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AN ORIENTATION REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AT Badarpur Thermal Power Station(BTPS) NTPC Badarpur Division New Delhi

Submitted by Arjit Agarwal B.Tech III Year Department of Electrical Engineering Malaviya National Institute Of Technology Jaipur

CERTIFICATE

TO WHOMSOEVER IT MAY CONCERN I hereby certify that Arjit Agarwal Roll No 2008UEE107 of Malaviya National Institute Of Technology,Jaipur has undergone 2 months industrial training from 16 May 2010 to 14 July 2011 at our organization to fulfill the requirements for the award of degree of B.tech Electrical Engineering. She worked on Power Plant Overview project during the training. During his tenure with us we found him sincere and hard working. We wish him a great success in the future.

Training Incharge NTPC Badarpur NEW DELHI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am extremely thankful to my college for giving me an opportunity to undergo industrial training in such a wonderful enterprise. I am grateful to Mr. Rohit Goyal(Head of Dept. of training & placement,MNIT Jaipur) for his help and support. I am very much indebted to NTPC Badarpur for providing me such a wonderful 60 days orientation programme to give us an insight and practical knowledge about our subject. They gave a new horizon to the industrial training in such a wonderful environment. The help rendered by Ms Rachana Singh Bhal, Supervisor, National Thermal Power Corporation for experimentation is greatly acknowledged. The author would like to express a deep sense of gratitude and thanks profusely to Mr. G.D. Sharma,Training Coordinator, without the wise counsel and able guidance, it would have been impossible to complete the training successfully.

My special thanks to Mr. M.K. Chopra, Mr. Rajat Garg,Mr. Saurabh Garg,Mr. Rajesh Garg,Mr. Maha Singh,Mr. Rajarshi Sharma,Mr. B.P. Sinha and Ms. Usha Kumari of EMD-1 and EMD-2 for enlightening us with their knowledge and assigning technicians for plant visit. In the last I would like to express my gratitude to all the engineers and technicians, who gave me the possibility to complete my training successfully.

Training at BTPS

I was appointed to do nine-weeks training at this esteemed organization from 16th May to 14th July 2011. In these nine weeks I was assigned to visit various division of the plant which were:1. Electrical maintenance division I (EMD-I) 2. Electrical maintenance division II (EMD-II)

This nine-weeks training was a very educational adventure for me. It was really amazing to see the plant by your self and learn how electricity, which is one of our daily requirements of life, is produced. This report has been made by self-experience at BTPS. The material in this report has been gathered from my textbooks, senior student report, and trainer manual provided by training department. The specification & principles are at learned by me from the employee of each division of BTPS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction to the Company

a. About the Company b. Vision c. Strategies d. Evolution 2. Introduction to the Project

3. Project Report a. Operation i. Introduction ii. Steam Boiler iii. Steam Turbine iv. Turbine Generator b. EMD I i. Coal Handling Plant ii. Motors iii. Switchgear iv. High Tension Switchgear v. Direct On Line Starter c. EMD II i. Generator ii. Protection iii. Transformer 4.Last word

5.References

INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY


About the Company Vision Strategies Evolution

National Thermal Power Corporation Limited Badarpur Thermal Power Station Badarpur, New Delhi

ABOUT THE COMPANY NTPC, the largest power Company in India, was setup in 1975 to accelerate power development in the country. It is among the worlds largest and most efficient power generation companies. In Forbes list of Worlds 2000 Largest Companies for the year 2007, NTPC occupies 411th place.It is a MAHARATNA company

A View of Badarpur Thermal Power Station,New Delhi

Wagons bringing coal

NTPC has installed capacity of 29,394 MW. It has 15 coal based power stations (23,395 MW), 7 gas based power stations (3,955 MW) and 4 power stations in Joint Ventures (1,794 MW). The company has power generating facilities in all major regions of the country. It plans to be a 75,000 MW company by 2017. NTPC has gone beyond the thermal power generation. It has diversified into hydro power, coal mining, power equipment manufacturing, oil & gas exploration, power trading & distribution. NTPC is now in the entire power value chain and is poised to become an Integrated Power Major.

NTPC's share on 31 Mar 2008 in the total installed capacity of the country was 19.1% and it contributed 28.50% of the total power generation of the country during 2007-08. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. With its experience and expertise in the power sector, NTPC is extending consultancy services to various organizations in the power business. It provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. In November 2004, NTPC came out with its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.25% as fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. NTPC thus became a listed company with Government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital and rest held by Institutional Investors and Public.

The issue was a resounding success. NTPC is among the largest five companies in India in terms of market capitalization. Recognizing its excellent performance and vast potential, Government of the India has identified NTPC as one of the jewels of Public Sector 'Navratnas'- a potential global giant. Inspired by its glorious past and vibrant present, NTPC is well on its way to realize its vision of being "A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth, with increasing global presence".

Coal Based Power Stations

With 15 coal based power stations, NTPC is the largest thermal power generating company in the country. The company has a coal based installed capacity of 27,535 MW.

COAL BASED(Owned by NTPC) 1. Singrauli

STATE Uttar Pradesh

COMMISSIONED CAPACITY(MW) 2,000

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Korba Ramagundam Farakka Vindhyachal Rihand Kahalgaon NCTPP, Dadri Talcher Kaniha

Chhattisgarh Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa

2,600 2,600 2,100 3,260 2,000 2,340 1,820 3,000 1,050 460 1,500 440 705 1,660 27,535

10. Feroze Gandhi, Unchahar Uttar Pradesh 11. Talcher Thermal 12. Simhadri 13. Tanda 14. Badarpur 15. Sipat Total Orissa Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Delhi Chhattisgarh

Operations In terms of operations, NTPC has always been considerably above the national average. The availability factor for coal based power stations has increased from 89.32% in 1998-99 to 91.62% in 2010-11, which compares favourably with international standards. The PLF has increased from 76.6% in 1998-99 to 88.29% during the year 2010-11.

The table below shows that while the installed capacity has increased by 73.33% in the last twelve years the generation has increased by 101.39% VISION A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth with increasing global presence. To be the worlds largest and best power producer, powering Indias growth. MISSION Develop and provide reliable power related products and services at competitive prices, integrating multiple energy resources with innovative & Eco-friendly technologies and contribution to the society. Core Values - BCOMIT Business ethics Customer Focus Organizational & Professional Pride Mutual Respect & Trust Innovation & Speed Total Quality for Excellence

STRATEGIESTechnological Initiatives Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology Launch of Energy Technology Center -A new initiative for development of technologies with focus on fundamental R&D The company sets aside up to 0.5% of the profits for R&D

Roadmap developed for adopting Clean Development Mechanism to help get / earn Certified Emission Reduction

Corporate Social Responsibility As a responsible corporate citizen NTPC has taken up number of CSR initiatives NTPC Foundation formed to address Social issues at national level NTPC has framed Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines committing up to 0.5% of net profit annually for Community Welfare Measures on perennial basis The welfare of project affected persons and the local population around NTPC projects are taken care of through well drawn Rehabilitation and Resettlement policies The company has also taken up distributed generation for remote rural areas

Environment Management All stations of NTPC are ISO 14001 certified Various groups to care of environmental issues The Environment Management Group Ash Utilization Division Afforestation Group Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection Group on Clean Development Mechanism NTPC is the second largest owner of trees in the country after the Forest department.

Partnering government in various initiatives Consultant role to modernize and improvise several plants across the country Disseminate technologies to other players in the sector Consultant role Partnership in Excellence Programme for improvement of PLF of 15 Power Stations of SEBs. Rural Electrification work under Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana

NTPC BADARPUR Installed capacity720 MW Derated Capacity705 MW LocationNew Delhi Coal SourceJharia Coal Fields Water SourceAgra Canal Beneficiary StatesDelhi Unit Sizes 3X95 MW 2X210 MW Units Commissioned Unit I- 95 MW - July 1973 Unit II- 95 MW August 1974 Unit III- 95 MW March 1975 Unit IV - 210 MW December 1978 Unit V - 210 MW - December 1981 International Assistance Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.06.2006 through GOIs Gazette Notification.

EVOLUTION
1975-NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government ofIndia. In the last
30 years, NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India.

1997-In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of Navratna being one of the nine
jewels of India, enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors.

2004-NTPC became a listed company with majority Government ownership of 89.5%.NTPC


becomes third largest by Market Capitalization of listed companies

2005-The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio
and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.

2008-National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in India.
Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 411th in the world.

2009- 3000MW installed capacity mark crossed

2010-Joint Venture Agreement executed between NTPC and NPCIL

INTRODUCTION TO THEMAL POWER PLANT


Introduction Classification Functioning

INTRODUCTION
Power Station (also referred to as generating station or power plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Some prefer to use the term energy center because it more accurately describes what the plants do, which is the conversion of other forms of energy, like chemical energy, gravitational potential energy or heat energy into electrical energy.

A coal-fired Thermal Power Plant At the center of nearly all power stations is a generator, a rotating machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. It depends chiefly on what fuels are easily available and the types of technology that the power company has access to. In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine, which transforms thermal energy, often from combustion of a fuel, into rotational energy. Most thermal power stations produce steam, and these are sometimes called steam power stations. About 80% of all electric power is generated by use of steam turbines. Not all thermal energy can be transformed to mechanical power, according to the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, there is always heat lost to the environment. If this loss is employed as useful heat, for industrial processes or district heating, the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power plant or CHP (combined heat-and-power) plant. In countries where district heating is common, there are dedicated heat plants called heat-only boiler stations. An important class of power stations in the Middle East uses byproduct heat for desalination of water.

CLASSIFICATION
By fuel Nuclear power plants use a nuclear reactor's heat to operate a steam turbine generator. Fossil fuelled power plants may also use a steam turbine generator or in the case of natural gas fired plants may use a combustion turbine. Geothermal power plants use steam extracted from hot underground rocks. Renewable energy plants may be fuelled by waste from sugar cane, municipal solid waste, landfill methane, or other forms of biomass. In integrated steel mills, blast furnace exhaust gas is a low-cost, although low-energydensity, fuel. Waste heat from industrial processes is occasionally concentrated enough to use for power generation, usually in a steam boiler and turbine.

By prime mover Steam turbine plants use the dynamic pressure generated by expanding steam to turn the blades of a turbine. Almost all large non-hydro plants use this system. Gas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases to directly operate the turbine. Natural-gas fuelled turbine plants can start rapidly and so are used to supply "peak" energy during periods of high demand, though at higher cost than base-loaded plants. These may be comparatively small units, and sometimes completely unmanned, being remotely operated. This type was pioneered by the UK, Prince town being the world's first, commissioned in 1959. Combined cycle plants have both a gas turbine fired by natural gas, and a steam boiler and steam turbine which use the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to produce electricity. This greatly increases the overall efficiency of the plant, and many new base load power plants are combined cycle plants fired by natural gas. Internal combustion Reciprocating engines are used to provide power for isolated communities and are frequently used for small cogeneration plants. Hospitals, office buildings, industrial plants, and other critical facilities also use them to provide backup power in case of a power outage. These are usually fuelled by diesel oil, heavy oil, natural gas and landfill gas. Micro turbines, Sterling engine and internal combustion reciprocating engines are low cost solutions for using opportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from water treatment plants and waste gas from oil production.

FUNCTIONING
Functioning of thermal power plant: In a thermal power plant, one of coal, oil or natural gas is used to heat the boiler to convert the water into steam. The steam is used to turn a turbine, which is connected to a generator. When the turbine turns, electricity is generated and given as output by the generator, which is then supplied to the consumers through high-voltage power lines. Detailed process of power generation in a thermal power plant: 1) Water intake: Firstly, water is taken into the boiler through a water source. If water is available in a plenty in the region, then the source is an open pond or river. If water is scarce,then it is recycled and the same water is used over and over again. 2) Boiler heating: The boiler is heated with the help of oil, coal or natural gas. A furnace is used to heat the fuel and supply the heat produced to the boiler. The increase in temperature helps in the transformation of water into steam. 3) Steam Turbine: The steam generated in the boiler is sent through a steam turbine. The turbine has blades that rotate when high velocity steam flows across them. This rotation of turbine blades is used to generate electricity. 4) Generator: A generator is connected to the steam turbine. When the turbine rotates, the generator produces electricity which is then passed on to the power distribution systems. 5) Special mountings: There is some other equipment like the economizer and air pre-heater. An economizer uses the heat from the exhaust gases to heat the feed water. An air pre-heater heats the air sent into the combustion chamber to improve the efficiency of the combustion process. 6) Ash collection system: There is a separate residue and ash collection system in place to collect all the waste materials from the combustion process and to prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere. There are various other monitoring systems and instruments in place to keep track of the functioning of all the devices.

PROJECT REPORT
OPERATION EMD I EMD II

Module I

OPERATION
Introduction Steam Generator or Boiler Steam Turbine Electric Generator

Introduction
The operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the national average. The availability factor for coal stations has increased from 85.03 % in 1997-98 to 90.09 % in 200607, which compares favourably with international standards. The PLF has increased from 75.2% in 1997-98 to 89.4% during the year 2006-07 which is the highest since the inception of NTPC.

Operation Room of Power Plant In a Badarpur Thermal Power Station, steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines. The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant has Steam Turbine-Driven Generators which has a collective capacity of 705MW. The fuel being used is Coal which is supplied from the Jharia Coal Field in Jharkhand. Water supply is given from the Agra Canal. Table: Capacity of Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi Sr.No. Capacity No. No.of Generators Total Capacity 1. 210MW 2 420MW 2. 95MW 3 285MW Total 705MW There are basically three main units of a thermal power plant: 1. Steam Generator or Boiler 2. Steam Turbine 3. Electric Generator We have discussed about the processes of electrical generation further. A complete detailed description of the three units is given further.

Typical Diagram of a Coal based Thermal Power Plant 1. Cooling tower

2. Cooling pump

water

3. Transmission line (3phase)

4. Unit transformer (3phase)

5. Electric generator (3-phase)

6. Low pressure turbine

7. Condensate extraction pump

8. Condensor

9. Intermediate pressure turbine

10. Steam governor valve

11. High turbine

pressure

12. Deaerator

13. Feed heater

14. Coal conveyor

15. Coal hopper

16. Pulverised mill

fuel

17. Boiler drum

18. Ash hopper

19. Superheater

20. Forced draught fan

21. Reheater

22. Air intake

23. Economiser

24. Air preheater

25. Precipitator

26. Induced draught

27. Chimney Stack

Coal is conveyed (14) from an external stack and ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill (16). There it is mixed with preheated air (24) driven by the forced draught fan (20). The hot air-fuel mixture is forced at high pressure into the boiler where it rapidly ignites. Water of a high purity flows vertically up the tube-lined walls of the boiler,where it turns into steam, and is passed to the boiler drum, where steam is separated from any remaining water. The steam passes through a manifold in the roof of the drum into the pendant superheater (19) where its temperature and pressure increase rapidly to around 200 bar and 540C, sufficient to make the tube walls glow a dull red. The steam is piped to the high pressure turbine (11), the first of a three-stage turbine process. A steam governor valve (10) allows for both manual control of the turbine and automatic set-point following. The steam is exhausted from the high pressure turbine, and reduced in both pressure and temperature, is returned to the boiler reheater (21). The reheated steam is then passed to the intermediate pressure turbine (9),and from there passed directly to the low pressure turbine set (6). The exiting steam, now a little above its boiling point, is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the cooling tower) in the condensor (8), where it condenses rapidly back into water, creating near vacuum-like conditions inside the condensor chest. The condensed water is then passed by a feed pump (7) through a deaerator (12), and pre-warmed, first in a feed heater (13) powered by steam drawn from the high pressure set, and then in the economiser (23), before being returned to the boiler drum. The cooling water from the condensor is sprayed inside a cooling tower (1),creating a highly visible plume of water vapor, before being pumped back to the condensor (8)in cooling water cycle.The three turbine sets are sometimes coupled on the same shaft as the three-phase electrical generator (5) which generates an intermediate level voltage (typically 20-25 kV). This is stepped up by the unit transformer (4) to a voltage more suitable for transmission (typically 250-500 kV)and is sent out onto the three-phase transmission system (3).Exhaust gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan (26) through an electrostatic precipitator (25) and is then vented through the chimney stack (27). Steam Generator or Boiler The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 F (370 C) and 3,200 psi (22.1MPa). It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion

gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine.The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. The generator includes the economizer, the steam drum, the chemical dosing equipment, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft(FD) fan, air preheater (APH), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors(electrostatic precipitator)and the flue gas stack.

Schematic diagram of a coal-fired power plant steam generator For units over about 210 MW capacity, redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan, APH, fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. Boiler Furnace and Steam Drum Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel.The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down,the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapor in the water walls, the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum.

External View of an Industrial Boiler at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. This process is known as natural circulation.The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a trip-out are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal.The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial startup. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. Fuel Preparation System In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverizers may be ball mills, rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders.

Boiler Side of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi Fuel Firing System and Igniter System From the pulverized coal bin, coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion.To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal,the furnace temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide for that purpose). Air Path External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall.The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace,maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace.At the furnace outlet, and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan, fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law, and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan.

Auxiliary SystemsFly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan.The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators . Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars.

Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace.Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler,losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a water demineralising treatment plant (DM). A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure, becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input.

Ash Handling System at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi

However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up.The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water,such as PVC.DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.

Steam Turbine Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in 'Boilers' or 'Steam Generators' as they are sometimes called. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy. The rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Indian System (50 Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) systems.

In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three separate stages, the first being the High Pressure (HP), the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where high, intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. After the steam has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine. Steam turbines can be configured in many different ways. Several IP or LP stages can be incorporated into the one steam turbine. A single shaft or several shafts coupled together may be used. Either way, the principles are the same for all steam turbines. The configuration is decided by the use to which the steam turbine is put, co-generation or pure electricity production. Nozzles and Blades

Steam enthalpy is converted into rotational energy as it passes through a turbine stage. A turbine stage consists of a stationary blade and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into impulse and reaction forces caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft or rotor.Steam turbines are machines which must be designed, manufactured and maintained to high tolerances so that the design power output and availability is obtained. They are subject to a number of damage mechanisms, with two of the most important being: Erosion due to Moisture: - The presence of water droplets in the last stages of a turbine causes erosion to the blades. Solid Particle Erosion: - The entrainment of erosive materials from the boiler in the steam causes wear to the turbine blades. Cogeneration Cycles In cogeneration cycles, steam is typically generated at a higher temperature and pressure than required for a particular industrial process. The steam is expanded through a turbine to produce electricity and the resulting extractions at the discharge are at the temperature and pressure required by the process. Bearings and Lubrication Two types of bearings are used to support and locate the rotors of steam turbines: Journal bearings are used to support the weight of the turbine rotors. A journal bearing consists of two half-cylinders that enclose the shaft and are internally lined with Babbitt, a metal alloy usually consisting of tin, copper and antimony; and Thrust bearings axially locate the turbine rotors. High-pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide lubrication. The oil is carefully filtered to remove solid particles. Shaft Seals The shaft seal on a turbine rotor consist of a series of ridges and groves around the rotor and its housing which present a long, tortuous path for any steam leaking through the seal. The seal therefore does not prevent the steam from leaking, merely reduces the leakage to a minimum. Turning Gear Large steam turbines are equipped with "turning gear" to slowly rotate the turbines after they have been shut down and while they are cooling. This evens out the temperature distribution around the turbines and prevents bowing of the rotors. Vibration The balancing of the large rotating steam turbines is a critical component in ensuring the reliable operation of the plant. Most large steam turbines have sensors installed to measure the movement of the shafts in their bearings. This condition monitoring can identify many potential problems and allows the repair of the turbine to be planned before the problems become serious.

Electric Generator
The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.

A 95 MW Generator at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi Turning Gear Turning gear is the term used for the mechanism provided for rotation of the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed (about one revolution per minute) after unit stoppages for any reason. Once the unit is "tripped" (i.e., the turbine steam inlet valve is closed), the turbine starts slowing or "coasting down". When it stops completely, there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long. This deflection is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing, thus making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. The shaft therefore warps or bends by millionths of inches, only detectable by monitoring eccentricity meters.But this small amount of shaft deflection would be enough to cause vibrations and damage the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted. Therefore, the shaft is not permitted to come to a complete stop by a mechanism known as "turning gear" that automatically takes over to rotate the unit at a preset low speed.If the unit is shut down for major maintenance, then the turning gear must be kept in service until the temperatures of the casings and bearings are sufficiently low. Condenser The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is

cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram.

A Typical Water Cooled Condenser For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100oC where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works under vacuum. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a river, lake or ocean. Feedwater Heater A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater.In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler, the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapour to liquid. The heat content in the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feedwater heater. The feedwater heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine.

A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.[9] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle. Superheater As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler. The areas known as superheater and reheater. The steam vapor picks up energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high pressure turbine. Deaerator A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to avoid corrosion of the metal. Generally, power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater.

Auxiliary Systems
Oil System An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator.It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. Generator Heat Dissipation The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet, larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling during start-up, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air.The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. The generator also uses water cooling. Demineralized water of low conductivity is used. Generator High Voltage System The generator voltage ranges from 10.5 kV in smaller units to 15.75 kV in larger units. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 220 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. Thus, the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit Other SystemsMonitoring and Alarm system Most of the power plants operational controls are automatic. However, at times, manual intervention may be required. Thus, the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range.
MAIN GENERATOR Maximum continuous KVA rating Maximum continuous KW Rated terminal voltage Rated Stator current 24700KVA 210000KW 15750V 9050 A

Rated Power Factor Excitation current at MCR Condition Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition Rated Speed Rated Frequency Short circuit ratio Efficiency at MCR Condition Direction of rotation viewed Phase Connection MAIN TURBINE DATA

0.85 lag 2600 A 310 V 3000 rpm 50 Hz 0.49 98.4% Anti Clockwise Double Star 210 MW

Rated output of Turbine Rated speed of turbine Rated pressure of steam before emergency Stop valve rated live steam temperature Rated steam temperature after reheat at inlet to receptor valve Steam flow at valve wide open condition Rated quantity of circulating water through condenser 1. For cooling water temperature (degree Celsius) 1.Reheated steam pressure at inlet of interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS 2.Steam flow required for 210 MW in ton/hour 3.Rated pressure at exhaust of LP turbine in mm of Hg 3000 rpm 130 kg/cm^2 535 degree Celsius 535 degree Celsius 670 tons/hour 27000 cm/hour 24,27,30,33 23,99,24,21,24,49,24.82 68,645,652,662 19.9,55.5,65.4,67.7

An Engineer monitoring the various parameters at NTPC, New Delhi Battery Supplied Emergency Lighting & Communication A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power, when needed, to essential items such as the power plant's control systems, communication systems, turbine lube oil pumps, and emergency lighting. This is essential for a safe, damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation.

Module II

EMD I
Coal Handling Plant Motors Switchgear High Tension Switchgear Direct On Line Starter

It is responsible for maintenance of: 1. Boiler side motors 2. Turbine side motors 3. Outside motors 4. Switchgear 1. Boiler side motors:

For 1, units 1, 2, 3 1.1D Fans 2.F.D Fans 3.P.A.Fans 4.Mill Fans 5.Ball mill fans 6.RC feeders 7.Slag Crushers 8.DM Make up Pump 9.PC Feeders 10.Worm Conveyor 11.Furnikets For stage units 1, 2, 3 1.I.D Fans 2.F.D Fans 3.P.A Fans 4.Bowl Mills 5.R.C Feeders 2 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 6 in no. 6 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 3 in no. 3 in no. 3 in no. 5 in no. 2 in no. 4 in no. 1 in no. 4 in no.

6.Clinker Grinder 7.Scrapper 8.Seal Air Fans 9.Hydrazine and Phosphorous Dozing

2 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 2/3 in no.

Coal Handling Plant


Coal is delivered by highway truck, rail, barge or collier ship. Some plants are even built near coal mines and coal is delivered by conveyors. A large coal train called a "unit train" may be a kilometers (over a mile) long, containing 60 cars with 100 tons of coal in each one, for a total load of 6,000 tons. A large plant under full load requires at least one coal delivery this size every day. Plants may get as many as three to five trains a day, especially in "peak season", during the summer months when power consumption is high. A large thermal power plant such as the Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi stores several million tons of coal for use when there is no wagon supply.

Coal Handling Plant Layout The unloader includes a train positioner arm that pulls the entire train to position each car over a coal hopper. The dumper clamps an individual car against a platform that swivels the car upside down to dump the coal.

Layout of Coal Handling Plant at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi Coal is prepared for use by crushing the rough coal to pieces less than 2 inches (50 mm) in size.The coal is then transported from the storage yard to in-plant storage silos by rubberized conveyor belts at rates up to 4,000 tons/hour.In plants that burn pulverized coal, silos feed coal pulverizers (coal mill) that take the larger 2 inch pieces grind them into the consistency of face powder, classify them, and mixes them with primary combustion air which transports the coal to the furnace and preheats the coal to drive off excess moisture content. Run-Of-Mine (ROM) Coal The coal delivered from the mine that reports to the Coal Handling Plant is called Run-ofmine,coal. This is the raw material for the CHP, and consists of coal, rocks,minerals and contamination. Contamination is usually introduced by the mining process.ROM coal can have a large variability of moisture and maximum particle size.

Coal Handling
Coal needs to be stored at various stages of the preparation process, and conveyed around the CHP facilities. Coal handling is part of the larger field of bulk material handling, and is a complex and vital part of the CHP. Stockpiles Stockpiles provide surge capacity to various parts of the CHP. ROM coal is delivered with large variations in production rate of tonnes per hour (tph). A ROM stockpile is used to allow the washplant to be fed coal at lower, constant rate.

Coal Handling Division of Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi A simple stockpile is formed by machinery dumping coal into a pile, either from dump trucks,pushed into heaps with bulldozers or from conveyor booms.Taller and wider stockpiles reduce the land area required to store a set tonnage of coal. Coal Sampling Sampling of coal is an important part of the process control in the CHP. A grab sample is a oneoff sample of the coal at a point in the process stream, and tends not to be very representative. Aroutine sample is taken at a set frequency, either over a period of time or per shipment. Screening Screens are used to group process particles into ranges by size. These size ranges are also called grades. Screens can be static, or mechanically vibrated. Magnetic Separation Magnetic separators shall be used in coal conveying systems to separate tramp iron from the coal. Basically, two types are available. One type incorporates permanent or electromagnets into the head pulley of a belt conveyor. The tramp iron clings to the belt as it goes around the pulley drum and falls off into a collection hopper or trough after the point at which coal is charged from the belt. The other type consists of permanent or electromagnets incorporated into a belt conveyor that is suspended above a belt conveyor carrying coal. The tramp iron is pulled from the moving coal to the face of the separating conveyor, which in turn holds and carries the tramp iron to a collection hopper or trough. Magnetic separators shall be used just ahead of the coal crusher. Coal Crusher Before the coal is sent to the plant it has to be ensured that the coal is of uniform size, and so it is passed through coal crushers. Also power plants using pulverized coal specify a maximum coal size that can be fed into the pulverizer and so the coal has to be crushed to the specified size using the coal crusher. Rotary crushers are very commonly used for this purpose as they can provide a continuous flow of coal to the pulverizer.

Pulverizer Most commonly used pulverizer is the Boul Mill. The arrangement consists of 2 stationary rollers and a power driven baul in which pulverization takes place as the coal passes through the sides of the rollers and the baul. A primary air induced draught fan draws a stream of heated air through the mill carrying the pulverized coal into a stationary classifier at the top of the pulverizer.

An external view of a Coal Pulverizer Advantages of Pulverized Coal Pulverized coal is used for large capacity plants. It is easier to adapt to fluctuating load as there are no limitations on the combustion capacity. Coal with higher ash percentage cannot be used without pulverizing because of the problem of large amount ash deposition after combustion. Increased thermal efficiency is obtained through pulverization. The use of secondary air in the combustion chamber along with the powered coal helps in creating turbulence and therefore uniform mixing of the coal and the air during combustion. Greater surface area of coal per unit mass of coal allows faster combustion as more coal is exposed to heat and combustion. The boiler can be easily started from cold condition in case of emergency. The furnace volume required is less as the turbulence caused aids in complete combustion of the coal with minimum travel of the particles. The pulverized coal is passed from the pulverizer to the boiler by means of the primary air that is used not only to dry the coal but also to heat is as it goes into the boiler. The secondary air is used to provide the necessary air required for complete combustion.The coal is sent into the boiler through burners. A very important and widely used type of burner arrangement is the Tangential Firing arrangement. Tangential Burners: The tangential burners are arranged such that they discharge the fuel air mixture tangentially to an imaginary circle in the center of the furnace. The swirling action produces sufficient turbulence in the furnace to complete the combustion in a short period of time and avoid the necessity of producing high turbulence at the burner itself. High heat release rates are possible with this method of firing.The burners are placed at the four corners of the furnace. At the Badarpur ThermalPower Station five sets of such burners are placed one above the other to form six firing zones.

Ash Handling The ever increasing capacities of boiler units together with their ability to use low grade high ash content coal have been responsible for the development of modern day ash handling systems.The Hydraulic Ash handling system is used at the Badarpur Thermal Power Station. Hydraulic Ash Handling System The hydraulic system carried the ash with the flow of water with high velocity through a channel and finally dumps into a sump. The ash is carried along with the water and they are separated at the sump.
NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT (N.C.H.P)

The old coal handling plant caters to the need of units 2,3,4,5 and 1 whereas the latter supplies coal to units 4 and V.O.C.H.P. supplies coal to second and third stages in the advent coal to usable form to (crushed) form its raw form and send it to bunkers, from where it is send to furnace.
Major Components 1. Wagon Tippler: - Wagons from the coal yard come to the tippler and are emptied here. The process is performed by a slip ring motor of rating: 55 KW, 415V, 1480 RPM. This motor turns the wagon by 135 degrees and coal falls directly on the conveyor through vibrators. Tippler has raised lower system which enables is to switch off motor when required till is wagon back to its original position. It is titled by weight balancing principle. The motor lowers the hanging balancing weights, which in turn tilts the conveyor. Estimate of the weight of the conveyor is made through hydraulic weighing machine. 2. Conveyor: - There are 14 conveyors in the plant. They are numbered so that their function can be easily demarcated. Conveyors are made of rubber and more with a speed of 250-300m/min. Motors employed for conveyors has a capacity of 150 HP. Conveyors have a capacity of carrying coal at the rate of 400 tons per hour. Few conveyors are double belt, this is done for imp. Conveyors so that if a belt develops any problem the process is not stalled. The conveyor belt has a switch after every 25-30 m on both sides so stop the belt in case of emergency. The conveyors are 1m wide, 3 cm thick and made of chemically treated vulcanized rubber. The max angular elevation of conveyor is designed such as never to exceed half of the angle of response and comes out to be around 20 degrees. 3. Zero Speed Switch:-It is safety device for motors, i.e., if belt is not moving and the motor is on the motor may burn. So to protect this switch checks the speed of the belt and switches off the motor when speed is zero.

4. Metal Separators: - As the belt takes coal to the crusher, No metal pieces should go along with coal. To achieve this objective, we use metal separators. When coal is dropped to the crusher hoots, the separator drops metal pieces ahead of coal. It has a magnet and a belt and the belt is moving, the pieces are thrown away. The capacity of this device is around 50 kg. .The CHP is supposed to transfer 600 tons of coal/hr, but practically only 300-400 tons coal is transfer 5. Crusher: - Both the plants use TATA crushers powered by BHEL. Motors. The crusher is of ring type and motor ratings are 400 HP, 606 KV. Crusher is designed to crush the pieces to 20 mm size i.e. practically considered as the optimum size of transfer via conveyor. 6. Rotatory Breaker: - OCHP employs mesh type of filters and allows particles of 20mm size to go directly to RC bunker, larger particles are sent to crushes. This leads to frequent clogging. NCHP uses a technique that crushes the larger of harder substance like metal impurities easing the load on the magnetic separators.

MILLING SYSTEM 1. RC Bunker: - Raw coal is fed directly to these bunkers. These are 3 in no. per boiler. 4 & tons of coal are fed in 1 hr. the depth of bunkers is 10m. 2. RC Feeder: - It transports pre crust coal from raw coal bunker to mill. The quantity of raw coal fed in mill can be controlled by speed control of aviator drive controlling damper and aviator change. 3. Ball Mill: - The ball mill crushes the raw coal to a certain height and then allows it to fall down. Due to impact of ball on coal and attraction as per the particles move over each other as well as over the Armor lines, the coal gets crushed. Large particles are broken by impact and full grinding is done by attraction. The Drying and grinding option takes place simultaneously inside the mill. 4. Classifier:- It is an equipment which serves separation of fine pulverized coal particles medium from coarse medium. The pulverized coal along with the carrying medium strikes the impact plate through the lower part. Large particles are then transferred to the ball mill. 5. Cyclone Separators: - It separates the pulverized coal from carrying medium. The mixture of pulverized coal vapour caters the cyclone separators. 6. The Tturniket: - It serves to transport pulverized coal from cyclone separators to pulverized coal bunker or to worm conveyors. There are 4 turnikets per boiler. 7. Worm Conveyor: - It is equipment used to distribute the pulverized coal from bunker of one system to bunker of other system. It can be operated in both directions. 8. Mills Fans: - It is of 3 types: Six in all and are running condition all the time. (a) ID Fans: - Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney. Type-radical Speed-1490 rpm Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.6 KV Lubrication-by oil (b) FD Fans: - Designed to handle secondary air for boiler. 2 in number and provide ignition of coal. Type-axial Speed-990 rpm Rating-440 KW Voltage-6.6 KV (c)Primary Air Fans: - Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius, 2 in number And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing.

Type-Double suction radial Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.6 KV Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous 9. Bowl Mill: - One of the most advanced designs of coal pulverizes presently manufactured. Motor specification squirrel cage induction motor Rating-340 KW Voltage-6600KV Curreen-41.7A Speed-980 rpm Frequency-50 Hz No-load current-15-16 A NCHP 1. Wagon Tippler:Motor Specification (i) H.P 75 HP (ii) Voltage 415, 3 phase (iii) Speed 1480 rpm (iv) Frequency 50 Hz (v) Current rating 102 A 2. Coal feed to plant:Feeder motor specification (i) Horse power 15 HP (ii) Voltage 415V,3 phase (iii) Speed 1480 rpm (iv) Frequency 50 Hz

3. Conveyors:10A, 10B 11A, 11B 12A, 12B 13A, 13B 14A, 14B 15A, 15B 16A, 16B 17A, 17B 18A, 18B 4. Transfer Point 6

5. Breaker House 6. Rejection House 7. Reclaim House 8. Transfer Point 7 9. Crusher House 10. Exit The coal arrives in wagons via railways and is tippled by the wagon tipplers into the hoppers. If coal is oversized (>400 mm sq) then it is broken manually so that it passes the hopper mesh. From the hopper mesh it is taken to the transfer point TP6 by conveyor 12A ,12B which takes the coal to the breaker house , which renders the coal size to be 100mm sq. the stones which are not able to pass through the 100mm sq of hammer are rejected via conveyors 18A,18B to the rejection house . Extra coal is to sent to the reclaim hopper via conveyor 16. From breaker house coal is taken to the TP7 via Conveyor 13A, 13B. Conveyor 17A, 17B also supplies coal from reclaim hopper, From TP7 coal is taken by conveyors 14A, 14B to crusher house whose function is to render the size of coal to 20mm sq. now the conveyor labors are present whose function is to recognize and remove any stones moving in the conveyors . In crusher before it enters the crusher. After being crushed, if any metal is still present it is taken care of by metal detectors employed in conveyor 10.

ELECTRIC MOTORS
An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. The reverse process that of using mechanical energy to produce electrical energy is accomplished by a generator or dynamo.

A High Power Electric Motor Categorization of Electric Motors The classic division of electric motors has been that of Direct Current (DC) types vs Alternating Current (AC) types.There is a clearer distinction between a synchronous motor and asynchronous types. In the synchronous types, the rotor rotates in synchrony with the oscillating field or current (eg.permanent magnet motors). In contrast, an asynchronous motor is designed to slip; the most ubiquitous example being the common AC induction motor which must slip in order to generate torque. AC Motor

Internal View of AC Motors

An AC motor is an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current. It consists of two basic parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field.There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through sliprings or a by a permanent magnet. The second type is the induction motor, which turns slightly slower than the supply frequency.The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current. Synchronous Motor A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating current and resulting magnetic field which drives it. Another way of saying this is that it has zero slip under usual operating conditions.Contrast this with an induction motor, which must slip in order to produce torque.Sometimes a synchronous motor is used, not to drive a load, but to improve the power factor on the local grid it's connected to. It does this by providing reactive power to or consuming reactive power from the grid. Electrical power plants almost always use synchronous generators because it's very important to keep the frequency constant at which the generator is connected. Advantages Synchronous motors have the following advantages over non-synchronous motors: Speed is independent of the load, provided an adequate field current is applied. Their power factor can be adjusted to unity by using a proper field current relative to the load. Also, a "capacitive" power factor, (current phase leads voltage phase), can be obtained by increasing this current slightly, which can help achieve a better power factor correction for the whole installation. Their construction allows for increased electrical efficiency when a low speed is required Induction Motor An induction motor (IM) is a type of asynchronous AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction.An electric motor converts electrical power to mechanical power in its rotor (rotating part).An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator(stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the secondary side. Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their rugged construction and lack of brushes (which are needed in most DC Motors) Construction The stator consists of wound 'poles' that carry the supply current that induces a magnetic field in the conductor. The number of 'poles' can vary between motor types but the poles are always in pairs (i.e. 2, 4, 6 etc). There are two types of rotor: 1. Squirrel-cage rotor 2. Slip ring rotor The most common rotor is a squirrel-cage rotor. It is made up of bars of either solid copper (most common) or aluminum that span the length of the rotor, and are connected through a ring at each end. The rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motors are not straight, but have some skew to reduce noise and harmonics. Principle of Operation The basic difference between an induction motor and a synchronous AC motor is that in the latter a current is supplied onto the rotor. This then creates a magnetic field which, through magnetic interaction, links to the rotating magnetic field in the stator which in turn causes the rotor to turn. It is called synchronous because at steady state the speed of the rotor is the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator.

By way of contrast, the induction motor does not have any direct supply onto the rotor; instead,a secondary current is induced in the rotor. To achieve this, stator windings are arranged around the rotor so that when energised with a polyphase supply they create a rotating magnetic field pattern which sweeps past the rotor. This changing magnetic field pattern can induce currents in the rotor conductors. These currents interact with the rotating magnetic field created by the stator and the rotor will turn. However, for these currents to be induced, the speed of the physical rotor and the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator must be different, or else the magnetic field will not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents will be induced. If by some chance this happens, the rotor typically slows slightly until a current is re-induced and then the rotor continues as before. This difference between the speed of the rotor and speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator is called slip. It has no unit and the ratio between the relative speed of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor to the speed of the rotating field. Due to this an induction motor is sometimes referred to as an asynchronous machine. Types: 1. Squirrel cage induction motor 2. Slip ring induction motor

SWITCHGEAR
The term switchgear, used in association with the electric power system, or grid, refers to the combination of electrical disconnects, fuses and/or circuit breakers used to isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. Today, oil-filled equipment has largely been replaced by air-blast, vacuum, or SF6 equipment, allowing large currents and power levels to be safely controlled by automatic equipment incorporating digital controls,mrotection, metering and communications.

A View of Switchgear at a Power Plant Types A piece of switchgear may be a simple open air isolator switch or it may be insulated by some other substance. An effective although more costly form of switchgear is "gas insulated switchgear" (GIS), where the conductors and contacts are insulated by pressurized (SF6) sulfur hexafluoride gas. Other common types are oil [or vacuum] insulated switchgear. Circuit breakers are a special type of switchgear that are able to interrupt fault currents. Their construction allows them to interrupt fault currents of many hundreds or thousands of amps. The quenching of the arc when the contacts open requires careful design, and falls into four types: Oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil through the arc. At badarpur Type-HKH 12/1000c Rated Voltage-66 KV Normal Current-1250A Frequency-5Hz Breaking Capacity-3.4+KA Symmetrical 3.4+KA Asymmetrical 360 MVA Symmetrical Operating Coils-CC 220 V/DC FC 220V/DC Motor Voltage-220 V/DC Gas (SF6) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and then rely upon the dielectric strength of the SF6 to quench the stretched arc.

At badarpur Circuit Breakers-HPA Standard-1 EC 56 Rated Voltage-12 KV Insulation Level-28/75 KV Rated Frequency-50 Hz Breaking Current-40 KA Rated Current-1600 A Making Capacity-110 KA Rated Short Time Current 1/3s -40 A Mass Approximation-185 KG Auxiliary Voltage Closing Coil-220 V/DC Opening Coil-220 V/DC Motor-220 V/DC SF6 Pressure at 20 Degree Celsius-0.25 KG SF6 Gas Per pole-0.25 KG

Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other than the contact material). At badarpur Rated frequency-50 Hz Rated making Current-10 Peak KA Rated Voltage-12 KV Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC Rated Current-1250 A Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC Insulation Level-IMP 75 KVP Rated Short Time Current-40 KA (3 SEC) Weight of Breaker-8 KG

Air circuit breakers may use compressed air to blow out the arc. Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current flow very quickly: typically between 30ms and 150 ms depending upon the age and construction of the device. Functions One of the basic functions of switchgear is protection, which is interruption of short-circuit and overload fault currents while maintaining service to unaffected circuits. Switchgear also provides isolation of circuits from power supplies. Switchgear also is used to enhance system availability by allowing more than one source to feed a load. Safety To help ensure safe operation sequences of switchgear, trapped key interlocking provides predefined scenarios of operation.

HIGH TENSION SWITCHGEAR


High voltage switchgear is any switchgear and switchgear assembly of rated voltage higher than 1000 volts. High voltage switchgear is any switchgear used to connect or to disconnect a part of a high voltage power system. These switchgears are essential elements for the protection and for a safety operating mode without interruption of a high voltage power system.The high voltage is a voltage above 1000 V for alternating current and above 1500 V for direct current.

High Tension Switchgear of a Thermal Power Plant

Functional Classification
Disconnectors and Earthing Switches They are above all safety devices used to open or to close a circuit when there is no current through them. They are used to isolate a part of a circuit, a machine, a part of an overhead-line or an underground line for the operating staff to access it without any danger.The opening of the line isolator or busbar section isolator is necessary for the safety but it is not enough. Grounding must be done at the upstream sector and the downstream sector on the device which they want to intervene.

Fuses The fuses can interrupt automatically a circuit with an overcurrent flowing in it for a fixed time.The current interrupting is got by the fusion of an electrical conductor which is graded.They are mainly used to protect against the short-circuits. They limit the peak value of the fault current. In three-phase electric power, they only eliminate the phases where the fault current is flowing,which is a risk for the devices and the people. Circuit Breaker A high voltage circuit breaker is capable of making, carrying and breaking currents under the rated voltage (the maximal voltage of the power system which it is protecting) :Under normal

circuit conditions, for example to connect or disconnect a line in a power system; Under specified abnormal circuit conditions especially to eliminate a short circuit. From its characteristics, a circuit breaker is the protection device essential for a high voltage power system, because it is the only one able to interrupt a short circuit current and so to avoid the others devices to be damaged by this short circuit. To operate on long lines, the circuit breakers are equipped with a closing resistor to limit the overvoltages.

DIRECT ON LINE STARTER


A direct on line starter, often abbreviated DOL starter, is a widely-used starting method of electric motors.There are many types of motor starters, the simplest of which is the DOL starter. A motor starter is an electrical/electronic circuit composed of electro-mechanical and electronic devices which are employed to start and stop an electric motor. Regardless of the motor type (AC or DC), the types of starters differ depending on the method of starting the motor. A DOL starter connects the motor terminals directly to the power supply. Hence, the motor is subjected to the full voltage of the power supply. Consequently, high starting current flows through the motor. This type of starting is suitable for small motors below 5 hp (3.75 kW). Reduced-voltage starters are employed with motors above 5 hp.

Internal View of a Direct On Line Starter Major Components There are four major components of a Direct On Line Starter. They are given as follows: 1. Switch 2. Fuse 3. Conductor (Electromagnetic) 4. Thermal Overload Relay (Heat & Temperature) According to our desire and use of work, we can use auxiliary components in a DOL Starter. Motor Direction Reversal Changing the direction of a 3-Phase Squirrel-Cage Motor requires swapping any two phases.

Module II

EMD II
Generator Protection Transformer

GENERATORS
The basic function of the generator is to convert mechanical power, delivered from the shaft of the turbine, into electrical power. Therefore a generator is actually a rotating mechanical energy converter. The mechanical energy from the turbine is converted by means of a rotating magnetic field produced by direct current in the copper winding of the rotor or field, which generates three-phase alternating currents and voltages in the copper winding of the stator (armature). The stator winding is connected to terminals, which are in turn connected to the power system for delivery of the output power to the system. The class of generator under consideration is steam turbine-driven generators, commonly called turbo generators.The generators particular to this category are of the two- and four-pole design employing round-rotors.At Badarpur Thermal Power Station 3000 rpm, 50 Hz generators are used of capacities 210 MW and 95 MW. As the system load demands more active power from the generator, more steam (or fuel in a combustion turbine) needs to be admitted to the turbine to increase power output. Hence more energy is transmitted to the generator from the turbine, in the form of a torque.The higher the power output, the higher the torque between turbine and generator.The power output of the generator generally follows the load demand from the system.Therefore the voltages and currents in the generator are continually changing based on the load demand. The generator design must be able to cope with large and fast load changes, which show up inside the machine as changes in mechanical forces and temperatures. The design must therefore incorporate electrical currentcarrying materials (i.e., copper), magnetic flux-carrying materials (i.e., highly permeable steels), insulating materials (i.e., organic), structural members (i.e., steel and organic), and cooling media (i.e., gases and liquids), all working together under the operating conditions of a turbo generator. Since the turbo generator is a synchronous machine, it operates at one very specific speed to produce a constant system frequency of 50 Hz, depending on the frequency of the grid to which it is connected. As a synchronous machine, a turbine generator employs a steady magnetic flux passing radially across an air gap that exists between the rotor and the stator.This flux pattern rotates with the rotor, as it spins at its synchronous speed. The rotating magnetic field moves past a three-phase symmetrically distributed winding installed in the stator core, generating an alternating voltage in the stator winding. The voltage waveform created in each of the three phases of the stator winding is very nearly sinusoidal. The output of the stator winding is the three-phase power, delivered to the power system at the voltage generated in the stator winding.In addition to the normal flux distribution in the main body of the generator, there are stray fluxes at the extreme ends of the generator that create fringing flux patterns and induce stray losses in the generator. The stray fluxes must be accounted for in the overall design. Generators are made up of two basic members, the stator and the rotor, but the stator and rotor are each constructed from numerous parts themselves. Rotors are the high-speed rotating member of the two, and they undergo severe dynamic mechanical loading as well as the electromagnetic and thermal loads. These components are very carefully designed for high-stress operation. The stator is stationary,as the term suggests, but it also sees significant dynamic forces in terms of vibration and torsional loads, as well as the electromagnetic, thermal, and high-voltage loading. The most critical component of the stator is arguably the stator winding because it is a very high cost item and it must be designed to handle all of the harsh effects described above. Most stator problems occur with the winding. STATOR The stator winding is made up of insulated copper conductor bars that are distributed around the inside diameter of the stator core, in equally spaced slots in the core to ensure symmetrical flux

linkage with the field produced by the rotor. Each slot contains two conductor bars, one on top of the other. These are generally referred to as top and bottom bars. Top bars are the ones nearest the slot opening (just under the wedge) and the bottom bars are the ones at the slot bottom. The core area between slots is generally called a core tooth. The stator winding is then divided into three phases, which are almost always wye connected.Wye connection is done to allow a neural grounding point and for relay protection of the winding. The three phases are connected to create symmetry between them in the 360 degree arc of the stator. The distribution of the winding is done in such a way as to produce a 1200 difference in voltage peaks from one phase to the other, hence the term three-phase voltage. The parallels in all of the phases are essentially equal on average, in their performance in the machine. Therefore, they each seeequal voltage and current, magnitudes and phase angles, when averaged over one alternating cycle. The stator bars in any particular phase group are arranged such that there are parallel paths,which overlap between top and bottom bars.

Stator The pitch is the number slots that the stator bars have to reach in the stator bore arc, separating the two bars to be connected. This is always less than 180 degrees. The distribution factor is used to minimize the harmonic content of the generated voltage. The currents normally flowing in large turbo generators can be in the order of thousands of amperes. Due to the very high currents, the conductor bars in a turbo generator have a large cross-sectional area. In addition they are usually one single turn per bar. These stator or conductor bars are also very rigid and do not bend unless significant force is exerted on them. ROTOR The rotor winding is installed in the slots machined in the forging main body and is distributed symmetrically around the rotor between the poles. The winding itself is made up of many turns of copper to form the entire series connected winding. All of the turns associated with a single slot are generally called a coil. The coils are wound into the winding slots in the forging,

Rotor

concentrically in corresponding positions on opposite sides of a pole. In addition almost all large turbo generators have directly cooled copper windings by air or hydrogen cooling gas.Cooling passages are provided within the conductors themselves to eliminate the temperature drop across the ground insulation and preserve the life of the insulation material.In an axially cooled winding, the gas passes through axial passages in the conductors, being fed from both ends, and exhausted to the air gap at the axial center of the rotor. The winding is held in place in the slots by wedges, in a similar manner as the stator windings. The difference is that the rotor winding loading on the wedges is far greater due to centrifugal forces at speed. The wedges therefore are subjected to a tremendous static load from these forces and bending stresses because of the rotation effects. As in the rotor slots, the copper turns in the end-winding must be isolated from one another so that they do not touch and create shorts between turns. Therefore packing and blocking are used to keep the coils separated, and in their relative position as the rotor winding expands from thermal effects during operation. The A.C. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. The stator housed the armature windings. The rotor houses the field windings. D.C. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings. When the rotor is rotated, the lines of magnetic flux (viz magnetic field) cut through the stator windings. This induces an electromagnetic force (e.m.f.) in the stator windings. The magnitude of this e.m.f. is given by the following expression. E = 4.44 /O FN volts 0 = Strength of magnetic field in Webers. F = Frequency in cycles per second or Hertz. N = Number of turns in a coil of stator winding F = Frequency = Pn/120

Where P = Number of poles n = revolutions per second of rotor. From the expression it is clear that for the same frequency, number of poles increases with decrease in speed and vice versa. Therefore, low speed hydro turbine drives generators have 14 to 20 poles where as high speed steam turbine driven generators have generally 2 poles. Pole rotors are used in low speed generators, because the cost advantage as well as easier construction.

BEARINGS All turbo generators require bearings to rotate freely with minimal friction and vibration. The main rotor body must be supported by a bearing at each end of the generator for this purpose. This ensures that the excitation end of the rotor shaft does not create a wobble that transmits through the shaft and stimulates excessive vibration in the overall generator rotor or the turbo generator line. AUXILIARY SYSTEMS All large generators require auxiliary systems to handle such things as lubricating oil for the rotor bearings, hydrogen cooling apparatus, hydrogen sealing oil, de-mineralized water for stator winding cooling, and excitation systems for field-current application. Not all generators require all these systems and the requirement depends on the size and nature of the machine. There are five major auxiliary systems that may be used in a generator. They are given as follows: 1. Lubricating Oil System 2. Hydrogen Cooling System 3. Seal Oil System 4. Stator Cooling Water System 5. Excitation System Each system has numerous variations to accommodate the hundreds of different generator configurations that may be found in operation. But regardless of the generator design and which variation of a system is in use, they all individually have the same basic function . 1. Lubricating Oil System The lube-oil system provides oil for all of the turbine and generator bearings as well as being the source of seal oil for the seal-oil system.

Lubricating Oil System Layout The main oil tank serves both the turbine and generator bearing and is often also the source of the sealing oil for the hydrogen seals.Heat exchangers are provided for heat removal from the lube oil. Raw water from the local lake or river is circulated on one side of the cooler to remove the heat from the lube oil circulating on the other side of the heat exchanger. Full flow filters, are employed for removal of debris from the lube oil. A purifier is used to remove moisture from the oil. Moisture is also a contaminant to oil and can cause it to lose its lubricating properties. 2. Hydrogen Cooling System As the hydrogen cooling gas picks up heat from the various generator components within the machine, its temperature rises significantly. This can be as much as 46oC, and therefore the hydrogen must be cooled down prior to being re-circulated through the machine for continuous cooling. Hydrogen coolers or heat exchangers are employed for this purpose.Cooling tubes with fins are used to enlarge the surface area for cooling, as the hydrogen gas passes over the outside of the finned tubes. Clarified Water is pumped through the tubes to take the heat away from the hydrogen gas and outside the generator. The tubes must be extremely leak-tight to ensure that hydrogen gas does not enter into the tubes, since the gas is at a higher pressure than the raw water. 3. Seal Oil System As most large generators use hydrogen under high pressure for cooling the various internal components. To keep the hydrogen inside the generator, various places in the generator are required to seal against hydrogen leakage to atmosphere. One of the most difficult seals made is the juncture between the stator and the rotating shaft of the rotor. This is done by a set of hydrogen seals at both ends of the machine. The requirement of highpressure oil into the seal to make the actual seal.The system, which provides the oil to do this,is called the seal-oil system. 4. Stator Cooling Water System The stator cooling water system (SCW) is used to provide a source of de-mineralized water to the generator stator winding for direct cooling of the stator winding and associated components. System Components Pumps: Generally, ac motor driven pumps are used to deliver the cooling water to the windings. Heat Exchangers: Heat exchangers are provided for heat removal from the SCW. Raw water is circulated on one side of the cooler to remove the heat from the demineralized SCW circulating on the other side of the heat exchanger. Filters: Full-flow filters, are employed for removal of debris from the SCW. 5. Excitation System

Rotating commutator exciters as a source of DC power for the AC generator field generally have been replaced by silicon diode power rectifier systems of the static or brushless type. PROTECTION The protection system of any modern electric power grid is the most crucial function in the system. Protection is a system because it comprises discrete devices (relays, communication means, etc.) and an algorithm that establishes a coordinated method of operation among the protective devices. This is termed coordination. Thus, for a protective system to operate correctly, both the settings of the individual relays and the coordination among them must be right. Wrong settings might result in no protection to the protected equipment and systems, and improper coordination might result in unwarranted loss of production. The key function of any protective system is to minimize the possibility of physical damage to equipment due to a fault anywhere in the system or from abnormal operation of the equipment (over speed, under voltage, etc.). However, the most critical function of any protective scheme is to safeguard those persons who operate the equipment that produces, transmits, and utilizes electricity. Rating of 95 MW Generator Manufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL)

Capacity - 117500 KVA Voltage - 10500V Speed - 3000 rpm Hydrogen - 2.5 Kg/cm2 Power factor - 0.85 (lagging) Stator current - 6475 A Frequency - 50 Hz Stator wdg connection - 3 phase Rating of 210 MW Generator Capacity - 247000 KVA Voltage (stator) - 15750 V Current (stator) - 9050 A Voltage (rotor) - 310 V Current (rotor) - 2600 V Speed - 3000 rpm Power factor - 0.85 Frequency - 50 Hz Hydrogen - 3.5 Kg/cm2 Stator wdg connection - 3 phase star connection Insulation class - B

TRANSFORMER
A transformer is a static device consisting of a winding, or two or more coupled windings, with or without a magnetic core, for inducing mutual coupling between circuits. When an alternating current flows in a conductor, a magnetic field exists around the conductor. If another conductor is placed in the field created by the first conductor such that the flux lines link the second conductor, then a voltage is induced into the second conductor. The use of a magnetic field from one coil to induce a voltage into a second coil is the principle on which transformer theory and application is based.

A 220 kV Transformer at Power Plant ANSI/IEEE defines a transformer as a static electrical device, involving no continuously moving parts, used in electric power systems to transfer power between circuits through the use of electromagnetic induction. The transformer is one of the most reliable pieces of electrical distribution equipment. It has no moving parts, requires minimal maintenance, and is capable of withstanding overloads, surges, faults, and physical abuse that may damage or destroy other items in the circuit. Most of the effects of aging, faults, or abuse can be detected and corrected by a comprehensive maintenance, inspection, and testing program. Transformers are exclusively used in electric power systems to transfer power by electromagnetic induction between circuits at the same frequency, usually with changed values of voltage and current. In Badarpur Thermal Power Station, we deal with power transformer applications involving the transmission and distribution of electrical power. The term power transformer is used to refer to those transformers used between the generator and the distribution circuits, and these are usually rated at 220 kVA and above. Power transformers are available for step-up operation, primarily used at the generator and referred to as generator step-up (GSU)transformers, and for step-down operation, mainly used to feed distribution circuits.

CONSTRUCTION A power transformer is a device that transforms an alternating voltage and current from one level to another. Power transformers are used to step up (transform) the voltages that are produced at generation to levels that are suitable for transmission (higher voltage, lower current). Conversely, a transformer is used to step down (transform) the higher transmission voltages to levels that are suitable for use at various facilities (lower voltage, higher current). Voltages must be stepped-up for transmission. Every conductor, no matter how large, will lose an appreciable amount of power (watts) to its resistance (R) when a current (T) passes through it. This loss is expressed as a function of the applied current (P=I2R). Because this loss is dependent on the current, and since the power to be transmitted is a function of the applied volts (E) times the amps (P=IE), significant savings can be obtained by stepping the voltage up to a higher voltage level, with the corresponding reduction of the current value. All power transformers have three basic parts, a primary winding, secondary winding, and a core. Even though little more than an air space is necessary to insulate an idealtransformer, when higher voltages and larger amounts of power are involved, the insulating material becomes an integral part of the transformers operation. Because of this, the insulation system is often considered the fourth basic part of the transformer. It is important to note that, although the windings and core deteriorate very little with age, the insulation can be subjected to severe stresses and chemical deterioration. The insulation deteriorates at a relatively rapid rate, and its condition ultimately determines the service life of the transformer. Core The core, which provides the magnetic path to channel the flux, consists of thin strips of highgrade steel, called laminations, which are electrically separated by a thin coating of insulating material. Core steel can be hot- or cold rolled,grain-oriented or non grain oriented.The core cross section can be circular or rectangular. Just like other components in the transformer, the heat generated by the core must be adequately dissipated.In larger units, cooling ducts are used inside the core for additional convective surface area, and sections of laminations may be split to reduce localized losses. The maximum flux density of the core steel is normally designed as close to the knee of the saturation curve as practical, accounting for required over excitations and tolerances that exist due to materials and manufacturing processes. There are two basic types of core construction used in power transformers: core form and shell form. In core-form construction, there is a single path for the magnetic circuit. For single-phase applications, the windings are typically divided on both core legs as shown. In three-phase applications, the windings of a particular phase are typically on the same core leg. Windings are constructed separate of the core and placed on their respective core legs during core assembly. In shell-form construction, the core provides multiple paths for the magnetic circuit. The core is typically stacked directly around the windings. Windings The windings consist of the current-carrying conductors wound around the sections of the core,and these must be properly insulated, supported, and cooled to withstand operational and test conditions.Copper and aluminum are the primary materials used as conductors in powertransformerwindings. While aluminum is lighter and generally less expensive than copper, a larger cross section of aluminum conductor must be used to carry a current with similar performance as copper. Copper has higher mechanical strength.

When considering concentric windings, it is generally understood that circular windings have inherently higher mechanical strength than rectangular windings, whereas rectangular coils can have lower associated material and labour costs. Taps-Turns Ratio Adjustment The ability to adjust the turns ratio of a transformer is often desirable to compensate for variations in voltage that occur due to the regulation of the transformer and loading cycles. This task can be accomplished by several means. There is a significant difference between a transformer that is capable of changing the ratio while the unit is on-line (a load tap changing [LTC] transformer) and one that must be taken off-line, or de-energized, to perform a tap change. Most transformers are provided with a means of changing the number of turns in the high voltage circuit, whereby a part of the winding is tapped out of the circuit. A manually operated switching mechanism, a DETC (de energized tap changer), is normally provided for convenient access external to the transformer to change the tap position. MAINTENANCE AND TESTING Heat and contamination are the two greatest enemies to the transformers operation. Heat will break down the solid insulation and accelerate the chemical reactions that take place when the oil is contaminated. All transformers require a cooling method and it is important to ensure that the transformer has proper cooling. Proper cooling usually involves cleaning the cooling surfaces, maximizing ventilation, and monitoring loads to ensure the transformer is not producing excess heat. SAFETY Safety is of primary concern when working around a transformer. The substation transformer is usually the highest voltage item in a facilitys electrical distribution system. The higher voltages found at the transformer deserve the respect and complete attention of anyone working in the area. Although inspections and sampling can usually be performed while the transformer is in service, all other service and testing functions will require that the transformer is deenergized and locked out. This means that a thorough understanding of the transformers circuit and the disconnecting methods should be reviewed before any work is performed. A properly installed transformer will usually have a means for disconnecting both the primary and the secondary sides; ensure that they are opened before any work is performed.Both disconnects should be opened because it is possible for generator or induced power to back feed into the secondary and step up into the primary. It is also important to ensure that the circuit stays de-energized until the work is completed. After verifying that all circuits are de-energized, grounds should be connected between all items that could have a different potential. This means that all conductors, hoses, ladders and other equipment should be grounded to the tank, and that the tanks connection to ground should be verified before beginning any work on the transformer. NAME PLATE DATA The transformer nameplate contains most of the important information that will be needed in the field. The nameplate should never be removed from the transformer and should always be kept clean. A Wye Delta Transformer Nameplate Although other information can be provided, industry standards require that the following information be displayed on the nameplate of all power transformers: a. Serial Number: The serial number is required any time the manufacturer must be contacted for information or parts.

b. Class: The class will indicate the transformers cooling requirements and increased load capability. c. kVA Rating: The kVA rating, as opposed to the power output, is a true indication of the current carrying capacity of the transformer. d. Voltage Rating: The voltage rating should be given for the primary and secondary, and for all tap positions. e. Temperature Rise: The temperature rise is the allowable temperature change from ambient that the transformer can undergo without incurring damage. f. Polarity (single phase): The polarity is important when the transformer is to be paralleled or used in conjunction with other transformers. g. Phasor Diagrams: Phasor Diagrams will be provided for both the primary and the secondary coils. Phasor diagrams indicate the order in which the three phases will reach their peak voltages, and also the angular displacement (rotation) between the primary and secondary h. Connection Diagram: The connection diagram will indicate the connections of the various windings, and the winding connections necessary for the various tap voltages. i. Weight: The weight should be expressed for the various parts and the total. Knowledge of the weight is important when moving or untanking the transformer. j. Insulating Fluid: The type of insulating fluid is important when additional fluid must be added or when unserviceable fluid must be disposed of. Different insulating fluids should never be mixed.

At Badarpur Rating of transformer Manufactured by Bharat heavy electrical limited No load voltage (hv) - 229 KV No load Voltage (lv) -10.5 KV Line current (hv) - 315.2 A Line current (lv) - 873.2 A Temp rise - 45 Celsius Oil quantity -40180 lit Weight of oil -34985 Kg Total weight - 147725 Kg Core & winding - 84325 Kg Phase - 3
Frequency - 50 Hz

LAST WORD:
At last I want to give wholehearted thanks to NTPC Badarpur for providing me strong atmosphere in which I learnt a lot. They provided me several visits of the plant and left no stone unturned in providing me extra knowledge.Regular practical sessions were held and I would like to confess that those sessions greatly helped in developing practical attitude. Complete protection was provided on behalf of NTPC so that no casualty could occur.All the engineers,foreman and supporting staff was very friendly and helpful.They were always ready to solve my doubts and enrich me with some fresh knowledge. I want to confess that I was very lucky to work under such qualified people and great enterprise like NTPC/BTPS. THANKING YOU

ARJIT AGARWAL

REFERENCES
1. Course Textbooks

2. Reports in archives of Nalanda Library of BTPS

3. Notes prepared during training sessions

4. NTPC Website

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