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Francis Allen Empinado BSECE4

WELDING
DEFINITION: Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the workpieces to form a bond between them, without melting the workpieces. Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding can be done in many different environments, including open air, under water and in outer space. PROCESSES:

Arc Welding The arc welding group includes eight specific processes, each separate and different from the others but in many respects similar.

The carbon arc welding (CAW) process is the oldest of all the arc welding processes and is considered to be the beginning of arc welding. The Welding Society defines carbon arc welding as "an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a carbon electrode and the work-piece. No shielding is used. Pressure and filler metal may or may not be used." It has limited applications today, but a variation or twin carbon arc welding is more popular. Another variation uses compressed air for cutting. The development of the metal arc welding process soon followed the carbon arc. This developed into the currently popular shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process defined as "an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a covered metal electrode and the work-piece. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the

electrode covering. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode." Automatic welding utilizing bare electrode wires was used in the 1920s, but it was the submerged arc welding (SAW) process that made automatic welding popular. Submerged arc welding is defined as "an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work piece. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode and sometimes from a supplementary welding rod." It is normally limited to the flat or horizontal position. The need to weld nonferrous metals, particularly magnesium and aluminum, challenged the industry. A solution was found called gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) [also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding] and was defined as "an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a tungsten (nonconsumable) electrode and the work piece. Shielding is obtained from a gas or gas mixture." Plasma arc welding (PAW) is defined as "an arc welding process which produces a coalescence of metals by heating them with a constricted arc between an electrode and the work piece (transferred arc) or the electrode and the constricting nozzle (nontransferred arc). Shielding is obtained from the hot ionized gas issuing from

the orifice which may be supplemented by an auxiliary source of shielding gas." Shielding gas may be an inert gas or a mixture of gases. Plasma welding has been used for joining some of the thinner materials. Another welding process also related to gas tungsten arc welding is known as gas metal arc welding (GMAW). It was developed in the late 1940s for welding aluminum and has become extremely popular. It is defined as "an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work piece. Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture." The electrode wire for GMAW is continuously fed into the arc and deposited as weld metal. This process has many variations depending on the type of shielding gas, the type of metal transfer, and the type of metal welded. A variation of gas metal arc welding has become a distinct welding process and is known as flux-cored arc welding (FCAW). It is defined as "an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work piece. Shielding is provided by a flux contained within the tubular electrode." Additional shielding may or may not be obtained from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture. The final process within the arc welding group of processes is known as stud arc welding (SW). This process is defined as "an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a metal stud or similar part and the work piece". When the surfaces to be joined are properly heated they are brought together under pressure. Partial shielding may be obtained by the use of ceramic ferrule surrounding the stud.

Brazing (B) Brazing is "a group of welding processes which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to a suitable temperature and by using a filler metal, having a liquidus above 450oC and below the solidus of the base materials. The filler metal is distributed between the closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capillary attraction." A braze is a very special form of weld, the base metal is theoretically not melted. There are seven popular different processes within the brazing group. The source of heat differs among the processes. Braze welding relates to welding processes using brass or bronze filler metal, where the filler metal is not distributed by capillary action. Oxy Fuel Gas Welding (OFW) Oxy fuel gas welding is "a group of welding processes which produces coalescence by heating materials with an oxy fuel gas flame or flames with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal." There are four distinct processes within this group and in the case of two of them, oxyacetylene welding and oxyhydrogen welding, the classification is based on the fuel gas used. The heat of the flame is created by the chemical reaction or the burning of the gases. In the third process, air acetylene welding, air is used instead of oxygen, and in the fourth category, pressure gas welding, pressure is

applied in addition to the heat from the burning of the gases. This welding process normally utilizes acetylene as the fuel gas. The oxygen thermal cutting processes have much in common with these welding processes. Resistance Welding (RW) Resistance welding is "a group of welding processes which produces coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from resistance of the work to electric current in a circuit of which the work is a part, and by the application of pressure". In general, the difference among the resistance welding processes has to do with the design of the weld and the type of machine necessary to produce the weld. In almost all cases the processes are applied automatically since the welding machines incorporate both electrical and mechanical functions. Soldering (S) Soldering is "a group of joining processes which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to a suitable temperature and by using a filler metal having a liquidus not exceeding 450 oC (840 oF) and below the solidus of the base materials. The filler metal is distributed between the closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capillary attraction." There are a number of different soldering processes and methods. Solid State Welding (SSW) Solid state welding is "a group of welding processes which produces coalescence at temperatures essentially below the melting point of the base materials being joined without the addition of a brazing filler metal. Pressure may or may not be used." The oldest of all welding processes forge welding belongs to this group. Others include cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, friction welding, hot pressure welding, and ultrasonic welding. These processes are all different and utilize different forms of energy for making welds. Other Welding Processes This group of processes includes those, which are not best defined under the other groupings. It consists of the following processes: electron beam welding, laser beam welding, thermit welding, and other miscellaneous welding processes in addition to electroslag welding.

GEOMETRY: Welds can be geometrically prepared in many different ways. The five basic types of weld joints are the butt joint, lap joint, corner joint, edge joint, and Tjoint (a variant of this last is the cruciform joint). Other variations exist as well for example, double-V preparation joints are characterized by the two pieces of material each tapering to a single center point at one-half their height. Single-U and double-U preparation joints are also fairly common instead of having straight edges like the single-V and double-V preparation joints, they are curved, forming the shape of a U. Lap joints are also commonly more than two pieces thickdepending on the process used and the thickness of the material, many pieces can be welded together in a lap joint geometry. Often, particular joint designs are used exclusively or almost exclusively by certain welding processes. For example, resistance spot welding, laser beam welding, and electron beam welding are most frequently performed on lap joints. However, some welding methods, like shielded metal arc welding, are extremely versatile and can weld virtually any type of joint. Additionally, some processes can be used to make multipass welds, in which one weld is allowed to cool, and then another weld is performed on top of it. This allows for the welding of thick sections arranged in a single-V preparation joint, for example. The cross-section of a welded butt joint, with the darkest gray representing the weld or fusion zone, the medium gray the heat-affected zone, and the lightest gray the base material. After welding, a number of distinct regions can be identified in the weld area. The weld itself is called the fusion zonemore specifically, it is where the filler metal was laid during the welding process. The properties of the fusion zone depend primarily on the filler metal used, and its compatibility with the base materials. It is surrounded by the heat-affected zone, the area that had its microstructure and properties altered by the weld. These properties depend on the base material's behavior when subjected to heat. The metal in this area is often weaker than both the base material and the fusion zone, and is also where residual stresses are found. Butt welds Butt welds are welds where two pieces of metal are joined at surfaces that are at 90 degree angles to the surface of at least one of the other pieces. These types of welds require only some preparation and are used with thin sheet metals that can be welded with a single pass. When the thickness of a butt weld is defined it is usually measured at the thinner part and does not compensate for the weld reinforcement. Common issues that can weaken a butt weld are the entrapment of slag, excessive porosity, or

cracking. For strong welds, the goal is to use the least amount of welding material possible. The square welds are the most economical for pieces thinner than 3/8 because they dont require the edge to be prepared. Double-groove welds are the most economical for thicker pieces because they use less weld material and time. Butt welds are prevalent in automated welding processes, such as submerged-arc welding, due to their relative ease of preparation[33]. When metals are welded without human guidance, there is no operator to make adjustments for non ideal joint preparation. Because of this necessity, butt welds can be utilized for their simplistic design to be fed through automated welding machines efficiently. TYPES OF BUTT WELDS:

There are many types of specific butt welds, but each specific kind of butt weld falls into a specific category which consist of single welded butt joints, double welded butt joint, and open or closed butt joints. A single welded butt joint is when it has only been welded from one side. A double welded butt joint is when the weld has been welded from both sides. With double welding the depths of each weld can vary slightly. A closed weld is when the two pieces that will be joined are touching during the welding process. An open weld is when the two pieces have a small gap in between them during welding. Pipes and tubing can be made from rolling and welding together strips, sheets, or plates of material.

The square-groove is simple to prepare, economical to use, and provides satisfactory strength, but is limited by joint thickness. For thicker joints, the edge of each member of the joint must be prepared to a particular geometry to provide accessibility for welding and to ensure the desired weld soundness and strength. The opening or gap at the root of the joint and the included angle of the groove should be selected to require the least weld metal necessary to give needed access and meet strength requirements .There are also many different types of Angle Butt Welds, which are butt welds where the pieces are joined at an angle other than 90 degrees. Bevel Butt Joints Single-bevel butt welds are welds where one piece in the joint is beveled and the other surface is perpendicular to the plane of the surface. These types of joints are used where adequate penetration cannot be achieved with a square-groove and the metals are to be welded in the horizontal position (HBW). Double-bevel butt welds are common in arc and gas welding processes. In this type both sides of one of the edges in the joint are beveled. V-Joints Single -V -Joint butt welds are similar to a bevel joint, but instead of only one side having the beveled edge, both sides of the weld joint are beveled. In thick metals, and when welding can be performed from both sides of the work piece, a double-V-joint is used. When welding thicker metals, a double-Vjoint requires less filler material because there are two narrower V-joints compared to a wider sing V-joint. Also the double-V-joint helps compensate for warping forces. With a single-V-joint, stress tends to warp the piece in one direction when the V-joint is filled, but with a double-V-joint, there are welds on both sides of the material, having opposing stresses, straightening the material. J-Joints Single J- butt welds are when one piece of the weld is in the shape of a J that easily accepts filler material and the other piece is square. A J-groove is formed either with special cutting machinery or by grinding the joint edge into the form of a J. Although a J-groove is more difficult and costly to prepare than a V-groove, a single J-groove on metal between a half an inch and three quarters of an inch thick provides a stronger weld that requires less filler material. Double-J-butt welds have one piece that has a J shape from both directions and the other piece is square. U-Joints Single -U -Joint butt welds are welds that have both edges of the weld surface shaped like a J, but once they come together, they form a U. Double-U-Joints have a U formation on both the top and bottom of the prepared joint. U-joints are the most expensive edge to prepare and weld.

They are usually used on thick base metals where a V-groove would be at such a extreme angle, that it would cost too much to fill. Other Types of Joints Thin sheet metals are often flanged to produce edge-flange or cornerflange welds. These welds are typically made without the addition of filler metal because the flange melts and provides all the filler needed Flaregroove joints are used for welding metals that, because of their shape, form a convenient groove for welding, such as a pipe against a flat surface. A closed square butt weld is common with gas and arc welding. With this type of weld the edges being joined are in contact during the welding process and have 90 degree angles. The Tee Butt Weld is formed when two bars or sheets are joined perpendicular to each other in the form of a T shape. This weld is made from the resistance butt welding process. The square welds are the most economical for pieces thinner than 3/8 because they dont require the edge to be prepared. Double-groove welds are the most economical for thicker pieces because they use less weld material and time. The use of fusion welding is common for closed single-bevel, closed single J, open single J, and closed double J butt joints. The use of gas and arc welding is ideal for double-bevel, closed double-bevel, open double-bevel, single-bevel, and open single-bevel butt welds. SOURCES: http://www.arconweld.com/welding_faq/welding_tutorial.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welding