12
 Poissons ratio
 Measure of fiber reinforcement of the composite that
depends on the fiber geometry, packing geometry, and
loading conditions. The value of is taken as 2 for E
2
calculation while 1 for G
12
calculation.
Q
ij
 Lamina stiffness matrix
xiii
Q
ij
 Transformed stiffness matrix
N  In plane force
M  In plane moment
0
 Midplane strain
 Curvature
A
ij
, B
ij
, D
ij
 Laminate extensional stiffnesses, laminatecoupling
stiffnesses, and laminatebending stiffnesses
respectively
u, v, w  Displacement in x, y, z direction respectively
x
,
y
 Rotation about the x, y direction respectively
x
,
y
 Wrapping of the normal in x and y direction
respectively
N
i
, N
o
 Shape function for inplane and outofplane degree of
freedom respectively
[B]  Element strain matrix
[K]  Element stiffness matrix
F  Forces
q  Transverse distributed load
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study
Composite materials have been widely applied to various fields of work as
the replacement of traditional monolithic materials such as metals, ceramics or
polymers due to its advantages and better performances. Generally, composite are
materials that combine two or more conventional monolithic materials into one.
Such a material contains the characteristics of both its origin materials and other new
characteristics that might be useful.
Composites can be divided into various groups depends on their criterion
such as metals and nonmetals, natural or manufactured, usage, and application. The
most primitive composites that can be obtained easily from market are brick for
building construction, asphalt concrete for roadway and fiberglass. Composites are
being used due to their advantages such as the costs, the strengths, the properties, the
durability or even the availabilities in our surroundings. They have desirable
2
properties that cannot be achieved by any other constituent materials that acting
alone. Besides, the composite materials still have a great considerably potentials
which are yet to be discovered.
In the field of research, the engineering constants of the materials are
essentially of top priority before the usages and limitations of the materials can be
determined. Hence, it is important to first obtain the micromechanical and
macromechanical properties of the composites from the combination of two or more
conventional monolithic materials. The method of the computation of the
micromechanical properties of composites has been invented many years ago by
reasonable assumptions and several equations. Theoretically, it is not a difficult task
for us to identify all the micromechanical and macromechanical properties of the
composites with reasonably simple assumptions. However, when we are considering
other factors that might affect internally or externally the composites such as
thickness, number of layer, orientations, thermal stability, distortions, delaminating,
etc, the computation could becomes complicated and tedious. In order to solve those
problems, several numerical methods such as finite element method, finite difference
method, mesh free method and other methods have been applied into the computation
of the micromechanical and macromechanical properties of the composites.
1.2 Fiber Reinforced Composite
Fiber reinforced composite is a type of composites with the combination of
three components: (i) fiber as the discontinuous phase, (ii) matrix as the continuous
phase and (iii) interphase. The fiber is naturally produced from the cellulosic waste
streams to form high strength fiber composite materials in a polymer matrix. The
3
wood contains mainly of fibrous cellulose in a matrix of lignin, whereas most
mammalian bone is made up of layered and oriented collagen fibrils in a protein
calcium phosphate matrix (Wainwright, Biggs, Currey and Gosline, 1976).
The primary function of the fibers is to carry the loads along their
longitudinal directions and to obtain maximum tensile strength and stiffness of a
material when held together in a structural unit with binder or matrix material.
Common fiber reinforcing agents include aluminum, asbestos, beryllium, graphite,
glass, molybdenum, polyamide, polyester, quartz, steel, tantalum, titanium and
tungsten. Among the aforementioned, glass fibers and carbon or graphite fibers are
the most widely used advanced fibers. Glass/epoxy and glass/polyester composites
are used extensively in applications ranging from fishing rods to storage tanks and
aircraft parts, while high strength carbon fibers have a tensile strength more than 6
times than that of the steel (Gibson, 2007).
Polymers, metals, and ceramics are the matrix materials used in composites to
hold the fibers together and to protect them from damage. Besides, those materials
also contain some properties such as ductility and toughness that are needed in
certain fields. Likewise, metal have electrical conductivity and high melting
temperature that are useful in the electrical engineering composites. Polymer
composites are very common lightweight, thermal and electrical insulator. The
composite industry is maturing into an established and increasingly diversified
business. Composite manufacturing offers the benefits of producing lightweight,
strong and moldable products in a variety of shapes.
The characteristics of a composite plate are affected by the arrangement of its
components in lamina or laminate state. Lamina is a plane layer of unidirectional
fibers in matrix, arranged longitudinally; whereas laminate is two or more
4
unidirectional lamina stacked together with various orientations. With different
orientations and configurations, composite can form the materials with highstiffness;
highstrength and low density which can have better characteristic than the
monolithic materials such as metal and polymer, or other mixture materials like
concretes and polymers. Micromechanics are the analysis of materials on the
interactions of the microscopic structure considering the state of deformation and
local failure. However, composite lamina or laminate can only be analyzed based on
its average characteristics such as stiffness, density, strength and other configurations
as well to predict its deformation and local failure behaviors.
Figure 1.1 Composite Laminate Plates
Composite materials have many advantages over traditional metal and alloy
based structures, especially its strengthtoweight ratio, lower maintenance
requirements and greater corrosion resistance. Besides, composites exhibit a higher
strength to weight ratio than steel or aluminum and can be modified based on its
configuration and different components to provide a wide range of tensile, flexural
and impact strength properties. Fiber reinforced composites such as carbon and glass
reinforcement fibers have comparable densities compare to its original components.
5
Greater strength and less weight dramatically improve its performance outcomes.
Moreover, composites are corrosion resistant to most chemicals, free from
electrolysis and incorporate longterm benefits such as weather sustainability and
ultraviolent stability as well.
1.3 Statement of problem
The research on the parameters of composite materials is not as easy as
conventional monolithic materials. The values of Youngs Modulus and Poissons
Ratio vary from the arrangement of unidirectional of fiber and its orientations. The
total number of independent elastic coefficients of anisotropic fiber reinforced
composites is 81 but theoretically, most complex engineering problem only concerns
with 9 constants. Despite that, it is still a difficult task to obtain all the independent
coefficients through analysis either using computer or experiment.
There are a lot of computer aided programs for design purpose which do not
include the composite as their basic element. So far, analysts have to model the
composite materials independently, for example each lamina in a laminate is
modeled one by one and layers by layers before assembled together into one
component. They also have to model the fiber and matrix separately. The
experiments will be done in such a way to identify all the parameters needed for
further research. Even though the results of the modeling are satisfactory, but it is
usually time consuming. Besides, we can have over thousands of models with
different combinations of materials, orientations, numbers of layer, different sizes
and other factors as well in a research, the cost can be escalatingly high and
6
sometimes impractical. Hence, it would be helpful to have a single element that
represents both fibers and matrix and multilayer laminates.
It is wellknown that the numerical methods can be applied to the existing
researches in order to formulate the behaviors of composites and to subsequently
program them into any computer software, aiming at the analysis of the composite
materials just treated like any other materials. One of the methods of formulation that
are widely used in analysis is the finite element method (FEM) which discretizes a
model into several elements so that an analysis or computation can be performed
using proper assumptions and boundary conditions. If we are able to formulate the
composite with the FEM, we will be able to program the formulae we construct into
any types of analysis software. Such a task requires detailed descriptive knowledge
on both the FEM and the mechanics of the composite. The main theme of the current
study aims to provide the link for aforementioned difficulties.
1.4 Objective
The objectives of this study are:
i. To formulate an element stiffness matrix for a composite laminate.
ii. To make a comparison between such an element with the existing ones in
terms of displacement.
iii. To develop the Matlab program for (i) and (ii).
iv. To analyze and compare three different orientations of fiber reinforced
composite.
7
1.5 Scope of study
This study only focus on the linear elastic behaviors of fiber reinforced
composites of transversely isotropic type. The lamina is unidirectional and square in
term of size. All the laminae are flat plate and there are limitations in terms of the
arrangement. My study focuses on the formulation of fiber reinforced composites by
using finite element method and the plate is considered thin, which is dominantly
based on the classical lamination theory. Besides, there are four nodes in each
element comprising 5 degree of freedoms at each node. The degree of freedoms are
displacement in x direction (u), displacement in y direction (v), displacement in z
direction (w), rotation about the x direction (
x
), and rotation about the y direction
(
y
), following Szilards theories and applications of plate analysis.
8
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
Fiber composite materials are increasingly used in variety of systems, such as
aircrafts and submarine structures, space structures, automobiles, sport equipment,
medical prosthetic devices and electronic circuit boards. It is materially efficient in
applications that required high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios. With
the increasing use of fiber reinforced composites in structures components, studies
involving the behavior made of composites are getting considerable attention. The
analytical study and design of composites requires knowledge of anisotropic
elasticity, structural theories and failure mode.
Finite Element (FE) Method is one of the preferable methods used in the
analysis of the structural and mechanical behavior of materials, especially when the
researchers are dealing with the nonlinear structure or a complex structure which
cannot be analyzed with merely hand calculation or even a computer program if the
9
structure is not properly formulated. It is considerably powerful numerical
techniques devised for solving solid, structural mechanics, and even multidisciplinary
problems in geometrically complicated regions.
2.2 Previous Research
The first finite element based failure analysis of composites was studied by
Lee (1982) incorporating a direct mode in determining the failure criterion and the
standard laminate strength of plates with circular holes. Reddy and Pandey (1987)
formulated a two dimensional plate element with a first ply failure analysis of
composite laminates based on the first order shear deformation plate theory. The
element was further developed by Engblom and Ochoa in 1986 with an increased
interpolation function in the through thickness direction.
Tolson and Zabaras (1990) developed a two dimensional finite element
failure analysis for composite plates in plate analysis with more accurate and flexible
form. They used seven degrees of freedoms per node in the finite element model for
laminated composite plates. The degrees of freedom are u, v, w,
x,
y
,
x
, and
y
,
where
x
and
y
are rotations of the normal to the midplane about the x and y axes
respectively, where
x
and
y
describe the wrapping of the normal in x and y direction
respectively. Isoparametric finite element was introduced in the study and the eight
noded serendipity and nine noded heterosis elements are used in this analysis. The
results were compared with classical plate theory, three dimensional elasticity
solutions and other finite element formulations. They claimed that the first ply
failure (FPF) and last ply failure (LPF) strength determined by the analysis correlate
10
well with the actual failure strengths. The model is quite effective in providing limits
concerned and useful in the design of laminated composite plates.
Pegoretti et. al (2001) studied the mechanical behavior of glass fiber
reinforced composite endodontic post. The use of composite in the dentistry
intervention is for treatment purpose of pulpless teeth. The aim of the study is to
analyze the mechanical behavior of a new polymeric composite post reinforced with
glass fibers, both experimentally and through FE analysis. There are four
bidimensional model built for analysis purpose with four different types of materials.
One of the materials is the natural tooth treated as the reference model where the
stiffness of the model is equal to enamel and dentine. The other materials such as
fiber glass composite, gold alloy and other types of metal alloy are used in the model
study. The simulation results are compared with those of commercially available
carbon fiber reinforced and gold alloy cast posts. The mechanical behavior of a new
glass fiber composite post was simulated by a FE analysis on a bidimensional model.
The result shows that the fiberreinforced composite posts present quite high stresses
in the cervical region due to their flexibility and also to the presence of a less stiff
core material.
An experimental and finite element analysis of the static deformation of
natural fiberreinforced composite beam had been done by Lim et. al (2002). They
used the shadow Moir method for the direct measurement of whole field
deformation of cantilever beam. A beating between two structures is observed in
the form of another periodic structure, known as the Moir fringe pattern. The Moir
fringe pattern is a sinusoidal function and is represented by intensity distribution I(x,
y) written in a general form as follows:
] ) , ( cos[ ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( y x y x b y x a y x I
where, a(x, y) is background intensity variation, b is the modulation strength, f(x, y)
is the phase at point (x, y), and is the amount of phase shift. For the finite element
11
analysis, the average value of the modulus of elasticity obtained in the threepoint
bending tests was used. In order to obtain the FEA results, the model of the
cantilever was first created using SolidWorks software, and then analyzed using
COSMOS Works. The results obtained from the FEA are compared with the shadow
Moirs results. The comparison of the predictions from the FEA and the optical
measurement shows a maximum difference of 10% at the free end of the cantilever.
This technique, therefore, can be used as a noncontact as well as a nondestructive
technique to validate the finite element model.
Thermal buckling of crossply composite laminates is one of the important
studies in the field of composite. Mathew et. al (1990) used one dimensional finite
element analysis consisting two nodes and six degrees of freedom. A crossply
laminate having many orthotropic layers with different thickness was subjected to
constant temperature where the formulation of the structure is done using finite
element method. In the end of the formulation, the geometric stiffness matrix, K
e
is
derived. Applying different boundary conditions, the mechanical and thermal
buckling loads are computed. The formula produced can be used in the
determination of buckling behavior of the structure as well as for a parametric study.
The results proved that the laminates with immovable end conditions have higher
buckling resistance and buckling parameter reduces with a decrease in the
slenderness ratio. Besides, it is also proven that finite element formulation can be
applied in the analysis of fiber composites in thermal buckling.
Kari et. al (1988) applied the finite element formulation in the study of
thermal buckling of composite laminated plate. They used semiloof shell element
formulation with 43 degrees of freedom in the analysis but 11 degrees of freedom
were eliminated based on the Kirchhoff shear constrains. The field variables in the
local coordinates are expressed as
q S U
12
where
yz yz xz xz z z y x y x
T
V U V U V U V V U U W V U U , , , , , , , , , , , ,
and S is the transformations of shape functions while q is the vector of element
degree of freedom. Total potential energy is used in the derivation of equations for
prebuckling solution. The computer program COMSAP was developed and used to
handle the temperature variation of both surface and thickness of fiber laminates.
The accuracy and efficiency of the element against the known cases; critical
temperatures for different cases of composite laminates are obtained from the
program.
Another study on the composite plate bending element based on a higher
order shear deformation theory through finite element analysis had been done by A.H.
Sheikh and A. Chakrabarti in 2001. In the study, they were considering 7 degree of
freedoms such as u, v, w,
x
,
y
,
x
and
y
. They compare the results among two
plate theories, the higherorder shear deformation theories (HSDT) and the firstorder
shear deformation theory (FSDT). In their results, their compared both theories
under different conditions such as isotropic square plate simply supported at all the
edges, isotropic rectangular plate having different boundary conditions at four edges,
crossply square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed load, crossply
rectangular laminate subjected to distributed load sinusoidal variation, crossply
skew laminate subjected to uniformly distributed load, crossply antisymmetric
laminate subjected to distributed load of sinusoidal variation and angle ply anti
symmetric laminate subjected to uniformly distributed load. In the study, they show
that the different between HSDT and FSDT is small and the accuracy is increased
with the increasing of the number of element. Moreover, a triangular element based
on Reddys HSDT is developed which is able to give more precise results for the
analysis using FEA. Even though it is not the only researches about the analysis of
plate using FEM, it is a very good study for the verification of the currently
formulated model through the comparison of the results since one of the case studies
is set as the same as the current investigation.
13
Szilard had discussed about the theories and applications of plate analysis in
his book published in 2004. He used finite element method as a tool of plate analysis.
He mentioned that by mid 1990, roughly 40,000 papers and more than one hundred
books had been publish about the FEM but only 87 are listed in his book which is
related with his plate analysis. It shows the important of FEM in terms of numerical
solution of engineering problems. In his book, he assumed the plate are flat and
quadrilateral with 3 outofplane degree of freedom existed at each nodes. Through
FEM, he formulates a quadrilateral and a triangular element for the plate for a
comparison with the results obtained with a prescribed polynomial order. In the
beginning stage, he analysis several types of plate element such as simple plate or
thin plate rectangular element, simple plate triangular element, higher order plate
elements (16 DOF) and discrete Kirchhoff triangular element. In the advanced stage,
he analyzed moderately thick plate elements and thick plate elements. He also
illustrated some example of calculations under his analysis in order to present his
models.
2.3 Conclusion
A lot of analysis of composite materials had been done through finite element
modeling. By modeling the structures into finite element and processing the analysis
with computer aided programs such as COSMOS, Solidworks, ProEngineer,
SolidEdge, Nastran, etc, the results can be obtained easily. However, the results are
questionable nowadays since the programs used mostly applied for isotropic
materials. For example, we can analyze the reinforced concrete bridge with Lusas
through finite element method. The setting of the program can be determined
normally through the predetermined materials properties or the existing database of
the program. However, when we are dealing with composites laminated bridge; we
need to determine the engineering properties of the composite through the lamination
14
theories and apply the obtained engineering constants into the program since the
material library does not have any record for a composite material. Unfortunately,
the structure is still considered as isotropic when the materials are prescribed and the
behaviors of laminates such as delamination of composite are always being neglected.
There are a lot of researches on the fiber reinforced composite related to the
finite element method besides the studies that have mentioned above. All the papers
and reference books mentioned are interrelated to my research, which is the finite
element formulation of a fiber reinforced composite. However, all the studies are not
considering the program development after the formulation stage. So, it is a
challenge to program a finite element model for a composite laminate into any
available software. By referring to previous finite element formulations it is hoped
that a finite element for a composite laminate can be produced for an extensive use in
any commercial FE software.
15
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter explains the flow and the methods that are used in my research.
Beside the general formulae used in deriving the basic composite parameters, the
finite element method will also be applied in my study beginning with the
formulation stage. Figure 3.1 and 3.2 show the flows of the research in brief.
16
Figure 3.1 Definition of the ABD matrix
Matlab
Compute the transformed lamina stiffness matrix.
Compute the ABD matrix.
State number of layers of lamina and its angles.
Laminate
Compute the engineering constants E
1
, E
2
, G
12
and v
12
of fiber reinforced
composite by the Rules of Mixtures and the HalphinTsai Equation.
Compute the lamina stiffness matrix, Q
ij
in local coordination.
Select the engineering constants E
1f,
E
2f,
G
12f
and v
12f
for fiber.
Select the engineering constants E
m,
G
m
and v
m
for typical polymer matrix.
Define the volume fraction
of fiber and polymer.
Lamina
17
Figure 3.2 Finite element formulation steps.
Apply boundary condition.
Solve the equation.
Discretization of the continuum.
FEM
Selection the suitable interpolation
function based on degree of freedom.
Element formulation.
Matlab
Develop element stiffness matrix, K in local coordination.
Assembly the K into global coordination.
Postprocessing
18
3.2 Related equations
The research begins from the determination of the material properties. The
engineering constants E
1
, E
2
, G
12
and v
12
of the composite can be computed through
the Rules of Mixture and the HalphinTsai Equation. First, we have to get the
engineering constants of each component of the composite in order to compute the
engineering constants of the composite lamina. It is assumed that the total of fiber
volume fraction, V
f
and matrix volume fraction, V
m
is equal to 1 since the lamina only
contains two components, carbon fibers and matrix. All the engineering constants
are important for calculating the stiffness matrix of lamina, Q
ij
in the local coordinate.
The equations used in this stage are:
i. V
f
+ V
m
= 1, (3.1)
Where V
f
is the volume fraction of fiber and,
V
m
is the volume fraction of matrix.
ii. Rules of Mixtures
E
1
= E
1f
V
f
+ E
m
V
m
(3.2)
where E
1f
is the Young Modulus of fiber,
E
m
is the Young Modulus of matrix,
V
f
is the fiber volume fraction, and
V
m
is the matrix volume fraction.
19
v
12 =
v
12f
V
f
+ v
m
V
m
(3.3)
where v
12f
is the Poissons ratio of fiber,
v
m
is the Poissons ratio of matrix,
V
f
is the fiber volume fraction, and
V
m
is the matrix volume fraction.
iii. HalphinTsai Equation
( )
f
f m
V
V E
E
q
q
+
=
1
1
2
(3.4)
where, is the curvefitting parameter, and
m f
m f
E E
E E
q
+
=
2
2
(3.4a)
( )
f
f m
V
V G
G
q
q
+
=
1
1
12
(3.5)
where, is the curvefitting parameter, and
m f
m f
G G
G G
q
+
=
12
12
(3.5a)
iv. Lamina stiffness matrix, Q
ij
21 12
1
11
1 v v
E
Q
=
(3.6a)
21 12
2 12
12
1 v v
E v
Q
=
(3.6b)
20
21 12
2
22
1 v v
E
Q
=
(3.6c)
12 66
G Q =
(3.6d)
After that, we need to transform the lamina stiffness matrix into a global form
using the transformed coefficient. In global form, lamina with different angles and
thickness of each layer are computed. Hence, the transformed stiffness matrix, Q
ij
can be calculated. The equations used in this stage are as follow:
( ) u u u u
2 2
66 12
4
22
4
11 11
cos sin 2 2 sin cos Q Q Q Q Q + + + =
(3.7a)
( ) ( ) u u u u
4 4
12
2 2
66 22 11 12
sin cos cos sin 4 + + + = Q Q Q Q Q
(3.7b)
( ) u u u u
2 2
66 12
4
22
4
11 22
cos sin 2 2 cos sin Q Q Q Q Q + + + =
(3.7c)
( ) ( ) u u u u
3
66 12 22
3
66 12 11 16
sin cos 2 sin cos 2 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q =
(3.7d)
( ) ( ) u u u u sin cos 2 sin cos 2
3
66 12 22
3
66 12 11 26
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q =
(3.7e)
( ) ( ) u u u u
4 4
66
2 2
66 12 22 11 66
cos sin cos sin 2 2 + + + = Q Q Q Q Q Q
(3.7f)
The computation of the material properties of laminate with several layers of
lamina and orientations can be done using the theory of lamination plates. Assuming
the individual laminae are perfectly bonded together so as to behave as a unitary,
nonhomogeneous anisotropic plate, interfacial slip is not allowed. The deformation
hypothesis from classical homogeneous plate theory and the laminated force
deformation equation can be used to define the coordinate system in developing the
21
laminated plate analysis. Hence, we can compute the force, N and moment, M per
unit length for the laminate, which can be compute as follows:
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
D D D B B B
D D D B B B
D D D B B B
B B B A A A
B B B A A A
B B B A A A
M
M
M
N
N
N
k
k
k
c
c
0
0
0
66 26 16 66 26 16
26 22 12 26 22 12
16 12 11 16 12 11
66 26 16 66 26 16
26 22 12 26 22 12
16 12 11 16 12 11
(3.8)
where N is the inplane force,
M is the inplane moment,
0
c is the midplane strain,
k is the curvature, and
( ) ( )
=
=
N
k
k k
k
ij ij
z z Q A
1
1
(3.8a)
( ) ( )
=
=
N
k
k k
k
ij ij
z z Q B
1
1
2 2
2
1
(3.8b)
( ) ( )
=
=
N
k
k k
k
ij ij
z z Q D
1
1
3 3
3
1
i, j = 1, 2, or 6 (3.8c)
A
ij
, B
ij
and D
ij
are laminate extensional stiffnesses, laminatecoupling
stiffnesses, and laminatebending stiffnesses respectively. z
k
is the corresponding
distance from middle surface to outer surface of the kth lamina, and z
k1
is the
distance from the middle surface to the inner surface of the kth lamina.
22
Next, we have to do the analysis through the finite element method (FEM)
from the development of a shape function which can represent all the parameter
involved for a single element of the laminate. The FEM starts with the discretization
of the plate into several elements. Using the interpolation function, a general shape
function for an element can be formulated. By considering the engineering behavior
of the laminate, we combine the element strain matrix, [B] with the ABD matrix and
develop into a local stiffness matrix, K which applies for a laminate. The following
steps are similar to the conventional FEM, for example the assembly of the element
stiffness matrix into global stiffness matrix, before an application of the initial
condition and boundary condition for the laminate. It ends by solving the
simultaneous equations. All the formulae related are stated below:
i. Inplane shape function,
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
u N u N u N u N u
i i i i
+ + + =
(3.9)
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
v N v N v N v N v
i i i i
+ + + =
(3.10)
where u is the displacement in x direction and,
v is the displacement in y direction.
and,

.

\


.

\

=
y x
i
L
y
L
x
N 1 1
1
(3.9a)

.

\

=
y x
i
L
y
L
x
N 1
2
(3.9b)

.

\

=
x y
i
L
x
L
y
N 1
3
(3.9c)
y x
i
L L
xy
N =
4
(3.9d)
where N
i1
, N
i2
, N
i3
and N
i4
are the shape function for u and v, and
23
x and y are the variables in the element and,
L
x
and L
y
are the dimension of the element in x and y direction
respectively.
ii. Outofplane shape function,
y o x o o y o x o o
y o x o o y o x o o
N N w N N N w N
N N w N N N w N w
4 12 4 11 4 10 3 9 3 8 3 7
2 6 2 5 2 4 1 3 1 2 1 1
u u u u
u u u u
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + =
(3.11)
where w is the displacement in z direction and,
x
is the rotation in y direction and,
y
is the rotation in x direction.
and,
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
2 2 2 3
3
2
3
3
1
y x y x y y x
y x x y
y x
x
o
L L
xy
L L
y x
L
y
L L
xy
L L
y x
L
x
L
y
L L
xy
L
x
N
+ +
+ + =
(3.11a)
2
3
2
3 2 2
2
2 2
y x y
y x y x
o
L L
xy
L
y
L L
xy
L
y
L
xy
y N + + =
(3.11b)


.

\

+ + =
y x
y x
x
y x
o
L L
y x
L L
y x
L
x
L
xy
L
x
x N
2
3 2
2
3 2
3
2
2
(3.11c)
2
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
3
2 2
3 3
2
x y x y x
y x y x x
y x
o
L
x
L L
xy
L L
y x
L L
xy
L L
y x
L
x
L L
xy
N
+ + +
=
(3.11d)
2
3 2
5
2
y x
y x x
o
L L
xy
L L
xy
L
xy
N + =
(3.11e)


.

\

+ + =
y x
y x
x
x
o
L L
y x
L L
y x
L
x
L
x
N
2
3 2
2
3 2
6
(3.11f)
24
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
7
2 2 2
3 3 3
y x y x y
y x y x y
y x
o
L L
xy
L L
y x
L
y
L L
xy
L L
y x
L
y
L L
xy
N
+ +
+ =
(3.11g)
y
y x y
y x
o
L
y
L L
xy
L
y
L L
xy
N
2
2
3
2
3 2
8
+ =
(3.11h)


.

\

+ =
y x
y x y
o
L L
y x
L L
y x
L
xy
N
2
3 2
9
2
(3.11i)
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
10
2
2 3 3
y x
y x y x y x
y x
o
L L
xy
L L
y x
L L
xy
L L
y x
L L
xy
N
+ + =
(3.11j)
2
3 2
11
y x
y x
o
L L
xy
L L
xy
N + =
(3.11k)
y x
y x
o
L L
y x
L L
y x
N
2
3 2
12
=
(3.11l)
where N
o1
, N
o2
, N
o3
, N
o4
, N
o5
, N
o6
, N
o7
, N
o8
, N
o9
, N
o10
, N
o11
, and N
o12
are the shape function for w,
x
and
y
, and
x and y are the variables in the element and,
L
x
and L
y
is the dimension of the element in x and y direction
respectively.
iii. Element strain matrix, [B]
     N B c =
(3.12)
where   c is the displacement differential operator.
25
iv. Stiffness matrix, [K]
       A B D B K
T
c =
}}
(3.13)
where [B] is the element strain matrix and
[D] is the elasticity matrix.
v. Equilibrium of force displacement equation
{F} = [K]{d} (3.14)
where {F} is the nodal forces and
{d} is the nodal degree of freedom
In the finite element method, force for surface,
{ }   A q N F c  =
}}
(3.14a)
where q is the transverse distributed load
vi. Straindisplacement relationship
{ }  { } u B = c (3.15)
where { } c is the element strain
A Matlab program is written for all stages through a proper Matlab code. By
the end of my study, a user friendly program will be available for the determination
of the nodal degree of freedoms through the FEM. In this program, users do not have
26
to worry too much about the computation of the composite laminate properties. They
just need to include a few basic parameters such as Young Modulus, in plane shear
modulus, Poissons ratio and volume fraction of fiber and matrix respectively, ply
orientation, numbers of layer, thickness of each layer, number of element for a
laminate and its corresponding dimensions.
27
CHAPTER 4
RESULT AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents all the results and analysis following the original
sequences stated in Chapter 3.
The chapter is divided into 3 parts. They are the preprocessing stage, the
analysis stage, and the postprocessing stage and the descriptions of each stage are as
follows. In the preprocessing stage, the methods of the analysis which has been
described briefly in Chapter 3 are elaborated and discussed in detail here. In the
analysis stage, we need to determine our variables used for our analysis in order to
obtain certain results. For the postprocessing stage, we present our results in a better
way using different data processing tools such as the graph plotting, the data
tabulation, etc. All the processes will be discussed in details and under preferable
sequences for the convenience of the readers.
28
4.2 Preprocessing stage
In the preprocessing stage, we will describe the detail of the important data
required for the analysis. It is an important for us to identify our input and output of
analysis before the process take place. Besides, it provides a clear guide for the user
in understanding the stages of the analysis in sequence.
4.2.1 Lamina
As mentioned before, lamina is a layer of composite which contains the fiber
and the polymer in a fiber reinforced composite. Each of this materials, either the
fiber or polymer has different engineering properties such as density, Youngs
modulus, shear modulus, Poissons ratio, tensile strength, compressive strength,
shear strength and so on. In this study, we just consider the Youngs modulus, shear
modulus and Poissons ratio of fiber and polymer since the scope of study is
constrained to the transverse isotopic type which follows the Classical Lamination
Theory. From the properties of E
1f
, E
2f
, G
12f
, v
12f,
E
m
, G
m
and v
m
, we are able to
obtain the engineering properties of lamina through the equations mentioned in
Chapter 3 such as E
1
, E
2
, G
12
and v
12.
The equations used in calculating the E
1
and v
12
are following the rules of mixture while the E
2
and G
12
obtained from the Halphin
Tsai equation have proven to be more accurate.
29
With the predefined engineering properties of lamina, we can calculate the
lamina stiffness matrix, Q
ij
for each layer of lamina in laminate through equation 3.6
before we proceed to the analysis of laminate.
4.2.2 Laminate
In composite materials, all laminae are combined together and the product is a
component called laminate. Unlike lamina, when two or more monolithic materials
combined together, the engineering properties of the new component will changes
due to different materials combination. It exists with a set of new engineering
properties. For laminate, we consider only the global stiffness of the lamina which
differs due to the orientation of each lamina and its thickness. The computation of
the global stiffness of the laminate is performed using the equation 3.7 mentioned in
Chapter 3.
The global stiffness of lamina only represents the stiffness of each lamina in
laminate form. Hence, in order to define the laminate stiffness matrix, we are
required to arrange all the laminae properly and compute it through the Theory of
Laminate Plate. Assuming the individual laminae are perfectly bonded together so as
to behave as a unitary, nonhomogeneous anisotropic plate, interfacial slip is not
allowed. The result will be presented in the ABD matrix.
30
4.2.3 Finite element formulation
There are three basic fundamental considerations in using the FEM as the
method of formulation. They are the equilibrium of forces, the compatibility of
displacement and the law of material behavior. In order to fulfill all the fundamental
requirements, there are two types of deformation considered, the inplane
deformation and outofplane deformation. For inplane deformation, the plate
deforms in xy plane only. Hence, we have two degree of freedoms at each node. The
formulation of inplane shape function only require 1
st
order interpolation function
since the deformation is linear. For outofplane deformation, the laminate deforms
in z direction and rotates in the x and y direction. Hence, each nodal point will have
three outofplane degree of freedoms. To have an nonconforming rectangular
element, the shape function with 12 terms of polynomial derived from the Pascals
triangle that is shown in the Figure 4.1 is necessary (Szilard, Theories and
Applications of Plate Analysis).
1
2
x
3
y
4
x
2
5
xy
6
y
2
7
x
3
8
x
2
y
9
xy
2
10
y
3
11
x
4
12
x
3
y
13
x
2
y
2
14
xy
3
15
y
4
Figure 4.1 Pascal Triangle
31
4.2.4 Stiffness matrix, K for composite
After deriving the shape function, we are required to develop the stiffness
matrix of the laminate through equation,
A DB B K
T
(4.1)
In FE, B is the strain matrix coming from the differentiation of the shape function
corresponding to its deformation whereas D is the element elasticity. In the current
study, the correlation of the ABD matrix obtained from analysis of laminate with the
strain matrix is crucial. The result of the element stiffness matrix is computed as the
equation below:
A B D B B B B B B B B A B K
o ABD
T
o i ABD
T
o o ABD
T
i i ABD
T
i
(4.2)
where B
i
is the inplane element strain matrix and
B
o
is the outofplane element strain matrix.
The K is a 20 by 20 matrix. It is in a local coordination which needs to be rearranged
and assembled into the global stiffness matrix later depending on the numbers of
element. For the current study, the K is integrated symbolically not by numerically
method although the computation based on the latter is much more efficient and
faster.
4.3 Analysis stage
In this stage, we are required to define all the values of the variables in order
to run the program and perform the analysis. As mentioned before, the program used
here is Matlab.
32
Matlab is a fourth generation computer program which is used widely for a
matrix operation. The word Matlab stand for matrix laboratory. The interfaces of
Matlab are shown in Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3. Figure 4.2 shows the Matlabs
command window normally used for presenting the work with the predescribed
coding in the workplace that is shown in Figure 4.3. It is also used to show the
answer or result of the work here. As usual, Matlab contains toolbar with normal
function like file, edit, debug, desktop, window and help.
Even though Matlab is a program designed for the matrix operation, it
provides others functions such as plotting of functions and data, implementation
of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in
other languages including C, C++, and Fortran. Moreover, Matlab is an advanced
computer program of Maple which is also a programming tool used for defining the
mathematics related problems including the matrix.
Nowadays, Matlab is still not a common or famous programming tool for
public use. It is only famous in certain fields such as mathematics, researches,
program development, etc. It is because the Matlab has some limitations and
specifications for general users. However, it is believed that the development of
Matlab will be improved and accepted by public.
33
Figure 4.2 The default Matlab desktop.
Figure 4.3 The Matlab Editor Interface.
34
4.3.1 Fiber and polymer matrix material properties
The first part of the analysis is focuses on a crossply square laminate that is
subjected to a uniformly distributed load. A same problem case has also been studied
by A.H. Sheikh and A. Chakrabakti in paper entitled A new plate bending element
based on higherorder shear deformation theory for the analysis of composite plate.
The information of fiber and polymer matrix is listed below:
E
1
= 174.6 GPa,
E
2
= 7 GPa,
G
12
= 3.5 GPa and
v
12
= 0.25.
4.3.2 Number of layers, thickness and orientations of the laminae in laminate
There are 3 layers of lamina with the orientation [0/90/0] in the current
analysis. The thickness of each lamina is depending on the dimension of the plate
based on the ratio h/a which is set to 0.01 where h is the total thickness of the plate
and a is the width of the plate. In this study, a is set to 2mm, hence the total
thickness of the composite plate is 0.02mm with a lamina thickness of 0.0067mm
each. From the equations 3.7 and 3.8 stated in Chapter 3, we can find the ABD
matrix for this composite plate. The result is shown in Figure 4.4:
35
Figure 4.4 Matlab result for the ABD matrix
The result was verified through an online computational tool provided at
www.efunda.com. It is done by key in the same materials properties. The result
obtained from efunda is shown below:
36
As mentioned in Chapter 1, one of the objectives of this study is to develop a
Matlab program by a proper code enabling user to find the engineering properties of
composite laminate with some simple input command of the chosen composite
materials. The sample code for the ABD matrix is shown in Figure 4.5:
37
Figure 4.5 Matlab code for the ABD matrix.
The analysis of the laminate is followed by the FEA after the determination of
the ABD matrix. Next, we are required to insert a series of information of the
laminate, such as the dimensions of the laminate and the numbers of element. In this
study, a square plate with a size of 2mm by 2mm is considered. The plate is
discretized into 2 by 2 elements, 4 by 4 elements, 8 by 8 elements, 12 by 12 elements
and 32 by 32 elements. As mentioned before, the K for the composite plate is
computed with Matlab by using equation 4.2. Figure 4.6 shows the discretization of
the plate into 2 by 2 elements and the arrangement of every nodal point. In this study,
the nodal points and the elements are arranged from left to right. Numbers in boxes
represent the element number.
ABD matrix
38
Figure 4.6 Node and element number.
The arrangement of the K matrix plays a crucial role in the finite element
method as the definition and the computation of the correct results in the correct
position is important. Normally, the arrangement of the K matrix is depending on the
arrangement of nodal points. By default, since every nodal point contains 5 degree
of freedoms following the sequences of {u, v, w,
x
,
y
}, the size of the K matrix for
each element is thus 20 by 20. Unfortunately, the K matrix we obtained first not
following the correct sequences due to the different shape functions definition for in
plane and outofplane degree of freedoms. As a result, further coding is necessary
for the rearrangement of the K matrix following the correct positions. Figure 4.7
shows the coding for the integration of the K matrix and the matrix rearrangement.
The result obtained from Matlab for K matrix in local is shown in the following.
1 2
3 4
1
2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
x
y
z
39
Figure 4.7 Matlab code for the element stiffness matrix, K.
Element stiffness matrix, K with size 20 x 20
Double
integration of K
by part.
Matrix
Rearrangement
40
After defining the K, we are required to arrange it into a global manner for
each of the elements. Besides, we also need to assemble the entire element stiffness
matrices into one which representing the whole composite plate before we can solve
the degree of freedoms of the composite plate at each nodes and eventually other
engineering behaviors such as stress, strains, reactions, moments, etc. The result
shown below is the global stiffness matrix of the composite plate with 2 by 2
elements. The matrix size is 45 by 45 because it contains 9 nodal points with 5
degree of freedoms at each node.
41
K global with matrix size 45 x 45
42
43
44
4.3.3 Boundary conditions
After defining the K global, we need to define the boundary conditions of the
plate. A uniformly distributed load of 12 N/mm
2
is prescribed on top of the
composite plate in z direction. In the FEM, the loads act only on the nodal points of
the plate. These converted nodal loads can be computed through equation 3.14a in
Chapter 3. The results obtained from equation 3.14a are only for one element.
Hence, we need to assemble them into a global force the way we have done for the
stiffness matrix, K. The results for local forces and global forces are shown as
follows:
45
N means local forces and moments rG means global forces and moments
Notes: for local coordination, the arrangement of forces and moments are in sequence
of f
z
, M
x
, and M
y
, while for global coordination, the forces and moments are arranged
in sequence of f
x
, f
y
, f
z
, M
x
, and M
y
.
Besides the loading, we have another boundary condition which relates to the
type of constrain or support we applied to the composite plate. In the current study,
the plate is rigid (u,v,w,
x
and
y
= 0) at one of the edges of the plate and pinned
(u,w = 0) at the rest of the sides of the plate. Hence, we can eliminate the
corresponding forces, the row and the column of the K matrix which are zeros.
Finally, only 26 unknown deflections and rotations have to be solved and we can
analyze the plate using equation 3.14 in Chapter 3. The solution obtained in the
forms of the deflection, w and rotations,
x
and
y
at certain nodes. The results are
shown as follows:
46
(d means deflections and rotations)
4.4 Postprocessing stage
At this stage, we the results are presented in the simplest way for the clarity
of the readers and the users. There are several methods that can be applied here.
They are chart, graph, table and others. Here, the graph and the table are used as the
means.
Deflection at the central
47
4.4.1 Normalized deflection, w versus numbers of element
Table 4.1 Normalized deflection versus number of element
w
nd
= (wh
3
E
2
/qa
4
)100 (4.3)
Table 4.1 shows the results obtained from the Matlab program. The
deflections shown here are different to that shown previously because the results are
normalized in terms of equation 4.3. The results show that the deflection at the
center of the plate is converging to the published results when the numbers of
element is increased. The difference of the results when compared with the results
obtained from Sheikh and Chakrabaktis study is also decreasing with the increasing
of the numbers of element. In other words, for the analysis of the laminated plate,
when the numbers of element is 64 or more, the results can be considered as
satisfactorily good. The relationship between numbers of element and the deflection
is plotted in Figure 4.8.
Number of
Element
Normalized
deflection,
w
nd
Sheikh &
Chakrabakti
Difference(%)
2 4 0.9588 0.7514 27.60
4 16 0.7306 0.6913 5.68
8 64 0.6827 0.6763 0.95
12 144 0.6741 0.6732 0.13
32 1024 0.6683 0.6708 0.37
48
Figure 4.8 The normalized deflection of plate versus the numbers of element.
Figure 4.8 shows the maximum deflection of the laminated plate versus the
numbers of element for the plate. At the beginning, the deflection is high but it
decreases with the increase of the numbers of element. The graph becomes almost
linear when the numbers of element is more than 100. As we know, finite element
method is a numerical method that uses discretization in dividing the problem
considered into several finite elements. When the problem considered is discretized
into more elements, the difference of the results when compared with the actual
results will eventually be small and approximately zero. In other words, the finite
element method can give a result which is same or almost the same as the actual
result. Here, it has been shown that the numbers of element required to have for
analysis of laminated plate using FEM is 64.
0.6000
0.6500
0.7000
0.7500
0.8000
0.8500
0.9000
0.9500
1.0000
0 250 500 750 1000 1250
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
c
e
n
t
r
a
l
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
,
w
Number of Element
Normalized deflection, wversus numbers of
element
deflection
Sheikh & Chakrabakti
49
4.5 Second analysis
Next, the finite element model will used to assess the performance of
different types of laminated plate. Here, the selected fiber is T300 Carbon while the
polymer matrix material is Epoxy 35016. The mechanical properties of T300
Carbon and Epoxy 35016 are listed below:
E
1f
= 230 GPa,
E
2f
= 15 GPa,
G
12f
= 27 GPa,
12f
= 0.23.
E
m
= 4.30 GPa,
G
m
= 1.60 GPa,
m
= 0.35.
The volume fraction of fiber is assumed as 0.6; hence the volume fraction of polymer
matrix is 0.4.
Here, the considered laminates plate has 10 layers of lamina with a thickness
dimension ratio 0.01. Three types of orientations are considered. They are
symmetric, antisymmetric and balanced. The arrangements of the orientations in
each layer are listed below:
Symmetric: [0/0/45/90/90/90/90/45/0/0]
Antisymmetric: [0/0/45/90/90/0/0/45/90/90]
Balanced: [0/0/45/90/90/90/90/45/0/0]
50
From the Matlab program, the ABD matrix of aforementioned laminate can be
determined. The ABD matrices for these three different orientations are shown as
follow:
Figure 4.9 ABD matrix for symmetric case.
51
Figure 4.10 ABD matrix for antisymmetric case.
Figure 4.11 ABD matrix for balanced case
52
From the observation base on the ABD matrices for those three cases, we can see that
most of the values for A matrix are remain the same. However, D
11
and D
22
of
symmetric and balanced cases are same while antisymmetric and balanced share
same patent of B matrix.
The plate used for the analysis is square with a dimension of 2mm by 2mm.
From previous analysis, it shown that the result by using FEM method can be
considered accurate when the numbers of element is more than 64. Hence, the
laminated plate will be discritized into 12 by 12 elements. In addition, the load
applies to the plate is 12 N/mm
2
. The element stiffness matrix, K for those three
laminates are shown as follow:
53
Element stiffness matrix for symmetric case
54
Element stiffness matrix for antisymmetric case
55
Element stiffness matrix for balanced case
Assembly is the step where we change the local coordination of an element
into global coordination and after that; we assemble the K of each element in a global
coordination into one global K. However, since the size of K(total) in global
coordination is too big (845 by 845), the K(total) is not shown here. In order to
verify the K(total) is assembled correctly or otherwise, we can check by showing the
values of K(3,3), K(8,8), K(13,13) and K(18,18) of the element stiffness matrix, K
and compare them with the value of K at the central or K(423,423) in the global
56
coordination since it is a contribution of adjacent 4 elements. In addition, both of the
values can be checked easily through simple coding in the Matlab as well. The
results obtained from Matlab for those three cases are listed in the table below:
Table 4.2 The K value for local and global coordination.
Case K(3,3) + K(8,8) + K(13,13)
+ K(18,18) in local
K(423,423) in global
Symmetric 3.0254e3 3.0254e3
Antisymmetric 3.0254e3 3.0254e3
Balanced 3.0254e3 3.0254e3
Figure 4.12 Verification of K local and K global
Similar to the previous analysis, the objective of this study is to compute the
maximum deflection of the laminated plate which occurs at the center of the plate.
57
The results obtained from Matlab program for those three cases are listed in the
Table 4.3.
Table 4.3 The relationship between type of orientations, B
11
/B
22
, D
11
/D
22
and
maximum normalized deflection of the laminated plate.
Case B
11
/B
22
D
11
/D
22
Normalized
deflection, w (mm)
Symmetric 0.640 5.138 0.9336
AntiSymmetric 1.000 1.000 1.0182
Balanced  5.138 0.9908
Table 4.3 shows the values of maximum deflection under the same conditions
i.e. the engineering properties of the composite materials, thickness of each layers,
numbers of layer, dimension of the plate, numbers of element and the loading applied.
Note that the plate is orientated into three different cases which had mentioned before.
The results show that the normalized deflection of symmetric laminate plate with the
highest values of B
11
/B
22
and D
11
/D
22
obtains the lowest w while the antisymmetric
laminate plate has lowest values of B
11
/B
22
and D
11
/D
22
obtains the highest w. In
order words, the laminate plate that symmetrically orientated is stiffer than the
laminate plate that antisymmetrically and balanced orientated.
As mentioned before, Matlab is not only used for the matrix operation, but it
is also a powerful tool in presenting the result either in 2 dimensional or 3
dimensional plot, especially in presenting the result graphically. Figures 4.13, 4.14
and 4.15 show the surface plot of the deflections of every nodal point for all three
cases. The deflections are zeros at the edges and become bigger and maximum at the
centre of the plate because of the boundary conditions i.e. forces and support applied
to the plate.
58
Figure 4.13 Surface plot of deflection for symmetric case.
Figure 4.14 Surface plot of deflection for antisymmetric case.
59
Figure 4.15 Surface plot of deflection for balanced case.
60
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion
This study focuses on the formulation of composite laminate by the finite
element method and the programming of the equations needed for the analysis of
composite laminate. The development of the program for composite laminate was
successfully done and it has been shown that this program can be applied to all type
of thin composite laminate plates. As a result, there are few conclusions can be
drawn. They are:
1. By the finite element method, the shape functions for inplane and outof
plane plate deformations were successfully defined. The inplane
deformation contains 2 degree of freedoms while the outofplane
deformation contains 3 degree of freedoms. The formulation of element
stiffness matrix, K was successfully developed for the composite laminate
plates. The general formula is shown as follows:
A B D B B B B B B B B A B K
o ABD
T
o i ABD
T
o o ABD
T
i i ABD
T
i
61
2. The whole process of analysis of composite laminate through finite element
method was successfully programmed in Matlab. The program is user
friendly with enough information for guidance. This program can be used to
define the ABD matrix, the element stiffness matrix and the deformation of
the laminated plate in term of normalized deflection.
3. There are one related research done by A.H. Sheikh and A. Chakrabakti in
paper entitled A new plate bending element based on higherorder shear
deformation theory for the analysis of composite plate in 2001. By
considering the same conditions applied to the laminated plate stated in that
paper, the results obtained can be compared and verified. It shows that the
current model produces a good agreement with an acceptable error when the
laminated plate was discretized into 12 by 12 elements.
4. Performance of symmetric, antisymmetric and balanced FRC are analyzed
and compared. It shown that the laminate plate that symmetrically orientated
is stiffer than the laminate plate that antisymmetrically and balanced
orientated.
Our technologies are getting advanced nowadays. Without doubt, computer
has becomes a significant tool in every field for tasks like storing data, processing
large scaled computation, gaining latest information, changing or sharing ideas, etc.
Apart from this, computer does help us a lot, not only in terms of work, but saving
time and cost as well. In the fields of research, we are required to design and analyze,
most of the time, a complex problem for which this would always consume a lot of
time. In other words, even though we can work without computer, but it does not
worth in term of time.
62
5.2 Recommendations
There are several limitations in this study. Hence, some recommendations are
proposed for future research:
1. This study only considers the linear elastic behavior of the fiber reinforced
composite. For better understanding, nonlinear behavior is required.
2. The laminate is of transverse isotropic type and unidirectionally orientated.
Hence, further research for higher order materials is necessary.
3. The plate is considered thin based on the Classical Lamination Theory. It is
not applicable to thick plate.
4. The finite element method used is quadrilateral with 4 nodes for each element.
The performing of the other elements such as triangular element can also be
considered.
5. The program can only perform the analysis with certain numbers of element
such as 2 by 2, 4 by 4, 8 by 8, 12 by 12, and 32 by 32. The program should
be improved for all numbers of the element.
6. So far, the program can only analyze the joint system as mentioned in
Chapter 4. For other types of joints system, the user needs to predescribe it
and change the code. It is hoped that further research can be done for every
type of joint system.
7. Further coding is necessary for the computation of the stress and strain values
from the analysis.
63
REFERENCES
1. Ronald F.Gibson (2007), Principle of Composite Material Mechanics, 2
nd
Edition, McGrawHill, Inc, U.S.A
2. Robert M.Jones (1975), Mechanics of composite materials, Scripta Book
Company, Washington D.C
3. Rudolph Szilard (2004), Theories and Applications of Plate Analysis, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc
4. S. Tolson and N. Zabaras (1990), Finite Element Analysis of Progressive Failure
In Laminated Composite Plate, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota, U.S.A.
5. J.N.Reddy (1993), An Introduction to Finite Element Method, Second Edition,
McGrawHill, New York
6. M. Zako, Y. Uetsuji and T. Kurashiki (2002), Composites Science and
Technology 63 (2003), 507516, Finite element analysis of damaged woven
fabric composite materials, Japan: Department of Manufacturing Science, Osaka
University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka Institute of
Technology
7. E.E. Theotokoglou and C.D. Vrettos (2005), Composite Strucuture 73 (2006)
370379, A finite element analysis of angleply laminate endnotched flexure
specimens, Greece: Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Mechanics Lab
of Strength Materials, The National Technical University of Athens
64
8. A.H. Sheikh and A. Chakrabakti (2002), Finite Element in Analysis and Design
39 (2003) 883903, A new plate bending element based on higherorder shear
deformation theory for the analysis of composite plates, India: Department of
Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, India Institute of technology;
Department of Civil Engineering, Jalpaiguri Govt., Engineering College.
9. M. Martinez and A. Artemev (2008), Composite Structure 88 (2009) 491496,
Finite element analysis of broken fiber effects on the performance of active fiber
composites, Canada: National Research Council of Canada (NRC), Institute for
Aerospace Research.
10. N. K. Ngo and I. T. Tran (2007), Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, VAST, 29, No.1
4757, Finite element analysis of laminated composite plates using high order
shear deformation theory, Vietnam: Thainguyen University and Hanoi University
of Technology.
11. T. C. Mathew, G. Singh and G. V. Rao (1990), Computer & Structures Vol. 42,
281287, Thermal buckling of crossply composite laminates, India: Department
of Structural Engineering, Annamalai University; Structural Design and Analysis
Division, Structural Engineering Group. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre.
12. K. R. Thangaratnam, Palaninathan and J. Ramachandran (1988), Computer &
Structures Vol. 32, No. 5, 11171124, Thermal buckling of composite laminated
plates, India: Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology;
Fibre Reinforced Plastics Research Centre, India Institute of Technology.
65
APPENDIX A
MATLAB SCRIPT FOR ANALYSIS
ABD Matrix
% Fiber T300 Caron and Matrix Epoxy 35016
Em = 4.3;
Gm = 1.6;
vm = 0.35;
E1f = 230;
E2f = 15;
G12f = 27;
v12f = 0.2;
% Input for value of volume proportion
Vm = 0.4;
Vf = 1Vm;
% input for value of orientation
if orientation == S
Angle = [0 0 45 90 90 90 90 45 0 0];
elseif orientation == A
Angle = [0 0 45 90 90 0 0 45 90 90];
elseif orientation == B
Angle = [0 0 45 90 90 90 90 45 0 0];
end
% Input for thickness and layer of lamina
layer = length(Angle);
%disp ('Please key in the thickness of lamina')
t = 0.1;
T(1,layer) = t;
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% Calculation of E1, E2, v12, v21 and G12
etaE = (E2fEm)/(E2f + 2*Em);
etaG = (G12f  Gm)/(G12f + Gm);
E1 = E1f*Vf + Em*Vm;
E2 = (Em*(1 + 2*etaE*Vf))/(1etaE*Vf);
v12 = Vm*vm + Vf*v12f;
G12 = (Gm*(1 + etaG*Vf))/(1etaG*Vf);
v21 = E2*v12/E1 ;
% Calculation of Q
Q11 = E1/(1v12*v21);
Q12 = v21*Q11;
Q22 = E2/(1v12*v21);
Q66 = G12;
% Calculation for Qbar values
for k = 1:layer
ang = (Angle(1,k))*pi/180;
Qb11 = Q11*cos(ang)^4 + 2*(Q12 + 2*Q66)*sin(ang)^2*cos(ang)^2 +
Q22*sin(ang)^4;
Qb12 = (Q11 + Q22  4*Q66)*sin(ang)^2*cos(ang)^2 +
Q12*(sin(ang)^4 + cos(ang)^4);
Qb22 = Q11*sin(ang)^4 + 2*(Q12 + 2*Q66)*sin(ang)^2*cos(ang)^2 +
Q22*cos(ang)^4;
Qb16 =(Q11  Q12  2*Q66)*sin(ang)*cos(ang)^3 + (Q12  Q22 +
2*Q66)*sin(ang)^3.*cos(ang);
Qb26 = (Q11  Q12  2*Q66)*sin(ang)^3.*cos(ang) + (Q12  Q22 +
2*Q66)*sin(ang)*cos(ang)^3;
Qb66 = (Q11 + Q22  2*Q12  2*Q66)*sin(ang)^2.*cos(ang)^2 +
Q66*(sin(ang)^4 + cos(ang)^4);
Qb(:,:,k) = [Qb11 Qb12 Qb16;Qb12 Qb22 Qb26;Qb16 Qb26 Qb66] ;
% Calculation for ABD
end
A = [a11 a12 a16; a12 a22 a26; a16 a26 a66];
B = (1/2)*[ b11 b12 b16; b12 b22 b26; b16 b26 b66];
D = (1/3)*[ d11 d12 d16; d12 d22 d26; d16 d26 d66];
Shape Function
LA = 100; %Length of laminate
LB = 100; %width of laminate
ElementX = 12; % for 2,4,8,12,16 and 32 only
ElementY = 12; % for 2,4,8,12,16 and 32 only
Lx = LA/ElementX;
Ly = LB/ElementY;
Load = 12; %N/mm2
%Inplane shape function
Ni1 = (1x/Lx)*(1y/Ly);
Ni2 = (x/Lx)*(1y/Ly);
Ni3 = (x*y)/(Lx*Ly);
Ni4 = y*(1x/Lx)/Ly;
%Outplane shape function
No1 = 13*x^2/(Lx^2)x*y/(Lx*Ly)
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3*y^2/(Ly^2)+2*x^3/(Lx^3)+3*x^2*y/(Lx^2*Ly)+3*x*y^2/(Lx*Ly^2)+2*y^3/
(Ly^3)2*x^3*y/(Lx^3*Ly)2*x*y^3/(Lx*Ly^3);
No2 = yx*y/Lx2*y^2/Ly+2*x*y^2/(Lx*Ly)+y^3/(Ly^2)x*y^3/(Lx*Ly^2);
No3 = x2*x^2/Lxx*y/Ly+x^3/(Lx^2)+2*x^2*y/(Lx*Ly)x^3*y/(Lx^2*Ly);
No4 = x*y/(Lx*Ly)2*x^3/(Lx^3)3*x^2*y/(Lx^2*Ly)
3*x*y^2/(Lx*Ly^2)+2*x^3*y/(Lx^3*Ly)+2*x*y^3/(Lx*Ly^3)+3*x^2/(Lx^2);
No5 = x*y/(Lx)2*x*y^2/(Lx*Ly)+x*y^3/(Lx*Ly^2);
No6 = x^2/Lx+x^3/(Lx^2)+x^2*y/(Lx*Ly)x^3*y/(Lx^2*Ly);
No7 = x*y/(Lx*Ly)+3*y^2/(Ly^2)3*x^2*y/(Lx^2*Ly)3*x*y^2/(Lx*Ly^2)
2*y^3/(Ly^3)+2*x^3*y/(Lx^3*Ly)+2*x*y^3/(Lx*Ly^3);
No8 = x*y^2/(Lx*Ly)+y^3/(Ly^2)x*y^3/(Lx*Ly^2)y^2/Ly;
No9 = x*y/Ly2*x^2*y/(Lx*Ly)+x^3*y/(Lx^2*Ly);
No10 = x*y/(Lx*Ly)+3*x^2*y/(Lx^2*Ly)+3*x*y^2/(Lx*Ly^2)
2*x^3*y/(Lx^3*Ly)2*x*y^3/(Lx*Ly^3);
No11 = (x*y^2)/(Lx*Ly)+(x*y^3)/(Lx*Ly^2);
No12 = x^2*y/(Lx*Ly)+x^3*y/(Lx^2*Ly);
No = [No1;No2;No3;No4;No5;No6;No7;No8;No9;No10;No11;No12];
Ka = BI*A*Bi;
Kb1 = BI*B*Bo;
Kb2 = BO*B*Bi;
Kd = BO*D*Bo;
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APPENDIX B
RELATED DATA
69