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Idealism Pragmatism Realism Existentialism






Idealism (universal) -Socrates/Plato -That which is ultimately real, spiritual, and ideas -What is real=ideas, not senses -Ideas are the only true reality -Inward thoughts count -What is not seen is real-internal

Realism (universal)

Theistic Realism (universal)


-Aristotle/Broudy -Outward; Focus of truth is outward, nature -Realism = senses, use your body to find real truths -Whatever can be sensed is real.

Aquinas Unmoved mover being God and giving a purpose of it all God-created world that follows natural laws and operates according to the divine plan


Absolute truth exists and should be pursued. Knowledge is present and must surface. Senses are a distraction.

Rationality is sensation and abstraction, systems and classification. Unmoved mover is absolute truth. Sharpen senses and use rationality to discover classifications that make up reality.

God has revealed himself to individuals. human knowing occurs through natural process God wants us to understand the world and put everything together through that we can find him


universal unchanging values universal concept of beauty relates back to our ideas (metaphysics)

universal unchanging values source of beauty reflects the natural world causes us to reflect on the complexity of the universe

values are universal and timeless and have been intentionally given to us by God values are valid because their orgin is in a loving and caring God

Pragmatism (relative)

Existentialism (relative) Kierkegaard/Sartre our responsibility to define ourselves freedom we live in paradox (I make no difference, but I can make a difference) an individual faces choice


-Dewey/James -reality cannot be proven; even if it were, it wouldnt help us solve problems -questions must be able to be verified or proven, empirically or scientifically -genuine philosophy needs to be concerned with real issues that make a difference in the human life -the universe is always changing -pragmatists go directly to the interactions that people have with the environment
-human experience is the highest source of power -experience is the interaction between the human and the environment (both the good and the bad) -the more experience and problems that one solves, the more development and growth


two kinds -knowledge of natural world (do not have to accept) -the rest of knowledge varies by individual


our values come from when we find satisfying ways to live that enrich our experience. always changing because of experiences

values come from personal choices personal act of choosing and creating values make personal decisions that require the individual to make choices leading to self definition/essence