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# 1. Figure 8.

4 is a top view of a packing crate being pushed by two forces of equal magnitude acting in opposite direction as shown. Find the net torque exerted on the crate if its width is 1.0m. Assume an axis of rotation through the center of the crate. Solution. Because each force produces clockwise rotation, the torques are both negative. The torque produced by is
 

 

 

## force applied at an angle of

to the door

Reasoning in figure 8.5. The force has been replaced by its horizontal and vertical components:      Solution. In this case, the  force produces zero torque about the axis of rotation because the line along which the force acts passes through the axis of rotation and hence the lever arm is zero. The  force has a lever arm of  and thus produces a torque of       Where the plus sign indicates the door rotates in the counterclockwise direction.

3. Three particles are located in a coordinate system as shown in the Figure 8.9. find the center of gravity. Reasoning and Solution. The y coordinate of the center of gravity is zero because all the particles are also on the x axis. To find the x coordinate of the center of gravity, we use Equation 8.3:

## For the numerator, we find   



 

   

The denominator is

; therefore, 

4. In this example we show how to find the location of a persons center of gravity. Suppose your lab partner has a height of     and weight of    . You can determine the position of his center of gravity be having him stretch out on a uniform board supported at one end by a scale shown in Figure 8.10. If the boards weight if  and the scale reading is  , find the distance of your lab partners center of gravity from the left end of the board. Reasoning. The center of gravity must lie somewhere on the long symmetry axis of the body. To find the position of the center of gravity, we set the sum of the torques about point equal to zero.


   

 

5. A uniform horizontal  beam,  long, is attached to a wall by a pin connection that allows the beam to rotate. Its far end is supported by a cable that makes an angle of with the horizontal (Fig . 8.11). If a  person stands  from the wall, find the tension in the cable and the force exerted by the wall on the beam. Solution. From the first condition for equilibrium, we find
 

  

   

The unknown are and . Because there are three unknown and only two equations, we  cannot find the solution from just the first condition of equilibrium. Now let us use the second condition of equilibrium. The axis that passes through the pivot at the wall is a convenient one to choose for the torque equation because the components and all have lever arms of zero and hence have zero torque about this axis. Recalling our sign convention for the torque about an axis and noting that the lever arms of the   and components are   and , respectively, we get


 

Thus the torque equation using this axis gives us one of the unknowns immediately! This value for is then substituted into (1) and (2) to give


 

A    weight is held in a persons head with the forearm horizontal, as in Figure 8.12a. The biceps muscle is attached  from the joint, and the weight is  from the joint. Find the upward force exerted by the biceps on the forearm (the ulna) and the downward force exerted by the humerus on the forearm, acting at the joint. Neglect the weight of the forearm. Solution. The forces acting on the forearm are equivalents to those acting on a bar of length  , as shown in Figure 8.12b, where F is the upward force exerted by the biceps and R is the downward force at the joint. From the first condition for equilibrium, we have


6. From the second condition: for equilibrium, we know that the sum of the torques about any axis must be zero. With the joint O as the axis, we have        

This value for F can be substituted into (1) to give    . Clearly, the forces at joints and in muscles can be extremely large compared to the weight of the lifted object.

7.

uniform   long,  ladder rests against a smooth vertical wall as in Figure 8.13a. If the ladder is just on the verge of slipping when it makes an angle with the ground, find the coefficient of static friction between the ladder and ground.

Solution. From the first condition for equilibrium applied to the ladder; we have
 

From (2) we see that  . Furthermore, when the ladder is on the verge of slipping, the magnitude of the force of static friction must be maximum and given by the relation    . Thus, (1) reduces to  

Let us now apply the second condition of equilibrium and take the torques about the axis through O at the bottom of the ladder, as in figure 8.13c. The force P and the force of gravity acting on the ladder are the only forces that contribute to the torque about this axis, and their lever arms are shown in figure 8.13c. Note that, because the length of the ladder is  , the lever arm for P is  . Likewise, the lever arm for the  force of gravity is  , where the force of gravity acts through the center because the ladder is uniform. Thus, we find that


Now that P is known, we can substitute its value into (3) to find :     

8. In an effort to be the start of the half-time show, a majorette twirls a highly unusual baton made up of four spheres fastened to the ends of light rods (fig. 8.9). Each rod is  long. Find the momentum of inertia of the system about an axis perpendicular to the page and passing through the point where the rods cross.

## Solution. Applying Equation 8.8, we get     



  

    

9.

satisfied with the crowd reaction from the baton twirling of Example 8.8, the majorette tries spinning her strange baton about the axis , as shown in figure 8.20, Calculate the moment of inertia about this axis.

## Solution. Again applying Equation 8.8, we have      



10. baseball layer loosening up his arm before a game tosses a  baseball using only the rotation of his forearm to accelerate the ball (Fig 8.22). The forearm has a mass of  and a length of  . The ball starts at rest and is released with a speed of in  . Find the constant angular acceleration of the arm and ball. Solution. During its acceleration, the ball moves through an arc of a circle with a radius of  . We can determine the angular acceleration using Equation 7.5   . Because , however,  or  We also know that  , and so we get        Find the torque exerted on the ball to give it this angular acceleration.       

If we model the forearm as a uniform bar of length , its moment of the inertia about an axis that passes through the elbow, perpendicularly to the arm, is      


The total moment of inertia of the composite system (ball plus forearm) about the elbow is  Thus the required torque is     


 

11. A solid, frictionless cylinder reel of mass  and radius  is used to draw water from a well (Fig. 8.23a). A bucket of mass  is attached to a cord that is wrapped around the cylinder. If the bucket starts from rest at the top of the well and falls for 3.00 s before hitting the water, how far does it fall? Reasoning. Figure 8.23b shows the two forces on the bucket as it falls: T is the force exerted by the cord, and is the force of gravity. We shall choose downward as the positive direction (an atypical but convenient choice) and write Newtons second law for the bucket as (bucket) With one equation and two unknown, T and , we must develop an additional equation to complete the problem. To obtain this second equation, let us consider the cylinders rotational motion. Equation 8.9 applied to the cylinder gives the necessary expression:  (cylinder)

Figure 8.23c shows that the only force producing a torque on the cylinder as it rotates about an axis through the center is T, the force exerted by the cord. The magnitude of the torque due to this force about the axis of rotation is . Thus, we can express (2) as   Actually, two other forces act on the cylinder- the force of gravity Mg and the upward force n exerted by the axle, but we do not have to consider them here because the lever arm of each about the axis of rotation is zero. At this point, it is important to recognize that the downward acceleration of the bucket is equal to the tangential acceleration of a point on the rim of the cylinder. Therefore, the angular acceleration of the cylinder and the linear acceleration of the bucket are related by . When this relation is used in (3), we get 

Solution. Equations (1) and (4) can now be solved simultaneously to find This procedure gives  

and T.

Finally, we turn to the equations for motion with constant linear acceleration to find the distance d that the bucket falls in 3.00 s because = 0, we get     