Summary of Chapter 3.

pdf MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION Gregor Mendel • crossing peas and mice • gene dominance and segragation in plants Archibald Garrod • proposed gene is responsible for the production of specific protein. Beadle and Tatum • experimental proof between genes and enzymes. • single gene is responsible for building a single, specific enzyme. Rosalind Franklin • double helix structure of the DNA. Barbara McClintock • genetic transposition that coul turn genes on or off. • cytogenetics: “jumping genes” or transposons. Herbert Boyer • with Robert Swanson: products of recombinant DNA. • using restriction enzymes to produce “sticky ends” on the DNA. • Stanley Cohen: plasmids as cloning vector; Boyer: splicing technology. • First synthetic insulin using recombinant DNA technology. Robert Swanson • first product of Genentech: somatostatin ◦ first human protein manufactured in a bacterium. ◦ Human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor. • First recombinant human insulin in E coli. Cesar Milstein • synthesis of antibodies. • fused antibody-producing B-cells w/ immortalized tumor cells to produce hybridoma – churn out antibodies and act like antibody-manufacturing plants. Kary Mullis • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ◦ a technique w/c allowed the amplification of DNA sequences. • using a pair of oligonucleotide primers flanking a DNA sequence and using DNA polymerase to drive amplification of the flanked segment of DNA. ◦ used heat-resistant enzyme DNA polymerase James Dewey Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins • structure of DNA double helix. Arthur Kornberg • isolating DNA polymerase • with Severino Ochoa: synthesizing DNA and RNA.

Crick. Jackson. 1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick: proposed double helix structure of the DNA 1955 – complete sequence of peptide hormone insulin 1957 – Matthew Messelson and Frank Stahl: how DNA is replicated in cells 1960 – messenger RNA exists 1962 – Nobel Prize for Watson. Helling. Wilkins and Franklin[deceased] 1966 – triplet code for all living organisms 1960s-1970s – DNA sequencing 1967 – DNA ligase or joining of DNA fragments 1968 – Meselson and Yuan: restriction enzymes from E. Colin MacLeod. Translation – mRNA carries coded info to ribosomes that “read” his info and use it for protein sythesis. 230 diff BS. 1971 – CaCl2 or heat shock protocol 1972 – Berg. Mertz and Davis: joining or ligation of DNA molecules 1973 – Boyer. 3. Cohen and Chang: DNA fragment could be ligated 1977 – 2 DNA sequencing methods emerged – chain termination and chemical degradation 1980 – Herbert Boyer: methods of cloning and transformation 1982 – human insulin 1990 – Chymosin enzyme for milk curdling 1991 – Tracey the sheep: gene for therapeutic protein present in its milk 1994 – Flavr Savr Tomato: delayed ripening trait 1996-present – GM Crops 1997 – sheep Dolly: first cloned animal 1998 – genome proejct 2002 – complete sequencing of human genome Dogma Transcription – DNA codes for production of mRNA. Prokaryotic Genome Plasmid – contain genes that confer selective advantage to the organisms Genome of Viruses Viruses • reproduce inside another living host cell • can not generate their own organic molecule • do not grow nor divide .4nm periodicty and a helical structure 1953 – Linus Pauling ang Robert Corey: triple helix DNA structure with phosphates at the centrer.BIOTECHNOLOGY STORIES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Central 1. 2. Replication – DNA replicates its info in a process with many enzymes. Maclyn McCarty – transformation principle is DNA 1945 – William Astbury: molecular biology. 1859 – Mendelian genetics 1869 – Johann Friedrich Miescher: isolated nuclei of WBCs called nuclein [nucleic acid] 1882 – Walker Flemming: threadlike bodies during cell division: Waldeyer: chromosomes 1903 – Walter Sutton: chromosomes carries genes 1920s-1930s – ultracentrifuge was developed 1928 – Fred Griffith: Transformation Experiments 1938 – Warren Weaver – molecular biology. 1952 – Alfed Hershey and Martha Chase: Blender Experiment 1950-1953 – Rosalind Franklin: X-ray diffraction data using purified DNA samples – 3. study of chemical and physical structure of macromolecules. coli 1970s – discovery of restriction enzymes – 900 RE. Symons. another branch of science 1944 – Oswald Avery.

Smith and Wilmut: took nuclei from blastocyst of sheem embryo . Genome – total genetic info in a cell.• “assembled” Single stranded genomes: (+) positive: same polarity (–)negative: ambisense Eukaryotic Genome Gene – basic unit of heredity. Exon – segment of DNA transcribed and retained Intron – segment of DNA transcribed but removed Pseudogenes – similar to functional genes but no longer expressed. John Gurdon: transfer nucleus into enucleated cell and produce tadpoles. Cloning Briggs and King: transfer of nucleus from frog blastocyst into enucleated oocyte.

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