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WIND SOLAR HYBRID SYSTEM

B.DEEPESH 06J41A0471 MALLA REDDY ENGG COLLEGE(MREC) Deepesh_bdk@yahoo.co.in 9848367749 HARSHITA 06J41A0473 MALLA REDDY ENGG COLLEGE(MREC)

ABSTRACT:
Amidst concern that the worlds oil and other fuel resources are finite and depleting .Due to the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy have become important and relevant in today's world .Solar energy and wind energy are one of renewable energies, and they are inexhaustible energy source which are available any where, also known as non conventional sources of energy. They cause less emission and are clean and safe because of their non-discharge of carbon dioxide, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen (the major atmospheric pollutants), radioactive and thermal pollution they are viable sources of clean and limitless energy. This paper discusses innovative ideas about Air dolphin design of wind shafts and a brief discussion of photo fusion technique and quantum dots in order to improve efficiency of wind system and solar cells respectively.

INTRODUCTION:
In our day-to-day life, we use energy for various purposes, yet it is one of the few things on the world, which has not significantly changed with the times nonrenewable energy sources are still being used over the world when new innovations renewable sources could be used instead. One of such innovative system is to increase efficiency of the productions of energy renewable sources is WIND SOLAR HYBRID SYSTEM.

SOLAR ENERGY:
Solar energy utilization became predominant with the putting into practice of semiconductors. Solar energy can be trapped with so called Solar Cells. Though the solar cells are expensive, they never cause pollution. For sufficient power to be generated large number of solar cells must be used. The basic principle is photo electric effect. Solar photovoltaic power produced in India is 2.75 MW standing 5th in generation. There are as many as 54795 solar street lightening systems, 0.342 million solar home lightening systems, 0.56 solar lanterns. The areas near the equator are best places to get more out of solar radiation. There are as many as twelve solar power projects in India. As they are expensive their establishment is limited to the economic conditions of a nation. Satellites use solar energy only as it is the best means for working energy.

WIND ENERGY:
The basic principle in converting wind to electrical energy is to convert the wind due to pressure difference into electrical potential difference. This practice yields better results when the wind turbines are established in hilly areas especially Eastern Ghats along the Coastal Belt of Andhra Pradesh. It is desirable to have an average wind speed of about 3.5 - 4.5 m/s. India ranks IV in generation of power from wind energy. As much as 5340.60 MW of power is generated. In Andhra, one can find the wind mills on the hills of Tirumala Tirupathi. o The wind monitoring stations are majorly located at Ghat areas where the speed of wind is sufficient to run the wind turbines. Here in India most of the stations are located in the Western Ghats. Blue dots in the map represent the stations established in the convenience of transmission.

WIND SOLAR HYBRID SYSTEM:


A wind solar hybrid system makes use of natural sunlight and wind in combination to generate electricity. In a typical country like INDIA where solar and wind energy are available through out the year, supply of uninterrupted Solar energy utilization became predominant with the putting into practice of semiconductors. Solar energy can be trapped with so called Solar Cells. Though the solar cells are expensive, they never cause pollution. For sufficient power to be generated large number of solar cells must be used. The basic principle is photoelectric effect. Power can be made using this technology. These systems are also easily retrofitted to existing generator systems in order to save fuel and provide up to 24hour power. The key to this system of cause is sizing the battery pack for our needs. Though we are using a wind turbine, solar power panels and perhaps a generator for power ,it is actually the stored power in the battery bank that we are using for lighting, appliances and more wind turbines turn in the night while you are sleeping with the lights out, charging that battery bank and each turn of the blades means

energy in dependence and avoiding firing up that diesel or gas generators for power. Solar PV panels work when the days are cloudless and still and the wind turbines stay motionless .It is the best Of both worlds. It allows entry of wind, solar or a generator to your Power circuits, so we have all the options to remain energy Independent

o HYBRID SYSTEMS OPTIONLESS. COMPONENTS:


MEANS

FLEXIBILITY

&

Wind aero generator (0.5 to 5KW capacity). Tower (18 to 24mts high). Solar photovoltaic panels (up o 5 KW power capacity). Batteries (to store electricity). Cables. Charge controllers. High efficiency converters. Energy Meters.

WORKING:
During day, solar radiations gets converted into DC electrical energy using solar photovoltaic modulus while aero generators (small wind energy conversion system) Exeter on the mast converts Kinetic energy in the wind stream into mechanical energy and subsequently to electrical energy, the aero generator generates 3 phase AC power that is converted to DC using converters, the energy meter displays power consumed by gadgets. Necessary precautions are taken to protect the aero generator from damage due to excessive wind speed. The electrical energy generated is stored in the batteries and with the use of inverters (DC to AC conversion systems). AC appliances like lights, farms, pumps, computers etc., can be operated.

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS:
For some lights. Domestic lights. Lights and large buildings. UPS charging. Water pumping (DC&AC pumps) with or without Batteries.

GENERATION PRODUCED:

AND

EFFICIENCY

OF

ELECTRICITY

The output of the generated electric power for rated power of photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation of each season is shown I the following graph. Power generation data in spring is shown on May, summer on august, autumn on November, winter on February. On winter the output rate of photovoltaic power generation increases most, and it reaches 55% at the peak. The peak is around 40% on other season and on autumn it is smallest. The wind power generation can be generated throughout 24 hours, and output rate is the most largely exceeds 30% at the peak on winter .By averaging with each season; the output rate over 10% is obtained. Full load equivalent hour of photovoltaic power generation and that of wind power generation are shown in the following graph. The left axis is for the full load equivalent hour of month, and the right axis is for the annual full load equivalent hour. Full load equivalent hour of the month of photovoltaic power generation is also around 120 h each month, when september, november, december is small with 70 h-95 h, and annual full load equivalent hour is 1305h..

DEMAND SUPPLY AND ITS ECONOMICS: The electric power demand gradually increases from morning of 80clock and it is maximum at 21Oclock in the night, and gradually decreases after wards. There is consumption of any electric power in midnight of 4O clock -6 O clock. Photovoltaic power generation has similar sine curve, which made 13oclock to be a peak, and it begins at 6 O clock and ends at 18 O clock. The wind power generation is generated for 24 hours, and 18oclock are largest. Photovoltaic power generation quantity surpasses the electric power demand in the day time and is generated in 7O clock to 16 O clock, because that photovoltaic power generation is prior supplied is assumed, though the wind power generation falls below electric power demand in most time

ADVANTAGES: o An eco-friendly system. o More efficient when compared to individual wind &solar energy sources. o Continuous generation of electricity either by wind or solar cells or by both. o Carbon dioxide reduction rate is improved and the recovery years shorten, as proportion of the wind power generation is bigger. DISADVANTAGES: o The system can only resist up to a wind flow of 20 m/s. o Still the efficiency of the solar cells doesnt get increased o Natures problem is common for all wind systems that is wind doesnt flow all the times. o . REMIDIES: Modification of wind shafts design: New technologies and innovative designs are making wind energy more attractive and a better energy option. Manufacture of small wind turbines has come up with radical new design; a wind generator that can produce power under conditions ranging from light breeze to gale force winds such as hurricanes, a feat considered dangerous until now called the AIRDOLPHIN, the turbine achieves non-stop generation between wind speed of 2.5 m/s to 50 m/s and generates more power in variable wind conditions, even when the average wind speed is small. This suggests that the wind generator should be more cost effective than large wind turbines. The Air dolphin generates 100kwh-120kwh per month for an average wind speed of 6m/s. It has rated output of 3.2kw and can be used both in grid and off-grid installations. The unique features of the generator included its light weight turbine (17.5kg) multistagger propelled measuring 1.8 mts in diameter, new rudder design which makes it possible to instantaneously follow changes in wind direction thus improving power generation efficiency, and the usage of state-of-the art silent disruptor technology which ensures that the propelled blade noises is reduced by 1/5th as compared to conventional turbines. o By this we can use our system even the wind flow exceeds 20 m/s.

METHODS TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY OF SOLAR CELLS: 1)Dye-sensitized solar cell (DYSC): It uses the principle of photosynthesis . DYSC alters the wide band gap semiconductors by chemically attaching a redox dye. This dye absorbs light and positive and negative charge separation occurs across the dye/semiconductor interface; confined within these materials, the huge carriers are transported. Hence cheaper, lower purity materials can be used and the conflicting requirements for the semiconductor band gap are voided: an optimum band gap must be obtained a narrow band gap often indicates relatively weak chemical bonding resulting in a solar cell with only a short lifetime that easily photo corrodes, where as a large band can only absorb highenergy ultra-violet photons. As we know chlorophyll is highly efficient almost all photons that strike a leaf are converted to electricity. Plants have lots of experience using light to liberate electrons. Now its our time to start learning from the plants. (2)Quantum dots third generation of PV cells: A quant um dot is a semiconductor nano structure, by working on the nanometer the limitations of traditional semiconductor devices. In the case of PV solar cells, quantum dot semiconductors are unique in their ability to inexpensively capture a large percentage of the suns energy while retaining great versatility of form quantum dots can be made into flexible sheets, put into liquid form, or made to be transparent. The relative low cost and high performance of quantum dots vis--vis bulk silicon semiconductor material and thin films allow dots to theoretically achieve the third generation goal of 60%efficiency. (3)Photon Fusion technique: It is an innovative process that converts low energy long wave photons to higher-energy shortwave photons. A process that increases the low level of energy in the light particles in the long wave range , shortening their wave length ,would make it possible for the solar cells to use those parts of light energy that , up to now, have been lost, resulting in a drastic increase in their efficiency. PRESENT STATUS OF WIND SOLAR HYBRID SYSTEM: Till now, 380 KW capacity systems have been installed in 11 states across India of which a major chunk is in Maharastra (242 KW). The demand for the system is on the rise and it is becoming popular as an alternative system for conventional power. Even companies like India cements, Birla white & the serum institute have finalized deals for setting up similar plants. CONCLUSION: Taking into account the efficiency and effect on Environment, newer fuels must be discovered and machinery must be perfectly designed. Learn and let people learn the need of non-conventional energy sources and proper management without wastage. Use vehicles running with fuel cell or biofuel.

Make the objectives of the 10th five-year plan successful with respect to the energy sources. The entire fund from the side of Government must be properly utilized. Promote the usage of non-conventional energy. Help build such energy plants. Apart from advancement in Science and Technology we have the basic duty of protecting the environment.

PROTECT THE WORLD, IT WILL SUPPORT YOU THANK YOU.