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Question 1-7 Complete the form below, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer

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INSURANCE
Department: Motor Insurance Client details: Name: Elisabeth 1 .................... Date of birth: 8.10.1975 Address: 2 .................... (street) Callington (town) Policy number: 3 .................... Accident details: Date: 4 .................... Time: Approx. 5 .................... Supporting evidence: 6 .................... Medical problems (if any): 7 .................... injuries

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Question 8-10 Label the diagram/plan below. Write the correct letter, A±G, next to questions 8±10.

8 traffic lights .................... 9 petrol station ....................

. where you found them. Question 18-20 Complete the summary below......... . 11....... ..... as well as in the UK........... using NO MORE THAN ONE WORD in each space.. 17.... opened by woodmice ......... and 20 ...... opened by voles ......... 12..... You are most likely to have seen a dormouse in a ...... .......... opened by dormice ..................... In the UK........ .......10 blue van .......... Question 21-26 Which company website has the following features? ......... If you find nuts opened by dormice 18 .... Question 11-14 Complete the sentences below.... Question 15-17 Label the identification sheet below...... Write the correct letter A±E next to questions 5±8.. Put them into some kind of 19 .. 13............... 16...... Dormice are about as heavy as two ... them (name and address)............. using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer................. Dormouse numbers have fallen ... and next to .... Post them to Action for Wildlife... 15... 14........ ......... dormice probably live in hedges and woods...

................ ... B ease of use... .. 21 bicycle catalogue 22 price list 23 bicycle accessories 24 company history 25 online ordering 26 moving graphics ........ A.... 28 On the subject of timing......... C target customers............ 27 According to the tutor..... the basic criterion for evaluating the websites should relate to A appearance......... B...... ...... or C.. Question 27-30 Choose the correct letter.... the tutor says ...... or C next to questions 21±26... A.........A Hills Cycles website B Wheels Unlimited website C both websites Write the correct letter............... B... ..... ....

C the students can extend the presentation if necessary. . 30 The tutor advises Sarah and Jack not to A talk too much. B the students¶ presentation will be too long.A the students¶ plan is appropriate. 29 Sarah and Jack will share the work by A speaking in short turns. B doing half the presentation each. C managing different aspects.

............................................. 34 Which sense do elephants probably use to communicate over long distances? a) .............................. 36 What did the elephants in the experiment rush to find? a) ............. 35 What did American scientists do with a recording of elephant calls? a) .................................................... and write the letters A±H next to questions 38±40.................................................................................................................................... 32 What are elephant family groups known as? a) ........................ which feature of behaviour did they notice? a) ............................................................................................................. Question 38-40 What does the lecturer say about each type of elephant call? Choose your answers from the box...................B show complicated lists................................................................................. 37 What were scientists unable to do with the recording they had made? a) .................. C use a lot of visuals...... ....................... Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer..... 31 Which elephants stay together all their life? a) ............................ 33 When scientists tracked groups of elephants................ Question 31-37 Answer the questions below.......................

......................... ..........A cannot be heard by humans at all B is usually accompanied by a leg movement C begins and ends at the same pitch D is usually accompanied by a nod of the head E continuously increases in pitch F is repeated over a long period G continually fluctuates in volume 38 Greeting 39 Contact call 40 Summons to move on ............. ....... ......

34. 29. 9. 26. 25. Ricard 8. 37. 17.30 pm / half past eight Police report Minor injures G C D Across the world Pound coins Picture Probably E A B Record Container Label C C B A B A C B C B Adult females Bond groups Co-ordination /between families/ Hearing Broadcast it A female / elephant/ Hear it C F B . 12. 36. 11. 7.10. 22. 4. 33. 32. 20. 10. 3.1975 CZ8809 12th September / 12. 2. 19. 40. 28. 18. 23. 35. 21. 5. 13. 6. 15. 24. 14. 30.09 8. 31. 8.Answer: 1. 38. 27. 16. 39.

Elisabeth: Oh. now do you have your insurance policy in front of you? Elisabeth: Yes. Can I help you? Elisabeth: Oh. I ll just make a note of that That s fine And is that in the same town still? Callington? Elisabeth: That s right. 1975. It doesn t matter exactly And I . But I d say it was between 8. I think you ve got 22 Ash Avenue on your records? Assistant 2: I have. Assistant 2: That s not a problem.30. Assistant 1: Just hold the line a moment please. Assistant 2: I understand you want to report an accident? Elisabeth: Yes. but by the time I got home it was late. actually I moved house last month so the street name s different. Five oh nine two four? Assistant 2: It s in a box it should start with letters Elisabeth: Oh. So.45. Assistant 2: Do you know approximately what time the accident occurred? Elisabeth: Er oh dear I wasn t wearing a watch. It s 60 Forest Road. I m ringing to report an accident. so I didn t call. I just need to check your address. first of all. Assistant 2: Right. And now I want to ask you about the accident itself. Assistant 2: That s OK. Assistant 2: Is that R I K A R D? Elisabeth: It s spelt with a C not a K. Elisabeth: Oh yes. Is that OK? Elisabeth: Yes. So let s see today s the thirteenth of September.15 and 8. that s fine. did it happen today? Elisabeth: No. Assistant 2: Oh. Assistant 2: Your name. Good morning. and I was a bit shocked. Elisabeth: It s ELISABETH Ricard. I do. so it happened on the twelfth. sorry. it happened yesterday evening. Assistant 2: And lastly. hello. Assistant 1: A car accident? Elisabeth: Yes. My car s been damaged someone came out in front of me Assistant 2: Could I just check a few personal details before we go any further? Assistant: Oh yes. Assistant 2: Can you give me the policy number please? It s at the top. C-Z.Assistant 1: Rawlings Insurance. Assistant 2: First of all. Assistant 2: Hello? Elisabeth: Hello. Is that right? Elisabeth: It is. I m putting you through to our motor insurance department. OK And your date of birth please? Elisabeth: It s the eighth of October.double eight oh nine? Assistant 2: That s the one. I ll just record that it happened at about 8.

He was waiting to turn into the petrol station. in fact I definitely Assistant 2: So you d already gone over the bridge? Elisabeth: Yes. As I was approaching it I saw a blue van coming towards me. can you tell me what happened exactly? I m going to make a few notes. and welcome to our weekly programme about countryside matters. so could you describe it for me? Where did the accident happen? Elisabeth: On the road between New Town and Callington. on your near side then? Elisabeth: Yes. Elisabeth: And then about half a kilometre further on there s a crossroads with traffic lights. Assistant 2: Absolutely. And now. And I was just in between the two when it happened. that kind of thing? Elisabeth: I don t have witness statements I m afraid.don t suppose you ve got any supporting evidence have you? I mean witness statements. but he tried to say it was my fault. so if you think you might be willing to help please listen carefully. OK? Elisabeth: When you leave New Town there s a sharp bend in the road and then there s a railway bridge. I ll make an appointment today. heading towards Callington. And there wasn t Presenter: Good morning. Assistant 2: Any hospital report? Elisabeth: No. Assistant 2: OK. Assistant 2: So. But unfortunately nobody else was around at the time of the accident. and she s appealing for volunteers for a project she s organizing. Within twenty-four hours if possible. I was driving from New Town. It was mainly the car that got damaged luckily. OK. Assistant 2: Was he indicating? Elisabeth: Yes. He must have thought he had enough time. but I had to swerve to avoid him. just let me draw the road layout Right. and Assistant 2: OK. With me today I have Jacky Lamerton. Assistant 2: So I take it you don t have any medical problems then? Any injuries? Elisabeth: Only minor ones. And I came off the road and landed in a ditch on the opposite side. They came and measured up and checked the marks on the road. on the opposite side. He came over to see if I was OK. I don t suppose he stopped did he? Elisabeth: Oh yes. The driver had stopped in the middle of the road. Jacky . But we do recommend that you have a check up anyway. Elisabeth: Yes. I wasn t going very fast. And I was just approaching the petrol station Assistant 2: Where s that then? Elisabeth: It s a bit further along. Assistant 2: Mmm. but I ve got a police report. But then at the last minute he decided to turn right in front of me. Assistant 2: Fine. And I d passed the park that s on the right hand side. Elisabeth: I was driving home from the swimming pool and Assistant 2: I don t know Callington at all. Jacky works for the nature organization Action for Wildlife.

But it s usually possible to tell which particular animal has opened a nut by looking at the marks on the shells. leaving half shells that have got jagged edges. you ll see that insects make a small hole in the shell. as they re hard to spot. It s bright golden in colour. and it has a thick furry tail and big black eyes. These creatures don t leave any marks on the surface. ripe nuts things that are available in turn as the summer progresses. There are several reasons for this loss of habitat. Then there s another type of mouse called a woodmouse. then you should spend time looking for hazelnut shells in the bottom of hedgerows. as I said. so we ll be looking for the shells that dormice have opened to get at the nut inside. They make a hole in the shell that has a smooth inner . If you find one. I represent a charity called Action for Wildlife. or woods. A lot of wildlife species eat hazelnuts it s not just dormice. Here in the UK the dormouse is most likely to live in places like hedgerows. but they leave tooth marks on the inner rim of the hole. not just in this country but across the world. So I ll just tell you a little bit about the creature. And these marks are neat and parallel. So they re fairly easy to identify. for those of you who would like to help us carry out this survey. but they leave parallel tooth marks on the inner rim of the shell. which works to protect plants and animals. as well as rough scratches on the surface. Dormice eat hazelnuts. Thirdly there are little mammals called voles. we look for evidence of dormouse activity. they hibernate from October to April. They both open the nuts. So where is the dormouse to be found? Well. but in the last few decades the number of dormice has seriously declined. You ll see from the pictures on the sheet that different creatures do it in different ways. use the identification sheet to try and establish what kind of creature has opened it. we have to use indirect methods. Woodmice make a hole in the shell too. Yes as you ve just heard. The aim of the first stage of our project is simply to identify specific locations where dormice are still to be found. So how do we find out exactly where dormice are? Well. pollen. Then there are squirrels and birds. insects. climate change. or on the ground in woodlands. So now. competition for food and this area of the UK is now regarded as one of the last strongholds. And finally we have our dormice. You ll need to get an identification sheet like this from us. let me tell you exactly what to do. but you re very unlikely to have seen a real one because they re strictly nocturnal. For example. so it s not around at all for about half the year. and estimate the number we have here. They feed on flowers. We can still find the dormouse in this area. So naturally. fruit. in case you don t already know. The dormouse is a very attractive. Now. dormice need to be near a variety of trees and plants. Instead of trying to see dormice themselves.Lecturer: Thank you. we want to help the creature to survive here as much as we can. or at the edges of farmland. you ve probably all seen a picture of a dormouse. so they can be sure of a continuous supply of food throughout the spring and summer. Also. very small mammal it only weighs about the same as a couple of pound coins. And I m here today to talk about a project to save a type of mouse known as a dormouse. less than 2 millimetres across.

that s the only way you can do it. but if you do. did you? Jack: Yes. Tutor: OK And did you find much difference between the two websites? Jack? Jack: Quite a bit. Wheels Unlimited has a lot more pages.edge. Jack: Oh yes. I forgot about that. You can use the grid references on a map. and the presentation. yes. you can send off for a paper catalogue with an order form. Perhaps you could just talk me through it. And these are the ones we re looking for of course. Well. or you can sketch your own map. we ve compared the content of each site. and clothing. And then finally. do you want to begin? Sarah: Yes. The address to send them to is Tutor: Hello you two. Tutor: Fine. Hills Cycles doesn t have any facility for online ordering. OK. and a paragraph about the history of the company it s family owned. Jack: Yes. Then put the nut shells in a small container. And first of all. right? Jack: That s right. at an angle to the hole. if you do find any nuts which you think have been opened by dormice you need to record their location as precisely as possible. You have to ring up to order something. Then we ve done an evaluation of each one. Tutor: OK. We ve drafted this plan for you to look at Tutor: OK. When we receive them an expert will look at the shells to confirm your identification. Any kind will do a film box or a match box anything that prevents them from being crushed in the post. They only show the bikes themselves. could you? Sarah. give them a label just your name and contact details and send them to Action for Wildlife. and tools. And the tooth marks it leaves are on the surface. Well is there anything on the Hills Cycles website that Wheels Unlimited doesn t have? Jack: Not really. Jack: Oh yes. Sarah: Well no. be sure to include landmarks or road names. And you compared the functions of the two websites. they re there too. although they list them in different ways Hills Cycles have got them next to the pictures and Wheels Unlimited show them on a separate page. for a start Both companies show their catalogue I mean pictures of different models of bike. Sarah: That s right. Tutor: Right That s the content then. Tutor: And Hills Cycles? Sarah: No. But with Wheels Unlimited you can order online or in the conventional ways. thanks. Sarah: Yes there is it s got a little photo of the original shop. all kinds of things. you re going to tell me about the presentation you re preparing for next week s marketing seminar. we re going to compare the websites of two bicycle companies Tutor: Right And they re called Hills Cycles and Wheels Unlimited? Sarah: Yes. Sarah: But Wheels Unlimited advertises lots of other products connected with bikes like helmets. Firstly. It s very important that we know exactly where the shells came from. I suppose so. Tutor: And prices? Jack: Yes. have a seat OK? So. with specifications. And what about the presentation? Did you find any particular differences there? Or similarities? What about visuals? .

Jack: Yes. it looks as if you ve got plenty to talk about. It s a classic mistake with seminar presentations to present so much information that the audience can t process it quickly enough. and so on. both the sites have got pictures. then three minutes evaluating them. and we re going to put up a list of key features on the flip chart at the same time. Sarah: Right. I d deal with that criterion first if I were you. We tried it out. and I m going to describe some of the latest research into the largest of all land animals. well you d better stick to the most obvious differences. and they stop listening to what you re saying. Sarah: Several times! Jack: And we ve decided to spend four minutes comparing the two sites. and how closely it targets its potential customers. and at least the audience won t have time to get bored! What visuals are you going to use? Jack: We re going to use Powerpoint and a flip chart as well. and I m going to manage the visuals. you should make it as brief as possible. and they re both quite attractive. And that is the elephant. OK? Jack: Yes. Tutor: Right. even single words. So Sarah s going to do all the talking. so have you decided how you re going to share the work? Jack: Yes. didn t you? How are you going to do that? I mean what criteria will you use? Sarah: We thought we d use three criteria: how attractive each website is. because you ve only got ten minutes for the whole presentation. It s good practice. . But I d look at the criteria in a different order if I were you. Sarah: Yes. Tutor: OK. I mean. Then we thought we d just divide it into two equal parts and do one part each. for example. So. Tutor: And now let s talk about Lecturer: In today s lecture I m going to continue the theme of animal communication. For example. Well. then I d take over. but Tutor: Well it sounds about right to me. Just use bullet points and simple phrases. You ve got ten minutes altogether and you have got to stick to that limit. Your audience won t have much reading time. we re going to start by showing the Home Pages of each website. Hills Cycles has got an animated cartoon at the top of the Home Page. Tutor: Well. Sarah: So we can show two things at once. Right. good. haven t you? And you said you re going to evaluate each site as well. and leave three minutes for questions. if you re showing a list of key features. how userfriendly it is. But it was all too complicated. Do you think that s OK? Tutor: Sounds fine. Sarah: There are other things too. And it s a joint presentation. but those are the main things we noticed.Jack: As I said. First we thought we d keep taking it in turns to speak Sarah would say a bit. of course. Tutor: What about the timing? Have you thought of that? Ten minutes is very short you know. but Wheels Unlimited hasn t got any moving graphics. And hope we can coordinate properly! Sarah: It s the only way we can fit everything in. Only one thing I would say: make sure that you keep your visuals simple. Because really you ve got to look at attractiveness and user-friendliness in relation to the people the website is aiming at. OK. That s not really enough. Tutor: OK. You ve obviously worked hard and you ve been very careful with the details.

for example. occasionally joining a family on a temporary basis. and bond groups belong. who were filming from a nearby tower. But smell alone couldn t account for these synchronized movements. Elephants live in layered societies. and their young of both sexes. So elephants have a complex social structure. and it can remain stable for decades. And like other social animals they have to be able to communicate. Scientists call these groups of families bond groups . but the elephants marched straight on. loose groups with other males. So. it s much larger. But what baffled early naturalists was their ability to communicate over long distances. and attention then turned to the nature of elephant calls. they greet each other very enthusiastically. in search of a female elephant. on the other hand. spread their ears wide. and then change direction simultaneously.Let me begin by briefly outlining the structure of elephant society. They travel alone or congregate in small. For example. that when individual family members re-unite after separation. And they did this from a van which was parked more than half a mile from a water hole where several bull elephants were drinking. the sounds are infrasonic. based on when these occur and how other elephants react to them. In one experiment. Now elephants have a keen sense of smell which they use whenever they can. or voice box. They found. The family unit. The basic family unit is formed of small groups of adult females. and the excitement increases with the length of time that they ve been separated. either turning or moving towards each other. scientists fitted groups of elephants with radio-tracking collars. and then crunched through the bush towards the loudspeakers. In another experiment. because the wind often carries odours in the wrong direction. the scientists may have been alarmed at this point. Elephants can make these extremely low-pitched sounds because although they have a larynx. probably consisting of their more distant relatives. that is similar to those of all other mammals. They trumpet and scream and touch each . Now the females remain in their families for life. in turn. And what they observed about their behaviour really intrigued them. And two of these looked up. So they set about researching this question. Then they broadcast it. to even larger groups. But the striking aspect of this experiment was that. scientists from Cornell University in America went to Etosha National Park in Namibia. Because they found that there was some sort of co-ordination between families. Then each family associates with between one and five other families. past them and their van. In scientific terminology. As you can imagine. when they replayed their recording. and they produced a recording of calls made by a female elephant to potential mates. And that s because the sounds that they had replayed were below the lower threshold of human hearing. neither the two scientists nor the rest of their team. often contains three generations. When males are ready to mate they wander widely. they re highly social. two separate family groups might move in parallel to each other. the scientists concluded that the elephants were using their hearing instead. who are related to each other. or even centuries. but male elephants leave their families at about fourteen years of age. called clans. could hear it. miles apart. searching for receptive females. But what do the sounds mean ? Scientists from Pittsburgh Zoo in the USA have classified certain infrasonic calls.

So.other. Immediately after contact calling. with a strong overtone which is clearly audible to humans. This call has a relatively quiet. typically lifts one leg and flaps her ears. and then falls back to 18 Hertz again. low tone. and rotate its head. Contact calls and answers can last for hours. there may be a lot of subtle. and possibly the activities of other elephants that are several miles away. . They also use a greeting rumble. At the end of a meal. and it trails off at the end. However. our understanding of elephant communication has increased considerably in recent years. one member of a family moves to the edge of the group. At the same time she emits a let s go rumble. So although scientists are aware that elephants may know the whereabouts. The contact answer is louder and more abrupt than the greeting call. as if listening for the response. the elephant will lift and spread its ears. which arouses the family. Finally. In another example. which is a level just high enough to be audible to humans. This starts at a low 18 Hertz Hertz is a measurement of sound pitch crests at 25 Hertz. mating activity is associated with yet another group of calls. an elephant attempting to locate its family uses the contact call. and they start to move on. A third type of call seems to represent a summons to move on. until the elephant successfully rejoins her family. longrange interactions which are still not evident. even with the use of radio tracking collars it s technically difficult to document the functions of longrange communication.

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