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Total Quality Management

Statistical Quality Control & Statistical Process Control


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Determinants of Quality
Design How well it conforms to the design Ease of use Service after delivery

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Quality of Design
involves decision about the specific characteristics of a product or service such as SIZE, SHAPE, and LOCATION eg. different models of automobiles They differ in size, appearance, spaciousness, Fuel economy, comfort, material used
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Quality of conformance
the degree to which goods or services conform to the intent of the designers it depends on the - capability of the equipment used - skill training - motivation of workers
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Ease of use
instructions to the customers as to how to use the product / service eg: - doctors specifying that a tablet to be tablet to be taken before food - auditor informing the client of the last date for filing returns - manual book for cars, TVs etc.
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Consequences of poor quality


Loss of business Liability Productivity costs

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Benefits of good quality


enhanced reputation increased market share greater customer loyalty lower liability costs

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Benefits of good quality contd.


fewer production / service problems fewer complaints from customers lower production costs higher profits

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Responsibility for quality


Top management Design Procurement Production / operations Quality assurance Packaging and shipping Marketing and sales Customer service
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Quality Control

a process that measures output relative to a standard and acts when output does not meet standards

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Approaches to quality assurance

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Acceptance Sampling and SPC


Quality assurance that relies primarily on inspection of previously produced items is referred to as ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING Quality control efforts that occur during production are referred to as STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

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Acceptance sampling and Process control

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Inspection
to provide information on the degree to which items conform to a standard the basic issues in this are: - how much to inspect and how often - at what points in the process inspection should occur

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Inspection contd.
- whether to inspect in a centralized or on-site location - whether to inspect attributes ( i.e. count the number of times something occurs) or variables ( i.e. measure the value of a characteristic)

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How much to inspect and how often


Low-cost, high volume items require little inspection because - the cost associated with passing defective items is quite low, and - the process that produce these items are usually highly reliable (eg) paper clips, nails, wooden pencils
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How much to inspect and how often contd.


High cost low volume items require more intense inspection (eg) ship building aircraft manufacturing manned flight space vehicles Majority of quality control applications lies between these two extremes

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How much to inspect and how often contd.


The amount of inspection needed is governed by - the costs of inspection - the expected costs of passing defective items

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How much to inspect and how often contd.

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Operations

with a high proportion of human involvement necessitate more inspection effort then mechanical operations Frequency of inspection depends largely on the rate at which a process may go out of control or the number of lots being inspected

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Where to inspect the process ( Manufacturing sector )


Raw materials and purchased parts Finished products Before a costly operation Before an irreversible process firing a pottery Before a covering process painting, plating, assembly
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Where to inspect the process ( Service sector )


Incoming purchased materials and supplies Personnel Service interfaces service counter Outgoing completed work repaired appliances
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Centralized Vs On-site inspection


Centralized inspection - medical tests in a lab - analyzing food samples - testing materials for hardness On-site inspection - inspecting the hull of a ship - progress of a patient after operation
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Centralized Vs On-site inspection contd.


The issue in the decision concerning on-site or lab inspections is whether the advantages of specialized lab tests are worth the time and interruption needed to obtain the result

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Statistics
The mathematics of the collection, organization, and interpretation of numerical data, especially the analysis of population characteristics by inference from sampling

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Statistical Process Control


one of the tools for improving product and service quality is the application of statistical methods to identify and control the special cause of variation in a process is a method of monitoring, controlling and, ideally improving a process through statistical analysis
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Basic steps in Statistical Process Control


Define state in detail what is to be controlled Measure how to measure Compare to a standard Evaluate Take corrective action if necessary Evaluate corrective action
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7 QC Tools
Histogram Cause and effect diagram Check sheets Pareto diagram Charts / Graphs Control charts Scatter diagram
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Histogram
describes the variation in the process graphically estimates the process capability suggests the shape of the population indicates any gaps in the data

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Histogram - contd.
is a special bar chart that displays the frequency of occurrence of a measure of data from a process the vertical axis (Y) represents the frequency and the horizontal axis (X) represents measurement data, which may be continuous or discrete

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Histogram provides
Easy to understand means of displaying the variability of data Distribution pattern of data normal distribution or skewed Understanding of causes of variation common or special when used with control charts

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Histogram ungrouped data

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Histogram ungrouped data

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Histogram ungrouped data

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Histogram grouped data

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Histogram grouped data


INTERVAL is the distance between adjacent cell mid-points Cell BOUNDARIES are half way between the cell mid-points

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Histogram Shapes

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Cause-and-Effect Diagram
Developed by Dr Kaoru Ishikawa in 1943 Composed of lines and symbols designed to represent relationship between an effect and its causes Used to investigate either a BAD effect and to take action to correct the causes or a GOOD effect and to learn those causes that are responsible
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Cause-and-Effect Diagram

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Cause-and-Effect Diagram

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Construction of a Cause-and-Effect Diagram


Project team to identify the effect or quality problem Identify the major causes Determine minor causes by brainstorming

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Brainstorming
an idea generating technique uses creative thinking capacity of the team ensure participation by every member encourage quantity of ideas than quality criticism of an idea is not allowed visibility of the diagram is vital create a solution oriented atmosphere
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Usefulness of C & E Diagram


Analyze actual conditions for the purpose of product / service quality improvement, more efficient use of resources, and reduced costs Eliminate conditions causing nonconformities and customer complaints

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Usefulness of C & E Diagram


Standardize existing and proposed operations Educate and train personnel in decisionmaking and corrective-action activities

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Check Sheets
A tool for recording and organizing data to identify a problem The form of the check sheet is individualized for each situation and is designed by the project team
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Check Sheet for paint nonconformities for bicycles

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Pareto Diagram
Conducted studies of the distribution of wealth in Europe and found that there were few people with lot of money and many with little money Vital few and trivial many Joseph Juran

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Pareto Diagram

is a graph that ranks data classifications in descending order from left to right

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Examples of the vital few


A few customers account for the majority of sales A few nonconformities account for the majority of customer complaints A few products account for the majority of profit A few problems account for the bulk of the process downtime
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Construction of Pareto Diagram ( five steps )


Determine the method of classifying the data by problem, cause, nonconformity Decide if rupees, frequency, or both to be used to rank the characteristics Collect data for an appropriate time interval Summarize the data and arrange in descending order Construct the diagram and find the vital few

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Pareto Diagram

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Pareto Diagram
The vital few are on the left and the useful many on the right Machine 35 has the greatest number of nonconformities, machine 51 has the greatest dollar value Machines 35 and 51 account for 75% of nonconformities

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Pareto Diagram

is a powerful quality improvement tool and is applicable to problem identification and the measurement of progress

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Graphs / Charts
Charts are graphic displays of data Easy to understand No descriptive words or numbers to explain data Bar, Pie, Run charts are commonly used

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Bar Charts
1. 2. Used to represent qualitative data Data may be continuous or discrete Two types of bar charts: Vertical bar chart / diagram Component bar chart / diagram

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Bar Charts

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Vertical bar diagram


Height represents the numerical value of the event or measurement Width or gap between bars is of no significance but should be uniform Bars can also be horizontal

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Component bar diagram


Represent the fraction contribution (or share) of different sources to a particular element or event Each bar is plotted proportionately as per the share of contribution Used for presentation of economic data where contribution comes from different sources
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Run charts
Shows trends of data for a process over a time Simple to construct Easy visual perception of the process variation over a time Limitations: - denote only the presence of trends and sudden shift in the process
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Run charts

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Pie chart
Circle charts that display 100% of data as circle Divided into proportionate slices Represent categories whose size is defined by the percentage of a category in the total
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Pie chart

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Scatter / Correlation diagram


Provides a graphic plot of two variables Shows correlation, if any, between the variables Often used in conjunction with regression analysis Larger the data points, the better it is for establishing correlation
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Scatter / Correlation diagram

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Control charts (variations)


Variations in dimensions of products / items are part of production process When variations are very small, items appear to be identical If two items appear to have the same measurement, it is due to the limits of the measuring instruments

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Categories of variations
1. With-in piece variation: - surface roughness of a piece 2. Piece-to-piece variation: - among pieces produced at the same time 3. Time-to-time variation: - difference in product produced at different times of the day

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Variation
Variation is present in every process due to a combination of the: - equipment - materials - environment - operator
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Variation
Equipment tool wear, machine vibration, electrical fluctuations Material tensile strength, ductility, thickness, porosity, moisture Environment temperature, light, size, radiation, pressure, humidity Operator physical and emotional well- being, lack of understanding of machine, lack of training, a cut finger, twisted ankle, head ache

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Control charts
a time ordered plot of sample statistics, used to distinguish between random and nonrandom variability Random variability values that are with in 3 from the mean Nonrandom variability values that are out side the 3 from the mean

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Control limits
The dividing lines between random and nonrandom deviations from the mean of the distribution UCL: the larger value x-bar + 3 LCL: the smaller value x-bar - 3

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Type I and Type II error


Concluding a process is not in control when it actually is (concluding that nonrandomness is present when only randomness is present) Concluding a process is in control when it is not (nonrandom variations are not present, when they are)

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Control charts for variables and attributes


Variables: quality characteristics that can be measured (weight, length, time, temperature, voltage, tensile strength) Attributes: quality characteristics that can be counted ( a lamp may work or not, a bank transaction process may be correct or not)

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Control charts for variables and attributes


X-bar charts (mean control chart) to monitor the central tendency of a process R-charts (range control chart) to monitor process dispersion p-chart to monitor the fraction of defective items in a process c-chart or np-chart to monitor number of defects per unit
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Mean chart

Sensitive to changes in process mean

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Mean chart

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Range Chart

Sensitive to changes in process dispersion

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Range Chart

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Use of p-chart
1. When observations can be placed into one of two categories. Examples include items (observations) that can be classified as: (a) good or bad (b) pass or fail (c) operate or dont operate 2. When the data consists of multiple samples of n observations each (eg., 15 samples of n=20)

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Use of c-chart
When only the number of occurrences per unit of measure can be counted; nonoccurrences cannot be counted: (a) scratches, dents, or errors per item (b) cracks per unit of distance (c) breaks or tears per unit of area (d) pollutants per unit of volume (e) calls, complaints, crimes per unit of time
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Process Capability
Control limits are for averages Specifications are permissible variation in the size of the part Therefore they are individual values Specification or tolerance limits are established at the design stage Location of specifications is optional
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Process Capability

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Process Capability

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Process Capability
Control limits, process spread (process capability), distribution of averages, and distribution of individual values are interdependent These are determined by process, whereas specifications have an optional location Control limits cannot determine if the process is meeting specifications

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Process Capability
First achieve optimal quality improvement using X-bar and R charts When the process is in statistical control, process capability = 6 Tolerance is the difference between upper specification limit (USL) and lower specification limits (LSL)

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Process Capability

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Process Capability
Process capability and tolerance combine to form capability index (C ) USL - LSL C = ------------6

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Process Capability
If C 1, the process is capable of meeting the specifications If C 1, the process is not capable of meeting the specifications Because processes are continuously shifting back and forth, a C value of 1.33 has become a de facto standard Some use a C value of 2.00
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Process Capability
Capability index is a measure of quality Larger the capability index, the better the quality Quality is ensured by having realistic specifications and continually striving to improve the process capability

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