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Purification catalysts and absorbents

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Page Introduction Case studies KATALCOJM PERFORMANCE adds value to your plant Advantages of choosing Johnson Matthey purification catalysts and absorbents Additional capability with KATALCOJM PERFORMANCE Catalyst selector Catalyst characteristics 2 3 5 6 9 12 13

Feedstock purification is a key unit operation in any synthesis gas plant which employs steam reforming technology. Its importance is often overlooked, however, and the consequences of not installing the correct catalysts and absorbents, or of not monitoring performance appropriately, can have dramatic and costly consequences for downstream catalysts. The key catalysts in synthesis gas plants that may be poisoned by trace components in the feed gas are pre-reforming, steam reforming, low temperature shift and methanol synthesis. The most common catalyst poisons experienced are sulphur compounds present as hydrogen sulphide, COS, mercaptans, organic sulphides and disulphides, and thiophenes. Occasionally halogen compounds are present, usually as hydrogen chloride, but sometimes as organic chlorides. Some plants also experience feedstocks with more unusual poisons such as mercury, arsenic and other metallic species. Very severe poisoning will lead to significant costs. For example, with severe sulphur poisoning incidents the affected steam reforming catalyst may need to be replaced. In addition to downtime, possibly measured in weeks, the catalyst cost must be added. The financial cost of such incidents varies depending on the size and type of the plant, however, for large scale plants (e.g. 100 MMSCFD hydrogen; 2,000 mtpd ammonia; 2,500 mtpd methanol) each day of lost production costs in the order of US$ 350,000 and typical catalyst replacement cost is in the order of US$ 750,000. In comparison, the catalyst and absorbent cost in a typical purification system for plants of a similar scale is around US$ 240,000. Thus, the provision and timely replacement of these materials is a comparatively small investment compared to the potential costs of poisoning the downstream catalysts. In plants with a pre-reformer, sulphur removal is critical to successful operation of the catalyst. A serious sulphur incident usually means immediate catalyst replacement is required. In addition to downtime, the replacement catalyst cost will be significant, approaching that for a steam reformer charge depending on the pre-reformer bed volume. Both sulphur and chlorides severely affect both low temperature shift (LTS) and methanol synthesis catalysts. These copper-based catalysts scavenge both sulphur and chlorides very effectively and are poisoned as a result. For a 2,000 mtpd ammonia plant, the cost in terms of lost LTS life can be of the order of US$ 500,000 per year plus the incremental production loss as water gas shift efficiency decreases. The effect on methanol synthesis catalysts have similar financial consequences. In comparison, the total cost of the catalysts and absorbents in the purification system is significantly less than the cost of the problems that can occur if the purification catalysts are not well maintained.

Case study PURASPECJM ultrapurification improves reformer catalyst life

A Western European HyCO plant has operated for a number of years with a two year turn-around cycle. Historically at each turn-around, the operator replaced the steam reforming catalyst in order to have confidence that the plant would operate reliably and efficiently enough in the next two year cycle. The steam reformer feedstock is a methane rich natural gas and the steam reforming conditions are relatively severe since this is a HyCO plant. PURASPECJM 2084 was installed in the purification section to reduce the level of trace sulphur slipping to the steam reformer. Over the two year cycle following the installation of the PURASPECJM 2084, the operator observed a much slower rate of activity decline in the steam reforming catalyst. The plant operating conditions for this cycle were the same as for previous cycles, and it was concluded that the improved performance was a result of the use of the ultra-purification absorbent. The operator therefore had the confidence that the installed steam reformer catalyst would last for a second two year operating cycle. The benefit to the operator was the saving in terms of steam reformer catalyst purchase and replacement costs and an improved efficiency of operation during the initial two year operating cycle. This saved the plant US$ 400,000 in catalyst replacement costs.

Case study Correct sampling for poisons eliminates plant operating problems
Sampling and testing for sulphur is not a simple task and there are many issues that have to be addressed. One plant suffered severe hot banding leading to regular steam outs and a loss of tube life. Sampling of the feedstock at the exit of the desulphurization system detected no sulphur and this was therefore ruled out as the cause of the problem. A lengthy investigation was conducted to identify the root cause of the problem but no other potential causes of the hot banding were found. The desulphurization system was then re-investigated. The first issue highlighted was that the sample lines were relatively long and the metal utilized for the sample lines would absorb sulphur. The sample lines were therefore redesigned, reducing the length significantly and using a metallurgy that would not absorb sulphur. The sample bombs were also replaced with a superior metallurgy. Subsequent analysis of the feed gas established that significant levels of sulphur were passing through the desulphurization system to the steam reformer. The installed catalysts and absorbents were then replaced with KATALCOJM products and the steam reformer was steamed a final time to remove the sulphur from the catalyst. As a result of this the tube appearance has now improved and the tube wall temperatures have returned to the normal value.

Case study KATALCOJM PERFORMANCE verifies plant modifications to deliver performance

Through KATALCOJM PERFORMANCE Johnson Matthey Catalysts delivers a range of services that ensures improved performance of your plant. An example of how this has benefited one of our customers is outlined below. As part of a project to eliminate an operational problem, the plant were proposing to change the outlet temperature from the feed pre-heat coil upstream of the hydrodesulphurization bed. The plant operator was concerned that such a change could lead to operating problems within the coil and potentially lead to hydrocarbon cracking. Johnson Matthey was requested to review the proposed modification in order to determine if there would be any problems. Our process engineers used Aspen Technologys FIHR simulation package to model the performance of the existing coil. The initial FIHR model used rationalised plant data in order to calibrate the model and ensure that it was accurate. The FIHR model was then used to predict the performance of the coil with the modifications included. The predicted internal metal skin temperatures were used in Johnson Mattheys in-house programs to determine if hydrocarbon cracking would occur. This showed that performance of the coil would be acceptable and that hydrocarbon cracking would not be an issue. The plant has now been modified and, after a significant period of operation, has not seen any pressure drop increase over the hydrodesulphurization bed, confirming that the model prediction of no carbon formation was correct.

Case study TRACERCO ZnO scan reduces turnaround costs

A Western European ammonia producer intended to replace its zinc oxide bed during a planned shut down as it had been installed for some time. The operator however had no idea how much of the absorbent had been used. Prior to the shut down, a TRACERCO MAXIMIZER scan was performed on the zinc oxide vessel. The scan determined that the boundary between reacted and unreacted zinc oxide appeared to be approximately 40% down the bed, indicating that at least 50% of the bed was unreacted ZnO.

Sulphur absorbent profile results of scanning zinc oxide vessel

Following the scan the vessel was discharged with samples of the absorbent taken at intervals down the bed depth. The samples were analysed in the bed and confirmed that from 50% onwards, the bed was unreacted ZnO. The operator only changed out 50% of the absorbent, which saved them US$ 190,000 in turn-around costs.

KATALCOJM PERFORMANCE adds value to your plant

One plant suffered from a poorly operating purification system that slipped sulphur to the primary reformer. In order to continue operating the plant shut down regularly to steam the primary reformer and remove the sulphur. Replacing the purification system with KATALCOJM purification products eradicated the problem saving the plant operator an estimated US$ 2, 00,000 each year. 1 PURASPECJM ultra-purification absorbent was installed on a plant and resulted in doubled the life of the steam reforming catalyst. This saved the customer over US$ 400,000 in replacement catalyst costs. Following a TRACERCO MAXIMIZER scan of a zinc oxide vessel, the plant operators determined that it was only necessary to change 50% of the bed. This gave a saving of US$ 190,000 in replacement zinc oxide costs. A number of plants have removed their hydrodesulphurization catalysts for a variety of reasons. Of these, one plant found that the steam reformer catalyst soon became poisoned and the plant was forced to conduct regular steam outs whilst they investigated the root cause of the problem. By the time it was found that the feed to the plant contained significant levels of organic sulphur, the plant had conducted three steam outs costing US$ 450,000 in lost production. During the same period, the reformer tubes were run at higher than normal temperatures and this reduced the tube life which increased the tube replacement costs by US$ 300,000. The additional sulphur absorption capacity of KATALCOJM 32-5 over competitive materials allows for increased run lengths and therefore a reduction in absorbent costs. This is worth US$ 50,000 per charge of zinc oxide plus the cost of having to conduct the absorbent change out. The cost of poisoning a steam reforming catalyst charge is significantly greater than the cost to install, monitor and operate a good purification system. Operating a plant with a poisoned steam reforming catalyst leads to hot bands which in turn increase the tube wall temperature. This increased temperature reduces the life of the steam reformer tubes, increasing the tube replacement costs by US$ 250,000. In such circumstances, if regular steam outs are not conducted and the poisoning problem cannot be resolved, and plant rate has to be reduced, there will be a loss of production, which has been proven to cost the plant operator US$ 6.3 million per year. By installing ultra-purification upstream of a pre-reformer, the pre-reformer life can be extended greatly and this can be worth US$ 250,000 in reduced pre-reformer catalyst replacement costs. Impact of Ultrapurification Reformer Activity

Chlorides are very difficult to remove from a steam reformer during a steam out and in many cases the primary reformer catalyst will have to be changed out. The total cost for a two week shut-down to replace the catalyst is estimated to be US$ 2.6 million per week, including shut-down, catalyst and lost production costs.

Advantages of choosing Johnson Matthey purification catalysts and absorbents

The purification section in a syngas plant is usually designed in two to four stages depending on the plant design requirements. In the hydrodesulphurization (HDS) stage, the organic sulphur compounds are catalytically converted to liberate sulphur as hydrogen sulphide with analogous reaction of any organo-chlorine compounds. The HDS catalyst also acts as a trapping agent for many of the less usual poisons if these are present. Where necessary, an absorbent is next installed to remove hydrogen chloride by chemical reaction. The third stage is removal of hydrogen sulphide using absorbents based on zinc oxide, which reacts to form zinc sulphide. In certain plants, a fourth ultrapurification stage is used to reduce the sulphur content of the feed to extremely low levels. Reliable operation Dependable delivery of purified feed gas into the downstream process, even during upset conditions, ensures that the downstream catalysts are able to deliver high conversion and maintain long operating lives. Stable pressure drop High strength of catalysts ensures that even if pressure drop starts to build up due to deposition of foulants on top of the bed, catalysts are strong enough to withstand the hydraulic forces applied.

Organic sulphur removal - HDS

Effective breakdown of organic sulphur compounds in the feedstock is essential so that the H2S produced can be removed downstream. In addition, the catalyst must break down any organo-chlorine compounds and hydrogenate olefins to a level acceptable for the steam reformer. The KATALCOJM HDS catalysts are available in both cobalt molybdenum (CoMo), KATALCOJM 41-6T, and nickel molybdenum (NiMo), KATALCOJM 61-1T, formulations to suit the combination of reactions for particular plant situations. KATALCOJM 41-6T and KATALCOJM 61-1T are manufactured with an optimized loading of active components to give high volumetric activity and ensure high selectivity for hydrogenation. The high activity allows the catalyst to cope with increased feed rates, upsets and impurities which would otherwise lead to slippage of un-reacted organic sulphur compounds. The products also remove trace levels of arsenic compounds and, in the case of certain heavy naphtha feeds, traces of most metallic species. The trilobe shape offers a lower pressure drop than standard extrudates. In addition, the strength and attrition resistance are improved to minimize breakage during loading and operation, so that a low pressure drop can be maintained throughout the catalyst life.

Operational benefits
All Johnson Matthey purification catalysts offer a number of operational benefits: Flexible operating conditions KATALCOJM and PURASPECJM catalysts and absorbents can be operated over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and feedstocks. For example, HDS catalysts and zinc oxide absorbents have operated continuously in systems designed to run at temperatures as low as 250C (482F) and pressure as high as 50 bar (725 psi). Our purification catalysts are proven to be effective on a wide range of feedstocks, from light natural gases, through LPGs, light naphthas to heavy naphthas containing 20% aromatics. Long lives High activity and excellent absorption capacity mean that, with appropriate product selection, the purification catalysts lives will be maximized while extending the life of the downstream catalysts.

Chloride removal
Where chloride species are present in hydrocarbon feeds, the level is usually low. After these species are converted to hydrogen chloride over the HDS catalyst, they are present as hydrogen chloride and must be removed upstream of the zinc oxide absorbent. Zinc oxide reacts with chlorides to form zinc chloride and this adversely affects the porosity of the zinc oxide bed. This in turn impairs its sulphur absorption capacity and reduces the absorbent life. In addition, at normal operating temperatures, zinc chloride may migrate causing potential poisoning, corrosion and metallurgy issues downstream. The low chloride level means that the volume of absorbent required is usually small as long as it has a good chloride capacity. Consequently, it is usually included in the same reactor(s) as the zinc oxide as a thin top layer. The low contact time necessitates a fast efficient reaction between the HCl and its absorbent to effectively remove chloride to extremely low levels needed for protection of downstream catalysts. KATALCOJM 59-3 is formulated to provide fast reaction times and to have a high capacity for chloride removal. It contains a highly reactive alkali phase, sodium aluminate, dispersed on an alumina substrate. The gas phase reaction between HCl and sodium aluminate locks up the chloride as sodium chloride. Where higher chloride levels are encountered, the high reactivity of KATALCOJM 59-3 allows spikes of HCl to be removed effectively without compromising plant operation.

Desulphurization zinc oxide

The performance of zinc oxide based H2S removal absorbents is strongly influenced by the formulation of the product. Usage of a very high purity zinc oxide (say 99+ wt%) of the highest possible density would place the most theoretical sulphur capacity in a reactor but would not provide the best performance in practice. This is due to the very low porosity and huge mass transfer zone of such a product, resulting in premature breakthrough of sulphur to downstream catalyst. Products must be formulated with the highest possible porosity to facilitate the reaction between the H2S and zinc oxide to maximize the rate and extent of sulphur absorption. In turn, this leads to a tight mass transfer zone and maximizes sulphur absorption capacity and therefore the absorbent life for a given installed volume. KATALCOJM 32-series absorbents combine specific zinc oxide phases with a binder using granulation technology to produce spheres with the required combination of properties to provide excellent sulphur absorption capacity in the differing designs for zinc oxide beds. KATALCOJM 32-4 is a higher porosity material which has a particularly sharp sulphur profile. This ensures that conversion of the zinc oxide in the bed, and therefore sulphur pick up, is maximized before sulphur breakthrough occurs. KATALCOJM 32-4 is the product of choice for plants which are designed with a single sulphur removal bed. KATALCOJM 32-5 is a higher density material and provides maximum saturation pick-up. This makes it ideal material for two bed series lead/lag system designs. The lag bed provides protection of the downstream process while the sulphur level exiting the lead bed is allowed to increase before replacement of the spent bed is required. This allows the higher saturation capacity of the KATALCOJM 32-5 to be fully utilized.

Ultra-purification or sulphur polishing absorbents are appropriate in some specific plant circumstances where the downstream catalysts are more susceptible to poisoning even by low sulphur levels. Analysis indicates that the total sulphur level exiting the zinc oxide absorbent is typically a few tens of ppb comprising of H2S, COS and traces of organo-sulphur species. The precise levels and mix vary as a function of the feedstock composition, operating conditions and effectiveness of the purification products installed. This low level of sulphur may still have a negative impact, for example, if the plant has a pre-reformer or a highly stressed top fired reformer since these are both particularly sensitive to sulphur poisoning. Thus, to maximize the life of these absorbents, Johnson Matthey Catalysts recommends the use of an ultra-purification catalyst, PURASPECJM 2084, as a final stage in the purification system. This reacts with and removes most of the trace sulphur compounds typically to levels below 10 ppbv.

PURASPECJM for unusual purification requirements

In addition to our standard products, Johnson Matthey Catalysts offer a number of PURASPECJM catalysts and absorbents for difficult or unusual purification duties. Arsenic as arsine or organo-arsine can be found occasionally in natural gas and LPG cuts. Although the HDS catalyst will remove these, the arsenic compounds act as a poison. An alternative approach is to treat the hydrocarbon upstream using a dedicated arsenic guard bed. For gas phase, we recommend PURASPECJM 1 152 whereas, for liquid phase LPG, it is PURASPECJM 5152. Mercury and organo-mercury compounds are being reported more frequently in various hydrocarbon sources in part due to improved analytical methods and in part due to increased processing of mercury containing sources. Mercury has been found in the ammonia synthesis section of certain plants implying that it passes through the entire flowsheet. Thus, if mercury is identified in the feed, upstream treatment should be considered. For gas phase, we recommend PURASPECJM 1 156 whereas, for liquid phase naphtha, it is PURASPECJM 6156. These products are able to remove mercury to below ppb levels. For various reasons, in certain flowsheets it is necessary to run the purification section cooler than usual. In these cases, special HDS catalyst and zinc oxide absorbents are preferred which are optimized for the lower temperature. Where the HDS reactor must operate at an inlet temperature below 300C (572F), KATALCOJM 61-2T is the preferred product. This has a higher active metal level to initiate the reaction at a. cooler temperature. For H2S removal below 250C (482F), PURASPECJM 2020 is preferred to KATALCOJM 32-series.

Additional capability with KATALCOJM PERFORMANCE

Monitoring consumption of ZnO
Proper monitoring to ensure optimum utilization of a zinc oxide charge is a challenging task. One method of calculating zinc oxide usage is to measure inlet and exit sulphur levels together with gas flow rate to calculate the amount of sulphur removed. This value can be compared to the expected sulphur capacity of the bed to estimate the proportion of the zinc oxide consumed and also to predict the remaining life for the bed. In plants with frequent on line low level sulphur analysis combined with flow monitoring, this calculation may be reasonably accurate. Many plants, however, rely on analysis of gas samples taken from the process at intervals, sometimes with several days between samples. This procedure reduces the calculation accuracy and increases the risk of sulphur breakthrough. Sampling of inlet gas sulphur content at intervals may not identify variation and spikes in the sulphur content of the feed. For example, natural gas may become sour as the wells approach exhaustion. Alternatively, natural gas may be taken from a number of fields with variation in sulphur content and mixed in varying proportions. In such cases, samples analysed at intervals are unlikely to detect variation accurately. Thus, the calculation of the inlet sulphur will be inaccurate. Sampling of exit gas sulphur content is essential to determine that the downstream catalysts are protected. If sampling at intervals, however, it is possible that the critical point when breakthrough occurs may be missed. Also, exit gas sampling provides no direct information on the extent to which the zinc oxide bed has been consumed or of impending sulphur breakthrough. Only a small proportion of plants have gas sample points down the bed and even then the gas sample may not be representative if the sample point is damaged or blocked. This measurement uses a radioactive neutron source and a neutron detector to measure neutron back-scattering and to detect density differentials in the material inside the vessel. As zinc sulphide is more dense than zinc oxide, there is greater neutron absorption through zinc sulphide than zinc oxide. This difference is measured and therefore accurately determines the position of the interface. This service is available through the Johnson Matthey TRACERCO business. Since both of these methods have drawbacks, Johnson Matthey recommends supplementing sample analysis with the TRACERCO MAXIMIZER zinc oxide bed scanning technique. This is a proven, highly effective method for determining zinc oxide usage and prediction of remnant bed life. It uses an external scanning device and so there is no need for a plant shut down. Results are available almost instantly.

Trouble-shooting sulphur analysis

It is often helpful to determine the type of poisons present in a feedstock to assist in designing the optimum purification system. Johnson Matthey Catalysts can offer users of its products a detailed sulphur analysis services through our state of the art equipment for the characterisation of sulphur compounds. The equipment utilizes a chromatograph with a chemiluminescence detector that allows for measurement and speciation of sulphur containing compounds at levels of between 10 and 20 ppbv. In comparison, the sulphur slip from zinc oxide is typically 50 ppbv and from ultra-purification is 10 ppbv.

Sulphur sampling system design

Sulphur sampling and testing is a highly complex area. Johnson Matthey Catalysts has a detailed knowledge of the process and mechanical design of the sampling system and also an extensive understanding of the analysis methodologies. Using this, Johnson Matthey Catalysts can review sampling and testing systems to identify improvement opportunities. This will ensure that any sulphur that does slip from the desulphurization will be detected before the impact on the downstream equipment and catalysts is significant.

Catalyst probe
The TRACERCO catalyst probe allows insertion of a sample of catalyst into a process stream. By selecting an appropriate absorbent/catalyst it is possible to check for the presence of poisons within a stream and thereby determine the root cause of downstream problems. Intermittent slugs of poisons can be identified using the sample probe whereas such random levels of poisons will be almost impossible to identify with spot sampling of the process stream, but yet can cause severe plant problems.


This figure illustrates typical locations for installation of the catalyst probe. A probe installed upstream of the purification system will pick up and allow identification of the poisons in the feed gas. A probe installed downstream of the purification system will allow pick up and identification of any poisons that have slipped through the purification system.

Carbon prediction in feed pre-heat coil

One problem that some operators have faced in the past has been a gradual build up in the pressure drop across the hydrodesulphurization bed which is greater than expected. On inspection of the inlet distributor and catalyst bed, significant amounts of carbon has been found to be have been deposited. The root cause of this is that although the bulk gas temperature leaving the feed pre-heat coils is not high enough to cause hydrocarbon cracking, the internal metal skin temperature of the coil can be much hotter than this. In some cases, this temperature is sufficiently high that hydrocarbons, particularly longer chained species, will crack and the carbon is deposited on the catalyst bed. Johnson Matthey Catalysts can provide detailed modelling of the feed pre-heat coil to determine whether this will be an issue or not. Using the HYSYS flowsheet package available from our partner, Aspen Technology, a model can be constructed that defines the heat and mass balances around the pre-heat coil. From this heat and mass balance, a more detailed model of the coil itself is produced using Aspen Technologys FIHR program. This allows for determination of the internal skin temperature of the coil. Using Johnson Mattheys in-house carbon cracking models, it is possible to determine the cracking temperature of the feed and therefore whether there is a potential problem in the feed pre-heat coil. Such modelling is useful in troubleshooting pressure drop problems over a hydrodesulphurization vessel and also in determining whether changes in operating conditions will change the temperature regime such that hydrocarbon cracking will be an issue.

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Catalyst selector
KATALCOJM and PURASPECJM purification catalysts are suitable for the full range of feeds to synthesis gas plants, whether an off gas, a natural gas, LPG or naphtha. Typical recommendations for our standard purification products are given below, however, Johnson Matthey Catalysts will provide specific recommendations to suit particular plant conditions depending on the feedstock composition, poisons present and vessel configuration. Johnson Matthey Catalysts are experts in difficult and unusual purification requirements and for these applications offer the PURASPECJM product range for a wide range of trace impurity removal. These include HDS catalyst and ZnO absorbents for low temperature applications, as well as products to remove the less usual poisons such as mercury and arsenic compounds. Pre-sulphided HDS catalysts may be recommended in the following circumstances: very high sulphur feeds high olefin feeds high carbon oxide feeds very low sulphur feeds very high hydrogen feeds fully active immediately fully active immediately avoid methanation avoid possible over reduction avoid possible over reduction

Pre-sulphiding can be achieved in situ by injection of a sulphiding agent with hydrogen at defined conditions. Alternatively, Johnson Matthey Catalysts can deliver the catalyst in the pre-sulphided form. PURASPECJM products may be recommended for removal of the less usual poisons. The most frequently offered products are summarised. Operating situation mercury arsenic low temperature HDS low temperature ZnO PURASPECJM product recommendation 156/ PURASPECJM 1 PURASPECJM 6156 152/ PURASPECJM 1 PURASPECJM 5152 KATALCOJM 61-2T PURASPECJM 2020

Feedstock impurity/ operating situation organic sulphur olefins saturation high COx content halide removal low sulphur content (single bed) moderate sulphur content (single bed) high sulphur content (lead lag beds) downstream pre-reformer long reformer catalyst cycle times

KATALCOJM product recommendation 41-6T 61-1T 61-1T 59-3 32-4 32-5 & 32-4 32-5 PURASPECJM 2084 PURASPECJM 2084


Catalyst characteristics

KATALCOJM 41-6T KATALCOJM 61-1T KATALCOJM 59-3 KATALCOJM 32-4 KATALCOJM 32-5 cobalt oxide/molybdenum oxide/alumina nickel oxide/molybdenum oxide/alumina sodium aluminate/alumina zinc oxide zinc oxide

PURASPECJM 2084 copper/zinc oxide/alumina

Physical properties (typical)

Catalyst Form Diameter (mm) KATALCOJM 41-6T KATALCOJM 61-1T trilobe extrusions 2.5 trilobe extrusions 2.5 KATALCOJM 59-3 2.0-4.75 KATALCOJM 32-4 2.8-4.75 KATALCOJM 32-5 2.8-4.75 PURASPECJM 2084 2.5-4.75

spherical granules spherical granules spherical granules spherical granules

Typical loaded density (kg/m3) (lb/ft )


590 37

560 35

860 54

1 140 71

1350 84

870 54


For further information on Johnson Matthey Catalysts, contact your local sales office or visit our website at www.jmcatalysts.com KATALCO, PURASPEC, STREAMLINE and TRACERCO are trademarks of the Johnson Matthey group of companies. PO Box 1 Belasis Avenue Billingham Cleveland TS23 1LB UK Tel +44 (0)1642 553601 Fax +44 (0)1642 522542 Oakbrook Terrace Two Transam Plaza Drive Chicago Illinois 60181 USA Tel +1 630 268 6300 Fax +1 630 268 9797


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