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HABITAT Table of Contents P. 137

BODY DEFENCE . 135 PART IV REPRODUCTION .... 139 GROWTH .. 147 GENETICS .... 159 EVOLUTION .. 173 ESSAY 174 DISEASES / MEDICINE ..... 174 MISCELLANEOUS .... 177 INDEX . 178 A-LEVEL BIOLOGY PAST PAPER 1991-2003 TABLE OF CONTENTS (PART IV) REPRODUCTION........................................................................................139 GROWTH.......................................................................................................147 GENETICS.....................................................................................................159 EVOLUTION..................................................................................................173 ESSAY...........................................................................................................174 DISEASES / MEDICINE ..................................................................................................174 MISCELLANEOUS...........................................................................................................177 INDEX............................................................................................................178

Table of Contents

P. 138

Table of Contents

P. 139

Reproduction 1. 1991 II (13) Write an essay on the biological basis of human in vitro fertilization and the new possibilities that these techniques have opened up. (20 marks) 2. 1992 I (7) The following organisms can reproduce asexually: Amoeba Obelia bread mould moss (a) Describe briefly how new individuals arise asexually in each case. (b) What are the advantages of asexual reproduction over sexual reproduction? (8 marks) 3. 1993 I (7) Two experiments were conducted on mature female mice with similar body weights. In experiment I, the effects of surgical removal of the two ovaries (OVX) and subsequent treatment with hormone A on the uterine weight were examined. The results are presented in Table I. Table I Animal group number 1 2 3 Surgery/Treatment Control OVX OVX + hormone A Mean uterine weight (mg) 118 70 117

In experiment II, the effects of surgical removal of the pituitary (PX) and subsequent treatment with either hormone A or hormone B on ovarian and uterine weights were studied. The results are presented in Table II. Table II Animal group number 4 5 6 7 Surgery/ Treatment Control PX PX + hormone A PX + hormone B Mean ovarian 6.8 3.6 3.7 6.6 Mean uterine 116 73 119 118

weight (mg) weight (mg)

(a) Why was it necessary to conduct the experiments using animals with
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similar body weights? (2 marks) (b) With reference to Table I, (i) What conclusions can be drawn? (2 marks) (ii) Name hormone A and suggest one other function which was not studied in this experiment. (2 marks) (c) Based on your knowledge of the sexual cycle, explain the results of group 6 and 7 mice (Table II), given that hormone B is secreted by the pituitary. (7 marks) (d) Describe one histological change that you would expect in the ovaries of group 5 mice compared with those of group 4 mice. (1 mark) (e) Suggest a medical use of hormone B. Explain your answer. (2 marks) (f) What would be the effect on the remaining ovary if only a single ovary was removed in group 2 mice? Explain your answer. (4 marks) 4. 1994 I (2) Briefly describe two types of artificial vegetative propagation in flowering plants. (4 marks) 5. 1994 I (3) Draw an annotated diagram of a sperm and show how its structure is related to its function. (6 marks) 6. 1994 II (4) What are the requirements for sexual reproduction to be successful in flowering plants and mammals? Discuss the significance of sexual reproduction in living organisms. (20 marks) 7. 1995 I (7) (a) The following flow chart shows the sequence of gamete transfer in the human male and female reproductive systems prior to fertilization. List the contraceptive methods indicated by (i) to (vi).


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(6 marks) (b) Explain the principles underlying the use of progesterone and oestrogen in oral contraceptives. (3 marks) 8. 1996 II (1a) Compare and contrast the embryos of mammals and leguminous plants with respect to (i) their protection, (ii) the mechanisms leading to their separation from the parents at maturity. (7 marks) 9. 1997 I (9) The following graphs show the changes in the levels of hormones A, B, C and D in the plasma during one menstrual cycle of a healthy woman The changing hormone levels also show the interaction of these four hormones which brings about events in the menstrual cycle.


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(a) (i) Based on the changing hormone levels shown in the graphs, deduce the effect of hormone A on hormones C and D from day 2 to day 11. During what other time period(s) in the menstrual cycle is there a similar relationship between these hormones? (2 marks) (ii) Immediately after day 12, the effect of hormone A on hormones C and D changes abruptly. From the graphs, read off the days when hormones A, C and D reach their maximum levels. Using this information, deduce the effect of hormone A on hormones C and D during this time period. Such an effect brings about an important event in the menstrual cycle. What is this event? (3.5 marks) (b) Hormone B is an important ingredient in contraceptive pills. What evidence from the graphs supports this? State the contraceptive principle involved. (3 marks) (c) Menstruation is brought about by dramatic hormonal changes. Using information from the graphs describe these hormonal changes. (1.5 marks)

(d) Part of the hypothalamus of the woman was damaged in an accident. She
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told her doctor that she had not menstruated for months. Her pregnancy test was negative and her plasma levels of hormones C and D were found to be very low. Account for her low levels of hormones C and D. What is the likely consequence of the accident on the womans chances of getting pregnant? (3 marks) Total: 13 marks 10. 1999 IA (1) The photograph below shows the undersurface of an aerial part of a non flowering plant at the reproductive stage:

(a) Name the organ found inside structure 1 and state its roles in the life cycle of the plant. (b) State the ploidy number of the organ. (3 marks)


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11. 1999 IA (3) The following photomicrographs, A and B, were taken from two groups of mice. One of the photomicrographs was taken from the group that had been treated with a drug that caused sterility and the other was taken from the control group. Photomicrograph A (magnification x 400)

Photomicrograph B (magnification x 400)

(a) Identify the organ where the photomicrographs were taken. (1 mark) (b) Which photomicrograph, A or B, shows the result of the drug-treated group? Give one reason for your choice. (1.5 marks) (c) Deficiency of a certain hormone in mice will also produce the same effect as that caused by this drug. Name the hormone. (1 mark)


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12. 1999 II (6) Diploid organisms have to fulfil certain requirements in order to be ready for sexual reproduction. What are these requirements? Compare and contrast the processes by which mammals and flowering plants accomplish sexual reproduction. (20 marks) 13. 2000 I (2) The following flow charts show the stages of gamete formation in flowering plants and mammals. State the type of nuclear division involved in each of the processes (a), (b), (c) and (d). (2 marks) Flowering plants microspore mother cell (2n) (a) microspore (pollen grain) (b) male gamete Mammals germ cell (2n) (c) spermatogonium (d) sperm

14. 2000 II (1) During the domestication of the cultivated wheat from its wild ancestor, the mechanisms of seed dispersal and seed dormancy have both been lost. (a) Explain what is meant by seed dispersal and seed dormancy. Discuss their importance to plants. (9 marks) (b) From the farmers' standpoint, would they prefer to cultivate wheat which possesses seed dispersal and seed dormancy mechanisms? Explain your answer. (3 marks) (c) Discuss how gene mutation and artificial selection have been involved in the domestication of cultivated wheat from its wild ancestor. What is the long-term effect on the characteristics of the wheat population if man ceases to apply artificial selection to the wheat? (8 marks)


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15. 2001 I (1) The figure below shows the lifecycle of a higher plant indicating an alternation of generations. Match the stages (a) to (f) with the following terms: embryo gamete gametophyte spore sporophyte zygote

(3 marks) 16. 2002 II (4a,b) (a) To achieve fertilization in the terrestrial environment, flowering plants and mammals employ various strategies to cope with similar problems. State these problems and give a comparative account of how flowering plants and mammals deal with the problems. (11 marks) (b) Describe how the mammalian foetus obtains amino acids from proteins in the maternal diet. (5 marks) 17. 2003 II (8) In human beings, the pattern of reproductive physiology in the female, cyclic and is related to the menstrual cycle, whereas that in the male is not cyclic. Discuss the significance of these cyclic and non-cyclic patterns with respect to the roles played by the two sexes in reproduction. In your discussion, make reference to the hormonal control of such patterns. (20 marks)


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Growth 1. 1991 II (2a-c) (a) What is a meristem? (b) Where are meristems found in plants? (5 marks) (c) Describe the changes in a cell derived from a meristem as it differentiates into: (i) a xylem vessel element (ii) a sieve tube element (6 marks) 2. 1991 II (8) Describe the ways in which light affects the growth and development of plants. (20 marks) 3. 1992 I (6) (a) What is meant by metamorphosis? (b) Outline the possible advantages and disadvantages of a life cycle showing metamorphosis. (6 marks) 4. 1993 I (5) Outline the development of a dicotyledonous seed from a fertilized ovule. (6 marks) 5. 1999 IA (9) The following photomicrograph shows the longitudinal section of a maize grain. Name 1 and 2, and state their functions during germination. (4 marks) (2 marks)


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6. 1999 IB (13) (a) The photoperiodic responses of two plant species A and B were studied under artificial conditions Seeds of these two species were sown in potted soil and the pots were kept in greenhouses After the emergence of the first leaf, the seedlings were subjected to different artificial day length treatments The table below shows the number of days taken for these two plant species to flower after the emergence of the first leaf: Number of days to flower (after the emergence of the first leaf) Daylength /hours Species A Species B 8 * 80 9 * 80 10 * 80 11 * 80 12 * 80 13 240 80 14 160 80 15 100 150 16 100 * 17 100 * 18 100 * 19 100 * 20 100 * Key: *The plants remained vegetative throughout the experiment which lasted for a year. (i) With reference to the given data complete the table below (6 marks) Species A Name the photoperiodic response for each species What is the minimum number of (2) hours of day length required for flowering to occur in species A? What is the minimum number of days required by each species (3) to flower after the emergence of the first leaf? If both species take 10 days after sowing for the first leaf to emerge, what is the minimum (4) number of days required by each species to flower from sowing? (1) (ii) Artificial daylength treatment was applied after the emergence of the first leaf hut not immediately after sowing. Why? (1 mark) (b) The following graph shows the variations of natural daylength from January to December in City 1 and City 2:
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Species B

(N.B. Each sub-division of the x-axis represents 10 days) (i) In City 1, under natural daylength, (1) can species A flower? Explain your answer. (2.5 marks) (2) species B can flower throughout the year. Why? (2 marks) (ii) Whenever the natural daylength cannot meet the photoperiodic requirements of species A and B, these plants can be treated by artificial means so that they will flower at specified times to meet market demand. (1) In both cities, to have species A flowering on 11 May (i.e. a few days before Mother's Day), the latest date to sow the seeds is 21 January When is the latest date to sow the seeds of species B so that B will also flower on 11 May in both cities? (1 mark) (2) In City 2, during which period would artificial regulation of day length be required for species A and B to achieve flowering on 11 May? State how you would regulate the day length for species A and B in each case. (5 marks) Total: 17.5 marks 7. 2000 I (3) Photomicrographs P, Q and R on the opposite page show a structure at different developmental stages observed in a mammalian organ. They are not arranged according to the sequence of development of this structure. (a) Show the correct sequence of development of the structure by listing the letters of the photomicrographs. (1 mark) (b) The normal development of the structure can be artificially interrupted. Suggest one way to bring about this interruption and explain the mechanism involved.
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(4 marks) (c) Name the structure in P and state its function. (2 marks)

Photomicrograph P (40) Photomicrograph Q (75)

Photomicrograph R (120)


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8. 2000 I (4) Which of the following graphs represents the growth pattern of a rice plant? Explain your answer.

(2.5 marks) 9. 2000 I (8) The following photomicrograph was taken under a light microscope showing the larval stage of a marine crab:

(a) Make a 2 whole specimen drawing to show the features of the larva. (5 marks) (N.B. You are NOT required to label the features or give a title to your drawing) (b) On your drawing, use an arrow / arrows to point to the appendage(s) that you think is / are locomotory in function. (0.5 mark) (c) Give two ways in which this larval stage is significant to the marine crab. (2 marks)


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10. 2001 I (6) Diagrams A to F show the different developmental stages of an insect. The graph shows the blood concentration of a hormone Y, measured from stages B to E. A B C D E F (Adult)

Stage (a) Give one advantage of having different developmental stages for the survival of the insect. What is the name given to such developmental phenomenon? (2 marks) (b) Y is a hormone that stimulates moulting. What evidence in the graph supports this statement? (2 marks) 11. 2001 I (12) (a) To investigate the effect of nitrogen supply on the leaf morphology of cereal plant species A, seedlings of species A were grown in nutrient solutions containing all essential minerals. Table 1 shows the results obtained:

(i) Suggest one reason why seedlings were used instead of mature plants in this experiment. (1 mark)
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(ii) Suggest one kind of nitrogen nutrient that can be used in the experiment. (1 mark) (iii) How are the area and the thickness of the leaf blade affected by nitrogen supply? (2 marks) (iv) (1) How will the change in leaf morphology affect the support of the leaf blade at high nitrogen level? (1 mark) (2) This altered morphology of the leaf blade has an undesirable effect on the physiology of the plant. What is this effect? (1 mark) (b) In cereals, lodging is a phenomenon of bending of the culm (stem plus the leaf sheaths) due to excessive shoot growth. Table 2 shows the effects of increasing nitrogen supply and the effect of chlorocholine chloride (CCC), a growth regulator, on lodging and grain yield of cereal plant species B.

(i) According to the data shown in Table 2, what is the effect of nitrogen supply on lodging of species B? (2 marks) (ii) What is the effect of CCC on lodging of species B at all nitrogen levels? (1 mark) (iii) CCC exerts its effect by interfering with the action of one plant hormone other than auxin. Suggest what this hormone may be. (1 mark) (iv) What is the effect of CCC on grain yield of species B? Propose how this effect could be brought about. (3 marks) (v) Suggest one reason to explain why an increase in nitrogen supply from 80 to 160 kg per unit area did not result in a significant increase in grain yield when CCC was added. (1 mark)
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(vi) According to the data shown in Table 2, what are the most effective treatments to obtain maximum grain yield from species B? (1 mark) (vii) Suggest an alternative approach to overcome the phenomenon of lodging of species B without using chemicals. (1 mark) 12. 2001 I (13) To investigate the effects of the pituitary and the hypothalamus on the growth of the testis in rats, six groups of normal young male rats of similar age were used to perform an experiment. The body mass and the testis mass of the rats were recorded eight weeks after various treatments. (a) The first four groups of rats were used to investigate the effect of the pituitary on testis growth. Group 1 with pituitaries Group 2 with pituitaries and daily injection of pituitary extract prepared from other rats Group 3 with pituitaries surgically removed Group 4 with pituitaries surgically removed and daily injection of a pituitary extract (same as for Group 2 rats) three weeks after the surgery

The results are presented in Figure 1 below:

(i) Why is it more precise to use testis mass per unit body mass as a growth indicator rather than just testis mass? (1 mark) (ii) For the rats in Group 4, why was a period of three weeks allowed after the pituitaries were surgically removed before the rats received
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injections of the pituitary extract? (2 marks) (iii) From the results shown in Figure 1, draw two conclusions regarding the effect of the pituitary extract on the growth of the testis in rats. (2 marks) (iv) Suggest reasons to explain the different effects of the pituitary extract on testis growth in rats with and without pituitaries. (4 marks) (b) The rats of Group 5 and Group 6 were treated as follows: Group 5 with pituitaries and daily injection of hypothalamus extract prepared from other rats Group 6 with pituitaries surgically removed and daily injection of hypothalamus extract (same as for Group 5 rats) three weeks after the surgery

The results of these rats together with those of Group 1 and Group 3 rats are presented in Figure 2 below:

From the results shown in Figure 2, what conclusion(s) can be drawn regarding the effect of the hypothalamus extract on the growth of the testis? (2 marks) (c) With reference to the results shown in Figures 1 and 2, propose a possible mechanism regarding hypothalamic control of testis growth. (2 marks) (d) State one parameter other than testis mass and size that can be used for measuring the growth and development of the testis. (1 mark) 13. 2002 II (4c) (c) What are the major differences in growth between perennial flowering plants and mammals?
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(4 marks) 14. 2002 II (6c) (a) Many plants flower in response to photoperiod. (i) Explain why, in temperate regions, plants with different photoperiodic responses flower at different seasons of the year. (4 marks) (ii) What is the significance of the flowering response to photoperiod to plants? (3 marks) 15. 2003 I (2) (a) Explain the formation of growth rings as visible in the cross section of the trunk of a tree. (3 marks) (b) The morphology of the growth rings of a tree can indicate the events and environmental growth conditions that occurred during the trees life. Figure A on the opposite page shows the cross section of the trunk of a 62-year-old pine tree. Based on the events / environmental conditions that the tree probably experienced, complete the following table. Part (i) has been done for you as an example. (3 marks) Event / Environmental Morphology of the Region of the trunk condition growth rings (i) Normal growth Evenly spaced growth 1 condition rings (ii) Falling of a dead Unevenly spaced tree on the pine tree growth rings when it was 6-year-old (iii) Prolonged drought 6 that lasted for seven years (iv) Forest fire damaged part of the trunk


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2003 I (9) (a) A short-day plant has a critical photoperiod of 6 hours. How can you induce this short-day plant to flower? (2 marks) (b) The following figure shows the daylength on different days of the year at latitude 40N:


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Beijing is situated at latitude 40N. Can a short-day plant with a critical photoperiod of 6 hours flower in Beijing under natural conditions? Why? (2 marks)


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Genetics 1. 1991 I (6) State FOUR differences between the divisions of a somatic cell and of a germ cell to form daughter cells. (4 marks) 2. 1991 II (1) (a) Explain the meaning of the following terms : (i) allele (ii) polyploidy (iii) hybrid vigour

(6 marks)

(b) In a certain species of bird, one gene locus controls general feather colour, with green being dominant to blue. A second locus controls colour intensity and the alleles at this locus show incomplete dominance. The table below shows the six possible phenotypes: Colour intensity Feather colour Pale Mid Dark Deep Green pale green brownish green green Blue pale blue Deep blue purple (i) Draw genetic diagrams to illustrate the following crosses: (1) Homozygous deep green x heterozygous brownish green (2) Homozygous pale green x deep blue Include in your diagrams, the genotypes of the parents, zygotes and offspring, the phenotypes of the offspring, and the phenotype ratio. Define all the symbols you use. (10 marks) (ii) Describe the easiest way to determine whether a deep green individual is homozygous or heterozygous. Explain your answer. (4 marks) 3. 1992 II (4) (a) Explain by means of a genetic diagram how a female child could inherit haemophilia. (8 marks) (b) Explain why it is rare for a haemophiliac female to survive beyond the age of puberty. (3 marks) (c) What advice would you give to the mother of the child in part (a) if she were pregnant with a second female foetus? Give reasons for your advice. (3 marks)


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(d) Give two ways by which mutations may occur in (i) genes. (ii) chromosomes. (4 marks) (e) Suggest how induced mutations in man could be guarded against. (2 marks) 4. 1993 II (1) (a) Distinguish between (i) codon and anticodon (ii) continuous and discontinuous variation (4 marks) (b) The occurrence of colour blindness and haemophilia in a family is shown by the pedigree below. The genes for the two traits are found on the X chromosome.


normal individual colourblind individual

haemophiliac individual (i) Deduce the dominance or recessiveness of the gene which leads to (1) colour blindness. (2) haemophilia. Explain your answer. (Note: Genetic diagrams will NOT be accepted.) (6 marks) (ii) Use appropriate symbols to represent the genotypes of individuals A, B, C, D and E. Define all the symbols used in your answer. (7 marks) (iii) If individual F marries a normal man, what is the probability that her son might be a haemophiliac? With the aid of a genetic diagram, explain your answer. (3 marks) 5. 1994 I (4)
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Describe and explain which stage of mitosis is most suitable for determining chromosome number. (2 marks) 6. 1994 I (13) Response to herbicide treatment is an inheritable trait in certain plant species. A pure line plant species Topas (T) is sensitive to herbicide. After mutation was induced in T, two homozygous mutant lines (A and B) were produced with different responses to herbicide treatment. The following table shows the phenotypes of T, A, B and their F1 plants: Phenotypes Low Moderate High Sensitive tolerance tolerance tolerance [S] [LT] [MT] [HT] -

T A B F1(A x T) F1(B x T) Key: -

expression of phenotype no expression of phenotype

(a) Deduce the genetic basis of inheritance of the herbicide responses with respect to the concept of dominance. Use this to explain the responses of the F1 plants to the herbicide. (6 marks) (b) Mutant A and mutant B were crossed to obtain F1 plants. These F1 plants were selfed to produce F2 plants and their phenotypes are shown in the following table: Phenotypes of F2 (A X B) Low Moderate High Sensitive tolerance tolerance tolerance [S] [LT] [MT] [HT] Number 9 18 27 90 of plants (i) What is the F2 (A X B) phenotypic ratio? Based on this ratio, determine the number of genes involved in the inheritance of the herbicide response trait. (ii) Using appropriate symbols, state the genotypes of Topas, mutant A and mutant B. (6 marks)

(c) Based on the information you have so far, state the genotypes for the F1 plants of the following crosses: (i) mutant A and Topas
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(ii) mutant B and Topas (2 marks) (d) Suggest a method for inducing mutation. (1 mark) Total: 15 marks 7. 1995 I (4a) Distinguish between transcription and translation. (2 marks) 8. 1995 I (11) A horticulturist collected a wild plant with giant flowers and long internodes. He crossed it with a homozygous cultivar (a cultivated variety of the same species) which had small flowers and short internodes. In the F1 progeny of this cross, two phenotypic classes were obtained. They were plants with giant flowers and long internodes and plants with small flowers and long internodes. The phenotypic ratio was 1:1. (a) State the recessiveness or dominance of the characters: giant flowers, short internodes. (2 marks) (b) If the genes for flower size and internode length were linked, would the same F1 phenotypic ratio (1:1) as mentioned above be obtained? Explain your answer with the help of a genetic diagram. (4.5 marks) (c) Giant flowers appeal to consumers. Short internodes enable the packing of more plants within a container for transport. Therefore, both properties can increase the profit from the sale of such plants. (i) Given that the genes controlling the two characters are not linked, (1) state the possible genotype(s) of the plants with the desirable properties mentioned above, (1 mark) (2) design a breeding programme to obtain a plant with giant flowers and short internodes by selecting parental plants from amongst the cultivar and the two classes of F1 plants. Explain the genetic basis of your programme. (Do not include genetic diagrams in your answer.) (4 marks) Note: This plant species can undergo both self and cross pollination. (ii) What practical steps would you take to ensure the type of pollination in the cross suggested in your programme in (i)(2)? (2 marks) (iii) Both vegetative propagules and seeds can be produced from a plant with giant flowers and short internodes. Which of these products
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would you sell to guarantee that these desirable properties will appear in the next generation? Explain your choice. (1.5 marks) Total: 15 marks 9. 1996 I (7a) Distinguish between gene and allele. (2 marks)

10. 1996 II (6) Compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Discuss the roles and significance of mitosis and meiosis in the life of flowering plants and mammals, illustrating your answer with examples where appropriate. (20 marks) 11. 1996 II (11) With regard to advances in molecular biology, describe and discuss the impact of the technological manipulation of human genes on mankind. What are the ethical implications of this technology? (20 marks) 12. 1997 II (3) (a) What are the processes that generate genetic variations in flowering plants? Explain the mechanisms involved. (6 marks) (b) A diploid plant bears a dominant mutation in one allele of a gene which controls sepal form. This mutation has the effect of changing scale-like sepals to petal-like sepals. (i) As the flowers with petal-like sepals have a better appeal to customers, a plant breeder kept this mutant plant in a greenhouse allowing it to self-fertilize for several generations. During this period, the plant breeder made frequent visits to the greenhouse and removed any plant bearing flower buds with scale-like sepals. Deduce and explain the genotypes of the remaining plants in the F1 and F2 populations and their relative proportions What will be the long term effect of this breeding practice? (7 marks) (ii) The original mutant plant was crossed with another plant which produced flowers with red petals and scale-like sepals. All the F1 plants showed red petals. Yet only half of them produced petal-like sepals. When these F1 plants were intercrossed, the F2 progeny showed a petal colour ratio of 3:1 (three red-petal-bearing plants to one white petal-bearing plants). Without using genetic diagrams, deduce and explain the dominant petal colour and the genotypes of the two parents (7 marks) 13. 1998 IB (12) The number of days taken for tomato plants to yield ripened fruits from the day of planting is a hereditary character. Four varieties of tomato plants were planted in the same field in the same season. The four varieties planted were
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the two pure-bred parental varieties, P1 and P2, their F1 hybrids and F2 offspring. The number of days taken to yield ripened fruits for 100 plants of each variety was recorded in the following histograms:

(a) What is the term used to describe the range of phenotypes observed? What type of inheritance is responsible for this? (2 marks) (b) Compare and contrast the variations in the phenotypes of (i) the F1 hybrids and the parents, P1 and P2. What is the genetic basis for the difference(s)? (4 marks) (ii) the F1 hybrids and F2 offspring. Account for your observations. (4 marks) (c) To obtain valid results in this genetic study, two factors were kept under control in the experimental design. State these two factors. Why was it necessary to control them? (2 marks)
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Total: 12 marks 14. 1998 II (3a, b) (a) Explain the features of the genetic code. (6 marks)

(b) Describe in detail the cellular processes that are necessary in the transfer and decoding of genetic information for polypeptide synthesis. (12 marks) 15. 1999 II (3) (a) Distinguish infectious diseases from inheritable diseases with respect to their causes and modes of transmission. (6 marks) (b) State and explain three features of the human body which are in the first line of defence in preventing the entry of infectious agents. (6 marks) (c) The following pedigree shows the occurrence of a hereditary disease D among the members of a family:

Key: unaffected female affected female unaffected male affected male

Assuming that disease D is controlled by a single gene, deduce with reasons, why this disease is NOT sex-linked. (Do not include genetic diagrams in your answer.) (8 marks) 16. 1999 II (7) Genetic engineering is the artificial manipulation of the genome of a organism. It includes gene cloning and / or clonal propagation. Gene cloning refers to the creation of a recombinant organism. Clonal propagation is the mass production of the recombinant organism. State three different fields in which gene cloning and clonal propagation can be applied. Use specific examples to illustrate the applications in each field. Outline the procedure used in one of the examples you cited.
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Concern has been raised regarding the safety and bioethics of genetic engineering. State one concern about each of these two aspects. (20 marks) 15. 2000 I (10) A diploid plant species is capable of both self and cross pollination. Two purebred varieties, Y and Z, of this plant species were identified. Individuals of variety Y have heights ranging from 21-25 cm. They all have round leaves and are resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. Individuals of variety Z have heights ranging from 56-60 cm. They all have wrinkled leaves and are sensitive to the herbicide glyphosate. When Y was crossed with Z, all F1 progeny had round leaves and were glyphosate resistant. Their height distribution is shown in Table 1. Table 1 Height / cm 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 Number of plants 2 10 54 51 8 3

When the F1 plants were self-pollinated, the F2 progeny had the following phenotypes:


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Table 2 Number of plants Height / cm Round leaf Wrinkled leaf Round leaf Wrinkled leaf and and and and Resistant to Resistant to Sensitive to Sensitive to glyphosate glyphosate glyphosate glyphosate 15 88 114 152 152 116 86 13 736 1 2 4 5 5 4 2 0 23 0 2 3 5 6 4 3 0 23 5 28 35 48 47 36 27 4 230

21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 Sub-total

(a) Are the alleles responsible for wrinkled leaves and glyphosate resistance dominant or recessive? Briefly explain your answer (3 marks) (b) How many genes control the glyphosate response? Explain your answer with reference to the data shown in Table 2. (4 marks) (c) (i) Discuss whether the inheritance of leaf shape and glyphosate response follows Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment. (4.5 marks) (ii) What is the relationship between the genes controlling leaf shape and glyphosate response? (1 mark) (d) Based on the data shown in Tables I and 2, state and explain the nature of genetic control of height in this plant species. (4 marks) 16. 2000 II (8) Genetically modified (GM) foods contain components from GM organisms. Transgenic technology is one major way to produce GM organisms. Outline the principles of using transgenic technology to make GM organisms for producing GM foods. In what ways can the yield and quality of food be enhanced by this technology? Suggest some measures to minimize the potential risks of this new technology to our health and environment. (20 marks) 17. 2001 II (3a, b)
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(a) Contrast the genetic control of ABO blood group and that of red-green colour blindness in humans. (5 marks) (b) When a man, Tom, of blood group A marries a woman, May, of blood group O, deduce the chances that a child of blood group A would be born to this couple. Use genetic diagrams(s) to show your deduction. (7 marks) 18. 2001 I (10) A student examined cell divisions in a plant shown in the photomicrographs A, B, C, D, E and F on the opposite page. Photomicrograph A was taken from a vegetative structure S and photomicrograph B was taken from structure T. Photomicrographs C to F show free individual cells found in T. (a) State two common features found in the photomicrographs that enable the student to diagnose that the cells of S and T are undergoing division. (2 marks) (b) (i) Identify the type of nuclear division found in the free individual cells of T. Give one piece of evidence to support your identification. (2 marks) (ii) State two ways in which this type of nuclear division is significant. (3 marks) (c) Given that the ploidy number of the plant is 2N. State the ploidy number of L and M in photomicrograph A. (2 marks) (d) Suggest what S and T are. (2 marks) (e) (i) Arrange the letters of photomicrographs C to F to show the correct sequence of events in the nuclear division found in T. (1 mark) (ii) If at the final stage of development, all the free individual cells in T were found to be at the stage shown in photomicrograph F, what will be the consequence to the plant? (1 mark) Total: 13 marks


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Photomicrograph A taken from vegetative structure S (X400)

P hotomicrograph B taken from structure T (x40)

Photomicrograph C (X1200)

Photomicrograph D (X1200)

Photomicrograph E (X1200)

Photomicrograph F (X1200)


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19. 2002 I (13) Eye colour and wing morphology of a certain species of fly are controlled by two different-genes. A student made a cross using flies he collected from the field. The cross and its F1 progeny are shown below :

(a) Deduce the recessive trait for eye colour and wing morphology. Explain your deduction. (N.B. DO NOT use genetic diagram(s) in your answer.) (4 marks) (b) In this species of fly, X and Y are the sex chromosomes. XY confers male phenotype and XX confers female phenotype. From the given data, what evidence supports the hypothesis that the gene for eye colour is NOT on the X chromosome? (N.B. DO NOT use genetic diagram(s) in your answer.) (3 marks) (c) (i) There are three phenotypes in the F1 flies. Calculate their phenotypic ratio. (2 marks) (ii) Using a genetic diagram, show how the above phenotypic ratio is derived from the parental cross. (HINT: There is no yellow eyed and vestigial-winged fly in the F1.) (7 marks) (Total : 16 marks) 20. 2002 II (8) How do the molecular features of DNA make it an ideal material for the storage of genetic information? Describe and explain how genetic information stored in DNA brings about the control of cellular activities. (20 marks) 21. 2003 II (3) Crops that are droughts resistant are economically desirable because they can survive well in environments that have a limited water supply, whereas crops that arc drought sensitive cannot. Drought-resistant crops can produced a metabolite adjust the osmotic potential of the cell sap in the root. (a) In drought conditions, explain how the root ceils of the following plants respond osmotically. (i) drought-sensitive plants (2 marks) (ii) drought-resistant plants (2 marks)
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(b) In the drought-resistant plant, a gene/encodes a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of this metabolite. The nucleotide sequences of the drought-sensitive allele S and drought-resistant allele R are:

(i) What is the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA for S? (2 marks) (ii) Using the universal codon table on the opposite page, determine the amino acid sequence encoded by allele S. (2 marks) (iii) How is alleles R different from S? What difference would this make to the translated product? (3 marks)

(c) Conventional breeding work is carried out to obtain a droughtresistant and high-grain-yield crop that is stable (i.e. homozygous). The following flow chart outlines the breeding procedures: (N.B. It is known mat the allele for draughter resistance is dominant over the allele for drought sensitivity Gram yield is a polygenic trail.)


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Both parental crops bear bisexual flowers. Briefly describe the methods that can be used to prevent self pollination and to ensure cross pollination between the two parental crops. (4 marks) (ii) Using a flow chart, show the sequence of selection processes and kind(s) of crosses to complete the above breeding procedure, hi your now chart, 'indicate the method you would use to select plants that are drought-resistant. (5 marks) (Total : 20 marks)


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Evolution 1. 1991 I (8) Evolutionary theory is supported by evidence from the following areas. Briefly describe how each has contributed to the support of the theory. (a) selective breeding (b) paleontology (fossils) (6 marks) 2. 1996 II (3) (a) Using a named homologous structure, (i) explain what is meant by the term homology in evolution; (3 marks) (ii) explain the concept of divergent evolution. Briefly describe two appropriate examples to illustrate this concept. (8 marks) What is a species? (2 marks) (ii) Name and describe the various isolation mechanisms which may lead to the formation of a new species. (7 marks)

(b) (i)


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Essay Diseases / Medicine 1. 1991 II (9) Smoking is hazardous to health is a well-known slogan. Discuss the significant physiological effects of tobacco smoking and its economic cost to Hong Kong society. (20 marks) 2. 1992 II (9) Cancer-related deaths are seen as more prevalent nowadays simply because most other potentially fatal diseases are treatable by modem medicine. Discuss this statement and give arguments both for and against it in relation to medical and environmental developments since 1950. (20 marks) 3. 1992 II (13) Discuss recent medical advances in the treatment of human infertility. (20 marks) 4. 1993 II (9) What is AIDS and why is it a cause of concern for modem society? (20 marks) 5. 1994 II (7) Comment on the statement Prevention of diseases is better than cure. (20 marks) 6. 1995 II (7) Write an essay on: Certain diseases are transmitted through contact with the blood of infected persons while some are diseases of the blood itself. (20 marks) 7. 1995 II (8) Scientists envisage a continuous search for and development of new drugs for the benefit of mankind. Why? (20 marks) 8. 1998 II (8) What are antibiotics and how do they work? Describe and explain the consequences of the indiscriminate long-term use of antibiotics and suggest two possible solutions to alleviate such consequences. (20 marks) 9. 1998 II (10) Smoking harms yourself and others is a slogan used by anti-smoking advocates. Explain the health problems associated with smoking. Describe two social and two economic impacts of smoking on the local community. (20 marks) 10. 1999 II (9) Long-term health problems can be brought about if a person takes in food
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that is contaminated, or regularly consumes food that contains excessive fat, or sugar, or sodium. Give a full account of the biological basis for this statement. (Do not include acute cases such as food poisoning in your answer.) (20 marks) 11. 2000 II (10) Regular exercise (aerobic or endurance exercise) is a key component to good health. Describe the long-term exercise-induced adjustments on the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculo-skeletal systems, and the healthrelated benefits resulting from such adjustments. Explain under what environmental conditions a person should avoid doing exercise to safeguard his/her health. (20 marks) 12. 2001 II (7) Demands for transplants and prosthetic devices (i.e. artificial human body parts) to replace diseased or damaged human body parts have driven research and development in various fields. These include immunology, in vitro culture, genetic engineering and biomedical engineering. Discuss, with specific examples, the contributions of advances in two of these fields to transplantation and / or prosthetics. What are their limitations / drawbacks? Discuss the associated ethical concerns of transplantations (20 marks) 2003 I (13) Read the following passage and then answer the questions that follow.

(a) Other than size and size-related features, give two biological
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features that are possessed by both the smallpox virus and the anthrax bacterium which enable them to be used as biological weapons. (2 marks) (b) Suggest a measure to control the spread of smallpox virus from infected patients. (lines 2-3, 13-15) (1 mark) (c) As a broad spectrum antibiotic, what undesirable effect will ciprofloxacin have on the microbial community in the body? (2 marks) (d) Explain why prolonged antibiotic treatment will cause health risk to a human community. (lines 8-10) (3 marks) (e) Why do the initial symptoms of anthrax make the anthrax bacterium a dangerous biological weapon? (lines 11-15) (1 mark) (f) Why is vaccination against smallpox and anthrax only recommended to high-risk populations? (lines 15-17) (1 mark) (g) Based on your knowledge of life cycle of a virus, suggest how rival particles could be mass produced in order to prepare vaccines for human use. (3 marks) (h) Argue for and against keeping stocks of the smallpox virus and the anthrax bacterium based on scientific and ethical grounds. (lines 18 to 20) (5 marks) (i) What can nations do to prevent the use of pathogenic organisms as weapons? Propose two such preventive measures. (2marks) (Total : 18 marks)


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Miscellaneous 1. 1992 II (11) Man's use of the open sea for fishing is a remnant of his hunter-gatherer ancestry. Discuss ways in which a greater development of marine farming would enhance the potential of the sea as a source of food for man. (20 marks) 2. 1993 II (8) Discuss the effects of temperature on physiological processes in plants and animals. (20 marks) 3. 1993 II (10) How has technology and biological knowledge brought about revolution in agriculture? (20 marks) 4. 1993 II (11) Write an essay on the application of biological knowledge in the food industry. (20 marks) 5. 1994 II (5) Write an essay on the adaptations of flowering plants and mammals to dry environments. (20 marks) 6. 1995 II (10) Discuss the biological significance of species diversity. (20 marks) 7. 1995 II (11) Give an account of the biological effects and applications of ionising radiations. (20 marks) 8. 1996 II (5) Using examples, describe in detail the roles of various pigments in plants and animals. (20 marks) 9. 1998 II (7) To increase production in agriculture, man has used various methods based on biological principles. Describe these methods and the principles behind them. Discuss their benefits and drawbacks. (20 marks)


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1991 I (6) 159 1991 I (8) 173 1991 II (1) 159 1991 II (13)139 1991 II (2a-c)147 1991 II (8) 147 1991 II (9) 174 1992 I (6) 147 1992 I (7) 139 1992 II (11)177 1992 II (13)174 1992 II (4) 159 1992 II (9) 174 1993 I (5) 147 1993 I (7) 139 1993 II (1) 160 1993 II (10)177 1993 II (11)177 1993 II (8) 177 1993 II (9) 174 1994 I (13) 161 1994 I (2) 140 1994 I (3) 140 1994 I (4) 160 1994 II (4) 140 1994 II (5) 177 1994 II (7) 174 1995 I (11) 162 1995 I (4a) 162 1995 I (7) 140 1995 II (10)177 1995 II (11)177 1995 II (7) 174 1995 II (8) 174 1996 I (7a) 163 1996 II (11)163 1996 II (1a)141 1996 II (3) 173 1996 II (5) 177 1996 II (6) 163 1997 I (9) 141 1997 II (3) 163 1998 IB (12)163 1998 II (10)174 1998 II (3a, b)165 1998 II (7) 177 1998 II (8) 174 1999 IA (1)143 1999 IA (3)144 1999 IA (9)147 1999 IB (13)148 1999 II (3) 165 1999 II (6) 145 1999 II (7) 165 1999 II (9) 174 2000 I (10) 166 2000 I (2) 145 2000 I (3) 149 2000 I (4) 151 2000 I (8) 151 2000 II (1) 145 Index P. 178 2000 II (10)175 2000 II (8) 167 2001 I (1) 146 2001 I (10) 168 2001 I (12) 152 2001 I (13) 154 2001 I (6) 152 2001 II (3a,b)167 2001 II (7) 175 2002 I (13) 170 2002 II (4a,b)146 2002 II (4c)155 2002 II (6c)156 2002 II (8) 170 2003 I (13) 175 2003 I (2) 156 2003 I (9) 157 2003 II (3) 170 2003 II (8) 146


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