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SCRIPT 5

 This script includes the continuation of Chapter 3, and part of Chapter 4.  For your convenience I have prepared a list of Key Points that you should remember.

Done By: Aya Rihan : Zeina Hammad

We start off the lecture where it ended last time with a quick review of SPORULATION; asexual reproduction in the form of spore formation. Spores are reproductive structures that are adapted for dispersal and survival in unfavorable conditions, which is why this type of reproduction is required for bacteria and fungi. In general eukaryotic cells reproduce either by meiosis or mitosis. As for reproduction in prokaryotic cells, a process known as binary fission splits the parent cell in half to produce two daughter cells. As we all know however, that before any cell division chromosomes replicate so that each daughter cell will have diploid number of chromosomes. The length of time it takes for one bacterial cell to split into two cells is known as the organism s generation time. Each micro-organism has its own generation time which ranges from 15 min 10 hours depending mainly on the type of microorganism.

Binary Fission

Taxonomy:

It is the science of classification of living organisms; it includes classification, nomenclature and identification. Classification is the arrangement of organisms into taxonomic groups (known as taxa) Key for remembering the sequence of Taxa:

King David Came Over For Good Spaghetti


( K for Kingdom, D for Division, C for Class, O for Order, F for Family, G for Genus, S for Species)

 Taxonomic classification of organisms separates them into kingdoms, divisions, classes, orders, families, genera, and species, based on their characteristics, attributes, properties, and traits.

The science of taxonomy was established on the binomial system of nomenclature: the first name is the genus, the second name is the specific epithet, and the two names together are referred to as a species. Ex: Escherichia coli; Escherichia is the genus, while coli is the specific epithet. The genus is usually abbreviated with just a single letter (E for Escherichia); a

single species is abbreviated with sp , while more than one species is abbreviated with spp. Organisms are categorized into larger groups based on their similarities and differences; there are several systems of classifications of which the most prominent one is the Five-Kingdom System of Classification . Viruses are not included among those groups because they are acellular organisms.

The Three-Domain System of Classification is another biological classification that divides into Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.

Relatedness among organisms the degree of diversity among them- is determined by analysis of genes that code for small subunit ribosomal RNA ( 16S). The more similar the gene sequences, the more closely related are the organisms. The less similar the sequences, the less related are the organisms. Ribosomes are made up of two subunits , the larger subunit , 18S, and the smaller subunit, 16S.

KEY POINTS:
 The cell is the fundamental unit of any living organism. It exhibits the basic characteristics of life. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.  Genes are located along chromosomes. An organisms complete collection of genes is referred to as its genotype or genome.  Each gene codes for one or more gene products. Most gene products are proteins.  Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis  Mitochondria can be considered power plants or energy factories, for it is within mitochondria that much energy is produced.  Eukaryotic cells contain a true nucleus, a complex system of membranes and membrane-bound organelles, whereas prokaryotic cells do not.  Eucaryotic cells reproduce either by mitosis or meiosis. Procaryotic cells reproduce by binary fission the simple division of one cell into two cells.  The length of time it takes for one bacterial cell to split into two cells is referred to as the organisms generation time.  Most bacteria possess only one chromosome.  An organisms physical characteristics are collectively known as the organsims phenotype. An organisms phenotype is determined by the organisms genotype.  In the binomial system of nomenclature, the first name is the genus, the second name is the specific epithet, and the two names together are referred to as a species.

 Taxonomic classification of organisms separates them into kingdoms, divisions, classes, orders, families, genera, and species, based on their characteristics, attributes, properties, and traits.  In the Five-Kingdom System of Classification, microorganisms are found in the first three kingdomsProcaryotae (bacteria), Protista (algae and protozoa), and Fungi. In the Three-Domain System of Classification, microorganisms are found in all three domainsArchaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.  Relatedness among organisms is determined by analysis of genes that code for small subunit ribosomal RNA.

Chapter 4: Categories of micro-organisms y Microbiology is the study of microbes that are too small to be seen in the naked eye. Micro-organisms are divided into: 1) Cellular e.g. bacteria, fungi, archaeons, algae, protozoa etc. 2) Acellular e.g. viruses, viroids, prions Cellular micro-organisms are further divided into: y Prokaryotes : bacteria, archaea y Eukaryotes : algae, protozoa, fungi  Acellular micro-organisms are not considered to be living organisms by most scientists , thus we use these terms to describe them rather than micro-organisms : Viruses, Viroids, Prions  Acellular microbes = infectious particles

Viruses: y Complete virus particles are called Virions y They are small and simple in structure; 10 300 nm in
diameter cannot be seen in light compound microscope, they can be seen using an electron microscope.

y Viruses infect humans, animals, plants, fungi, protozoa, algae


and bacterial cells.

y Some viruses are called oncogenic viruses or oncoviruses, they


cause specific types of cancer, including lymphomas, carcinomas and some types of leukemia. y Carcinogenic viruses include: 1) Papiloma Virus which is responsible for warts and can lead to cervical cancer in women. 2) Herpes Virus which also leads to cervical cancer in women as well as throat cancer. y Viruses can cross-over from one species to another; they escape either by lyses of the cell or budding. Examples include the H1N1 virus , also known as the swine flu , which starts by infecting birds, then passes over to pigs and finally to humans .

Now that we ve stated the most important facts about viruses, the table below describes the main points of Prions and Viroids, establishing the differences between them.

Prions
Infectious agents Protein particles

Viriods
Infectious agents Pieces of naked RNA; like viruses but not real viruses.

Abnormal in shape and function Affects normal proteins when Affects plants only they come in contact with them; they lose their structure and function and become abnormal( example is when the brain and spinal cord are affected by prions and turn into a mushy like substance in animals and humans) ; transported from animals to humans. Viruses are said to have five specific properties that distinguish them from living cells: y The vast majority posses either DNA or RNA, unlike living cells that have both. y They are unable to replicate on their own; they require a host cell. y Unlike cells, they do not divide by binary fission, mitosis, or meiosis. y They lack the genes and enzymes necessary for energy production. y They depend on the host cell for protein and nucleic acid production.

 A typical virion consists of a genome of either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a capsid (a protein coat) , which is composed of many small protein units called capsomeres. The nucleic acid and the capsid are referred to as the nucleocaspid. Some viruses are enveloped viruses composed of an outer envelope made of lipid and polysaccharide such as AIDS virus, which has a capsomere and an extra outer envelope. Structures like Glycoproteins can be found on the envelope whose function is to help the virus attach itself to certain hosts. Viruses that have no envelope are called naked viruses. Viruses are classified depending on the following features: y y y y y y y Type of genetic material (DNA or RNA) Shape and size of capsid Number of capsomere Presence and absence of envelope Type of host it infects The disease it produces Their antigenic properties

Key points:
 Microbes can be divided into those that are cellular (bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi) and those that are acellular (viruses, viroids, and prions).  Complete virus particles are called virions.  Viruses are not living organisms  Except in extremely rare cases, viruses possess either DNA or RNA never both  Viruses that cause cancer are known as oncogenic viruses or oncoviruses  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by an enveloped, single stranded RNA virus known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).  Viroids are infectious RNA molecules that cause a variety of plant diseases  Prions are infectious protein molecules that cause a variety of animal and human diseases. The highly publicized mad cow disease is an example of a prion-caused disease.

By this we end our lecture; we hope that you benefit from it. Special thanks to our colleagues: Louai Kababji (Loweiiiii) , Mohammed Malik (bb), Bara s Srouji(wlee 3ala 2amtee), Asil Louzi ( baladuna) O raja2an el tafree3 ma ynbaa3 la Abdul-rahman Al Doori :p