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Dierential Equations

Dierential Equations

1. Find the solution of the dierential equation dy x(y 2 1) = dx y(x2 + 1) for which y = 3 when x = 1. Ans: y 2 = 4x2 + 5 2. Solve the dierential equation yx dy dy = 2 y2 + dx dx Ans: (x + 2)(1 2y) = Ay 3. Solve the dierential equation (3x + 5)2 given that y = 0 when x = 0. Ans: 8x = 20 tan1 2y + 5 ln(1 + 4y 2 ) 3x + 5 dy 1 + 4y 2 = dx 1+y

dy 4. Show that the dierential equation = 2x cot y7x cosec y may be reduced by the substitution z = cos y dx dz to the equation + 2xz = 7x. Hence, nd the general solution for y in terms of x. dx 7 2 Ans: y = cos1 + Bex 2 2y u dy + 2y 2 + = 0 may be reduced by the substitution y = 2 to 5. Show that the dierential equation dx x x du u 2 = 2 . Hence, or otherwise, nd y in terms of x given that y = 1 when x = 1. Sketch the graph dx x of y, showing clearly the asymptote(s) and the coordinates of the turning points if they exist. 1 Ans: y = x(2 3x) dy 6. Show that, by using the substitution y = ux2 , the dierential equation x2 2xy + y 2 = 0 where x > 0, dx du may be reduced to the form +u2 = 0. Hence show that the general solution of the dierential equation dx x2 may be expressed as y = , where C is an arbitrary constant. Sketch, on separate axes, two members C +x of the family of solution curves where x > 0. 7. A certain radioactive material is known to decay at a rate proportional to the amount present. If initially there is 50 milligrams of the material present, and after two hours it is observed that the material has lost 10 percent of its original mass, nd, www.arunteachesmaths.com 1

Dierential Equations

(a) an expression for the mass m of the material remaining at any time t, (b) the mass of the material after four hours, (c) the time at which the material has decayed to one half of its initial mass.

Ans: m(t) = 50e0.053t Ans: 40.5 mg Ans: 13 hours

8. A bacteria culture is known to grow at a rate proportional to the amount present. After 1 hour, 1000 strands of the bacteria are observed in the culture; and after four hours, 3000 strands. Find (a) an expression for the approximate number of strands of the bacteria present in the culture at time t, Ans: N (t) = 694e0.366t (b) the approximate number of strands of the bacteria in the original culture. Ans: N (0) = 694

9. Five mice in a stable population of 500 are intentionally infected with a contagious disease to test a theory of epidemic spread that postulates the rate of change in the infected population is proportional to the product of the number of mice who have diseases with the number that are disease free. Assuming the theory is correct, nd an expression for the number of infected mice in the population in terms of the time 500 elapsed. Ans: N (t) = 99e500kt + 1 10. Water ows into a cylindrical tank at a constant rate, and leaks out at a rate which is proportional to the depth of water in the tank. The depth of water is x meters at time t seconds. Given that the depth remains constant if it is 0.5 m, show that, dx = k(2x 1), dt where k is a positive constant. At t = 0, the depth is 0.75 m and is decreasing at a rate of 0.01 ms1 . Determine the time at which the depth will be 0.55 m. Ans: 40.2 s 11. (a) Find y as a function of x when, 1 dy x = xy y dx and y = 1 when x = 0. Ans: y = (2ex
2

/2

1)1

dy dz (b) If x y = z, express in terms of . Using the substitution x y = z, or otherwise, solve the dx dx dierential equation, dy =xy dx given that y = 0 when x = 0. Ans: dy dz =1 ; y = ex + x 1 dx dx

12. In a chemical reaction in which a compound X is formed from a compound Y and other substances, the masses of X and Y present at time t are x and y respectively. The sum of the two masses is constant and at any time the rate at which x is increasing is proportional to the product of the two masses at that time. Show that the equation governing the reaction is of the form x = kx(a x) t and interpret the constant a. If x = a a at time t = 0, nd in terms of k and a the time at which y = . 10 10 2 Ans: a = x + y; ln 9 ka

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