculated by (043)*100=0%, (334)*100=8.8%, (534)*100=56%, (734)*100=21% for rank 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively and the mean value of rank and relation in % was calculate as shown below.
R 1 2 3 4 5 Training
f % x %

Table 3.5 Example of rating or ranking Pro. Head Admin


f % x % f % x % F

Total
% X %

0 3 3 10 3 19 R 1 2 3 4 5 Total

0 15.8 15.8 52.6 15.8 100 f 0 3 5 19 7 n = 34

0 0 1 5 1 7

0 0 14 71 14 100 R*f 0 6 15 76 35

0 0 1 4 3 8

0 0 14 57 43

0 3 5 19 7 34

0 8.8 15 56 21 100

f% 0 8.8 15 56 21 100

Mean rank (x)

= (Rf/n) = 132/34 = 3.88

Expression in %

= 3.88*20 = 77.64%

Rf = 132

The above calculation talked about 8.8% of respondents feeling below average in relation to HRD with job nature. Fifteen percent (15%) are feeling in an average and 67.5% i.e. {(19+7)34*100} are feeling above average in relation to HRD with job nature. In the range of percentage, 8.8% of respondents are feeling below 40% relation of HRD with job nature. Fifteen percent (15%) are feeling 41% to 60% in relation to HRD with job nature and 67.5% are feeling above 61% in relation to HRD with their job nature. The mean value of rank says that the relation of HRD with job nature is in rank 3.88 equals to 77.64% or more than average. The most important fact that should be considered in this numerical value of above calculation is that they are not absolute value. They are just a quantitative tool to make this study easy, simple and try to be an approximate average of perception. 3.7.3 Comparative Analysis

For comparative analysis of existing HRD practices some criteria for comparison at first were identified by reviewing the documents, discussing with different level of RDC

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

77.64

73.7

80.0

85.0

3.88

3.7

4.0

4.3

personnel. Then, on the basis of such identified criteria the rank mentioned above was applied. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. For analysis of comparison the procedure described above was applied and mode value of rank was also taken into consideration. 3.7.4 Trend Analysis

From the facts and figures obtained from documents and reports review, time trend for the last five fiscal year was applied. For trend analysis different charts, graphs, tables were made and interpreted. Schematic Diagram of Sample Unit Selection

RDC Human Resources

Categorization criteria
HRD credit system and Center based HRD

Training staff Programme head

Admin staff

Stratified Random Sapling

Data Collection & Analysis

Interpretation & Report


Fig 3.2 Schematic diagram of sample unit selection

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Conceptual Research Frame Work Research Question Research Proposal

Literature Review Document Review


References Reports Research thesis Policy Document

Questionnaire

Informal discussion

Objective formulation

Interview

Discussion with RDC management and Conceptual clarity

Report with recommendations Observation

Questionnaire Design

Data tabulation and analysis

Data Collection

Pretest and Feedback

Presentation and Discussion to supervisor and RDC

Review and Feedback

Report Finalize and submission


Fig 3.3Conceptual research research frame work

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Chapter Four

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS


4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis

The responses given by all respondents were first edited, classified, tabulated and analyzed by statistical instruments. The output of the data analysis of responses provided by different category of RDC HR were presented below.

4.2.1

Respondent Analysis

Respondents are the main key and center element of any research. Responses made by respondents were analyzed and decisions were made on the basis of result. Before analyzing the responses, it is better to identify the general feature or characteristics of respondent. The observed features of respondents were tried to be mentioned within this topic. Mainly this topic described the average characteristics of respondents.

4.2.1.1

Category Description and Sample Intensity

Out of 59 personnel in UMN/RDC, Pokhara 34 staffs were sampled for this study that made the sample intensity equal to 57.62 %. To make the study more effective all personnel were categorized into three categories i.e. training staff, programme head, and administration. Within sample size, the training staffs were highest in number which was
Table 4.1Sample intensity of study Designation # Sample Trainer 12 Training Officer 7 Coordinator 5 Previous Coordinator 2 Officer 5 Assistant 3 Total 34

Category Training Staff Programme Head Administration

% 35.3 20.6 14.7 5.9 14.7 8.8 100

Total 55.88% 20.59% 23.53% 100%

55.88% and the programme heads (20.59%) were lowest in number. Similarly, administration staff were 23.53%. The training staff included technical trainers and training officers. Likewise, programme heads included programme coordinators of training programme and former coordinators. In the administration category, administration and account officers and assistants were included. Table 4.1 illustrated the facts about sample intensity in detail.
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4.2.1.2

Age Group

The description of age of all respondents was shown in table number 4.2. The mean age of the respondents was found 33 years (see appendix - 3). The respondents were young and
Table 4.2 Age description Frequency Programme Head Admin 0 0 1 6 1 1 4 1 1 0 7 8

Age Group 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 Total

Training 1 7 5 3 3 19

Total 1 14 7 8 4 34

% 2.9 41.2 20.6 23.5 11.8 100

energetic. On the basis of the frequency distribution the highest percentage of the respondents i.e. 41.2% belonged to the age group of 26 to 30 years and the second highest age group was 36 to 40 years. In viewing the individual category of respondents, the age group of 26 30 years was found highest in training personnel; the age group of 36 40 was found highest in programme head and the age group of 26 30 was found the highest in the administration staff. 4.2.1.3 Sex Representation

Table 4.3 enunciated the sex representation of total respondents. Out of 34staff, 14 were female and male 20 were which represent 41% and 59% in total respectively. In sample
Fig 4.1 Sex pie chart
Sex Representation
41% 59%

Sex Female Male Total

Table 4.3 Sex representation Frequency Training Pro Head Admin 8 2 4 11 5 4 19 7 8

Total 14 20 34

Female

Male

category, 8 were female and 11 were male in training staff but male and female were equal in number in administration staff. Similarly, in programme head 2 were female and 5 were male. The data above shows the good/justifiable combination of sex ratio in the working personnel of RDC.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

4.2.1.4

Education Status
Fig 4.2 Academic qualification Educational Status
2.9 35.3

In fig 4.2, the academic qualification of respondents was shown. In total of all respondents, the highest percentage i.e.

100 Frequency (%)

38.3% belonged to Bachelor's degree. Then followed by Intermediate level (35.3%), Masters level (23.5%) and SLC 2.9%. It seems the organization has good academic personnel. Similarly, in the table 4.4 below stated a brief educational description of

80 60

SLC
38.3

Intermediate Bachelor's

40 20 0 23.5

Master's

different categories of all respondents. In training staff, people having Intermediate level of education are in highest number and followed by Master's and Bachelor's level respectively. In the category of training programme head, all of them had Bachelor's (85.7%) and higher level education. But in the category of administration, education level of both Bachelor's and Intermediate were found same (38%).
Training f % 5 26.3 4 21.1 9 47.4 1 5.3 19 100 Table 4.4 Educational description Programme Head Administration f % f % 1 14.3 2 25 6 85.7 3 38 0 0 3 38 0 0 0 0 7 100 8 100

Degree Master's Bachelor's Intermediate SLC Total

Total 8 13 12 1 34

% 23.53 38.24 35.29 2.941 100

4.2.1.5

Working Experience

In the course of study discussion with experienced personnel is necessary because they have a pile of live events that they have seen, observed, practiced and faced regarding to the different aspect of the existing operation system. Experience of a person plays a vital role in reflecting the real situation. Table 4.5 described the working experiences of respondents only in UMN/RDC, Pokhara. The range of working experience of

respondents in RDC varied from one year to twenty years. In total, majorities of respondents i.e. 47.1 are in the group of 6 to 10 years of working experience. The group of
Experiences (Year) 1 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 Total Table 4.5 Working experience Frequency Programme Head Admin 3 7 4 0 0 0 0 1 7 8

Training 4 12 1 2 19

Total 14 16 1 3 34

% 41.2 47.1 2.9 8.8 100

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

1 to 5 years was in the second highest position figure out 41.2%. The remaining groups were in small figure. The overall mean value of working experience was found 6.97 years (see appendix - 4). In the category wise, the group of 6 to 10 was found highest in both training staff and programme head and the group of 1 to 5 years was high in administration staff. In the figure 4.3 the ogive curve was constructed. Mainly, the cumulative frequency of Less Than, More Than and the frequency of Mid-value of working experience of people were shown. The Less Than and More Than cumulative frequency curve crossed each other at a point and provided the average value i.e. 6.97 years of working experiences. The mean years of working experience clearly mentioned that there were more than 75% of people had more than 7 years of working experience within RDC. Similarly, the frequency curve of mid value showed the highest number of respondents having at least ten years of working experience and very few respondents had more than 15 years of working experience in RDC.

Fig 4.3 Ogive curve of working experience

Working Exeperience Ogive Curve


120 100 F q e c (% re u n y ) 80 60 40 20
1 1 .8 59 100 88 91 100

41 41

47

9.8 8

0 0 5 10 Ye ar 15

20

25

LT cf
Note: LT cf MT cf MU f = Less Than cumulative frequency = More Than cumulative frequency = Mid Value frequency

MT cf

MV f

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

4.2.1.6

Roles and Responsibilities of Respondents

Q. N. 2 for every category was designed to assess the practicing roles and responsibilities of the respondents. It reflected the job nature of the individual that they were approaching in daily job situation. In this regard, all roles and responsibilities were grouped into eight
Table 4.6 Roles and responsibilities of respondents Training Programme Head Administration Roles and Responsibility f % f % f % Training design and delivery 19 100 5 71.4 1 12.5 Coordination and Networking 4 21.1 7 100 3 37.5 Training support service 8 42.1 6 85.7 6 75 Administration work 2 10.5 7 100 4 50 Training material production 18 94.7 5 71.4 5 62.5 Decision making 1 5.3 7 100 2 25 Supervisory role 2 10.5 7 100 4 50 Consultancy and resource person 16 84.2 3 42.9 1 12.5

Total 25 14 20 13 28 10 13 20

% 73.5 41.2 58.8 38.2 82.4 29.4 38.2 58.8

heading and a multiple choice type question with multiple options was constructed then an individual's response was collected. Table 4.6 illustrated the reply of respondents regarding their roles and responsibilities. Out of a total of 34 respondents, the highest number of people i.e. 82.4% mentioned that their major role and responsibility was "training material production". The second majority i.e. 73.5% mentioned "training design and delivery" as their main roles and responsibilities. Then it is followed by "training support service" (58.8%), "consultancy and resource person" (58.8%), "coordination and networking" (41.2%) etc. In the category wise roles and responsibilities, out of 19 training staff almost all encompassed the roles and responsibilities of "training delivery and design". Ninety four point seven percent (94.7%) staff included the roles and responsibilities of "training material production" and 84.2% people mentioned "consultancies and resource person" as their main roles and responsibilities. Out of 7 respondents of programme head, almost all said that they contained the roles and responsibilities of "coordination and networking", "administration work", "decision making" and "supervisory role". In the second position "training support service" was mentioned by 85.5%, then "training design and delivery" and "training material production" were mentioned by 71.4%. Similarly in administration staff, out of 8 respondents, 75% i.e. the highest number staff felt that the "training support service" was their major roles and responsibilities. After it, "material production" (62.5%) and "coordination and networking" (37.5%) were found the main roles and responsibilities of administrative staff.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

4.1.2

Products of RDC

On the basis of interview with checklist and document review, the products of RDC were identified. Actually, RDC is a non-profit making, non-governmental and service oriented organisation. It serves ultimately to the rural poor farming families by enabling them skilled and knowledgeful to break the cycle of deprivation. It provides its service to the community people through different organisation and also through direct contacts. Basically RDC has three major types of products or services which are mentioned below. 4.1.4.11 Training

As RDC is a training institute, it provides many technical and social training (see appendix - 5) to community people as well as the different level of staff of different organization. Training is the major products of the organisation. RDC has five training programmes i.e. forestry development training programme (TREES), horticulture and agronomy support training programme (HATSP), animal husbandary improvement training programme (AHITP), water supply and support training programme (WSSTP), training of trainer's and organisational development (TOT/OD) progamme. They are providing many training on the basis of actual need assessment of the trainees. The main aim of these training is to make the participants skilled and knoweldgeful to break the cycle of deprivation which they have identified as being most critical. 4.1.4.12 Training Materials

Apart from training, RDC has been providing many training materials i.e. technical books posters, and handouts (see appendix - 6). These are very useful for the local people to learn the technical information from it. All the materials are prepared by focusing the level of the participants. Mostly for rural illiterates illustrations were made by means of low text, big letters and sufficiently using drawings. 4.1.2.3 Consultancies and Resource Person

RDC also offers a package programme of consultancy activities to the client according to their need and problems. Mainly for consultancies (see appendix - 7), it provides research to particular question, progamme planning, designing, impact evaluation, feasibility study, etc., that relates to the technical and social aspect of different projects and the available expertise of RDC personnel. RDC has an experienced staff in the technical area.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Therefore, it also provides resource to person the client as required for conducting training and other research. 4.1.5 RDC Consumer/Client Analysis

Although, ultimate target of the RDC is community poor farming families, it has been providing through organisation. its service other But,
27 15 26 13 10
0%

Fig 4.4 Client percentile bar


Client Percentile Bar

sometime it is directly working with the


Fiscal Year
1998/ 99

33 21 19 27 21
20% 40%

19 35 28 30 38
60%

10 19 11 15

12 10 15 15

community people through its community support

1999/ 00

2000/ 01

programme. Analyzing to its client (see appendix-8), all clients were grouped into sister five types; UMN

2001/ 02

2002/ 03

2
80%

29
100%

F r eq uency ( %)

organisation,

UMN Project

INGO

NGO

GO

CBO

INGOs, NGOs, GOs and CBOs. Figure 4.4 detailed the client percentage of the last fiveyear. The data from the last five-year showed that NGOs (Avr. value 37.6%) received the highest number of training. Similarly, INGOs (Avr. value 30.1%) were in second position and UMN sister projects (Avr. value 22.8%) laid in third position. CBOs (Avr. value 20.2%) and GOs (Avr. value 14.2%) were found in the respective position to receive the training of the RDC.

4.1.6

Statistical Inferences

Actually the impact of the HRD activities in RDC can be measured by assessing the perception of staff in different level. The perception of RDC personnel or positive change in attitude can be brought up by acquiring the skills and knowledge through approaching proper HRD strategy. Change in perception or attitude improves the working behavior that ultimately affects the productivity of an organization. In this chapter different aspect of HRD impact were analyzed statistically and attempted to draw inferences. The analysis was fully based on the primary data.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

4.1.6.1

HRD Purposes

To know the premotive of RDC personnel for conducting the HRD activities in RDC, a set of question with multiple choice was prearranged. Motive of personnel or prior intention
Table. 4.7 Purpose of HRD in RDC Training Programme Head Purposes of HRD in RDC f % f % Improving RDC competence 10 52.6 6 85.7 Improving team work in programmes 8 42.1 3 42.9 Increasing self worth and satisfaction 9 47.4 6 85.7 Development of staff capacity 16 84.2 6 85.7 Satisfying to own client 4 21.1 3 42.9 Exposure with new technology 7 36.8 5 71.4 Effective and efficient performance 9 47.4 7 100 Achieve the goal of RDC 7 36.8 3 42.9 Being learning organization 4 21.1 5 71.4 Expending money and time 0 0 0 0

Admin f % 5 62.5 1 12.5 3 37.5 8 100 1 12.5 3 37.5 3 37.5 4 50 2 25 0 0

Total

% 61.76 35.29 52.94 88.24 23.53 44.12 55.88 41.18 32.35 0

21 12 18 30 8 15 19 14 11 0

of staff attending HRD of staff has a crucial impact on their learning attitude. Therefore, ten options were given to the respondents to reply on. The table 4.6 illustrated the opinion of training staff, programe head and the administration staff regarding the objectives of HRD in RDC. In total of training staff, 82.4% mentioned that the objective of HRD in RDC was "development of staff capacity" and 52.6 % mentioned "improving RDC competence". But in the case of programme head cent percent said "effective and efficient performance" was the main purpose and 85.7% mentioned "improving RDC competence", "increasing self worth and satisfaction" and "development of the staff capacity" were the main purpose of the HRD in RDC. In admin staff, 100% said that "development of staff capacity" was the main purpose and 62.5% said "improving RDC competence" was the main purpose. But in overall "development of staff capacity" was mentioned by 88.24% staff, "improving RDC competence" was mentioned 62.5% and "effective and efficient performance" was mentioned by 55.88% staff.

4.1.6.2

Types of HRD

Many activities for HRD have been conducted in RDC for the above mentioned purposes. By reviewing the document of RDC ten different types of HRD activities mentioned in the table below have were listed and with a set of question frequency of such types of activities attended by RDC staff were obtained which is shown in the table 4.8. Most of the training staff i.e. 89.5% participated in "short term training of less than 3 months" and 63.2% attended "workshop/seminar" as HRD activities. Seventy one point four percent
Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

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(71.4 %) of programme head got the opportunity to attend both "short term training of less than 3 months" and "seminars/workshop" and 57.1% attended the "professional group meeting" and "self study" in library. In the context of the administration staff 62.5% of staff got the "short term training of less than three months" and "workshop seminar" as HRD. In overall, out of 34, "short term of training less than three months" was attended by 79.41%, "workshop/seminar" attended by 64.71% "field visit/exposure tour" was attended by 50%, "orientation" was by 44.12%, "self study" by 38.24%, "professional group meeting" by 35.29%, long term training" by 20.59%, "OJT/internship" by 14.71%, "academic course" by 11.76%, "excursion/observation" by 8.82% and "others" by 2.94% as HRD in RDC.
Table 4.8 HRD types conducting in RDC Programme Head Training Types of HRD in RDC f % f % Short term training (< 3 months) 17 89.5 5 71.4 Long term Training (> 3 months) 5 26.3 0 0 On the Job training/internship 4 21.1 0 0 Orientation 11 57.9 3 42.9 Professional Group meeting 6 31.6 4 57.1 Self Study (Library, Books) 7 36.8 4 57.1 Academic Course 4 21.1 0 0 Field Visit, Exposure tour 11 57.9 2 28.6 Workshop/ Seminar 12 63.2 5 71.4 Excursion/Observation 0 0 2 28.6 Others 1 5.3 0 0

Admin f % 5 62.5 2 25 1 12.5 1 12.5 2 25 2 25 0 0 4 50 5 62.5 1 12.5 0 0

Total 27 7 5 15 12 13 4 17 22 3 1

% 79.41 20.59 14.71 44.12 35.29 38.24 11.76 50 64.71 8.82 2.94

4.1.6.3

Relation of HRD with Job Nature

All personnel of RDC attended the HRD activities mentioned above. It is important to assess how mush they were related with the job nature because more job related HRD activities ultimately help to increase the productivity of RDC. Therefore it was attempted to analyze how much HRD activities participated by staff was related with the assigned job nature. Basically, five point rating scale is used to get the people's perception. Table 4.9 described the relation of HRD with job nature in the view of RDC staff. Highest percentage of all categories i.e. training (52.6%), programme head (71%) and administration staff (57%) mentioned the relation was in rank 4 which is higher than the average value. The mean rank of each category was 3.7, 4 and 4.3 respectively. In total the mean value of rank was 3.88 equals to 77.64%. The fact showed that the relation between HRD activities and job nature was higher than the average. There is significant relationship between the HRD and the job nature of RDC personnel.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

R 1 2 3 4 5

Training
f % x %

Table 4.9 Relation of HRD with job nature Pro. Head Admin
f % x % f % x % F

Total
% X %

0 3 3 10 3 19

0 15.8 15.8 52.6 15.8 100

0 0 1 5 1 7

0 0 14 71 14 100

0 0 1 4 3 8

0 0 14 57 43

0 3 5 19 7 34

0 8.8 15 56 21 100

4.1.6.4

Integration of HRD Strategy with Organisational Strategy

The integration of HRD strategy with the organizational strategy also plays a vital role for effective productivity. Finding out the integration between HRDS with OS was a part to measure the HRD impact. Therefore, staffs' opinion on integration was obtained through ranking and shown in the table 4.10. The average rank done by training staff, programme head and administration were 3.2, 4.0 and, 4.3 that equals to 64.2%, 80.0% and 85.0%. The first value was just higher than the average and the last two values were higher than the average value, indicating a very good integration. In overall out of 34, the mean value was 3.32 that equals to 66.47% i.e. just higher than the average. The calculated value shows that HRD strategy is significantly integrated with the organizational strategy. It means there may be a good impact of HRDS in organizational productivity of RDC.
Table N 4.10 Integration of HRD strategy with organizational strategy Training Prog Head Admin Total
f % x % f % x % f % x % F % X %

R 1 2 3 4 5

1 3 7 7 1 19

5.3 16 37 37 5.3
100

0 0 3 4 0 7

0 0 43 57 0
100

0 1 3 4 0 8

0 14 43 57 0
1

1 4 13 15 1 34

2.9 11.7 38.3 44.1 2.9 100

4.1.6.5

Selection Basis for HRD

The basis for selection of staff for HRD activities has crucial role for implication of learnt skills and knowledge towards the effective output of organizational production that may be goods or service. Need focused HRD participated by staff importantly help in the effective and efficient product and HRD certainly has positive impact in overall out put. Therefore, table 4.11 illustrated the basis of selection of RDC staff for the HRD activities. By analyzing category wise, majority of all categories (training staff - 73.7%, programme head 71.4% and admin staff 88%) were selected on the basis of "need assessment". This is a good indicator of HRD selection which imposes the optimum utilisation of HRD

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

66.47

64.2

80.0

85.0

3.32

3.2

4.0

4.3

77.64

73.7

80.0

85.0

3.88

3.7

4.0

4.3

resources in terms of money and time. Similarly, in the second majority training (47.4%)
Table 4.11 Selection basis for HRD Training Pro Head Selection basis f % f % On the basis of need assessment 14 73.7 5 71.4 On the basis of seniority 5 26.3 0 0 On my turn 4 21.1 1 14.3 Just fulfill the quota 1 5.3 0 0 Personally interested activities 9 47.4 3 42.9 By force of management 2 10.5 1 14.3 If any 0 0 2 28.6

Admin f % 7 88 1 13 0 0 3 38 1 13 0 0 0 0

Total 26 6 5 4 13 3 2

% 76.4 17.6 14.7 11.7 38 8.8 5.8

and programme head (42.9%) mentioned that they were selected on the basis of "personally interested activities" and 38% of administration staff were selected "just fulfill the quota". In overall 76.4% staff were selected on the basis of "need assessment", 38% were selected on the basis of "personally interested activities", 17.6% were selected on the basis of "seniority", 14.7% were selected on the basis of "their own turn", 11.7% were selected "just to fulfill the quota", 8.8% were selected by "force of management" and 5.8% were selected "other basis".
Fig 4.5 Selection process for HRD

Fig 4.5 evaluated the practiced HRD

Selection Process for HRD


8 .8 2 0 8 .8 2

selection process of RDC in the opinion of staff. Fifty three percent (53%) staff expressed the
Very good
2 9 .4 1

5 2 .9 4

existing process was "good", 29% staff


Good Satisfactory Not good Indifference

felt it as "satisfactory" 9% evaluated it as "very good" and also "not good" and 0% evaluated as "indifference". 4.1.6.6 Effect of HRD on RDC Products

It is imperative to know the overall effectiveness of HRD on the products of RDC i.e. training, consultancy service, books and other publications to measure the impact. Table 4.12 provided the details about the perception of different category of RDC staff. In the training staff majority of people (47%) ranked 4 as effectiveness of HRD whereas the

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

mean value of rank was 3.3 equals to 66.3%. Similarly, 86% of programme head also gave their rank 4 and the mean value became 3.9 equals to 77.1% but in context of administration staff majority (43%) indicated rank 3 and 4 then mean value was calculated as 3.1 equals to 62.1%. In overall, 52.9% of RDC people ranked 4 as the effectiveness of RDC's HRD. The mean value of rank is 3.38 that can be expressed as 67.65%. It showed that the effectiveness of HRD activities on the products of RDC was just higher than the average.
R 1 2 3 4 5 Training
f % x %

Table 4.12 Effect of HRD on RDC products Pro Head Admin


f % x % f % x % F

Total
% X %

0 3 7 9 0
19

0 16 37 47 0
100

0 0 1 6 0 7

0 0 14 86 0
100

0 2 3 3 0 8

0 29 43 43 0

0 5 11 18 0 34

0 14.7 32.3 52.9 0 100

4.1.6.7

Cause to Participate in HRD

Individual interest in participating in HRD of any organization has great influence in the ultimate productivity of that organization. Individual cause to attend HRD is associated with the effective learning motivation and more learning will have good impact on products or service. Therefore, the cause of attending HRD of individual was assessed and presented in the table 4.13. The main cause to attend the HRD of training staff (73.3%) was "to increase own technical capacity" and the programme head (100%) was "to update own self with the changing time" and the admin staff (75%) was "to be competent in own job performance". Out of 34, 61.7% of RDC personnel felt the cause of participating HRD was "to increase own technical capacity" and "to update own self with the changing time". 35.2% of personnel felt the HRD was "to be competent in own job performance" and of 5.8% attended HRD because "it helps on promotion".
Table 4.13 Cause to participate in HRD activities Training Pro Head Admin Cause to attend HRD T f % f % f % It helps on your promotion 1 5.3 1 14.3 0 0 2 To be relieved from the burden of job 0 0 obligation 0 0 0 0 0 To be competent in your job performance 6 31.6 0 0 6 75 12 To increase own technical capacity 14 73.7 3 42.9 4 50 21 To update yourself with the changing time 10 52.6 7 100 4 50 21

% 5.8 0 35.2 61.7 61.7

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

67.65

66.3

77.1

62.1

3.38

3.3

3.9

3.1

4.1.4.8

Standard of Participated HRD

The standard of attended HRD in terms of methods, materials, technology, contents, etc., should be maintained because it eventually affects the participant on learning process. If standard of HRD should not be uphold in the higher degree then the investment of time and money will be worthless and the productivity will be decreased. The standard of HRD and organisational productivity is directly related. Therefore, to measure the impact of HRD, it is necessary to assess the standard of HRD attended by RDC HR. The table 4.14
Table 4.14 Standard of HRD Pro Head Admin % x % f % x 0 0 0 0 1 14 42.9 2 29 57.1 5 71 0 0 0 100 8 100 71.4 3.6 3.5

R 1 2 3 4 5

f 0 3 9 7 0 19

Training % x 0 15.8 47.4 36.8 0 100

f 0 0 3 4 0 7

F 0 4 14 16 0 34

Total % X 0 11.8 41.2 47.0 0 100

% 67.06 % 70.59

64.2

70.0

3.21

illustrated the standard HRD in the opinion of HR. Most of the training staff (47.4%) gave their rank 3 as the standard of participated HRD the mean value was 3.21 equivalents to 64.2%. In the context of programme head (57.1%) mentioned rank 4 but the mean value is 3.6 equivalents to 71.4%. Majority of administration staff (71%) stated rank 4 whereas the mean value is 3.5 equivalents to 70.0%. Out of 34 people, 47% mentioned the standard of HRD is rank 4, which is equivalent to 67.06%. It means the standard level of HRD participated by staff was just higher than the average. The standard of HRD seems sound. 4.1.4.9 Learning Process

The learning process of staff during HRD has also great influence in the overall performance of organization. The higher the learning process, the higher will be the productivity. The table 4.15 evaluated the learning process of staff during the HRD. Of training staff 42.1% mentioned the rank 3 but the mean value was 3.5 that equals to
Table 4.15 Learning process on HRD Pro Head Admin % x % f % x 0 0 0.0 0 1 12.5 28.6 2 25.0 71.4 5 62.5 0 0 0.0 8 74.3 3.7

R 1 2 3 4 5

Training f % x 0 0 2 10.5 8 42.1 7 36.8 2 10.5 19 100 3.5

f 0 0 2 5 0 7

Total F % X 0 0 3 8.8 12 35.3 17 50 2 5.9 34 100

69.5

70.0

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

3.53

3.5

3.35

69.5%. Rank 4 was chosen by the 71.4% of programme head and the mean value was 3.7 which euqals to 74.3%. Similarly in administration staff, 62.5% mentioned rank 3 but the mean value was 3.4 equivalent to 70%. In total, 50% of people mentioned rank 4 and the mean value of rank was 3.53 that equals to 70.59%. The result showed that the learning of HRD was more than average. 4.1.4.10 Attitude Change

People behave on the basis of what they perceived rather than what is. The perception of an individual on certain facts ultimately builds up his attitude and demonstrates his behavior accordingly. The working behavior of human resource of any organization largely has an impact on the products or service of the organization. Therefore, to know the positive change in attitude of staff is crucial for assessing the impact of HRD. Table 4.16 illustrated the attitude change by HRD of RDC personnel. In the table, 42.1% of
Table 4.16 Change in attitude by HRD Pro Head Admin f % x % f % x % F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 14.3 2 29 11 6 85.7 5 71 18 0 0 1 14 2 7 100 8 100 34 77.5 77.1 3.9 3.9

R 1 2 3 4 5

Training f % x 0 0 3 15.8 8 42.1 7 36.8 1 5.3 19 100

Total % X 0 8.8 32.4 52.9 5.9 100

66.3

3.56

training people ranked 3 as change in attitude. The average value of rank was 3.3 and can be expressed as 66.3% change in attitude. In programme head 85.7% ranked 4 as the change in attitude. The calculated mean of rank was 3.9 and 77.1 in percentage. In overall 52.9% staff said the change in attitude was in rank 4. The mean value was 3.56 equals to 71.18%. Therefore, the result showed that the change in attitude by HRD was higher than average. Due to the participation on the recommended HRD of RDC, attitude of staff was found significantly changed. 4.1.4.12 Opinion on Overall Assessment of HRD

Opinion of RDC staff on overall assessment of HRD was obtained by providing them a question with alternative choice. The responses of respondents were shown in the table 4.17 below. Eighty four point two percent (84.2%) of training staff, 71.4% of progrmme head, and 75% of administration staff found the HRD as a whole "useful because it was job performance improvement oriented". Similarly, 10.5% of training staff, 14.3% of programme head and 12.5% of administration staff found the whole HRD "useful but
Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

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71.18

3.3

irrelevant with job". 14.3% of programme head and 12.5% of administration staff stated "caused confusion after HRD back to the job situation". In total, 79.4% of respondents viewed the HRD useful because it was job performance improvement oriented, 11.7% viewed it as "useful but irrelevant with job", 5.9% "caused confusion after HRD back to the job situation" and 2.9% viewed it "other ways".
Table 4.17 Opinion on overall assessment of HRD Training Pro Head As a whole HRD Activities are f % f % Useful because it was Job performance improvement 16 84.2 5 71.4 oriented Not achieved so it was waste of time and money 0 0 0 0 Useful but irrelevant between job and HRD 2 10.5 1 14.3 Caused confusion after HRD back to the job situation 0 0 1 14.3 If any 1 5.3 0 0 Admin Total f % F % 6 75 27 79.4 0 0 0 0 1 12.5 4 11.7 1 12.5 2 5.9 0 0 1 2.9

4.1.4.15

Helpfulness of HRD on Day to Day Job Performance

After getting HRD it must be helpful to the HR for day to day job performance in modified manner and methods which ultimately increase the effectiveness of organisation. Therefore, the helpfulness of HRD attended by RDC people was assessed and presented in the table 4.18. Training staff (47.4%) gave their rank 3 as a helpfulness of HRD on their day to day job performance. The mean value of rank was 3.3 equivalent to 65.3% i.e. just closes to average. Of programme head 71.4% gave their rank as 4 and mean value is also 4. It can be expressed as 80% which is significant helpfulness of HRD. In the context of

R 1 2 3 4 5

f 0 3 9 6 1 19

Training % x 0 15.8 47.4 31.6 5.3 100 3.3

f 0 0 1 5 1 7

Table 4.18 Helpfulness of HRD Pro Head Admin % x % f % x 0 0 0 0 1 14 14.3 1 14 71.4 6 86 14.3 0 0 100 8 100 80.0 4.0

F 0 4 11 17 2 34

Total % X 0 11.8 32.4 50 5.9 100

% 70.00

65.3

72.5

administration staff majority (86%) mentioned rank 4 whereas the mean value was 3.6 expressed as 72.5%. In total, 50% staff of RDC expressed the helpfulness of HRD on day to day job performance in modified manner and methods was rank 4 that equals to 70. Data presented was evidence for significant helpfulness of HRD on day to day job performance in the modified manner and methods.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

3.50

3.6

4.1.4.16

HRD an Opportunity

Table 4.19 described the perception of RDC HR about HRD taking as an opportunity to acquire the deficiencies in work knowledge and skills to meet job requirements. Fifty three percent (53%) of training staff found rank 4 as an opportunity. The mean value of rank is 3.4 equals to 68.4%. Majority of program head i.e. 72% also recognized rank 4 and mean

R 1 2 3 4 5

f 0 2 7 10 0 19

Training % x 0 11 36 53 0 3.4
100

f 0 0 1 5 1 7

Table 4.19 HRD an opportunity Pro Head Admin % x % f % x 0 0 0 0 2 29 14 4 57 72 2 29 14 0 0 8 10 80.0 4.0

F 0 4 12 17 1 34

% 0 12 35 50 3

Total X

100

value of value was also 4. In percentage it can be expressed 80. Similarly within administration staff 57% expressed rank 4 as an opportunity. The mean value of rank was 3 equals to 60%. Out of 34, 50% of respondents gave their emphasis on rank 4. Mean value of rank was 3.44 which equivalence to 68.82%. The data showed RDC personnel perceived HRD as an opportunity to acquire knowledge and skill for job requirements just higher than the average. 4.1.4.17 Extent of Organisational Recognition

It is crucial to recognise the HR after getting HRD by organisation. Organisation must assess the capability developed by individual after HRD and provide him to practice the learnt behaviour. It depends upon the level of recognition to an individual by the

organisation. Higher the extent of recognition, the organisational effectiveness will be increased. Table 4.20 illustrated 42% of training staff preferred rank 3, mean value of rank was 3.1 and the recognition percent was 61.1%. In programme head, 57% preferred rank
Table 4.20 Organizational recognition Pro Head Admin % x % f % x % 0 0 0 0 1 13 43 3 38 57 4 50 0 0 0 100 8 100 71.6 67.4 3.37 3.6

R 1 2 3 4 5 f 0 5 8 6 0 19

Training % x 0 26 42 32 0 100 3.1

f 0 0 3 4 0 7

F 0 6 14 14 0 34

Total % X 0 18 41 41 0 100 3.23

68.82 % 64.6

68.4

60.0

61.1

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

3.44

3.0

4, the mean value of rank was 3.6 and the recognition percent was 71.6. Similarly, in admin staff 50% mentioned rank 4, mean value of rank was 3.37 equals to 67.4%. In total out of 34 respondents, 41% mentioned the rank 3 and 4 and mean value was calculated as 3.23, which can be, expressed 64.6%. The overall result was just an average. RDC staff perceived they were recognized by organization in an average after getting the HRD. 4.1.4.15 Opportunity to Apply Learnt Skills and Knowledge

It is important for every individual of any organisation to practice the learnt skill and knowledge from HRD. By applying the learnt methods technology an individual can develop the confidence and the investment on HRD can be optimized. If an HRD

participant does not get the opportunity to practice, the invested resource will be worthless. Therefore, to measure the impact of HRD strategy it is necessary to explore how much an individual of an organisation get the opportunity to practice after HRD. Table 4.21 explained the opportunity received to apply acquired skill and knowledge. The
Table 4.21 Opportunity to apply acquired skills and knowledge Training Pro Head Administration Total % x % f % x % f % x % F % X 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.3 0 0 2 29 3 8.8 42.1 3 42.9 2 28.6 13 38.2 42.1 3 42.9 3 42.9 14 41.2 10.5 1 14.3 1 14.3 4 11.8 7 100 8 100 34 100 100 74.3 67.5 3.6 3.7 3.4 72

R 1 2 3 4 5

f 0 1 8 8 2 19

% 71.18

training staff (42.1%) and programme head (42.9%) mentioned both rank 3 and 4 but 42.9% of administration staff mentioned only rank 4. The average values of rank were 3.6, 3.7 and 3.4 respectively that equals 72%, 72.3% and 67.5%. Out of 34, 41.18% mentioned rank 4 and average value was 3.56 that equals to 71.1%. The result proved that most of the people got the opportunity to apply skill and knowledge more than average. 4.1.4.18 Production of New Training

After getting HRD, production of new training in RDC is a measurable impact. By applying the skills and knowledge learnt from HRD any new organisational products or service i.e. training can be designed and developed according to market demand, can also be taken into consideration as an impact of HRD. Table 4.22 illustrated the help from HRD to produce new training. Of training staff 36.8% ranked 4 as a help from HRD to produce new training. The mean value of rank was 2.9 equivalents to 57.8%. In the case

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

3.56

of program head majority (42.9%) mentioned both 3 and 4 rank and mean value was 3.7 equals to 74.3%. Similarly administration staff (28.6%) mentioned rank 3 and mean value was 3.4 equivalents to 67.5%. Out of 34, the majority i.e. 32.4% mentioned both rank 3 and 4 as a help from HRD to produce new training. The mean value was calculated 3 and it can be expressed 60 in percent. It shows the help from HRD to produce training as market demand is just average.
Training f % 3 15.8 3 15.8 6 31.6 7 36.8 0 0 19 100 Table 4.22 Help production of new training Pro Head Admin f % x % f % x % 0 0 2 29 0 0 2 29 3 42.9 2 28.6 3 42.9 1 14.3 1 14.3 1 14.3 7 100 8 100 74.3 3.7 3.4

R 1 2 3 4 5

Total F % 5 14.7 5 14.7 11 32.4 11 32.4 2 5.8 34 100

57.8

67.5

4.1.4.19

Problems Faced on Applying Learnt Skills and Knowledge

After participating in any HRD, there may be many problems that prohibit on applying the learnt skills and knowledge. While analyzing the impact of the HRD, the faced problems must be identified because they have the ultimate impact on the organizational productivity. Table 4.23 presented the eleven types of problems that RDC people were facing on the application of the learnt skills and knowledge. In training staff 36.8% were suffering due to "improper planning", 31.6% people were suffering due to "unavailability of opportunity" and "do not get time" and 21.1% were suffering "not fit in the real work situation" and the "changed job responsibilities". In programme head 57.1% were facing the problem of "do not get time" and "unavailability of opportunity", 28.6% were facing
Table 4.23 Problems faced on applying learnt skills and knowledge Faced problems Do not get time No relation with subject matter Unavailability of opportunity Inappropriate technology Not fit in real work situation Changed my job responsibility Improper planning Attitude and concept Disturbance by management Out fashion Others Training f 6 2 6 1 4 4 7 2 1 2 0 % 31.6 10.5 31.6 5.3 21.1 21.1 36.8 10.5 5.3 10.5 0 Pro Head f % 4 2 4 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 0 57.1 28.6 57.1 14.3 28.6 14.3 28.6 0 14.3 0 0
Admin Total

f 2 2 3 2 0 2 1 2 0 0 2

% 25 25 37.5 25 0 25 12.5 25 0 0 25

F 12 6 13 4 6 7 10 4 2 2 2

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

60.0 % 35.3 17.7 38.2 11.8 17.7 20.6 29.4 11.8 5.9 5.9 5.9

2.9

3.0

the problem of "no relation with subject mater", "not fit in the real work situation" and "improper planning". Majority of administration staff (37.5%) mentioned the main problem was "unavailability of opportunity". Fig 4.6 below presented the faced problems by RDC human resources on the application of learnt skills and knowledge in hierarchical order. In total, 38.2% staff faced the problem of "unavailability of opportunity", 35.2% faced do "not get time", 29.5% faced "improper planning", 20.6% faced "changed of job responsibility, 17.7% felt "no relation with subject matter" and "not fit in the real work situation", 11.8% felt "improper technology" and "disagreement in attitude and concept" and remaining other 5.9% expressed "disturbance by management", "out of fashion" and "other problems".
Fig 4.6 Problem Bar for applying learnt skills and knowledge
Faced Problem Bar

Others Out fashion Disturbance by management

Faced problems

Att itude and concept Inappropriat e technology Not fit in real work sit uation No relation with subject mat ter Changed my job responsibilit y Improper planning Do not get t ime Unavailability of opportunit y 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Num ber of staff (%)

4.1.1.18

Increase the Number of Training

Table 4.24 below presented the opinion of three categories of RDC people on the helpfulness to increase the number of training by HRD. Forty seven point four (47.4%) of training staff gave their rank to 3 and average value was 2.6 corresponding to 51.6%. Similarly, 57.1% of both programme head and administration staff mentioned increase in training number was in rank 3. The corresponding average value of rank was 3.1 and 2.6. Out of 34, 50% mentioned rank 3 and calculated average value was 2.71 equals to 54.12%. It showed that the calculated value was lower than the average. Therefore, the increase in number of training by HRD was not significant.
- 96 Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

R 1 2 3 4 5

Training f % 2 10.5 6 31.6 9 47.4 2 10.5 0 0 19 100

Table 4.24 Increase the number of training Pro Head Admin % f % x % f % x % 0 0 1 14 1 14 2 29 4 57.1 4 57.1 2 28.6 1 14.3 0 0 0 0 7 100 8 100 51.6 3.1 2.0 2.6

Total F % 3 8.8 9 26.7 17 50 5 14.7 0 0 34 100

% 54.12 % 74.71 3.74

52.6

4.1.4.19

Increase Quality of Training and Other Activities

The quality of training and other service offered by RDC must be increased after HRD. The increase in quality of service offered by an organisation is the impact of HRD strategy. Table 4.25 showed the opinion of RDC human resources regarding increase in
Table 4.25 Increase the quality of training Pro Head Admin % f % x % f % x % 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 29 1 14.3 1 14.3 6 85.7 3 42.9 0 0 2 28.6 7 100 8 100 74.7 77.9 3.9 3.6

R 1 2 3 4 5

f 0 1 5 11 2 19

Training % x 0 5.3 26.3 57.9 10.5 100

Total F % X 77 225 3 8.82 7 20.59 20 58.82 4 11.76 34 100

quality of service offered by RDC after getting HRD. Majority (57.9%) of training staff mentioned increase in the quality of offered service was in rank 4. The mean value was 3.7 corresponding to 74.7%. Program head (85.7%) mentioned rank 4 and average value of rank was 3.9 which was equal to 77.9%. Similarly 42.9% of administration staff felt the increase in quality of training was in rank 4 which gave the average rank 3.7 and 72.5%. In total out of 34, 58.82% also found the rank 4 and average value is 3.74, which was equivalent to 74.71%. The result confirmed that the value of increasing in quality was higher than the average. Therefore, there was significant increase in quality of service offered by RDC after HRD. 4.1.7.20 Familiar with HRD Credit System

Table 4.26 illustrated the familiarity of HRD credit system among the RDC staff. Training staff were 80% familiar with credit system and program head were 85.5% familiar with this system. But administration staff knew only 55%. The main cause in difference in knowing the HRD credit system is training staff and program head are applying this system but administration staff are practicing centre based HRD system. In
Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

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72.5

3.7

2.71

2.6

total out of 34, RDC people were 75.29% familiar with HRD credit system, which is higher than the average.
Table 4.26 Familiarity with credit system Pro Head Admin f % x % f % x 0 0 2 29 0 0 2 29 1 14.3 1 14.3 3 42.9 2 28.6 3 42.9 1 14.3 7 100 8 100 85.5 4.3

R 1 2 3 4 5

f 0 1 4 8 6 19

Training % x 0 5.3 21.1 42.1 31.6 100

F 2 3 6 13 10 34

Total % X 5.9 8.8 17.7 38.2 29.4 100

% 75.29 62.31

55.0

4.1.7.21

Distribution of HRD Credit

In the policy of HRD credits system the accumulated credits were allocated to program head and trainer proportionately. Satisfaction in distribution system of HRD credits

affects the work efficiency. Table 2.27 described the satisfaction of training staff and program head regarding the distribution of HRD credits between individual trainer and
Table 4.27 Distribution of HRD credit Pro Head Total % f % x % F 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 57.1 16 3 42.9 5 0 0 1 7 100 26 68.4 3.4 60

R 1 2 3 4 5

Training f 0 4 12 2 1 19

% 0 21 63 11 5 100

% 0 15.4 61.5 19.2 3.8 100

coordinators. Training staff were 60% satisfied and program head were 68.4%. In total among the training staff and program head satisfaction was up to 62.31%. It showed the result of satisfaction on the distribution system of HRD credit was just average. 4.1.7.22 Focus of HRD

HRD activities should be focused on both work related and the private interest. To know the view of the RDC people, following five options as shown in the table 4.28 were given to the respondent. Most of the training staff (63.2%) and administration staff (75%) expressed that HRD should be focused on equally work related and private interest area. But the programme head (57.1%) focused on more work related than private interest. Out of 34, 58.8% of respondents expressed HRD should be focused on equally work related and private interest area, 32.4% said that it should be focused on more work related than the private interest, 5.9% expressed only work related and 2.9% said only private interest area.
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3.12

3.76 %

2.8

80

Table 4.28 Focus of HRD Training Focus of HRD f % Only work related 1 5.3 Only private interest 1 5.3 Equally on work related and private interest 12 63.2 More work related than private interest 5 26.3 More private interest than work related 0 0 Total 19 100

Pro Head f % 1 14.3 0 0 2 42.9 4 57.1 0 0 7 114.3

Admin f % 0 0 0 0 6 75 2 25 0 0 8 100

Total % 2 5.9 1 2.9 20 58.8 11 32.4 0 0 34 100

4.1.7.23

Emphasis of HRD Credit System

RDC is a training institute and its main product is training. Ultimately, the impact of the HRD credit is in the training. Therefore, table 4.29 below described the emphasis of HRD credit on the training in terms of quality and quantity. 42.1% of training staff, 42.9% of programme head and 37.5% of administrative staff mentioned the HRD credit system emphasized on more quantity than the quality of training. Similarly, 31.6% of training staff, 28.6% of programme head and 25% of administrative staff expressed the credit
Table 4.29 Emphasis of HRD credit system Training Pro Head f 1 1 6 3 8 19 % 5.3 5.3 31.6 15.8 42.1 100 f 1 0 2 1 3 7 % 14.3 0.0 28.6 14.3 42.9 100 Admin f 1 1 2 1 3 8 % 12.5 12.5 25 12.5 37.5 100 Total F 3 2 10 5 14 34 % 8.8 5.9 29.4 14.7 41.2 100

Emphasis of HRD

Only quality of training Only quantity of training Equally quality and quantity of training More quality than quantity of training More quantity than quality of training Total

system emphasis on equally quality and the quantity of training. In total, 41.2% of staff expressed the credit system was giving emphasis on more quantity than the quality of training, 29.4% expressed it emphasized on equally quality and the quantity of training, 14.2% mentioned that the credit system emphasized on more quality than the quantity of training, 8.8% felt that it emphasized on quality of training and 5.9% mentioned it emphasized only on quantity of training. 4.1.4.24 Role of HRD to Achieve RDC Goal

Table 4.30 demonstrated the frequency table on the significant role of HRD to achieve the organizational goal. Most of the people of all categories determined the rank 4 as level of significant of HRD to achieve the organizational goal. 47.4% of training staff, 71.4% of progreamme head and the 57.1% of administration staff and the 52.9% of overall staff felt the level of significant was rank 4. The table pointed up the view of RDC staff on the significant role of HRD to achieve the organisational goal.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

Table 4.30 Significance of HRD to achieve org goal R 1 2 3 4 5 f 0 2 5 9 3 19 Training % x 0 10.5 26.3 47.4 15.8 100 Pro Head % x 0 0 14 72 14 4.0 100 Admin x Total % X 3 9 21 53 15 100

f 0 0 1 5 1 7

f 1 1 1 4 1

% 13 13 13 50 13

F 1 3 7 18 5 34

8 100

Training staff expressed HRD played a significant role up to 73.7% to achieve the goal of RDC, programme head felt HRD played 67.53% significant role and administrative staff declared it played up to 67.5% to achieve the goal of RDC. The data showed that the HRD strategy of RDC has played the significant role i.e. more than the average to achieve the organisational goal of RDC.
Fig 4.7 Frequency chart on significant role of HRD to achieve Organisational Goal
HRD role to achieve Org Goal
20 18 16 14

# Peolple

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2

1 Training

2 Pro Head

3 Rank Admin

5 Total

4.1.8

Overall Impact of HRD Credit System

As mentioned in the chapter one, in RDC there are two types of HRD system. The HRD credit system is applied only for training staff and the training programme head and administration staff uses the central HRD budget. Therefore, table below 4.31 explained the opinion of only training staff and programme head for the overall impact of HRD credit on the basis of ten characters, which were mentioned in the policy of HRD credit of RDC. In the table calculation of mode and mean, on the basis of response provided by training staff and program head, were mentioned for each and every characteristic. In total
Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

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73.53

73.7

80.0

67.5

3.68

3.7

3.4

HRD credit system was found 82% personal development, 78% decentralization of decision, 74% effective and career development, 72% performance oriented and transparent, 70% efficient and staff motivation, 66% fairness, and 60% long term perspective.
Table 4.31 Overall impact of HRD credit Training Pro manager Character Rank Mode Mean Mode Mean V f % x % V f % x % Performance oriented 1 to 5 3 8 42 3.2 64.2 4 5 71 4.0 80 Personal development 1 to 5 4 9 47 3.7 73.7 5 4 57 4.4 89 Decentralization of decision 1 to 5 4 10 53 3.9 77.9 5 3 43 4.0 80 Long term perspective 1 to 5 2 7 37 2.9 58.9 3 3 43 3.1 63 Efficient 1 to 5 3 6 32 3.4 67.4 4 3 43 3.6 71 Effective 1 to 5 4 6 32 3.3 66.3 4 6 86 4.1 83 Staff motivation 1 to 5 4 6 32 3.5 70.5 3 4 57 3.4 69 Career development 1 to 5 4 9 47 3.7 74.7 4 3 43 3.7 74 Fairness 1 to 5 3 11 58 3.3 65.3 3 5 71 3.3 66 Transparent 1 to 5 4 10 53 3.6 71.6 3 4 57 3.6 71 Total Mean x % 3.6 72 4.1 82 3.9 78 3.0 60 3.5 70 3.7 74 3.5 70 3.7 74 3.3 66 3.6 72

4.1.9

Overall Impact of Center Based HRD System

As the administration staff uses the center based HRD system mostly, the data presented below in the table 4.32 was based on the response of only administration staff. The center
Table 4.32Overall impact of center based HRD system Mode Character Range Mean Value V f f% Easy to receive HRD activities 1 to 5 4 4 50 3.1 Chance of getting new opportunity 1 to 5 3 5 62.5 2.6 Fair competition 1 to 5 2 5 62.5 2 Applicability 1 to 5 4 5 62.5 3.3 HRD approval process 1 to 5 4 3 37.5 3 Recognition of personal interest 1 to 5 3 4 50 2.4 Analysis of program need 1 to 5 3 5 62.5 3.1 Efficient 1 to 5 3 5 62.5 3.3 Effective 1 to 5 4 5 62.5 3.6 Staff motivation 1 to 5 4 4 50 3.9 Career development 1 to 5 4 3 37.5 3.9 Transparent 1 to 5 5 3 37.5 3.6 Decentralization of decision 1 to 5 4 3 37.5 3.3 Clear policy and guideline 1 to 5 4 3 37.5 3.1

Percent 62.5 52.5 40 65 60 47.5 62.5 65 72.5 77.5 77 72.5 65 62.5

based HRD was assessed by assigning fourteen characteristics of HRD system. Every characteristic was ranked from 1 to 5 as minimum to maximum for HRD by administration staff. Mode value was obtained by observing the highest frequency. The mean value of rank for each characteristic was also calculated this value was converted into percent. The data showed center based HRD system was 77.5 % staff motivation, 77% career development, 72.5% effective and transparent, 65% decentralization of decision,
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clear policy and guideline, , efficient, and applicability, 62.5% easy to receive, 60% applicability, 52.5% chance of getting new opportunity, 47.5% recognizing personal interest and 40 % of fair competition. The data demonstrated that center based HRD system was sound in previous six characters because they were just higher than the average. The character of easy to receive and applicability were okay because they were just in average. The HRD system did not work sound in the remaining characteristics because they were lower than the average. 4.1.10 Comparison between HRD Credit and Old HRD

Training staff and program head were practicing HRD credit system. Before this system they practiced old HRD system which is presently practiced by administration staff. The comparison between the HRD credit and old HRD system provides a clear picture about the suitability of HRD system in the present context of RDC. Therefore a comparison between old HRD and HRD credit system was made within training staff and program head in the 12 characteristics. 4.1.7.1 Comparison in the View of Training Staff

Table 4.33 provided the opinion of training staff in the comparison of old HRD system and HRD credit system. For comparison 5 point scale ranging from 1 to 5 equals minimum to maximum was assigned to each characteristic. On the basis of rank provided
Table 4.33 Comparison between old HRD and credit system in the view of training staff
Character a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. Easy to receive HRD activities Chance of getting new opportunity Fair competition Applicability HRD approval process Recognition of personal interest Analysis of program need Busy in training delivery Felt Difficulties Increase in training demand Availability of fund Clear policy and guideline Rank 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 V 2 3 3 3 3 2 5 3 4 3 3 3 Old HRD system Mode x f f % 8 42.1 2.9 8 42.1 3.1 7 36.8 2.8 9 47.4 3.2 9 47.4 3.1 11 57.9 2.3 6 31.6 3.5 9 47.4 3.7 6 31.6 3.3 10 52.6 3.1 11 57.9 2.9 10 52.6 2.8 % 58.9 61.1 55.3 63.2 61.2 45.3 69.5 74.7 65.3 62.1 57.9 55.8 HRD credit system Mode x % V f f % 4 14 73.7 3.6 72.6 4 10 52.6 3.5 69.5 5 11 57.9 4.3 86.3 4 8 42.1 3.7 74.7 4 9 47.2 3.6 72.6 4 10 52.6 4.1 81.1 3 8 36.8 3.5 69.5 4 9 47.4 3.7 74.7 3 7 36.8 3.1 62.1 3 8 36.8 3.4 67.4 4 9 47.4 3.6 72.6 5 7 36.8 3.8 76.8

by training staff mode and mean value was calculated and it was expressed in percentage. Figure 4.8 described a comparison between two systems for each and every characteristic. All characteristic of HRD credit system bears a higher value than old HRD system except a character felt difficulties. The value of credit system is also higher than the average
Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

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value. The calculated value of old HRD are just average and lower than the average value. But value of felt difficulties is found higher than the credit system because training staff caused many problems while practicing old HRD system. It seems that the HRD credit system was more fitted than old system in context of training staff.
Fig 4.8 Comparison between old HRD and HRD credit made by training staff
Comparision Bar
100 90 80 70

86 81 73 59 61 55 45 75 70 63 61 73 75 75 70 70 65 67 62 62 58 56 73 77

Value in %

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 a b

Characteristics Old HRD HRD Credit

4.1.7.2

Comparison in the View of Programme Head

Table 4.34 described the fact regarding the comparison made between the old HRD and the HRD credit system. This comparison also provided the numerical value in percentage of each and every characteristic. Facts seems that the value of each character of HRD credit system higher than the old system except the value of felt difficulties because in the old system programme head faced many problems rather than the HRD credit system. The
Table 4.34 Comparison between old HRD and credit system in the view of programme head
Character a. Easy to receive HRD activities b. Chance of getting new opportunity c. Fair competition d. Applicability e. HRD approval process f. Recognition of personal interest g. Analysis of program need h. Busy in training delivery i. Felt Difficulties j. Increase in training demand k. Availability of fund l. Clear policy and guideline Rank 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 1- 5 V 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 Old HRD system x Mode f f % 5 71.4 2.7 3 42.9 3 3 42.9 2.9 3 42.9 2.7 3 42.9 3 4 57.1 2.6 5 71.4 2.7 4 57.1 3 3 42.9 3.6 4 57.1 3.7 6 85.7 2.9 5 71.4 2.3 % 54.3 60 57.1 54.3 60 51.4 54.3 60 71.4 74.3 57.1 45.7 V 4 4 3 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 HRD credit system x % Mode f f % 6 85.7 3.9 77.1 3 42.9 4 80 4 57.1 3.4 68.6 3 42.9 3.7 74.2 3 42.9 4.3 85.7 3 42.9 4.3 85.7 4 57.1 4.1 82.9 3 42.9 3.9 77.1 3 42.9 2.9 57.1 3 42.9 3.4 68.6 5 71.4 4 80 4 42.9 3.4 68.6

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

calculated value of each character except felt difficulties is higher than the average value. Fig 8.9 clearly shows the comparison between two systems. Character i and j are higher in the old HRD system than the HRD credit system.

Fig 4.9 Comparison between old HRD and credit system in the view of programme head
Comparision Bar
90 80 70

86 77 80 74 69 60 57 60 54 51

86

83 77 71 60 54 74 69 57 57

80 69

V lu in % a e

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

54

46

Chare cte ris tics Old HRD HRD Credit

It was evident that in the view of the programme head the HRD credit system was far better than old HRD system in RDC.

4.1.8

Remarks from Programme Head Regarding HRD Impact

The table 4.35 below described some remarks regarding to the HRD impact made by programme head. The opinion of programme head was obtained by ranking the five point scale. On the basis of the responses, mode value of rank its frequency and frequency percentage was obtained. Similarly, the mean value of rank was also calculated and expressed in term of percentage. The programme head found 77.1% improvement in the managerial skills, 71.4% increase in the performance of subordinate after HRD, 80% change in the behavior of subordinate, 68.6%got help in resolving problems by subordinate, 85.7% received appreciative feedback from client about performance of subordinate, and 82.9% accomplish the overall programme's performance after HRD. Fig 4.10 presented the overall impact of HRD as mentioned by programmme head of the training programme.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Table 4.35 Remarks on HRD impact made by programme head Mode Character R V f % Improvement in the managerial skills of programme head 1-5 4 6 85.7 Performance of subordinate after HRD 1-5 4 4 57.1 Change in behavior of subordinate 1-5 4 7 100 Help in resolving problems by subordinate 1-5 3 4 57.1 Appreciative feedback received from client about subordinate 1-5 4 5 71.4 Overall programme's performance after HRD 1-5 4 4 57.1 Fig. 4.10 HRD impact web chart
HRD impact in View of Progamme He ad a
100 80

Mean x % 3.9 77.1 3.6 71.4 4 80 3.4 68.6 4.3 85.7 4.1 82.9

60 40 20 0

Goal

Acheive

4.1.9

Factors Affecting on the Organizational Production of RDC.

Analysis of factors affecting the organizational productivity of RDC is necessary to measure the impact of HRD Strategy of RDC as these have key role on the human resources development strategy. Therefore, an effort was made to identify the affecting factors of RDC productivity through checklist discussion. During the survey, people mentioned the following factors affecting the production of RDC. All factors presented were categorized into the following two types. 4.1.9.1 Internal Factors

The production of the organization is mainly affected by the internal factors or factors within the organization. The factors within the organization or RDC as expressed by the respondents are as follows. a. Manpower: Capable and skilled staff, motivated for hard working, technically sounds person, physically and mentally fit, flexible person, interpersonal communication skill, maturity and thoughtfulness, cooperativeness, qualified trainers and commitment. b. VMGOs: Vision, mission goals and objectives of the RDC and individual as well.
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c. Strategy and policy: Production and marketing strategy, organizational strategy, HRD policy, financial and other personnel rules and regulation. d. Management structure and administration: Decision making process, effective communication, leadership, meeting and planning, level and committee, formal and informal group, professional recognition, reward and punishment system, office management and team spirit e. IMS: Information management and delivering system, RDC and training brochure, and information flow, marketing, coordinating and networking, public relation. f. Development philosophy and adapted technology. g. Resources: Human resources, Money and fund flow, Grants, cost recover, vehicle and facilities, books, posters, course content, guideline and hand outs. h. Good will of RDC within or outside of UMN. i. Staff turnover ratio and the life of project 4.1.9.2 External Factors

Factors out of organizational efforts are known as external factors. The identified external factors by the respondents are as follows. a. Clients: Vision, mission goals, objectives, strategy, working approach, target

group and working area of clients. b. Participants/trainees: Cognition level of participants, education of participants, need, interest, expectation and availability of participants. c. Donor: Types, level, interest, objectives, and operational plan and support of donors. d. UMN VMGOS: The vision, mission goals, objectives and strategy of UMN has great influences to the products or service of RDC. e. Place and weather condition of any particular time. f. Act, rules and regulations of government of Nepal. g. Market demand of the training and other service. h. Existence of other competitive organization. i. Professional associations and pressure groups. j. Socio-economic, political, technological and environmental condition of surrounding and the world.

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

4.1.10

Trend Analysis of RDC

Trend analysis is important to describe the change for a given time of period. In the course of time introduction of new strategy can bring significant change in term of output. This can be viewed by analyzing the trend line. For trend analysis, different documents of the last five years available in the RDC were reviewed. The document review was mainly done on mandays calculation; total income and expenditure; income from only training (including training, consultancies and selling of tainting materials) and expenditure only for HRD; activity offered and received; and turnover ratio. The effective year for analyzing the trend was fiscal year 1998/1999 to 2002/2003. Because in this course of time the HRD credit system for training staff and the programme head was introduced. 4.1.10.1 Mandays Trend Over the Last Five Years

The main objective of the RDC is to provide training to the community people as well as staff of different organisation. The calculation of mandays related to the training is most important. Fig 4.11 described the trend line of calculated mandays over the last five years starting from 1998/1999 to 2002/2003. The trainees' day go above from 1998/99 to 2000/2001. The HRD credit system was
14000 12000 10000 8000

Fig 4.11 Mandays trend line over last five year in RDC

induced in between 1999 to 2000. The trainees' days seems to fall down in the year 2001/2002. The main cause of decling during this year was the maximum effect of the political

Mandays Trend Line


12645

9993 7848 7015

9212

6000 4000

1947
2000 0

2099 844
1999/ 00

2505 575
2000/ 01

1334 626
2001/ 02

1782 462
2002/ 03

1653
1998/ 99

F isical Year Fiscal Year

Trainees Days

Trainer Days

HRD days

instability in the country and the high rate of staff turnover. The trend line of trainers' days is more or less straight up to the fiscal year 2000/01. In the year 2001/2002 th condition seem same as described already. The HRD days spent by trainer are in the decreasing condition from the year 1998/99 onwards. It was due to the effective and efficient HRD management. The application of HRD credit system controlled the waste of time. Credit of HRD days/amount of an individual fully depends upon the days of training package on

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

which a trainer is involved. Another cause for decreasing in HRD mandays was the reduction of staff from RDC. 4.1.10.2 Income and Expenditure Over Last Five Years

The table 4.36 below present the income and expenditure condition of given fiscal year. The table again explained the expenditure only for HRD and % of HRD expenditure in the total expenses. Similarly, it also explained the income only from training (including consultancies, resource person and selling of training materials and % of training income in the total income. By analyzing the trend of HRD expenditure, proportionate budget was allocated and expended for HRD. The average % of HRD expenses was 5.8% in a year. Similarly, the income trend demonstrated a consistent trend for the period of time with the average value of 26.4%. I/E ratios demonstrated a good service oriented organization, which can be sustained for the long time if other factors remain constant, in average. I/E ratio is 0.99. Figure 4.12 illustrated the overall trend of income, expenditure, income only from training and the expenditure only for HRD for last five year.
Table 4.36 Income and expenditure figure over last five year
Fiscal Year 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 Total Average Expenditure (E) Total HRD 19536072 1574797 20672975 824825 21963387 553510 18768670 1424694 16434188 1307430 97375292 5685256 19475058 1137051 % 8.06 3.99 2.52 7.59 7.96 5.8 Total 16637454 21535131 22297841 14365917 21269051 96105394 19221079 Income (I) Training 4353897 4965915 7259896 4755373 4070666 25405747 5081149 % 26.17 23.06 32.56 33.10 19.14 26.4 I/E 0.852 1.042 1.015 0.765 1.294 0.993 Ratios TI/HRDE 2.765 6.021 13.116 3.338 3.113 5.7 % 3.246 5.780 12.919 4.361 2.406 5.7

Fig 4.11 Fig 4.12 Income and Expenditure trend chart over last five year of RDC
Income and Expenditure Area Chart

60

50

R upees (000000)

40

30

20

10

0 1998/ 99

1999/ 00

2000/ 01

2001/ 02

2002/ 03

Fisical Year

Total Incom e

Income from training only

Total Expenditure

Expenditure only for HRD

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

4.1.10.3

Activity Offered and Received

Figure 4.13 illustrated the trend of activity received by RDC human resource as an HRD and the activity offered means training, consultancies and resource person provided by RDC in terms of number of the activity. Similarly, the number of training developed by RDC personnel as a new training was also shown in the figure. The number of HRD was highest in number in the year 1998/99 than others. From 1999/2000 it started to increase slightly. In the case of training offered by RDC, there is more or less constant in number of training delivered by RDC but highest number of training was delivered in year 1999/00. The training introduced as a new training is increased in number from 1999/2000 till now.
Fig 4.13 Activity received and delivered trend bar

Activity offered and received


13
2002/ 03

87 44 12

2001 / 02

Fiscal Year
53 4

64

Fiscal Y

2000/ 01

72 37 4

1 999/ 00

80 34

0
1 998/ 99

60 112

20

40

60

80

1 00

1 20

N um be r o f A c t iv it y

HRD received

Activities of f ered

New trg introduced

4.1.10.4

Staff Turnover Ratio

The turnover ratio in RDC was found quite high. The fig 4.14 turnover doughnut chart demonstrated the staff turnover ratio in percent. Actual staff turnover numerical figure was not found for the years 1998/99 but in the highlighted issues of annul report it was mentioned that the turnover ratio was very high. In the proceeding years the rate of
2002/03; 12%

Fig 4.13Doughnut Chart for turn over ratio Fig 4.14


Turnover Doughnut Chart
1998/99;

1999/00; 17%

turnover was found 17% out of 58, 19% out of 47, 18% out of 44, and 12% out of 44 in the respective year. Although the turnover ratio in RDC was high, the trend of it was
2001/02; 18% 2000/01; 19%

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

found in decreasing condition in the following years. The cause of decreasing staff turn over was due to the implementation of credit system. 4.2 Major Findings of the study

On the basis of the data presentation and analysis above, the major findings of this study were as follows: Human Resource in RDC Although the age of RDC people ranged from 21 to 45 years, the majorities of RDC HR were in the most energetic age i.e. 26 to 30 years old. The sex ratio of RDC was in justifiable proportion. Number of female was slightly lower than the male. The education status of RDC personnel looked sound and qualified. Majority of workers were Bachelor degree holder. Qualification having Intermediate level was slightly lower than the Bachelor's and about one fourth of people hold Master's degree. The range of working experience of RDC HR within the RDC was up to 20 years. Majority people included 6 to 10 years of working experience in RDC which followed by 1 to 5 years of working experience. The mean years of working experience was 6.97 years. Roles and Responsibilities of RDC HR Most of the people in RDC were busy for "training material production" and "training design and delivery". Similarly, "training support service", "consultancy and resource person", "coordination and networking" were also major roles and responsibilities of RDC human resources. Mostly roles and responsibilities of training staff were "training design and delivery", "training material production" and "consultancies and resource person". The roles and responsibilities of Programme head were "coordination and networking", "administration work", "decision making" and "supervisory role". Likewise, the major roles and responsibilities of administration staff were "training support service" and "material production". Service/products of RDC and its Clients The technical and social training in the area of forestry, agriculture, horticulture, animal health, drinking water, organizational development and TOT were the main products or
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service of RDC. It provided skill based training to the local people and staff. Apart from the training, it also provided resource person, consultancy and training materials. RDC is directly or indirectly working with community people. Different INGOs, NGOs, GOs and CBOs were the major clients or consumers of RDC. The data from last five-year illustrated NGOs received the highest number of training. Similarly, INGOs were in second and UMN sister projects in third position. CBOs and GOs received the service of RDC in order. HRD Purposes Training staff and admin staff expressed that the main objective of HRD in RDC were to "development of staff capacity" and "improving RDC competence" but programme head said "effective and efficient performance" was the main purpose of RDC. In overall "development of staff capacity", "improving RDC competence" and "effective and efficient performance" were found the major purpose of HRD in RDC. Similarly, "improving team work in programmes", "increasing self worth and satisfaction", "satisfying own client", "exposure with new technology", "effective and efficient performance", "achieve the goal of RDC" and "being learning organization" etc were also the objectives of HRD. Types of HRD "Short term training of less than three months", "workshop/seminar", "field visit/exposure tour" "orientation", "self study", "professional group meeting", long term training more than three months", "OJT/internship", "academic course", "excursion/observation" etc., were the major types of identified HRD in RDC that were participated by RDC personnel. Selection Basis for HRD For participating HRD activities, most of the RDC staff were selected on the basis of "need assessment". Apart from this people were also selected on the basis of "personally interested activities", "seniority", "their own turn", "just fulfill the quota "," force of management" and "other basis" as well. People felt that the practiced HRD selection process of RDC was "good".

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Cause to Participate in HRD RDC personnel expressed that the cause of participating HRD were "to increase own technical capacity", "to update own self with the changing time" and "to be competent in own job performance". Some people believed HRD also "helps on promotion". Opinion on Overall Assessment of HRD Most of RDC staff found the participated HRD was "useful because it was job performance improvement oriented". Some people found it "useful but irrelevant with job nature" but few personnel "caused confusion after HRD back to the job". Some Remarkable Facts of HRD in RDC The integration of HRD strategy with the organizational strategy was higher than the average. Therefore, significant integration was found between the HRD strategy and organisational strategy. There was significant relation between HRD activities participated by RDC human resources and their job nature. The effectiveness of HRD activities on the products of RDC i.e. training, materials and consultancies was good. The standard of HRD participated by RDC staff was found good and the learning process from the HRD was also in significant level. The change in attitude of RDC human resources by HRD was found significant. The helpfulness of HRD on day to day job performance in the modified manner and methods of RDC personnel was found significant. Most of the RDC personnel perceived HRD as a great opportunity to acquire knowledge and skill for job requirements. RDC staff perceived that they were recognized to some extent by RDC after getting HRD but not sufficiently. Most of RDC staff got opportunity to apply learnt skill and knowledge more than average. After HRD, some new training was produced as market demand but not sufficiently. Increase in the number of training by HRD was found insignificant but there was significantly increase in quality of service offered by RDC after HRD. RDC staff were 75.29% familiar with HRD credit system which is higher than the average and significant.
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The satisfaction on the distribution system of HRD credit between training staff and coordinator was just average. Most of the respondents expressed HRD should be focused on equally work related and private interest area. Majority of staff expressed that the credit system was giving emphasis on the more quantity than the quality of training. HRD strategy of RDC played a significant role i.e. more than the average to achieve the organisational goal of RDC. Problems Faced on Applying Learnt Skills and Knowledge "Unavailability of opportunity", "do not get time", "improper planning", "changed of job responsibility", "no relation with subject matter", "not fit in the real work situation", "improper technology", "disagreement in attitude and concept", "disturbance by management", and "out of fashion" etc were the major identified problems faced by the RDC personnel on application of learnt skills and knowledge. Overall Impact of HRD Credit System The HRD credit system was found 82% personal development, 78% decentralization of decision, 74% effective and career development, 72% performance oriented and transparent, 70% efficient and staff motivation, 66% fairness and 60% long term perspective. Overall Impact of Center Based HRD System The Center based HRD system was 77.5 % staff motivation, 77% career development, 72.5% effective and transparent, 65% decentralization of decision, clear policy and guideline, efficient, and applicability, 62.5% easy to receive, 60% applicability, 52.5% chance of getting new opportunity, 47.5% recognizing personal interest and 40 % of fair competition. Comparison between HRD Credit and Old HRD In the view of the training staff and programme head HRD credit system was found far better than old HRD system in RDC.

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HRD in the view of Pogramme Head The programme head found 77.1% improvement in their managerial skills, 71.4% increase in the performance of subordinate, 80% change in the behavior of subordinate, 68.6% got help in resolving problems from subordinate, 85.7% received appreciative feedback from client about performance of subordinate, and 82.9% accomplishment of the overall programme's performance after HRD. Factors affecting on RDC Products Manpower qualities, VMGOs, strategy and policy, management structure and administration, IMS, development philosophy and adapted technology, resources, goodwill of RDC, staff turnover ratio, life of project, etc., were internal factors and clients nature, donor interest, VMGOS of UMN, government act, rules and regulations, market demand of the training and other service, existences of other competitive organization, professional associations and pressure groups, socio-economic, political, technological and environmental condition of surrounding and the world, etc., were external factors that affect the production of organization. Trend of RDC a. Mandays The trainees' day go above from 1998/99 to 2000/2001 then fall down in the year 2001/2002 and started to rise. The trend line of trainers' days is more or less straight up to the fiscal year 2000/01. The HRD days spent by trainer were in the decreasing condition from the year 1998/99 to onwards. It was due to the effective and efficient HRD management. The application of HRD credit system controlled the waste of time. b. Income and Expenditure Same line or trend is found in income and expenditure as described mandays. c. Activity Offered and Received The number of HRD was highest in number in the year 1998/99 and lowest in 1999/2000 then afterward started to increase slightly. In the case of training offered by RDC, there was more or less fluctuated in number of training delivered by RDC.

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The training introduced as a new training was increased in number from 1999/2000 to now. Staff Turnover Ratio Although the turnover ratio in RDC was high, the trend of it was found in decreasing condition in the following years. The cause of decreasing staff turnover was due to the implementation of credit system.

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Chapter Five

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 Summary The types of skills and knowledge needed by employee of an organization changes with time interval. Rapid technological advancement, progressive development of concept and modification in the business environment has made some past skills and knowledge archaic. Human resources are responsible to make the organization successful by changing the job behavior as required. But deficiency in knowledge and skills must be enhanced in order to introducing with the changing condition. Failure to update an individual of an organization cannot be able to meet the new challenges and adversely impact the organizational productivity. A suitable HRD strategy is essential to build up the capacity of all employees. Employee development is becoming a critical factor differentiating the more successful from the less successful institute. An organization provides support for all employees in developing their careers because they have an important stake in furthering employees' loyalty and the retention, particularly as talent becomes scarce and more competitively sought. Managers strive to help employee perform effectively and to give them an environment for personal growth and satisfaction. Rapid changes in the way work is performed required adoption of new skills and capabilities at all employee levels. Future changes called for in transitional strategy require training and development for improvement of current performance and also in anticipation of future needs. Managers, as part of their responsibilities, need to identify needed skills and actively manage employee learning for the long-term future in relation to explicit corporate and organizational strategies. Management is concern with performance and adaptability. Meanwhile, employees are concerned with their feelings and attitudes relating to their work and their sense of career identity and progress. Developing employee talent requires attention to all of these outcomes. In context of RDC being a training organization, it has been actively involved in designing training, developing materials and delivery of courses. Many other consultancies have also been done. Although, it contained qualified and experienced human resources, many HRD
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activities were carried out to develop staff capacity, improve RDC competency, effective and efficient performance for maintaining its earned goodwill in selling of services and products. HRD also helped to update the technical capacity of staff according to the changing time. The emphasis of RDC in the selection system to participate in HRD was found mostly based on the need assessment, which ultimately enhanced the relationship of HRD with the real job nature and increased the integration of HRD strategy with organisational strategy. The good foundation of participation in HRD was made by maintaining its standard and also increased the learning environment. After participating in HRD most of RDC human resource applied the learnt skills and knowledge but they were suffering many problems i.e. improper planning, lack of opportunity, lack of time, etc. Participants were also recognized by RDC to some extent but the level of reorganization should be increased. Although the number of training offered by RDC was not affected by HRD of RDC, the most significant impact of the HRD was seen in the quality of the RDC products. HRD was equally focused on the organizational need and private interest of the participants, it increased the organizational capacity as well as staff motivation. The attended HRD significantly changed the attitude of RDC personnel and they felt it helped them on the day-to-day job behavior in modified methods and manner. In RDC, two types of HRD system were operating viz. HRD credit system for training programme and the center-based system for administrative staff. The impact of credit system was found good. It was performance oriented, personal development, decentralization of decision, effective and efficient, transparent, staff motivation etc. This system was found far better in comparison with the previous HRD in the view of both training staff and the programme head but staff were not found very much satisfied with the distribution of HRD credits between trainer and coordinator. There was some

weakness in the policies and frequent change of HRD responsible person made it unclear to implement the programme. At last, it can be summarized that the HRD strategy of RDC has positive impact in its productivity. The HRD strategy of RDC played a significant role on improvement of managerial skills, performance of subordinate, change in behavior of personnel, received appreciative feedback from client, and achieve overall good performance of programme.

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5.2

Conclusions

On the basis of data presentation, analysis and major findings as described in the previous chapter, the following conclusions were made regarding the impact of human resource development strategy on organizational productivity of RDC. 1. UMN/RDC possessed highly regarded human resources who were and are actively involved in increasing the productivity of RDC. Human resources of RDC looked like sound in terms of energetic age class, proportionate and justifiable male female ratio, higher educational status and good working experience within the organisation. 2. As RDC is a recognized training institute, most of the human resource of RDC were actively concerning in the "training material production" i.e. handout, books, session plan, training guideline and manuals. Similarly, their other main roles and responsibilities were "training design and delivery", "training support service", "consultancies and resource person" and "coordination and networking". 3. RDC has been conducting much training related to technical and social development for community people as well as different level of staff. It also provides consultancies, resource person and materials. Although, RDC's ultimate target is community group/people, it is working through different partner organization. Mostly NGOs, INGOs, UMN sister organization, CBOs and GOs are the clients of RDC. 4. Different types of HRD activities were identified in RDC. Among them short-term trainings (less than 3 months) were major types of activity. Similarly,

workshop/seminar, orientation, professional group meeting, self-study, field visit/exposure tour were other major HRD activities. The main purpose of

conducting HRD activities in RDC was development of staff capacity, improving RDC competence, effective and efficient performance, increasing self worth and satisfaction of human resources, exposure with new technology and achieving the goal of RDC. People would like to participate in HRD because they perceived it helpful to update them with technical capacity according to the changing time.

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5. There was significant relationship between the HRD activities and the job nature of individual staff because the HRD strategy of RDC was found significantly integrated with the organizational strategy. HRD strategy was always in line of organizational efficiency. 6. Seven bases for selection to participate in HRD were identified in RDC. Mostly people were selected on the basis of need assessment and personal interest activities. People were also selected on seniority basis. The present selection process of participants for HRD was recognized as good by the RDC personnel and it should be further improved in implementation aspect. 7. There was significant effect of HRD on the products of RDC. Learnt skills and knowledge from the HRD were very much applicable in the field of training design and delivery. 8. The HRD activities attended by RDC personnel were standard in average. Some were very good in standard whereas some were of low standard. In average, attended HRD activities were just fitted on their level of cognition. Learning process is another most important aspect in the HRD. Due to the standard of HRD activities the learning process was also influenced. 9. The HRD activities attended by RDC people changed the attitude of them. But change in attitude does not necessarily change the job behavior. It may be or may not. In context of RDC it was reflected that there have been significantly change in the job behavior of staff due to the organisation support. Helpfulness of HRD on the day-to-day job performance was found high because the HRD activities were highly job performance oriented. 10. HRD was perceived as an opportunity to acquire the deficiencies in work knowledge and skills to meet job requirements and RDC staff were also getting sufficient opportunity to apply learnt skills and knowledge. recognized by RDC after getting the HRD but not sufficiently. 11. HRD, as received by RDC people, has no measurable impact on the production of new training and also increase the number of training according to the demand but People were

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it has great impact to increase the quality of training and other activities offered by RDC. 12. After getting HRD, it is necessary to apply learnt skills and knowledge on the real job position. But they were facing many problems i.e. unavailability of

opportunity, do not get time, improper planning, changed of job responsibilities, no relation of HRD activity with subject matter, not fit with job situation, etc. 13. There were two types of HRD system. One was center-based and the other was credit system. Center-based system has been operated from a long time and credit system was running since the last two years. Though staff were much familiar with credit system, they were not much satisfied with the present practice of HRD credit distribution system between coordinator and trainer. 14. HRD activity should be focused on the equally work related and private interest. Work related HRD sharpen the employee competency and private interest HRD motivates staff and increase self worth. In practice, RDC staff perceived the HRD credit system has been giving great emphasis on more quantity than the quality of training. Anyway, HRD strategy of RDC played a significant role to achieve its organisational goal. 15. The HRD credit system was found more performance oriented, personal development, decentralization of decision, effective and efficient, transparent, staff motivation and career development but less fairness and long-term perspective because the amount of credit accumulation was very low. Similarly, center based HRD system was also staff motivation, career development, transparent, efficient but not fair competition, not getting chance for new opportunity, no recognition for personal interest, difficult HRD approval process, less analysis of program need, not clear policy and guideline. 16. The weakness of HRD credit system is in its poor implementation. The responsible coordinating person of HRD is frequently changing. There is no centralized direction, coordination and support of HRD in RDC. All staff were not well informed about the content of policy. Some points in policy are unclear and controversial in understanding.

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17. In comparison between HRD credit system and old HRD system both training staff and programme head found the HRD credit system better than old HRD system in account to receive HRD easily, chance of getting new opportunity, fair competition, applicability, approval process, reorganization of personal interest, availability of fund, and clear policy and guideline, but there is not any difference in analysis of programme need, busy in training delivery and increase training demand. 18. Programme heads of training programme experienced that the impact of HRD system of RDC was significant on improvement of their managerial skills, performance of subordinate after HRD, change in behavior of subordinate, appreciative feedback received from client about them, overall programme's performance, and help in resolving problems. 19. There are many internal and external factors that affect on the productivity of organization such as manpower, VMGOS, management structure, other resources, client, donor, market condition, etc. These factors also have great influence on the human resource development strategy. 20. The trend of mandays for trainer and HRD were more or less constant in the successive fiscal year. Every year RDC staff received many HRD activities. Investment of time and resources for HRD in RDC is in significant amount. The ratio of income only from training and the expenditure only in HRD is positive. The staff turnover ratio in RDC is slightly decreased. 5.3 Recommendations

On the basis of survey result and conclusions, and informal discussion based on checklist, following recommendations have been made to implement and improve HRD system for positive impact on the organisational productivity. 1. For effective organizational productivity in an organisation, energetic age class, proportionate and justifiable male female ratio, higher educational status with sufficient working experience human resources should be maintained.

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2. While designing and implementing HRD strategy, roles and responsibilities of recommended human resources should be analyzed and considered. Their tasks and jobs should be systematically investigated and analyzed. 3. To produce the effective and marketable products, the interest, nature and capacity of client must be analysed. 4. Different types of HRD activities i.e. trainings, workshop/seminar, orientation, professional group meeting, self study, field visit/exposure tour etc., on the basis of need and interest should be frequently organized to develop staff capacity and improve organisational competence for effective and efficient performance.

5. The need based selection process for participating HRD should be applied which enhance the relationship between the HRD and the job nature and also increase the integration of HRD strategy with organizational strategy. 6. Present practice of selection process for participating HRD should be improved. The priority should be given to the programme than others. 7. To make the learning effective and increase the applicability of learnt skills and knowledge from the HRD, quality of the standard of HRD must be maintained. 8. An opportunity to apply the learnt skills and knowledge from HRD should be provided to staff. Organisational recognition to the individual after getting HRD is a must. Organisation should assess, evaluate, recognize and provide him opportunity to apply learnt skills and knowledge. 9. After getting HRD, new training should be designed and developed according to the market demand and possibility. While developing new training the quality of training should be always kept in mind. 10. Proper planning for HRD should be developed to avoid related problems on implementing the learnt skills and knowledge.

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11. It is better to apply same HRD system to all staff of RDC which will make it easier on the monitoring, overall administration and management of HRD. HRD credit system is recommended to be continued with making clear policy and guideline. 12. All staff should be well informed and familiar with the credit system and the policy of HRD credit system focused on distribution of credit, work related and private interest, credit on community support programme should be revised. 13. Both work related and private interest HRD should be included in HRD strategy. Work related HRD sharpen the employee's competency and private interest HRD motivates staff and increase self worth. Similarly, within the HRD credit system quality of training is also to be considered with quantity. 14. A post of HRD manager should be created to administer and manage the HRD properly and systematically. 15. The factors affecting the productivity of organization that may be internal and/or external should be considered while developing, designing and implementing the human resource development strategy. 16. The documentation system of HRD in any organisation should be well maintained and improved. Need, expectation, objective, activities, methods, information etc., should be finely documented. 17. After getting any types of HRD, necessarily a follow-up should be conducted to find out problems and prospectus on the application of learnt behavior. Follow-up can also be conducted to measure effectiveness, feedback, and areas for further improvement. 18. After received HRD, immediately sharing workshops/party should be organized. Related personnel should be invited to this workshop. Discussion, question answering, role playing, learnt information, improvement area, further

recommendation, prerequisite, etc., should be discussed and shared. 19. A suitable strategy to reduce the staff turnover ratio should be designed and implemented. In HRD strategy special consideration has to be given to check staff turnover ratio.
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Shuler, R.S. Scanning the Environment: Planning HRM and Organisational change. HRM planning. 1989. Silwal, K. and Turakka, A. HRD Workshop Report. Rural Development Center, Pokhara. 2000. Silwal, K. Impact Assessment of the Management Training in the context of Rural Development Center Pokhara, Nepal. 1998. Stein, Human Resource Planning. McGraw, New York. 1983. Strauss, G & Sayles, L.R. Personnel (The Human Problems of Management), Fourth Edition. India. 1985. Sutermeiseter R.A. People and Productivity. New York. McGraw-Hills Book Company. 1969. Torrington, Derk & Hall, Laura. Human Resource Management. Fourth Edition, Prentice Hall, Europe. 1998. Tracey, William R. Managing Training and Development Systems. India. 1980. Varey D and Thapa, K. Rural Development Center, Pokara, Mild Term Evaluation Final Report. 2001. Varey, D. Quality Performance Evaluation Report of RDC. RDC. 2001. Walter, Nord R. Beyond the Teaching Machine: The Neglected area of Operant Conditioning in the Theory and Practice of Management. Organisational Behaviour and Personnel Management. 1969. Wentling, Tim. Planning for Effective Training. FAO, Rome. 1993. Wiley, John and Sons. Personnel Administration and Human Resource Management. New York. 1976.

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Appendix 1 Questionnaire for Training Staff


For Impact of Human Resource Development Strategy on Organizational Productivity of RDC Each respondent is requested to fill up this questionnaire in practical way what you experienced. Your all response will be kept most confidential. Please use extra paper if you need.

1. Personal data Designation: Program: Your work experience: Age: Sex: Qualification

2. What are your major roles and responsibilities? a. Training design and delivery f. Decision making b. Coordination and Networking g. Supervisory role c. Training support service h. Consultancy and resource person d. Administrative work i. Others e. Training material production 3. In your opinion what are the purposes of HRD in RDC? a. Improving RDC competence f. Exposure with new technology/expert b. Improving team work in programs g. Effective and efficient performance c. Increasing self worth and h. Achieve the goal of RDC i. Being learning organization satisfaction of staff j. Spending money and time d. Development of staff capacity e. Satisfy to own client k. Others 4. What sorts of HRD activities that you participated in RDC? g. Academic course a. Short term training (< 3 months) h. Field visit/Exposure tour b. Long term training (> 3 months) i. Workshop/Seminar c. On the job training j. Excursion/Observation d. Orientation k. Others.. e. Professional group meeting f. Self study (Library, Book, etc) 5. Please mention HRD activities that you have attended:
S.N 1 2 3 4 5 HRD activities Date Duration Main Objective Usefulness 1 low useful 1 2 3 5 highly useful 4 5

6. How much of these HRD activities that you have attended are related with your job nature?

Low 1 Low 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5

High

7. In your opinion how much HRD strategy is integrated with organisational strategy in RDC?

High

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8. How were you selected for these HRD activities? i On the basis of need assessment iv Just fulfill the quota ii On the basis of seniority v Personally interested activities iii On your turn vi By force of management 9. What do you think about the present practice of selection process for HRD activities? i Very good ii Good iii Satisfactory
activities of RDC?

iv Not good v Indifferent

10. Did these HRD activities you attended affect on the production of the training and other

Low 1 2 3 4 5

High

11. Generally you attended HRD activities because i It helps on your promotion v To increase your technical ii To be relieved from the burden of capacity job obligation for HRD period vi To update yourself with the iii It is your turn changing time iv To be completed in your job vii If any performance 12. The standard of HRD activities you completed were Low 1 2 3 4 5 High

13. The learning process during the HRD activities you attended is Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

14. Had your previous attitude changed by HRD activities? Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

15. As a whole the HRD activities in your opinion were iii Useful but irrelevant between job and HRD. iv Caused confusion after HRD back to the job situation. v If any 16. Are HRD activities that you attended helpful to your day to day job performance in modified manner and method? Min 1 2 Max 3 4 5 i Useful because it is job performance improvement oriented. ii Not achieved so it was waste of time and money.

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17. Has HRD activity an opportunity for you to acquire your deficiencies in work knowledge and skill to meet your job requirement? Min Max 1 2 3 4 5 18. The extent of organisational recognition of your importance as you perceived, after getting of HRD activities is; Min Max 1 2 3 4 5 19. Have you got opportunity to apply your skill and knowledge acquired from HRD activities? Min 1 2 3 4 5 20. Did HRD activities that you attended help in the production of the new training according to the demand? Min 1 2 3 4 5 Max Max

21. Did you face any problems while applying your learnt skills and knowledge? If yes, please specify. i Do not get time vi Changed my job responsibility ii No relation with subject matter vii Improper planning iii Unavailability of opportunity viii Disturbance by management iv Inappropriate technology ix Out fashion v Not fit in real work situation x Ifany. 22. Do you think the HRD activities that you participated help to increase the number of training demand by client? Min 1 2 3 4 5 23. Are HRD activities help to increase the quality of training and other services offered by RDC? Please indicate on the following Rank. Min 1 2 3 4 5 Max Max

24. Are you familiar with the HRD credit system of RDC? Min Max
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1 2 3 4 5 25. The distribution of the HRD credits among individual trainer, coordinator is Very bad Very good 1 2 3 4 5 Please, your reason 26 Give your rank on the following points. The HRD credit system is (Note: 1 for Min. and 5 for Max.) Performance oriented 1 2 3 4 5 Personal benefit/development 1 2 3 4 5 Decentralization of decision 1 2 3 4 5 Long term perspective 1 2 3 4 5 Efficient 1 2 3 4 5 Effective 1 2 3 4 5 Staff motivation 1 2 3 4 5 Career development 1 2 3 4 5 Fairness 1 2 3 4 5 Transparent 1 2 3 4 5 27. In your opinion, the HRD activities should be focused on i Only work related iv More work related than private ii Only Private interest interest iii Equally on work related and v More private interest than work private interest related 26. Compare between the old HRD system and HRD credit system by ranking? Subject Easy to receive HRD activities Chance of getting new opportunity Fair competition Applicability HRD approval process Recognition of personal interest Analysis of program need Busy in training delivery Felt Difficulties Increase in training demand Availability of fund Clear policy and guideline Old HRD System 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 HRD credit system 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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27. The HRD credit system gives emphasis on i Only quality of training ii Only quantity of training iii Equally quality and quantity of training iv More quality than quantity of training v More quantity than quality of training

28. Do you have any comments on HRD credits accumulation process? Please mention. 29. Why was the HRD credit system developed? 30. What are the main productions of RDC? 31. What are the factors that effect on the production of training? 32. Does the HRD credit system play a significant role to achieve the goal of RDC? Min 1 2 3 4 5 33. Do you have any difficulties on application of HRD credit system? Please mention. 34. Please mention any positive and negative aspect of the HRD credit system that you have faced. 35. Does the HRD credit system fit in the context of your job position? Why? 36. Please give your suggestion to make the HRD credit system more effective. 37 Any comments/suggestions, please specify.. Thank you very much for your kind cooperation! Surya B. Magar Max

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Questionnaire for Programme Head


For Impact of Human Resource Development Strategy on Organizational Productivity: A case study of UMN/RDC. Each respondent is requested to fill up this questionnaire in practical way what you experienced. Your all response will be kept most confidential. Please use extra paper if you need.

1. Personal data Designation: Program: Work experience: Age: Sex: Qualification: 2. What are your major roles and responsibilities? i Training design and delivery vi Decision making ii Coordination and Networking vii Supervisory role iii Training support service viii Consultancy and resource person iv Administrative work ix Others v Training material production 3. In your opinion what are the purposes of HRD in RDC? vi Exposure with new technology/ expert vii Effective and efficient performance viii Achieve the goal of RDC ix Being learning organization x Spending money and time xi Others 4. What sorts of HRD activities that you participated in RDC? 7. Academic course 1. Short term training (< 3 months) 8. Field visit/Exposure tour 2. Long term training (> 3 months) 9. Workshop/Seminar 3. On the job training 10. Excursion/Observation 4. Orientation 5. Professional group meeting 11. Others 6. Self study (Library, Book, etc) 5. Please mention HRD activities that you have attended: i Improving RDC competence ii Improving team work in programs iii Increasing self worth and satisfaction of staff iv Development of staff capacity v Satisfy to own client
S.N HRD activities Date Duration Objective Usefulness 1 low useful 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 highly useful 5

6. How much of these HRD activities that you have attended are related with your job nature? Low 1 2 3 4 5 High

7. In your opinion how much HRD strategy is integrated with organisational strategy in RDC? Low 1 2 3 4 5
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High

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8. How were you selected for these HRD activities? 1. On the basis of need assessment 5. Personally interested activities 2. On the basis of seniority 6. By force of management 3. On your turn 7. If any 4. Just fulfill the quota 8. 9. What do you think about the present practice of selection process for HRD activities? 1. Very good 4. Not good 2. Good 5. Indifferent 3. Satisfactory 10. Did these HRD activities that you attended affect on the production of the training and other activities of RDC? Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

11. Generally you attended HRD activities because 1. It helps on your promotion 5. 2. To be relieved from the burden of job obligation for HRD period 6. 3. It is your turn 4. To be completed in your job 7. performance 12. The standard of HRD activities you completed were Low 1 2 3 4 5 High To increase your technical capacity To update yourself with the changing time If any

13. The learning process during the HRD activities you attended is Low 1 2 3 4 5 High

14.Had your previous attitude changed by HRD activities? Low 1 2 3 4 5 High

15.After getting HRD, your improvement in managerial skills is Low 1 2 3 4 5 High

16.As a whole the HRD activities in your opinion were 1. Useful because it is job performance improvement oriented. 2. Not achieved so it was waste of time and money. 3. Useful but irrelevant between job and HRD. 4. Caused confusion after HRD back to the job situation.
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17. Are HRD activities attended helpful to your day to day job performance in modified manner and method? Min 1 2 3 4 Max 5

18. Was HRD activity an opportunity for you to acquire your deficiencies in work knowledge and
skill to meet your job requirement? Min 1 2 3 4 5 19. The extent of organisational recognition of your importance, after getting of HRD activities is; Min 1 2 3 4 5 20. Have you got opportunity to apply your skill and knowledge acquired from HRD activities? Min 1 2 3 4 5 21. Did HRD activities that you attended help in the production of the new training according to the demand? Min 1 2 3 4 5 21. Did you face any problems while applying your learnt skills and knowledge? If yes, please specify. 6. Changed my job responsibility 1. Do not get time 7. Improper planning 2. No relation with subject matter 8. Disturbance by management 3. Unavailability of opportunity 9. Out fashion 4. Inappropriate technology 10. If any 5. Not fit in real work situation 23. Do you think HRD activities that you participated help to increase the number of training demand by client? Min 1 2 3 4 5 24. Do HRD activities help to increase the quality of training and other services offered by RDC? Please indicate on the following Rank. Min 1 2 3 4 5 Max Max Max Max Max Max

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25. The distribution of the HRD credits among individual trainer, coordinator and Admin. staff is Very bad 1 2 3 4 5 Please, your reason 26. Give your rank on the following points. The HRD credit system is (Note: 1 for Min. and 5 for Max.) Performance oriented 1 2 3 4 5 Personal benefit/development 1 2 3 4 5 Decentralization of decision 1 2 3 4 5 Long term perspective 1 2 3 4 5 Efficient 1 2 3 4 5 Effective 1 2 3 4 5 Staff motivation 1 2 3 4 5 Career development 1 2 3 4 5 Fairness 1 2 3 4 5 Transparent 1 2 3 4 5 27. In your opinion , the HRD activities should be focused on 1. Only work related 4. More work related than private 2. Only Private interest interest 3. Equally on work related and 5. More private interest than work private interest related 28 Compare between the old HRD system and HRD credit system by ranking? Subject Easy to receive HRD activities Chance of getting new opportunity Fair competition Applicability HRD approval process Recognition of personal interest Analysis of program need Busy in training delivery Felt Difficulties Increase in training demand Availability of fund Clear policy and guideline 29. The HRD credit system gives emphasis on 1. Only quality of training 2. Only quantity of training 3. Equally quality and quantity of training Old HRD System 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 HRD credit system 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Very good

4. More quality than quantity of training 5. More quantity than quality of training
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30. Do you have any comments on HRD credits accumulation process? Please mention. Did you use the HRD credits? a) If yes, please specify Types of HRD Work related HRD Private interest HRD RDCs HRD awareness program Extended development

Amount (RS or days)

If not, please specify your reason 1. Lack of time 6. No proper planning 2. Too busy 7. Lack of clear cut criteria and 3. Unavailability of suitable training policy 4. Insufficient fund collection 8. If any 5. Lack of sufficient information to me 31. What are the factors that effect on the production of training? 32. Does the HRD credit system play a significant role to achieve the goal of RDC? Min 1 2 3 4 5 33. Do you have any difficulties on application of HRD credit system? Please mention. 34. Please mention any positive and negative aspect of the HRD credit system that you have faced. 35. Does the HRD credit system fit in the context of your job position? Why? 36. Please give your suggestion to make the HRD credit system more effective. 37. Usually, how do you recommend your subordinate for HRD activities? 39. After completing the HRD, performance of your subordinate is Low 1 2 High 3 4 5 Max

40. Have you got any change in behavior of your subordinate after HRD Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

41. How much did the HRD activities attended by your subordinates help in resolving the problems? Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

42. Feedback received from your client about the performance of your trainer is Low appreciated High appreciated
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3 4

43. Did your programme achieved the staff develop activities according to your strategic planning? Yes No

Over all your entire programmer's performance is Low 1 2 3 4 5 High

44. Any comments/suggestions, please specify.. Thank you very much for your kind cooperation! Surya B. Magar

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Questionnaire for Administration Staff


For Impact of Human Resource Development Strategy on Organizational Productivity of RDC Each respondent is requested to fill up this questionnaire in practical way what you experienced. Your all response will be kept most confidential. Please use extra paper if you need.

1. Personal data Designation: Program: Your work experience: Age: Sex: Qualification: 2. What are your major roles and responsibilities? 1. Training design and delivery 6. Decision making 2. Coordination and Networking 7. Supervisory role 3. Training support service 8. Consultancy and resource person 4. Administrative work 9. Others 5. Training material production 3. In your opinion what are the purposes of HRD in RDC? 7. Effective and efficient 1. Improving RDC competence performance 2. Improving team work in programs 8. Achieve the goal of RDC 3. Increasing self worth and satisfaction 9. Being learning organization of staff 10. Spending money and time 4. Development of staff capacity 11. Others . 5. Satisfy to own client 6. Exposure with new technology/expert 4. What sorts of HRD activities that you participated in RDC? 7. Academic course 1. Short term training (< 3 months) 8. Field visit/Exposure tour 2. Long term training (> 3 months) 9. Workshop/Seminar 3. On the job training 10. Excursion/Observation 4. Orientation 11. Others.. 5. Professional group meeting 6. Self study (Library, Book, etc) 5. Please mention HRD activities that you have attended: 6. Hwo much of these HRD activities that you have attended are related with your job nature? Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

7. In your opinion how much HRD strategy is integrated with organisational strategy in RDC? Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

8. How were you selected for these HRD activities? 1. 2. 3. 4. On the basis of need assessment On the basis of seniority On your turn Just fulfill the quota
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5. Personally interested activities 6. By force of management 7. If any

Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

9. What do you think about the present practice of selection process for HRD activities? 1. Very good 4. Not good 2. Good 5. Indifferent 3. Satisfactory 10. Did these HRD activities that you attended affect on the production of the training and other activities of RDC? Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

11. Generally you attended HRD activities because It helps on your promotion 1. To be relieved from the burden of 4. To increase your technical job obligation for HRD period capacity 2. It is your turn 5. To update yourself with the 3. To be completed in your job changing time performance 6. If any . 2. The learning process during the HRD activities you attended is Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

13. Had your previous attitude changed by HRD activities? Low 1 2 High 3 4 5

14. As a whole the HRD activities in your opinion were 1. Useful because it is job performance improvement oriented. 2. Not achieved so it was waste of time and money. 3. Useful but irrelevant between job and HRD. 4. Caused confusion after HRD back to the job situation. 5. If any 15. Are HRD activities that you attended helpful to your day to day job performance in modified manner and method? Min 1 2 Max 3 4 5

16. Was HRD activity an opportunity for you to acquire your deficiencies in work knowledge and skill to meet your job requirement? Min Max 1 2 3 4 5

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17. The extent of organisational recognition of your importance as you perceived, after getting of HRD activities is; Min Max 1 2 3 4 5 18. Have you got opportunity to apply your skill and knowledge acquired from HRD activities? Min 1 2 3 4 5 19. Did HRD activities that you attended help in the production of the new training? Min 1 2 3 4 5 20. Did you face any problems while applying your learnt skills and knowledge? If yes, please specify. 1. Do not get time 6. Changed my job responsibility 2. No relation with subject matter 7. Improper planning 3. Unavailability of opportunity 8. Disturbance by management 4. Inappropriate technology 9. Out fashion 5. Not fit in real work situation 10. Others 21. Do HRD activities help to increase the quality of training and other services offered by RDC? Please indicate on the following Rank. Min 1 2 3 4 5 22. Are you familiar with the HRD credit system of RDC? Min 1 2 3 4 5 23. In your opinion, the HRD activities should be focused on 1. Only work related 2. Only Private interest 3. Equally on work related and private interest 4. More work related than private interest 5. More private interest than work related Max Max Max Max

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24. In your opinion the HRD of RDC that you been practicing is (Note: 1 for Min. and 5 for Max.) Subject Rank Easy to receive HRD activities 1 2 3 4 5 Chance of getting new opportunity 1 2 3 4 5 Fair competition 1 2 3 4 5 Applicability 1 2 3 4 5 HRD approval process 1 2 3 4 5 Recognition of personal interest 1 2 3 4 5 Analysis of program need 1 2 3 4 5 Busy in training delivery 1 2 3 4 5 Felt Difficulties 1 2 3 4 5 Increase in training demand 1 2 3 4 5 Availability of fund 1 2 3 4 5 Clear policy and guideline 1 2 3 4 5 25. What are the main productions of RDC? 26. What are the factors that effect on the production of your organisation? 27. Does the HRD credit system play a significant role to achieve the goal of RDC? Min 1 2 3 4 5 28. Do you have any difficulties on application of HRD credit system? Please mention. 29. Please mention any positive and negative aspect of the HRD credit system that you have faced. 30. Do the HRD credit system fit in the context of your job position? Why? 31. Please give your suggestion to make the HRD credit system more effective. 32. Any comments/suggestions, please specify.. Thank you very much for your kind cooperation! Surya B. Magar Max

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Appendix 2

Checklist for informal interview

RDC products Factors affecting to the products of RDC Why HRD HRD types What do you think about the productivity? Any Problems What are the best in RDC? What are the weakness areas? Do you know the policy of RDC? How it can be improved? Feed back from client? Planning process Time to participate HRD and training delivery? HRD and RDC strategies? Selection process for HRD in RDC? Standard of HRD? Credit or center based HRD system Subject matter and conducting methodologies Relationship between HRD and Job nature? To be changed or improved in HRD of RDC?

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Appendix 3

Mean age of Respondents

Age Class 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45

f 1 14 7 8 4 34

MV 23 28 33 38 43

fMV 23 392 231 304 172 1122

33

Appendix 4

Mean value of working experience Experience f 1 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 14 16 1 3 34 MV 3 8 13 18 fMV 42 128 13 54 237 6.97 x

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Appendix 5 List of training offered by RDC

A. AHITP: 1. Goat Raising Training (7 days) 2. Pig Raising Training (7 days) 3. Poultry Farming Training (7-10 days) 4. Animal Nutrition Training (7 days) 5. VILLAGE LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT WORKER TRAINING (15 DAYS) 6. Rabbit Keeping Training (5 days) 7. Fish Farming Training (5 days) 8. Milk Production and Processing Training (7 days) 9. Cattle and Buffalo Management Training (7 days)

B. TOT/OD: 1. Training of Trainers (TOT) Professional level) - Phase I (10 days) 2. Training of Trainers (TOT) Professional level) - Phase II (10 days) 3. Training of Trainers (TOT) (General Course) (12 days) 4. Village Development Committee (VDC) TOT (10 days) 5. Village Development Committee (VDC) CBT (7 days) 6. Social Mobilization Training (7 days ) 7. Community Development (CD) Training (15 days) 8. Leadership Development Training (7 days) 9. Organizational Development (OD) Training (20 days) 10. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Training (10 days) 11. Project Proposal Writing (7 days) 12. Group Dynamics Training (5 days) 13. Capacity Building Training for CBOs (7 days) 14. Enterpreneurship Promotion Training (7 days) 15. Gender Sensitisation Training (5 days)

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C. HATSP: 1. Bee Keeping Training (5 days) 2. Commercial Vegetable Production Training (7 days) 3. Fruit Tree propagation & Management Training (10 days) 4. Integrated Pest Management Training (7 days) 5. Off-Season Vegetable Production Training (5 days) 6. Sustainable Agriculture Training ( 7 days) 7. Ginger Cultivation Training (3 days) 8. Cereal Crop Production Training (7 days) 9. Kitchen Garden Management Training (6 days) 10. Mushroom Production Training (5 days) 11. Training of Organic Vegetable Farming Training (7 days) 12. Vegetable Seed Production Training (9 days) 13. Rural Agriculture Worker Training (35 days) 14. Agro-Forestry Nursery Establishment & Management Training (7 days) 15. Citrus Cultivation Training (7 days) 16. Fruit and Vegetable Nursery Management Training (7 days)

D. TREES: 1. Community Forest Management Training (7 days) 2. Forest Nursery Establishment & Management Training (7 days) 3. Bamboo Propagation & Management Training (5-7days) 4. Account and Book Keeping Training in community Forestry (5-7 days) 5. Income Generation Through Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) Training (5 days) 6. Improved Cook (Smokeless) Stove (5 days) 7. Women in Forest and Environment Management (5 days) 8. Fodder/Forage Propagation and Utilisation Training (7 days) 9. Development of Community Forestry (CF) as an Organisation (NGO) Training (7 days) 10. Conflict Management in Community and Community Forest User Group (FUG) Training (5 days) 11. Soil and Watershed Conservations/Slopping Agriculture Land Technology (SALT) Training (5-7 days)

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12. WSSTP: 13. Overseer/Technician Refresher Training (OTRT) (16 days) 14. Village Maintenance Workers (VMW) Training (10 days) 15. Water and Sanitation Training (WST) (4 days) 16. Survey, Design and Estimation Training (SDET) (15 days) 17. Water User Committee Management Training (WUCMT) (3 days) 18. Drinking Water Foreman Training (DWFT) (13 days) 19. Women Tapstand Caretaker Training (WTCT) (4 days)

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Appendix 6

Training material offered by RDC

1. Goat Raising Hand Book For Literate 2057 2. Goat Raising Hand Book For illiterate 2057 3. Poultry Farming 2057 4. Pig Raising for literate 2057 5. Pig Raising Illiterate 2057 6. Forest Nursery Establishment and Management 2055 7. Bamboo Propagation and Management 2055 8. Rural Drinking Water Care and Maintenance Hand book 2053 9. Vet. Medicine Used By VAHW- 2046 10. Primary Book For Rural VAHW- 2046 11. Vegetable Cultivation in Nepal 12. Mineral Block Poster 13. Mixture of Grain

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Appendix 7

List of consultancies Carried out by RDC

1. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) study for Drinking water in Begnas Area, for World Vision 2003.

2. Organisational Assessment and Strategic Planning (OASP) for Machhapuchhre Development Organisation (MDO), 2003

3. Organisational Assessment (OA), For Dalit Non Governmental Organization Federation (DNF), 2003

4. NTFP survey and Inventory in Lhosepakha Community Forest, Pease Crops. 2003.

5. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) study for Drinking water in Begnas Area, for World Vision 2002.

6. Scaling of Fodder and Forage Propagation Decision Making Tools, for DIFID, 2002

7. Participatory Consultative Process (PCP) on Bara Forest Management for FINNIDA from February to March 1998.

8. Training Impact Evaluation (TIE) for GTZ ChFDP, Lahan from September to October 1997.

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Appendix 8

RDC Client List. (FY 1998/1999 to 2002/2003)

Name 1. Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP), Pokhara 2. Action-Aid, Nawalparasi & Sindhuli 3. Amp Pipal Hospital, Gorkha/UMN 4. Andhikhola Users' Committee, Syangja

Type INGO INGO INGO CBO

5. Animal Health Training & Consultancy Services (AHTCS), Kaski NGO 6. Asia Rural Foundation 7. Bajhedanda Community Forestry Users Group, Kaski 8. Bajung VDC, Parbat 9. Bartandi Community Forest Users Group, Nawalparasi INGO UG HMG CBO

10. Bel Pokhari Community Development Group (BPCDG), Syangja CBO 11. BPC Galyang, UMN 12. Butwal Power Company, Syangja 13. CARE Nepal 14. CCC 15. CDHP/UMN 16. CEWEK, Kaski 17. Chisakhola FUG 18. CHP Gorkha, UMN 19. CHP Okhaldhunga/UMN 20. Commmunity Based Organisation Nawalparasi 21. CODE, UMN 22. Community Development Programme, Sindhuli 23. Community Forest User Group Coordination Committee, 24. Community Group, Neta, Surkhet 25. Community Health Project (CHP), Lamjung 26. Creation of Creative Society, Dhangadi 27. CSD Kalikot 28. DDC/ PDDP INGO NGO INGO NGO INGO CBO UG INGO INGO CBO INGO NGO NGO CBO UMN NGO INGO INGO

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29. DDC/LDFB, Rupendehi 30. DDC/UNDP HIV-AIDS Project 31. DED/GDS 32. Deurali VDC, Kaski 33. Development and Environment Protection Club (DEPC), 34. Dhading Resource Management Project (DRMP), UMN 35. District Development Committee (DDC), 36. District Development Committee (DDC), Mugu 37. District Development Committee, Kapilvastu 38. District Development Committee, Kaski 39. District Development Committee, Kaski/ 40. District Development Committee, 41. District Health Care Service, Baglung. 42. Education Department, UMN 43. Engineering Campus, Lamachaur 44. ESP, Rupendehi 45. Federation of National Association District Committee, Parbat 46. Forest & Environment Conservation Society 47. Forest User Group Co-ordination Committee, Chitwan 48. FKFSP/GTZ 49. Friends of Sankhu, Kavre

NGO HMG/NGO INGO HMG NGO INGO GO HMG HMG GO INGO HMG INGO INGO HMG INGO/UMN NGO GO NGO INGO NGO

50. German Development Services (DED)/Women Development Di. INGO/HMG 51. Ghoraskhola Drinking Water Project 52. Gorkha Welfare Scheme (GWS), Kaski 53. Gramin Mahila Jagaran Samuha (GMJS), Okhaldhunga 54. GTZ 55. Gulmi Argakhanchi Rural Development Programme (GARDP) 56. Gurans Multiple Co-operative, Syanjga 57. HCEME, Nepal 58. Health Environmental Learning Programme (Help-Us) 59. Health Services Department/UMN 60. Heifer International 61. Help Nepal, Syangja CBO INGO CBO INGO INGO CBO NGO INGO INGO INGO NGO

152

Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

62. Help-Us, Banepa 63. Helvetas 64. Himalayan Community Dev. Fed. (HICODEF), Nawalparasi 65. HIMAWANTI 66. Human Development and Env. Maintenance Education 67. HCEME, Tanahu 68. Indreni Samaj Kendra 69. Interdependent Self-Sustain Institute (ISI), Surkhet 70. International Nepal Fellowship (INF) 71. Jajarkot Permaculture Project 72. Janasakti Youth Club, Pelakot Syangja 73. JICA 74. Kadoorie Agriculture Aid Association, Kaski 75. VDC, 76. Karnali Community Skill Training (KCST)/UMN 77. Karnali Technical School (KTS) 78. KCST, UMN 79. Khurkot Youth Club 80. King Mahindra Trust Natural Conservation (KMTNC) 81. KSC 82. Lavkhus Multi purpose Co-operative Ltd., Fisling, Chitwan 83. Livelihood & Forestry Programme (LFP), 84. Local Trust Fund Board Secretariat 85. Machhapuchhre Development Organisation (MDO) 86. Majdanda Community Forest Users' Group, Nawalparasi 87. Mankekhola D/W and Sanitation Project, Galygang, Syangja 88. Mountain Resource Management Group (MRMG), Morang 89. Mugu Educational Project, Mugu 90. Multiple Community Development Service 91. Nari Utthan Kendra 92. Nepal Bible Ashram, Jorpati, Kathmandu 93. Nepal Coffee Producer's Association (NCPA)/LISP Helvetas 94. Nepal Janajati Utthan Kendra, Matihani

INGO INGO NGO NGO NGO NGO NGO NGO INGO NGO CBO INGO INGO HMG INGO HMG INGO CBO INGO NGO CBO NGO CBO NGO CBO CBO NGO UMN NGO NGO NGO NGO CBO

153

Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004

95. Nepal Oppressed Eth. Freed Society (NPEFS), Lamachaur, Kaski CBO 96. Nepal Permaculture Group 97. Nepal Tribal Development Centre, Matihani, Mahottari 98. Nepali Organisation Unit/UMN 99. NGOSP, UMN 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. NO Unit, UMN Nutrition Programme/UMN ORDP, Okhaldhunga, UMN Paimey Group, Tanahu Palpa Pasture Development Park & People Programme, Chitwan Partnership Program (PP)/UMN, Kathmandu Peace Rehabiliation Centre Pig Co-operatives, Galyang Plan International Pokhara Sub-Metr. City/Urban Basic Ser. Prg., Kaski Praja Com. Development Programme (PCDP), Chitwan Public Private Partnership Programme (PPPP), Kaski Ramechhap Com. Development Project (RCDP)/UMN RDD, UMN Resource Identi. & Mana Soc., Nepal (RIMS-Nepal) RSDC Rural Community Development Programme, Morang Rural Development Centre, Pokhara Rural Development Department/UMN Rural Self-Reliance Development Centre (RSDC) Rural Urban Partnership Project (RUPP) Sagarmatha Samuhik Bikash Mul Samuha, Rupendehi SAHAS Nepal Okhaldhunga Samuhik Bikash Kosh SERVE, Nepal Siddhartha Smriti Club, Rupakot, Kaski SMELC, Chitwan NGO NGO INGO INGO INGO INGO INGO CBO NGO INGO UMN NGO CBO INGO GO INGO INGO/HMG INGO INGO NGO NGO NGO INGO INGO NGO INGO/HMG CBO NGO CBO NGO CBO NGO

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128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154.

Snayauta Dalit Uthan Manch (SDUM), Tanahun

CBO

Soc. Mob. and Exp. Learn. Centre (SMELC)/UNDP, Kaski INGO Social Welfare Club (CBO), Syangja Sornim Youth Club, Nawalparasi SRDTS, RDC/UMN Sustainable Agriculture Promotion Centre (SAPROC) Sust. Com. Dev. Programme (SCDP), Humla Tamakoshi Sewa Samiti (TSS) Team Organising Local Institution (TOLI), Kaski Tiger Rhino Cons. Project (KMTNC/TRCP), Chitwan TITI TLDP TSS UBS, Pokhara Sub-Metropolitan City UNDP Social Mobilisation Learning Centre, Pokhara UNDP/SMELC, Syangja United Nation Development Programme, Syangja Upallo Arkhala Com. Forest Users' Group, Nawalparai Urban Basic Service Programme (UBS), Kaski Urban Development through Local Efforts (udle)/GTZ USC Canada Women Co-operative Society, Bardibas, Mahottari Women Service Center, Kaski. Women's Cooperative Society - Nepal, Bardibas World Neighbours World Vision International, Kaski . CBO CBO INGO NGO NGO NGO NGO INGO INGO HMG/INGO NGO GO INGO INGO INGO CBO NGO INGO INGO NGO NGO CBO INGO INGO NGO

Youth Campaign for Social Progress, Dhading

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Impact of HRD Strategy on Organisational Productivity MBA thesis, TU, PNC, Pokhara Surya Bdr. Magar 2004